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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

It is held in this curve until dry. 2 -. Toronto. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. distant.Fig. with the hollow side away from you. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. as shown in Fig. 2. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. A piece of plank 12 in. The pieces are then dressed round. away. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. long will make six boomerangs. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. E. Ontario. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. 1. wide and 2 ft. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. 2. --Contributed by J. 1. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. as shown in Fig. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . To throw a boomerang. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. grasp it and hold the same as a club. 1. until it is bound as shown in Fig. Noble. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. Fig. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. apart. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated.

and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. however. A very light. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. but about 12 in. blocks . 6 in. and with a movable bottom. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. A wall. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. long. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. forcing it down closely. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. and it may be necessary to use a little water. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. one inside of the circle and the other outside. made of 6-in. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. it is not essential to the support of the walls. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. high and 4 or 5 in. which makes the building simpler and easier. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. the block will drop out. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. minus the top. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. thick.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. or rather no bottom at all. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. dry snow will not pack easily. If the snow is of the right consistency. First. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work.

or an old safe dial will do. long and 1 in.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. Ore. C. Fig. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. Union. D. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. It also keeps them out. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. a. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. There is no outward thrust. 2. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. A nail. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. 3. 3 -. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. Fig. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. --Contributed by Geo. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. 1. wide. The piece of wood. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. above the ground. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. is 6 or 8 in. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. which can be made of wood. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. which is about 1 ft. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. 1. and the young architect can imitate them. 2. Fig. Goodbrod. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown.

he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. New York. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. --Contributed by R. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. S. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. Syracuse. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. Merrill. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. one pair of special hinges. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. the box locked . The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. as the weight always draws them back to place. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal.When taking hot dishes from the stove. says the Sphinx. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. If ordinary butts are used. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use.

cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. It remains to bend the flaps. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein.and the performer steps out in view. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. All . about 1-32 of an inch. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. on drawing paper. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. To make a design similar to the one shown. Alberta Norrell. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. Fig. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. Place the piece in a vise. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. Ga. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. allowing each coat time to dry. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. smooth surface. -Contributed by L. 3. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. as shown. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. draw one-half of it. 1. as shown in Fig. If the measuring has been done properly. If they do not. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. as shown in Fig. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. one for each corner. With the metal shears. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. When the sieve is shaken. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. proceed as follows: First. Augusta. 2.

it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. To keep the metal from tarnishing. H. and in the positions shown in the sketch. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. Galbreath. The common cork. causing it to expand. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. Colo. as shown at AA. A piece of porcelain tube. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. If a touch of color is desired. After this has dried. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. Denver. In boring through rubber corks. C. which is about 6 in. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. about 6 in. B. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. long. is fitted tightly in the third hole. in diameter. A resistance. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. --Contributed by R. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. 25 gauge German-silver wire. from the back end. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. heats the strip of German-silver wire. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. should be in the line. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. R. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. 25 German-silver wire. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. When the current is turned off. The current. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. in passing through the lamp.the edges should be left smooth. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. used for insulation. if rolled under the shoe sole. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. of No.

Fig. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. with thin strips of wood. Purchase two long book straps. 3. --Contributed by David Brown. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. 1. 2. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Mo. as shown in Fig. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked.bottom ring. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. . Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. leaving a space of 4 in. Kansas City. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. between them as shown in Fig. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole.

as . Morse. in diameter. and one weighing 25 lb. Kane. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood.. --Contributed by James M. Two strips of brass. N. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole.An ordinary electric bell. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. C. A. Fig. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. Pa.. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. 4. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. When the aeroplane tips. which is the right weight for family use. and a pocket battery. The string is then tied. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. 1. having a gong 2-1/2 in. long. one weighing 15 lb. are mounted on the outside of the box. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Fig. to form a handle. 1. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Syracuse. 1. and tack smoothly. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Y. These are shown in Fig. Doylestown. 2. just the right weight for a woman to use. 3. Fig. 36 in. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. The folds are made over the string. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. --Contributed by Katharine D. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. B are mounted on the bottom of the box.

bent as shown in Fig. AA. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. 1. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. Floral Park. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. long. and many fancy knick-knacks. if once used. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. two 1/8 -in. N. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. Frame Made of a Rod . four washers and four square nuts. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. 2. 2. such as brackets. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. Y. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. in diameter. Day. --Contributed by Louis J.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. 3/32 or 1/4 in. The saw. machine screws. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. The rod should be 36 or 38 in.

it has the correct strength. after breaking up. Scranton. An Austrian Top [12] . In the design shown. of water in which dissolve. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. Watch Fob For coloring silver. as well as the depth of etching desired. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. or silver. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. Of the leathers. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk.may be made of either brass. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. Silver is the most desirable but. 1 part nitric acid. 1 part sulphuric acid. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. A. of water. green and browns are the most popular. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid.. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. the most expensive. The buckle is to be purchased. Apply two coats. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Rub off the highlights. allowing each time to dry. using a swab and an old stiff brush. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. be covered the same as the back. if copper or brass. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. as well as brass and copper. Detroit. therefore. use them in place of the outside nuts. though almost any color may be obtained. Michigan. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. of course. File these edges. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. For etching. Drying will cause this to change to purple. treat it with color.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. --Contributed by W. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. copper. If it colors the metal red.

take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. long. Parts of the Top To spin the top. set the top in the 3/4 -in. The handle is a piece of pine. A 1/16-in. thick. Tholl. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. --Contributed by J.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. hole in this end for the top. When the shank is covered. long. is formed on one end. hole. Ypsilanti. wide and 3/4 in. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. pass one end through the 1/16-in. 1-1/4 in. allowing only 1-1/4 in. Michigan. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. 5-1/4 in.F. Bore a 3/4-in. starting at the bottom and winding upward. in diameter. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. 3/4 in. A handle. . of the other end to remain rectangular in shape.

the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Houghton. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. For black leathers. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. The baking surface. . to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. --A. --Contributed by Miss L. having no sides. Northville. Alberta Norrell. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Mich. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. tarts or similar pastry. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. A. Ga. Augusta.

When you desire to work by white light. two turns will remove the jar. glass fruit jar. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. then solder cover and socket together. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Stringing Wires [13] A. Mo. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. Centralia. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. the same as shown in the illustration. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. says Studio Light. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes.

A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. 4 Braces. They are fastened. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. 1-1/4 in. . and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. 1-1/4 in. and not tip over. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. square by 12 in. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes.for loading and development. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. 4 Vertical pieces. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. Wis. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. as shown in the cross-section sketch. Janesville. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. square by 62 in. 16 Horizontal bars. so it can be folded up.

was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. Phillipsburg. New York. and a loop made in the end. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. --Contributed by Dr. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. from scrap material. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. After rounding the ends of the studs. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. Cincinnati. Rosenthal. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. If the loop is tied at the proper place. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The front can be covered . A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. C. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. The whole.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. after filling the pail with water. O. H. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. -Contributed by Charles Stem. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig.

you are. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. In my own practice. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. by all rules of the game. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. If the gate is raised slightly. Baltimore. sickly one. The results will be poor. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. The . it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. either for contact printing or enlargements. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. if you try to tone them afterward. Wehr. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. --Contributed by Gilbert A. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. Develop them into strong prints. Md. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. By using the following method. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. the mouth of which rests against a. and. FIG. the color will be an undesirable. thoroughly fix. principally mayonnaise dressing. 1 FIG.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown.

.. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.. Water . The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. A good final washing completes the process. in this solution. It will bleach slowly and evenly.. three times.. With a little practice........ 5 by 15 in...... etc. long to admit the angle support.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone....... The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.. Gray.. Place the dry print. in size. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. Cal.... The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. 20 gr.. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. --Contributed by T.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. 2. without previous wetting.... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. 16 oz... as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. preferably the colored kind.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.. where it will continue to bleach.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig....... as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. Iodide of potassium ... 2 oz. when it starts to bleach. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. When the desired reduction has taken place. The blotting paper can ..." Cyanide of potassium . San Francisco. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. transfer it to a tray of water. 1 and again as in Fig. to make it 5 by 5 in.. but..... L. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper..... wide and 4 in....

J. wide. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Make a design similar to that shown. the shaft 1 in. the head of which is 2 in. Oshkosh. Canada. wide below the . The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Wisconsin. 3. Monahan. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. --Contributed by L. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Wilson Aldred Toronto. --Contributed by J. and a length of 5 in. 20 gauge.

2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. being held perpendicular to the work. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. using carbon paper. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. using turpentine. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. With files. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. then trace the other half in the usual way. After the sawing. after folding along the center line. Trace the design on the metal. 1 part sulphuric acid. 1 part nitric acid. After this has dried. Allow this to dry. Do not put the hands in the solution. 1. With the metal shears. The metal must be held firmly. Apply with a small brush. 1 Fig. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. as shown in Fig. Pierce a hole with a small drill. . Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. then coloring. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. then put on a second coat. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. Make one-half of the design. which gives the outline of the design Fig. freehand. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. using a small metal saw. 2. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. and the saw allowed time to make its cut.FIG. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. For coloring olive green. 4. deep. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. but use a swab on a stick. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. 3. Fig.

Syracuse. thick. --Contributed by M. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Conn. Carl Cramer. When this is cold. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. Morse. attach brass handles. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Cal. Richmond. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. then stain it a mahogany color. --Contributed by H. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. --Contributed by Katharine D. as shown. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. New York. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. M. East Hartford. Ii is an ordinary staple. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. After the stain has dried. . the block is split and the pasteboard removed. it does the work rapidly. Burnett. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. on a chopping board. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades.

two enameled. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. saucers or pans. about 3/16 in. Fig. 1. machine screws. square. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. one shaft. 53 steel pens. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. thick. --Contributed by Mrs. also locate the drill holes. Jaquythe. Florida. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. not over 1/4 in. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work.. thick and 4 in. Atwell. some pieces of brass. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. . and several 1/8-in. --Contributed by W. in width at the shank. indicating the depth of the slots. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. WARNECKE Procure some brass. brass. Cal. as shown at A. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. L. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. holes. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. Richmond. Kissimmee. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. H. 1/4 in. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. or tin.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. as shown in Fig. A. 4.

A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. These are connected to a 3/8-in. and the ends filed round for the bearings. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. Bend as shown in Fig. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. with a 3/8-in. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. Fig. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. wide and bend as shown in Fig. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. can be procured. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. long and 5/16 in. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. brass and bolted to the casing.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. 3. as shown in Fig. into the hole. There should be a space of 1/16 in. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. hole in the center. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. supply pipe. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. If metal dishes. and pins inserted. with 1/8-in. 2. 2. lead should be run into the segments. 6. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. hole. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. The bearings are made of 1/4-in.. as in Fig. machine screws and nuts. The shaft hole may also be filed square. 7. 5. with the face of the disk. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. wide. 1. hole is drilled to run off the water. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. a square shaft used. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. thick. thick. A 3/4-in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. as shown. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. If the shaft is square. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. using two nuts on each screw. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . machine screws. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. each about 1 in. about 1/32 in. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. long by 3/4 in. in diameter and 1/32 in. Fig. 3. Fig. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface.

Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. Be sure to have the cover. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Cooke. from the top of the box. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. With a string or tape measure. V. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. screws. Canada. or more in diameter.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. long. Ill. using four to each leg. make these seams come between the two back legs. to make the bottom. 8-1/2 in. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. La Salle. deep and 1-1/4 in. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. high and 15 in. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. square and 30-1/2 in. Now you will have the box in two pieces. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Stain the wood before putting in the . we will call the basket. Smith. When assembling. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. three of which are in the basket. --Contributed by F. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Fasten with 3/4-in. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. The four legs are each 3/4-in. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. deep over all. The lower part. from the bottom end of the legs. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. --Contributed by S. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. Hamilton.

3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Baltimore. you can. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper.2 Fig. sewing on the back side. Cover them with the cretonne. The side. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. as shown in the sketch. Fig. 2. Md. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. and gather it at that point. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. 1. Packard. Mass. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. wide and four strips 10 in. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Sew on to the covered cardboards. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. -Contributed by Stanley H. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. --also the lower edge when necessary.lining. If all the parts are well sandpapered. The folded part in the center is pasted together. When making the display. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Boston. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. wide. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig.

Fig. It is not difficult to . Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. 3. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. and. --Contributed by B. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. with slight modifications. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. It is cleanly. Orlando Taylor. N. Gloversville. --Contributed by H. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Y. Cross Timbers. When through using the pad. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Crockett. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Mo. L. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. saving all the solid part.

across the face. El Paso. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. S. and secure it in place with glue or paste. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. -Contributed by C. it should be new and sharp. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. After stirring. are shown in the diagram. Both of these methods are wasteful. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Texas. Lowell. remove the contents. and scrape out the rough parts. If a file is used. Bourne. After this is done. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. or if desired. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Lane. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. --Contributed by Edith E. Mass.

and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. --Contributed by Geo. --Contributed by Marion P. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Ill. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Wheeler. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Greenleaf. Oak Park. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Those having houses . I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. circled over the funnel and disappeared. After several hours' drying. Iowa. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. Turl. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. The process works well and needs no watching. He captured several pounds in a few hours.cooking utensil. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. As these were single-faced disk records. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Ill. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. F. Oregon. Canton. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. A Postcard Rack [25]. Des Moines. The insects came to the light.

The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. and both exactly alike. --Contributed by Wm. boards are preferable. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. the best material to use being matched boards. Lay the floor next. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. Worcester. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. and the second one for the developing bench. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. the bottom being 3/8 in. material. Rosenberg. 6 in. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. thick. --Contributed by Thomas E. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. and as they are simple in design. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. not even with the boards themselves.. Dobbins. The single boards can then be fixed. one on each side of what will be the . will do as well. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. but for cheapness 3/4 in. Only three pieces are required. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way.. 6 in.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. Glenbrook. plane and pocket knife. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. by 2 ft. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Mass. Both sides can be put together in this way. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. Conn. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper.

5. the closing side as at B. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. 3 and 4. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. 7. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. and to the outside board of the sides.. and in the middle an opening. as shown in Figs. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. 6. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. 11. of the top of the door for the same reason. so that the water will drain off into the sink. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. At the top of the doorway. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. below which is fixed the sink. The developing bench is 18 in. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. 6. 8.doorway. hinged to it. by screwing to the floor. 9). but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. It is shown in detail in Fig. brown wrapping paper. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light.. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. so that it will fit inside the sink. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. The roof boards may next be put on. nailing them to each other at the ridge. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. etc. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. is cut. which is fixed on as shown . 2 in section. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. and should be zinc lined. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. Fig. and act as a trap for the light. and the top as at C in the same drawing. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. 6 and 9.. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. wide. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. 10). In hinging the door. 9 by 11 in.

Details of the Dark Rook .

An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. 14. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. The handle should be at least 12 in. 17. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. 15. screwing them each way into the boards. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. 1. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. The house will be much strengthened if strips. 13. as shown in the sections. as at M. A circular piece about 2 in. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. Pennsylvania. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. preferably maple or ash. Fig. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. as shown in Fig. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. 19. after lining with brown paper. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. For beating up an egg in a glass. 16. 16. Fig. 18. and a 3/8-in. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. Fig. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . as at I. which makes it possible to have white light. In use. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. though this is hardly advisable. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. and a tank stand on it. Karl Hilbrich. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. 13. as in Fig. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. or the room may be made with a flat roof. mixing flour and water. or red light as at K. 2. --Contributed by W. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. 20. Fig. are fastened in the corners inside. four coats at first is not too many. if desired. these being shown in Fig. hole bored in the center for a handle.in Fig. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. but not the red glass and frame. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. 6. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. it is better than anything on the market. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. Erie. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in.

copper should be. about 3/8 in. as shown in the sketch. To operate. Eureka Springs. Kansas City. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Ark. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. which. Smith. -Contributed by E. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. --Contributed by Wm. Mo. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. G. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. D. Schweiger. when put together properly is a puzzle. New York. Yonkers. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . --Contributed by L. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. for a handle. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. L. Mitchell. long.

why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. the box will require a greater height in front. A number of 1/2-in. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. Each cork is cut as in Fig. especially for filling-in purposes. If the sill is inclined. 3. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. as is usually the case. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. 3. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. need them. The design shown in Fig. to make it set level. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. 1. After the box is trimmed. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. for the moment. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. holes should be drilled in the bottom. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. in order to thoroughly preserve it. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. the rustic work should be varnished. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. 2. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Having completed the bare box. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. . which binds them together. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. as well as improve its appearance. The corks in use are shown in Fig.

First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. 1. etc. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. can't use poison. share the same fate. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. Each long projection represents a leg. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. 4. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. drilled at right angles. But I have solved the difficulty. 2. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. life in the summer time is a vexation. cabbages. being partly eaten into. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. 3. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. . Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. it's easy. Traps do no good. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. as shown in Fig. F. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. and observe results. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. too dangerous. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. When the corn is gone cucumbers..

The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. If. cut some of it off and try again. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. strips. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. of No. . The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. and made up and kept in large bottles. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. cut in 1/2-in. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. by trial. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. the coil does not heat sufficiently. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. About 9-1/2 ft. Iowa. long. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The solution can be used over and over again. -.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in.

A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. it falls to stop G. Pa. Morse. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Doylestown. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. as shown in the sketch. . Syracuse. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Do not wash them. D. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. C. Dallas. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. is a good size--in this compound. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. Knives. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. In cleaning silver. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Fig 2. of gasoline. Stir and mix thoroughly. --Contributed by Katharine D. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Kane. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. to cause the door to swing shut. N. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. hot-water pot. 1) removed. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. --Contributed by James M. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Texas. Y. coffee pot. and a strip. but with unsatisfactory results. forks. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot.

Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. . They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. using the paper dry. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. --Contributed by Oliver S. Harrisburg. Pa. later fixed and washed as usual. La. but unfixed. Fisher. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. --Contributed by Theodore L. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. negatives. Waverly. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. of course. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. New Orleans. Ill. Sprout. which is.

The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. Fig. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. then . Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. To obviate this difficulty. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. 1. No two hamonograms are exactly alike.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. In this uncertainty lies the charm. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. metal. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. a harmonograph is a good prescription. The harmonograph.

makes respectively 3. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. Gaffney. ceiling. or the lines will overlap and blur. as long as the other. one-fifth. Another weight of about 10 lb. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. of about 30 or 40 lb. what is most important. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. Rosemont. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. --Contributed by James T. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. A small table or platform. in the center of the circle to be cut. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. is attached as shown at H.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. 1. A weight. that is. for instance. Ingham. with a nail set or punch. as shown in the lower part of Fig. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. etc. J. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. The length of the short pendulum H. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. R. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. Chicago.. is about right for a 10-ft. K. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. provides a means of support for the stylus. exactly one-third. Arizona. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. and unless the shorter pendulum is. as shown in Fig. A length of 7 ft. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. Holes up to 3 in. which can be regulated. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . to prevent any side motion. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time.. such as a shoe buttoner. in diameter. one-fourth. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. G. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. 1-3/4 by 2 in. A small weight. A pedestal. 1. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. --Contributed by Wm. Punch a hole.

--Contributed by J. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. 4. The capacity of the vise. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. The two key cards are made alike. 5. Fig. then 3 as in Fig. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. distributing them over the whole card. and proceed as before. -Contributed by W. 6. Fig.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. N. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. 1. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. Cruger. dividing them into quarters. a correspondent of . The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. of course.H. then put 2 at the top. Chicago. one for the sender and one for the receiver. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. and 4 as in Fig. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Cape May City. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. Morey.J. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. 3. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. 2.J.

secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. 30 gr. 1/2 oz. of the uprights. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. from the top and bottom. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. acetic acid and 4 oz. --Contributed by L. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. citrate of iron and ammonia. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. the portion of the base under the coil. respectively.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. long. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. 22 gauge German-silver wire. drill 15 holes. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. 1/4 in. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. After preparing the base and uprights. of water. After securing the tint desired. of 18-per-cent No. 6 gauge wires shown. Alberta Norrell. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. deep. To assemble. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. of ferricyanide of potash. Wind the successive turns of . wood-screws. Ga. remove the prints. If constructed of the former. sheet of well made asbestos paper. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Augusta. Cut through the center. Asbestos board is to be preferred. says Popular Electricity. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished.

as they are usually thrown away when empty. Small knobs may be added if desired.. N. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. Ampere. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. Ward. but these are not necessary. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. 16 gauge copper wire. screws. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. The case may be made of 1/2-in. rivets. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. Y. etc. 14 gauge. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. if one is not a smoker. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. which.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. --Contributed by Frederick E. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. cut and dressed 1/2 in. Labels of some kind are needed. square. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . then fasten the upright in place. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head.

" Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. Copper. A. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. tin. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. --Contributed by W. B. --Contributed by A. or has become corroded. In soldering galvanized iron. the pure muriatic acid should be used. California. of water. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. The parts are put together with dowel pins. particularly so when the iron has once been used. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. of glycerine to 16 oz. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. then to the joint to be soldered. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. brass. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. galvanized iron. as shown in the sketch. zinc. sandpaper or steel wool.14 oz. Eureka Springs. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. If the soldering copper is an old one. Heat it until hot (not red hot). Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. especially if a large tub is used. tinner's acid. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. E and F. Jaquythe. Wis. and rub the point of the copper on it. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap.. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. This is considerable annoyance. lead. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. Kenosha. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. being careful about the heat. The material can be of any wood. a piece of solder. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. Ark. Larson. it must be ground or filed to a point. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. and one made of poplar finished black. C. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. --C. S. . Richmond. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. and labeled "Poison. G. D. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant.

and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. which gives two bound volumes each year. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. Hankin.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Take a 3/4-in. brass and silver. in diameter. I bind my magazines at home evenings. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. The punch A. The disk will come out pan shaped. Fig. with good results. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. Six issues make a well proportioned book. however. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. thick and 1-1/4 in. The covers of the magazines are removed. C. N. B. Place the band. 7/8 in. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. 2. round iron. nut. The dimensions shown in Fig. wide. such as copper. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. -Contributed by H. and drill out the threads. 1. Fig. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . D. Apart from this. Brass rings can be plated when finished. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. W. Y. in diameter. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. This will leave a clear hole. This completes the die. a ring may be made from any metal. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. Troy.

is nailed across the top. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. 2. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. 5. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. and a third piece. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. of the ends extending on each side. 1. The string No. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. 2. Place the cardboard covers on the book. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. deep. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. through the notch on the left side of the string No. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. . which is fastened the same as the first. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. threaded double. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. 1. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. 1/8 in. 1. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. If started with the January or the July issue. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. and then to string No. on all edges except the back. The covering should be cut out 1 in. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. C. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. then back through the notch on the right side. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. as shown in Fig. Coarse white thread. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. Five cuts. After drawing the thread tightly. 1 in Fig. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. size 16 or larger. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. Start with the front of the book.4. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. and place them against the strings in the frame. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. The sections are then prepared for sewing. The covering can be of cloth. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. using . allowing about 2 in. is used for the sewing material.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides.

Nebr. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. and. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Cal. For the blade an old talking-machine . Place the cover on the book in the right position. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. at opposite sides to each other. on which to hook the blade. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. round iron. and mark around each one. Tinplate. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Divine. --Contributed by Clyde E. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. College View. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Encanto. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers.

A.. by 1 in. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. thick. or double extra heavy. fuse hole at D. thick. Ohio. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Miss. C. and file in the teeth. bore. On the upper side. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. E. and a long thread plug. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. B. by 4-1/2 in. -Contributed by Willard J. and 1/4 in. with a steel sleeve. as it is sometimes called. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). and 1/4 in. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. Moorhead.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. in order to drill the holes in the ends. F. Summitville. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. Then on the board put . long. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. with 10 teeth to the inch. at the same end. hydraulic pipe.. Make the blade 12 in. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. as shown. and another piece (B) 6 in. Hays.

How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . Boyd. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. high around this apparatus. of rubber-covered wire. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. the jars need not be very large. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. If you are going to use a current of low tension. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. about 5 ft. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. A lid may be added if desired. and some No. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. 4 jars. as from batteries. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. Philadelphia. Connect up as shown. --Contributed by Chas. of wire to each coil. using about 8 in. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. some sheet copper or brass for plates. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. H.

On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. wide by 3/4 in. Z. . and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. apart. The current then will flow through the motor. two pieces 14 in. long. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. is used to reduce friction. 2. oak boards. C. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. Use no screws on the running surface. and four pieces 14 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. Use no nails. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. thick. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. thick. Fig. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. wide and 3/4 in. sheet brass 1 in. 2 is lower down than in No. The top disk in jar No. square by 14 ft. For the brass trimmings use No. by 2 in. by 1-1/4 in. 2. two pieces 34 in. wide. long by 22 in. however. 5 on switch. C. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. On the door of the auto front put the . 7 in. 3. For the front runners these measurements are: A. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. 1 is connected to point No. and for the rear runners: A. by 5 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. steel rod makes a good steering rod. by 1-1/4 in. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. & S. The illustration shows how to shape it. A variation of 1/16 in. 34 in. direct to wire across jars. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. by 1 in. To wire the apparatus. 1 and so on for No. 1 on switch.. At the front 24 or 26 in. with the cushion about 15 in.. by 6 in. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. See Fig. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. 3 and No. as they are not substantial enough. wide and 2 in. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in.. by 5 in. Put arm of switch on point No. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. An iron washer. In proportioning them the points A. No. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. The connection between point No. 4.. 2 in. 3 in. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. A 3/4-in. long. long.the way. on No. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. long. as they "snatch" the ice. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. 30 in. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. or source of current. 16-1/2 in. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. 15-1/2 in. are important.. making them clear those in the front runner. B. 4) of 3/4-in. 4 in. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. by 2 in. two pieces 30 in. 1. B. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. The stock required for them is oak. Their size also depends on the voltage. B and C. 11 in. Construct the auto front (Fig. and plane it on all edges. above the ground. 27 B. beginning at the rear. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch.. gives full current and full speed. The sled completed should be 15 ft. two for each jar. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig.. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. and bolt through. First sandpaper all the wood. 2. 2 and 3.

long. parcels. fasten a cord through the loop. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. which is somewhat moist. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. The best way is to get some strong. Fasten a horn. by 1/2 in. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. to improve the appearance. a number of boys may share in the ownership. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. by 30 in. may be stowed within. If the expense is greater than one can afford. If desired. sewing it to the burlap on the under side.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. or with these for $25. If desired. a brake may be added to the sled. lunch. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. cutting it out of sheet brass. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. to the wheel. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. brass plated. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. overshoes. etc. such as burlap. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. such as used on automobiles. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . cheap material. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. Then get some upholstery buttons.

Ill. Lexington. --Contributed by Stewart H. . the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long.tree and bring. Leland. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same.

London. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. some files. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. so that the center of the blade. from F to G. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. outside diameter and 1/16 in. E. Fig. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. 1. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. by drawing diameters. the same diameter as the wheel. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. The Model Engineer. thick. which. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. will be over the line FG. The straight-edge. though more difficult. sheet metal. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. made from 1/16-in. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. The first tooth may now be cut. say 1 in. Fig. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. a compass. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. with twenty-four teeth. This guide should have a beveled edge.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. 2. FC. the cut will be central on the line. CD. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. A small clearance space. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. Fig. 3. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. First take the case of a small gearwheel. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. 4). Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. when flat against it. Draw a circle on paper. mild steel or iron. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. With no other tools than a hacksaw.

or several pieces bound tightly together. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. as shown in Fig. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. . Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. some wire and some carbons. electric lamp. each in the center. B. as shown in Fig. 1. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. either the pencils for arc lamps. Then take one outlet wire. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. ground it with a large piece of zinc. R. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. B. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. No shock will be perceptible. A bright. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. and the other outlet wire.Four Photos on One Plate of them. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. 1. 2. Focus the camera in the usual manner. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. as shown in Fig. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. Make a hole in the other. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. transmitter. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. If there is no faucet in the house. hold in one hand.

Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. J. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. under the gable. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. by 1 in. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. of course. as indicated by E E. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. as shown. Slattery.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. If desired. For a base use a pine board 10 in. A is a wooden block. They have screw ends. 36 wire around it. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . Pa. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Several battery cells. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. D D are binding posts for electric wires. and again wind the wire around it. But in this experiment. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. One like a loaf of bread. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. Ohio. and will then burn the string C. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. Wrenn. Dry batteries are most convenient. leaving about 10 in. Emsworth. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. --Contributed by Geo. serves admirably. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. one at the receiver can hear what is said. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. or more of the latter has been used. are also needed. B. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. by 12 in. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. at each end for terminals. Then set the whole core away to dry. Ashland. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. a transmitter which induces no current is used. and about that size.

C. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. Jr. B B. The coil will commence to become warm. as shown. for the . soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. F. Newark. Fig. in parallel.. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. the terminal of the coil. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. in series with bindingpost. Turn on switch. 1. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. These should have hollow ends. and switch. First make a support. and one single post switch. connecting lamp receptacles. 2. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. D. run a No. From the other set of binding-posts. while C is open. until the hand points to zero on the scale. 12 or No. C. Ohio. The oven is now ready to be connected. as shown.wire. The apparatus is now ready for operation. E. B B. 14 wire. and the lamps. Connect these three to switch. D. Fig. At one side secure two receptacles. Place 16-cp. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC.

although copper or steel will do. At a point a little above the center.E. After drilling. although brass is better. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. until the scale is full. 5. Fig. 2. Mine is wound with two layers of No. a battery. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. The core. This is slipped on the pivot. 7. D. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. Dussault. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument.. Fig. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. 1. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. as shown in the cut. deep. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. Fig. 4 in. 4 amperes. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. --Contributed by J. If for 3-way. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. 4. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. 3 amperes. A wooden box. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. drill through the entire case and valve. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. wide and 1/8 in. etc. to prevent it turning on the axle.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. 1/4 in. is made of wire. Fig. This may be made of wood. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. from the lower end. thick.or 4-way valve or cock. wide and 1-3/4 in. 6. wind with plenty of No. B. is made of iron. D. a variable resistance. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. The box is 5-1/2 in. long. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. 3. 10 turns to each layer. but if for a 4way. The pointer or hand. 5.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. It is 1 in. 1/2 in. long. drill in only to the opening already through. E. 14 wire. where A is the homemade ammeter. C. long and make a loop. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. a standard ammeter. high. drill a hole as shown at H. 36 magnet wire instead of No. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . remove the valve. and D. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. 14. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. inside measurements. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. To make one. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. Montreal. is then made and provided with a glass front. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. 1. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes.

and the other connects with the water rheostat. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. To start the light. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. This stopper should be pierced. and a metal rod. in diameter. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. high. D. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. By connecting the motor. A. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. B. and the arc light. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. provided with a rubber stopper. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. E. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. F. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point.performing electrical experiments. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. as shown. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. in thickness . making two holes about 1/4 in. which is used for reducing the current. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. One wire runs to the switch. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can.

Having fixed the lead plate in position. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Jones. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. As there shown. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. Fig. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Turn on the current and press the button. A. B. Fig. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. 2. If the interrupter does not work at first. To insert the lead plate. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. where he is placed in an upright open . Fig. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. N. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. A piece of wood. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Having finished the interrupter. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. If all adjustments are correct. 1. as shown in C. Fig. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. 1. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. Y. long. 1. 2. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. --Contributed by Harold L. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. as shown in B. Carthage. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose.

and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away.. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. and wave his arms up and down. the illusion will be spoiled. Its edges should nowhere be visible. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. could expect from a skeleton. and can be bought at Japanese stores. should be colored a dull black. figures and lights. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. high. inside dimensions. They need to give a fairly strong light. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. If it is desired to place the box lower down. giving a limp. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. as the entire interior. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. A. especially L. until it is dark there. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. L and M. The skeleton is made of papier maché. and must be thoroughly cleansed. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. to aid the illusion. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. The lights. which can be run by three dry cells. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. loosejointed effect. If everything is not black. with the exception of the glass. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. especially the joints and background near A. by 7-1/2 in. by 7 in.coffin. The model. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. is constructed as shown in the drawings. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. dressed in brilliant. The glass should be the clearest possible. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. within the limits of an ordinary room. should be miniature electric lamps. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. light-colored garments. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. A white shroud is thrown over his body. All . from which the gong has been removed.

by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. Two finishing nails were driven in. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . Cal. placed about a foot apart. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. If a gradual transformation is desired. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. fat spark. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. after which it assumes its normal color. W. San Jose.that is necessary is a two-point switch. square block. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. --Contributed by Geo. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. as shown in the sketch. Fry.

and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. or a solution of sal soda. In Fig. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. -Contributed by Dudley H. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. One of these plates is connected to metal top. The plates are separated 6 in. and should be separated about 1/8 in. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. by small pieces of wood. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. This is a wide-mouth bottle. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. In Fig. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. hydrogen gas is generated. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. B and C. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. Cohen. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. into the receiver G. If a lighted match . add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. 1. New York. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. F. with two tubes. A (see sketch). to make it airtight. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. as shown. the remaining space will be filled with air. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. soldered in the top. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D.

The distance between the nipple. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. If desired. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . 1. N. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. from the bottom. A. Fig. copper pipe. N. should be only 5/16 of an inch. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. A piece of 1/8-in. copper pipe. C C. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. 36 insulated wire. long. A. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. which forms the vaporizing coil. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. B. or by direct contact with another magnet. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. as is shown in the illustration. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. is made by drilling a 1/8in. London. A nipple. A. Fig. One row is drilled to come directly on top. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. 1/2 in. then a suitable burner is necessary. of No. is then coiled around the brass tube. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. P. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. A. long. in diameter and 6 in. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. and the ends of the tube. 1-5/16 in.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. A 1/64-in. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. says the Model Engineer. by means of the clips. 2 shows the end view. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. either by passing a current of electricity around it. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. which is plugged up at both ends.

should be cut to the diameter of the can. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. 1. leaving the folded edge uncut. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. 2).lamp cord. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. at the front and back for fly leaves. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. but if the paper knife cannot be used. Cut four pieces of cardboard. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. boards and all. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. trim both ends and the front edge. longer and 1/4 in. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). Take two strips of stout cloth. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. duck or linen. taking care not to bend the iron. A disk of thin sheet-iron. this makes a much nicer book. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. Fig. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. smoothly. 1/4 in. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. with a fine saw. Fig. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . about 8 or 10 in. 3. fold and cut it 1 in. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. Fig. larger all around than the book. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. cut to the size of the pages. Turn the book over and paste the other side.

is soldered onto tank A. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. Noble. as shown. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. in diameter and 30 in. B. In the bottom. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. is made the same depth as B. --Contributed by James E. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. is fitted in it and soldered. A. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. and a little can. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. D. Another tank. 4). pasting them down (Fig. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. A gas cock. is perforated with a number of holes. Another can. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. the joint will be gas tight. Va. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. of tank A is cut a hole. but its diameter is a little smaller. --Contributed by Joseph N.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. Ont. is turned on it. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. as shown in the sketch. This will cause some air to be enclosed. without a head. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. Parker. E. Toronto. which will just slip inside the little can. H. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. or rather the top now. C. 18 in. deep. . On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. Bedford City. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it.

C. A. The armature. exactly 12 in. which may be either spruce. as shown at C. long. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. If the pushbutton A is closed. and about 26 in. A A. which moves to either right or left. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. The small guards. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. and sewed double to give extra strength. E. J. fastened in the bottom. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. 2. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. making the width. tacks. 1. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. Fig. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. and the four diagonal struts. The wiring diagram. when finished. thus adjusting the . D. long. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. should be 3/8 in. Beverly. H is a square knot.. with an electric-bell magnet. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. The bridle knots. B. by 1/2 in. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. should be 1/4 in. Bott. should be cut a little too long. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. N. to prevent splitting. The diagonal struts.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. B. -Contributed by H. basswood or white pine. are shown in detail at H and J. shows how the connections are to be made. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. square by 42 in. Fig. B. D. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. The longitudinal corner spines. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. S. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. If the back armature.

can be made of a wooden . for producing electricity direct from heat. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Harbert. E. shift toward F. that refuse to slide easily. --Contributed by Edw. to prevent slipping. as shown. with gratifying results. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. thus shortening G and lengthening F. Clay Center. Stoddard.lengths of F and G. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. and. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. however. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. D. --Contributed by A. Kan. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. Chicago. A bowline knot should be tied at J. and if a strong wind is blowing. Closing either key will operate both sounders. the batteries do not run down for a long time. If the kite is used in a light wind. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle.

--Contributed by A. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. which conducts the current into the cannon. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. F. A. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. E. C. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. A and B. spark. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. Fasten a piece of wood. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. B. to the cannon. or parallel with the compass needle. by means of machine screws or. C. and the current may then be detected by means. placed on top. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. The wood screw. 16 single-covered wire. A. and also holds the pieces of wood. A. Then. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. Chicago. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No.frame. with a number of nails. When the cannon is loaded. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current.. D. with a pocket compass. in position. 14 or No. E. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. C.

Mich. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky.the current is shut off. screw is bored in the block. Chicago. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. In Fig. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. A and S. in this position the door is locked. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. Big Rapids. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. To reverse. but no weights or strings. with the long arm at L'. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Bend the strips BB (Fig. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. Fig. 1. --Contributed by Henry Peck. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. L. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. now at A' and S'. Fig. requiring a strong magnet. A. To lock the door. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. square and 3/8 in. H. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Ohio. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. --Contributed by Joseph B. B. Marion. A hole for a 1/2 in. Connect as shown in the illustration. To unlock the door. . Keil. when in position at A'. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. to receive the screw in the center. press the button. A and S. 1. where there is a staple. within the reach of the magnet. 1. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard.

if enameled white on the concave side. are enameled a jet black. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. and if desired the handles may . consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. or for microscopic work. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. and C is a dumbbell. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. When ready for use. West Somerville. The standard and base. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. about 18 in. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. --Contributed by C. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. Thread the other end of the pipe. pipe with 1-2-in. and may be made at very slight expense. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. Rand. hole. gas-pipe. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. put in the handle. J. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. long. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. When the holes are finished and your lines set. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. Mass. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle.

be covered with leather. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. E. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. across. Mass. Warren. Fig. --Contributed by C. long and 8 in. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. inside the pail. Make a cylindrical core of wood. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . A. B.. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. 8 in. across. D. This peculiar property is also found in ice. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. with a cover. M. as shown at A in the sketch. 1. high by 1 ft. which shall project at least 2 in. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. Fig. North Easton. 1.

How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. if there is to be any glazing done. Line the pail. and varnish. cutting the hole a little smaller. This done. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. 25%. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. C. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. C. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. and 3/8 in. Set aside for a few days until well dried. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in.. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in.-G. When lighted. W. 2. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. Cover with paper and shellac as before. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. thick. and with especial caution the first time. long. as dictated by fancy and expense. hard porcelain.mixture of clay. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. which is the hottest part. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. pipe 2-ft. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. 1390°-1410°. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. and 3/4 in. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. pack this space-top. in diameter. wider than the kiln. passing wire nails through and clinching them. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. carefully centering it. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. and on it set the paper wrapped core. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. 15%. hotel china. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. 3) with false top and bottom. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. full length of iron core. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. make two wood ends. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. but will be cheaper in operation. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. pipe. After finishing the core. in diameter. The 2 in. diameter. C. and cut it 3-1/2 in. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. L. After removing all the paper. to hold the clay mixture. say 1/4 in. 1330°. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in.. and graphite. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. 1). bottom and sides. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. if you have the materials. about 1 in. E. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. sand. but it will burn a great deal of gas. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. Wind about 1/8 in. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. projecting from each end (Fig. the point of the blue flame. Whatever burner is used. If the cover of the pail has no rim. Fig. long over the lid hole as a chimney. Fit all the parts together snugly. of fine wire. and your kiln is ready for business. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. such . 1). let this dry thoroughly. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. thick. strip of sheet iron. layer of the clay mixture.. 60%. It is placed inside the kiln. 2 in. as is shown in the sketch. or make one yourself. the firing should be gradual.

The funnel. 2). around the coil. Washington. 1. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. with a plane. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. bind tightly with black silk. --Contributed by J. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. Take the red cards. length of . 2. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. leaving long terminals. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. the next black. and so on.. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. 8 in. about 1/16 in. as in Fig. Then take the black cards. diameter. Next restore all the cards to one pack. A. C. as shown in the sketch herewith. as in Fig. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. procure a new deck. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black.53 in. Chicago.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. overlaps and rests on the body. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. C. all cards facing the same way. red and black. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. Then. T. . every alternate card being the same color. and discharges into the tube. taking care to have the first card red. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. square them up. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. D. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. and plane off about 1/16 in. C. B. Of course. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. square them up and place in a vise. You can display either color called for. R. 2. and divide it into two piles.

All the horizontal pieces. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. The cement. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. B. angle iron for the frame. E. To find the fall of snow. to form a dovetail joint as shown. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. It should be placed in an exposed location. B. D. thus making all the holes coincide. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. The bottom glass should be a good fit. A. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. Let .C. so that when they are assembled. Long Branch.. the same ends will come together again. of the frame. The upright pieces. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. stove bolts. as the difficulties increase with the size. 1 gill of litharge. When the glass is put in the frame a space. Drill all the horizontal pieces. and then the frame is ready to assemble. B. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. A. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. about 20 in. N. 1. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass.J. C. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. and this is inexpensive to build. E. F. the first thing to decide on is the size. stove bolts. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. 1 gill of fine white sand. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. through the holes already drilled. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. Fig. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson.

to the door knob. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. having a swinging connection at C. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. A. Fig. Fasten the lever. on the door by means of a metal plate. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. if desired.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. a centerpiece (A. Aquarium Finished If desired. B. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. and. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. D.

hoping it may solve the same question for them. 1 is the motor with one side removed. soldered to the end of the cylinder. 1. from the outside top of the frame. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. PAUL S. To make the frame. B. F. Do not fasten these boards now. approximately 1 ft. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. 2 at GG. Two short boards 1 in. another. A small piece of spring brass. with a water pressure of 70 lb. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. Y. They are shown in Fig. C. 1 . another. 6 in. --Contributed by Orton E. long. Fig. according to the slant given C. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. which is 15 in. and Fig. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. wide . to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. long. Cut two pieces 30 in. 26 in. Fig. long. as at E. Fig. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. D.. 2 ft.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. for the top. and another. White. screwed to the door frame. AA. wide by 1 in. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. N. I referred this question to my husband. 3 shows one of the paddles. showing the paddle-wheel in position. 1. several lengths of scantling 3 in. long. Cut two of them 4 ft. Fig. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. to keep the frame from spreading. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. thus doing away with the spring. Buffalo. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. 2 is an end view. E. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. will open the door about 1/2 in. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. Fig. to form the main supports of the frame. Fig. but mark their position on the frame. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. to form the slanting part. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece.

long and filling it with babbitt metal. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. When it has cooled. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. and drill a 1/8-in. to a full 1/2 in. steel shaft 12 in. Fasten them in their proper position. and drill a 1-in. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Make this hole conical. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. 1. Tack one side on. long to the wheel about 8 in. 2) with a 5/8-in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. in diameter. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. hole through their sides centrally. Next secure a 5/8-in. Drill 1/8-in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. 24 in. pipe. holes. (I. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Take the side pieces. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. hole through them. These are the paddles. that is. Fig. tapering from 3/16 in. Fig. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. 2) form a substantial base. take down the crosspieces. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. iron. iron 3 by 4 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). after which drill a 5/8 in. from one end by means of a key.burlap will do -.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. hole through its center. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. and a 1/4 -in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. thick (HH. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Now block the wheel. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. remove the cardboard. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. by 1-1/2 in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. hole to form the bearings. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. GG. Fig. thick. as shown in Fig. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. 4. with the wheel and shaft in place. then drill a 3/16-in. 2) and another 1 in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame.along the edges under the zinc to form .

remove any white curtains there may be. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. If the bearings are now oiled. and leave them for an hour or so. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. as this makes long exposure necessary. it would be more durable. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. Raise the window shade half way. start the motor. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. and the subject may move. sewing machine. as shown in the sketch at B. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. Focus the camera carefully. place the outlet over a drain. of course. light and the plate. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. ice-cream freezer. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. . and as near to it as possible. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. but now I put them in the machine. on the lens. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. shutting out all light from above and the sides. says the Photographic Times. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. any window will do. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. Darken the rest of the window. or what is called a process plate. Drill a hole through the zinc. If sheet-iron is used. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. but as it would have cost several times as much. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine.a water-tight joint. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. drill press. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Correct exposure depends. Do not stop down the lens. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. The best plate to use is a very slow one. It is obvious that.

B. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. without detail in the face. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. D. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. With a piece of black paper. an empty pill bottle may be used. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. 2. or can be taken from an old magnet. The glass tube may be a test tube. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. and without fog. 2. and a base. hard rubber. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. the core is drawn down out of sight. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. a glass tube. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. with binding posts as shown. A.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. or an empty developer tube. The core C. which is made of iron and cork. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. or wood. The current required is very small. a core. by twisting. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. until the core slowly rises. as shown in Fig. C. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. as a slight current will answer. On completing . full of water.

and make a pinhole in the center. This is a mysterious looking instrument. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. finest graphite. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. 1 lb. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. water and 3 oz. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. whale oil. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. is Benham's color top. and are changed by reversing the rotation. white lead. 1 pt. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. and one not easy to explain. 1. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. The colors appear different to different people. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. according to his control of the current. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it.

as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. before cutting. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. A. In making hydrogen. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. or three spot. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. fan-like. B. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. In prize games. As this device is easily upset. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. nearly every time. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken.L. when the action ceases. C.. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. thus partly filling bottles A and C. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. especially if the deck is a new one. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. Chicago. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water.B. deuce. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. -Contributed by D. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner.

Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. 12 in. 3). long and 3 in. Detail of Phonograph Horn . making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. 1. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Detroit. 4. 10 in. --Contributed by F. Form a cone of heavy paper. W. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. in length and 3 in. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. J. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. as shown in Fig. S. --Contributed by C. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Make a 10-sided stick.. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. 9 in.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation.. . Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. Fig. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. long. Fig. Bently. S. that will fit loosely in the tube A. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. 2. Jr. Dak. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. (Fig. Huron. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. in diameter.

about the size of a leadpencil. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . 4 and temporarily fastened in position. will cause an increased movement of C. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. A piece of tin. with a pin driven in each end. long. E. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. but bends toward D. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. --Contributed by Reader. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. A. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. C. on one side and the top. and walk in. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. allowing 1 in. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. making it three-ply thick. Remove the form. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. Fig. A second piece of silk thread. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. Denver. 6. Cut out paper sections (Fig. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. it is equally easy to block that trick. push back the bolt. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. Fortunately. bend it at right angles throughout its length.

S. are 7 ft. long. The upper switch. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. R.. Fremont Hilscher. Minn. Paul. are made 2 by 4 in. put together as shown in the sketch. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. while the lower switch. 4 ft. as shown.strip. The 2 by 4-in. A. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. S. or left to right. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. S S. W. B.. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . is connected each point to a battery. By this arrangement one. Jr. Two wood-base switches. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. and rest on a brick placed under each end. B. posts. The feet. West St. --Contributed by J. The reverse switch. long. will last for several years. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor.

2. 3/8 in. The hose E connects to the boiler. FF. Fig. The valve motion is shown in Figs. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. The piston is made of a stove bolt. and a cylindrical . or anything available.every house. which is made of tin. pulley wheel. The steam chest D. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. The base is made of wood. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. and valve crank S. is an old bicycle pump. which will be described later. E. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. either an old sewing-machine wheel. and in Fig. and has two wood blocks. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. Fig. the size of the hole in the bearing B. cut in half. thick. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. In Fig. and the crank bearing C. the other parts being used for the bearing B. 2 and 3. 1. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. with two washers. H and K.

and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. as shown in Fig. to receive the connecting rod H. San Jose. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. Fig. This engine was built by W. Cal. or galvanized iron. This is wound with soft string. Fig. powder can. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. J. W. G. G. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. Eustice. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. The valve crank S. Wis. C. --Contributed by Geo. and the desired result is obtained. can be an old oil can.piece of hard wood. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. First. and a very amusing trick. 3. at that. The boiler. Schuh and A. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. and saturated with thick oil. Fry. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. using the positive wire as a pen. 4. . 1. as it is merely a trick of photography. is cut out of tin. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. of Cuba. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first.

Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. and Fig. They may be of any size. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. to cross in the center. Fig. as shown at AA. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. diameter. 1 will be seen to rotate. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. 1 by covering up Figs. and pass ropes around . first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Fig. C. When turning. B.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. and place a bell on the four ends. B. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. The smaller wheel. Cut half circles out of each stave. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. Fig. as shown. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B.

say 1/2 or 3/4 in. Mo. such as clothes lines. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. Louis. procure a wooden spool. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. To make this lensless microscope.G. From a piece of thin . A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. This in turn will act on the transmitter. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. A (a short spool. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. long. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. W.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. as shown in the illustration. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. produces a higher magnifying power). St. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. which accounts for the sound.. --Contributed by H. which allows the use of small sized ropes. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera.M. from the transmitter. but not on all. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope.

. darting across the field in every direction. D. D. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. is made of iron. C. Fig. (The area would appear 64 times as large. fastened to a wooden base. if the distance is reduced to one-third. H. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. or 64 times. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. . which may be moistened to make the object adhere. To use this microscope. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. in which hay has been soaking for several days. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. An innocent-looking drop of water. 1. E. The lever. which are pieces of hard wood. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. The spring. e.) But an object 3/4-in. bent as shown. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. cut out a small disk. 3. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. The pivot. It is very important that the hole D should be very small.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. place a small object on the transparent disk. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. the diameter will appear three times as large.. i. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. is fastened at each end by pins. and look through the hole D. the object should be of a transparent nature. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. otherwise the image will be blurred. held at arm's length. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. Viewed through this microscope. and at the center. the diameter will appear twice as large. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. B. A. which costs little or nothing to make. C. B. by means of brads. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. if the distance is reduced to one-half. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. 2. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. as in all microscopes of any power. can be made of brass and the armature. and so on.

16 in. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. 1. The binding posts. K. K. wide. 2. E. wide and set in between sides AA. wood. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. between the armature and the magnet. The door. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. DD.SOUNDER-A. HH. wide. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. brass or iron soldered to nail. long by 16 in. C. binding posts: H spring The stop. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. The base of the key. connection of D to nail. Cut the top. D. nail soldered on A. The back. brass. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. wood: F. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. soft iron. Fig. FF. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. 26 wire: E. long. wide and about 20 in. D. brass: B. . or a single piece. is cut from a board about 36 in. wide. long and 14-1/2 in. similar to the one used in the sounder. should be about 22 in. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. coils wound with No. A switch. thick. brass: E. wood: C. A. in length and 16 in. D. B. KEY-A. fastened near the end. AA. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. B. Fig. and are connected to the contacts. C. F. 16 in. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. which are made to receive a pivot. can be made panel as shown. Each side. wide. or taken from a small one-point switch.

Garfield. 2 and made from 1/4-in. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. AA. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. brads. material. E. Make 12 cleats. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. When the electrical waves strike the needle.. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. as shown in the sketch. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. long.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. Ill. as shown. 13-1/2 in. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. cut in them. with 3/4-in. In operation. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides.

N. The cord is also fastened to a lever. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. When the pipe is used. in order to increase the surface. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. will give a greater speed.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. pulls down the armature. and thus decreases the resistance. Pushing the wire. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . N. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. and. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. the magnet. A (see sketch). --Contributed by John Koehler. Y. Ridgewood. filled with water. J. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. down into the water increases the surface in contact. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. through which a piece of wire is passed. B. A. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. A fairly stiff spring. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. A. E. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. --Contributed by R. Brown. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. Fairport. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. F. when used with a motor. C.

After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. N. --Contributed by Perry A. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. B. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. Gachville.for the secret contact. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. even those who read this description. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Borden. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. if desired. Of course. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts.

wide. records. wide. C. 2. where the other end of wire is fastened. wide. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. apart.. 1. J. and on both sides of the middle shelf. Cal. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. Mangold. Nails for stops are placed at DD. C. wide. From a piece of brass a switch. A. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. The top board is made 28-in. wide. H. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. With about 9 ft. long and full 12-in. Connect switch to post B. Two drawers are fitted in this space. from the bottom. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. for 6-in. Washington. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. The three shelves are cut 25-in. for 10in. E. deep and 3/4 in. East Orange. Dobson. long and 5 in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. Compton. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by H. N. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. D. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. as shown in Fig. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in.whenever the bell rings. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. in a semicircle 2 in. . A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. thick and 12-in. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. records and 5-5/8 in. --Contributed by Dr. Jr. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached.

Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. B. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. as shown by the dotted lines. E. Va. Roanoke. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. When the cord is passed over pulley C. A. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. 1. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. closed. as shown in Fig. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. to which is fastened a cord. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. which in operation is bent.

holes (HH. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. Now put all these parts together. E. in diameter. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. against which the rubber tubing. 1 in. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. In these grooves place wheels. Put the rubber tube. deep. B. 1 in. Notice the break (S) in the track. but a larger one could be built in proportion. wide. CC. Do not fasten the sides too . 3). it too loose. apart. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. Fig. thick. 3. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. in diameter. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. thick (A. they will let the air through. one in each end. Cut two grooves. they will bind. These wheels should be 3/4 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Figs. E. If the wheels fit too tightly. long. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. Fig. as shown in the illustration. The crankpin should fit tightly. Figs. Fig. deep and 1/2 in. wide. in diameter. excepting the crank and tubing. 4 shows the wheel-holder. is compressed by wheels. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. which should be about 1/2 in. 5) when they are placed. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. square and 7/8 in. In the sides (Fig. to turn on pins of stout wire. Bore two 1/4 in. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. through one of these holes. D. 1.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. in diameter. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping.

In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Fig. and are 30 in. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. Fig. and mark for a hole. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. though a small iron wheel is better. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. 2. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. 1. In the two cross bars 1 in. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. Cut six pieces. 1. Fig. costing 10 cents. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. Take the center of the bar. B. mark for hole and 3 in. beyond each of these two. and 3-1/2 in. 17-1/2 in. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. tubing. The animal does not fear to enter the box. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. from the bottom and 2 in. Hubbard. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. long. because he can . a platform should be added. A in Fig. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. 2. Then turn the crank from left to right. the other wheel has reached the bottom. stands 20 in. The screen which is shown in Fig. AA. To use the pump. --Contributed by Dan H. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. Fig. the pump will give a steady stream. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. Two feet of 1/4-in. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. 1. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. mark again. of material. 15 in. from that mark the next hole. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. If the motion of the wheels is regular. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. AA. Idana. as shown in Fig. The three legs marked BBB. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. is all the expense necessary. from each end. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. from each end. from each end. 1. as it gives steadiness to the motion. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. 1. iron. Kan. For ease in handling the pump.

Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. long having two thumb screws. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. 1) must be prepared. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. stirring constantly. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. If it is wet. To cause a flow of electricity. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. giving it a bright. The mercury will adhere. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. there is too much liquid in the jar. The battery is now complete. C. 4 oz. acid 1 part). until it is within 3 in. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. or. If the solution touches the zinc. potassium bichromate. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. however. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. and touches the bait the lid is released and. It is useful for running induction coils. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. shuts him in. 14 copper wire. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector.see through it: when he enters. The battery is now ready for use. rub the zinc well. of the top. of water dissolve 4 oz. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. dropping. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. Philadelphia. some of it should be poured out. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. --Contributed by H. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. 2). . This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. silvery appearance. sulphuric acid. When the bichromate has all dissolved. If the battery has been used before. Meyer. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. Place the carbon in the jar. The truncated. and the solution (Fig. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. or small electric motors. add slowly. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. When through using the battery. but if one casts his own zinc. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts.

. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. After putting in the coal. while the coal door is being opened.Fig. the jump-spark coil . i. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. however. The price of the coil depends upon its size. the battery circuit. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. which opens the door. e. with slight changes. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. Wis. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. If. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. pressing the pedal closes the door. Madison.

while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. 7. This coil. as shown in Fig. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. This will make an excellent receiver. and closer for longer distances. 7). which is made of light copper wire. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile.7. the full length of the coil. in a straight line from top to bottom. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. apart. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. . 7. 5. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. in a partial vacuum. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. W W. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. while a 12-in. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. Change the coil described. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. as shown in Fig. coil. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. Now for the receiving apparatus.described elsewhere in this book. diameter. W W. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. Fig. 6. After winding. 6. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. made of No. being a 1-in. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp.

but it could be run by foot power if desired. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. but simply illustrates the above to show that. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. These circles. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. B the bed and C the tailstock. where A is the headstock.6 stranded. in the air. A large cone pulley would then be required. and hence the aerial line. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil.The aerial line. Figs. . an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. A. Run a wire from the other binding post. may be easily made at very little expense. being at right angles. 90°. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. are analogous to the flow of induction. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. 1 to 4. For an illustration. after all. which will be described later. at any point to any metal which is grounded. using an electric motor and countershaft. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. only. 1). The writer does not claim to be the originator. 90°. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. being vertical. No. above the ground. I run my lathe by power. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. as it matches the color well. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. to the direction of the current.

Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. and runs in babbitt bearings. Fig. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. steel tubing about 1/8 in. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. which pass through a piece of wood. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. thick. tapered wooden pin. Fig. 6 Headstock Details D. Heat the babbitt well. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . B. pitch and 1/8 in. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. one of which is shown in Fig. and Fig. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. Fig. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. If the bearing has been properly made. 2 and 3. and it is well to have the shaft hot. 5. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. too. The headstock. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. To make these bearings. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. on the under side of the bed. deep. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. The bearing is then ready to be poured. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. Fig. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. The bolts B (Fig. 5. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. but not hot enough to burn it. 4. After pouring. A. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. which are let into holes FIG. 6. just touching the shaft. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. 4.

A. Take up about 5 ft. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. so I had to buy one. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. Ill. lock nut. This prevents corrosion. N. Newark. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. B. embedded in the wood. The tail stock (Fig. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. If not perfectly true. they may be turned up after assembling.J. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. Oak Park. FIG.other machines. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. and a 1/2-in. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. the alarm is easy to fix up. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. of the walk . If one has a wooden walk. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig.

(A. silver or other metal. to remove all traces of grease. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Minneapolis. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. --Contributed by R. save when a weight is on the trap. S. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. before dipping them in the potash solution. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. and the alarm is complete. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. clean the articles thoroughly. water. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Minn. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. of water. add potassium cyanide again. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Finally. 2). Connect up an electric bell. hang the articles on the wires. Then make the solution . so that they will not touch. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Jackson. leaving a clear solution. to roughen the surface slightly. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Fig. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. To avoid touching it. Do not touch the work with the hands again.

An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. zinc. The wooden block C. 1). it is only necessary to double all given quantities. an old electric bell or buzzer. Take quick. If more solution is required. make a key and keyhole. Before silver plating. saw a piece of wood. square. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. With an electric pressure of 3.5 to 4 volts. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. such metals as iron. 1. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. Then. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. hole in its center. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. which is held by catch B. --Model Engineer. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. as at F. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. when the point of the key touches the tin. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. pewter. with water. lead. A (Fig. also. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. Fig. Can be made of a 2-in. and 4 volts for very small ones. On brass. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. B should be of the same wood. copper. shaking. piece of broomstick. Repeat six times. Where Bunsen cells are used. a circuit is completed. use 2 volts for large articles. as shown in Fig. which . The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. This solution. will serve for the key. 1). from the lower end. In rigging it to a sliding door. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in.up to 2 qt. nickel and such metals. long. a hand scratch brush is good. Fig. 3. If accumulators are used. Screw the two blocks together. thick by 3 in. 1 not only unlocks. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. about 25 ft. I. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. of clothesline rope and some No. Fig. of water. A 1/4 in. To provide the keyhole. and then treated as copper. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. which is advised. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. but opens the door. Having finished washing the precipitate. 3) strikes the bent wire L. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. if one does not possess a buffing machine. German silver. 3) directly over the hole. long. and the larger part (F. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. with the pivot 2 in. with water. light strokes. 10 in. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. Make a somewhat larger block (E. The wooden catch. must be about 1 in. 1 in. silver can be plated direct. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. 18 wire. When all this is set up. Fig.

New Jersey. and finally lined inside with black cloth. in his shirt sleeves. Heavy metal objects. Klipstein. Next. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. is the cut through which the rope runs. 2. he points with one finger to the box. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. the box should be painted black both inside and out.. with the lights turned low. the illumination in front must be arranged. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. 116 Prospect St. shows catch B. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. some black cloth. Fig. --Contributed by E. or cave. and hands its contents round to the audience. Receiving the bowl again. 3. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. 1. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. although a little more trouble. H. H. surrounding a perfectly black space. sides and end. Objects appear and disappear. he tosses it into the cave. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. 0. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. In front of you. such as forks. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. which unlocks the door. and plenty of candles. top. On either side of the box. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. the requisites are a large soap box. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. no painting inside is required. Fig. He removes the bowl from the black box. 2. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. floor. and a slit. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. B. one-third of the length from the remaining end. enlarged. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. The interior must be a dead black. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. The box must be altered first. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. Fig. to throw the light toward the audience. To prepare such a magic cave. One thing changes to another and back again. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. spoons and jackknives. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. 1. heighten the illusion. East Orange. Next. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. half way from open end to closed end. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. cut in one side. The magician stands in front of this. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. so much the better. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. H. with a switch as in Fig. should be cut a hole. . CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. and black art reigns supreme. One end is removed. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. some black paint. Fig. between the parlor and the room back of it. a few simple tools. Thus. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it.

The audience room should have only low lights. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. if. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. his confederate behind inserts his hand. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. But illusions suggest themselves. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. had a big stage. is on a table) so much the better. of course. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. which are let down through the slit in the top. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. Consequently. and several black drop curtains. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain.Finally. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. the room where the cave is should be dark. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. and pours them from the bag into a dish. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. The illusion. and if portieres are impossible. you must have an assistant. only he. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. in which are oranges and apples. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. which can be made to dance either by strings. of course. as presented by Hermann. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. a screen must be used. was identical with this. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. The exhibitor should be . while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. into the eyes of him who looks. one on each side of the box.

never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. vice versa. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. Finally. by means of two wood screws. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. if you turn handle K to the right. respectively. held down on disk F by two other terminals. as shown in Fig. is shown in the diagram. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. and c4 + electricity. About the center piece H moves a disk. A. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . their one end just slips under the strips b1. or binding posts. or b2. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. b2. f2. making contact with them. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. c3. respectively. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). 2. and a common screw. c1. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. 1. and c2 to the zinc. e1 and e2.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. and c1 – electricity. held down by another disk F (Fig. b3. c4. terminal c3 will show . b1. b3. terminal c3 will show +. 1.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. square.. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. respectively. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. c2. 2. at L. Fig. Then. making contact with them as shown at y. when handle K is turned to one side. held down on it by two terminals. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1.a boy who can talk. with three brass strips. so arranged that. 2). FIG. by 4 in. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. d. b2. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. On the disk G are two brass strips. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. A represents a pine board 4 in.

4. from four batteries. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. . Ohio. and C and C1 are binding posts. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. Newark. Jr. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. jump spark coil. -Contributed by A. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. when on No. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. Tuttle. and when on No. B is a onepoint switch. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. from five batteries. --Contributed by Eugene F. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). from three batteries. 3. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . when on No. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in.. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. Joerin. and then hold the receiver to your ear. 1. when A is on No. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. you have the current of one battery. When switch B is closed and A is on No. E. 5. thus making the message audible in the receiver.

Wis. Thus. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. A. over the bent portion of the rule. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. and supporting the small weight. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. per second. A. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. is the device of H. B. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. The device thus arranged. so one can see the time. mark. mark. rule. Redmond. E. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. New Orleans. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. traveled by the thread. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. P. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. La. and placed on the windowsill of the car. When you do not have a graduate at hand. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. as shown in the sketch. of Burlington. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. per second for each second. Handy Electric Alarm .. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. which may be a button or other small object. A.

you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. --C. Crafton. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. When the alarm goes off. Instead. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. Then if a mishap comes. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. but may be closed at F any time desired.which has a piece of metal. . soldered to the alarm winder. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. S. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. and with the same result. Lane. --Contributed by Gordon T. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. for a wetting is the inevitable result. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. B. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. wrapping the wire around the can several times. which illuminates the face of the clock. C. Pa.

the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. If there is no foundry Fig. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. AA. which may. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. engines. as shown in Fig. as shown. C. The first thing to make is a molding bench.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. when it is being prepared. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. Two cleats.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . whence it is soon tracked into the house. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. small machinery parts. and many other interesting and useful articles. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. but it is a mistake to try to do this. binding posts. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. BE. Macey. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. With the easily made devices about to be described. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. L. ornaments of various kinds. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. battery zincs. A. It is possible to make molds without a bench. --Contributed by A. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. bearings. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. cannons. and duplicates of all these. New York City. 1 . models and miniature objects. 1. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience.

and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. A slight shake of the bag Fig. and this. previous to sawing. say 12 in. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. is about the right mesh. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. If the box is not very strong. J. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. makes a very good sieve. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. by 6 in. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. It is made of wood and is in two halves. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. H. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. white metal. E." or lower part. the "cope. which can be made of a knitted stocking. will be required. and the "drag. 1. by 8 in. is made of wood. try using sand from other sources. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. and the lower pieces. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. The dowels. is shown more clearly in Fig. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. F. 2. and a sieve. as shown. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. is nailed to each end of the cope. is filled with coal dust. high. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. 2 . 1. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. a little larger than the outside of the flask. II . Fig. G.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it.near at hand. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. as shown. D.How to Make a Mold [96] . The rammer. A wedge-shaped piece. but this operation will be described more fully later on. CC. and saw it in half longitudinally. A A. If desired the sieve may be homemade. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. which can be either aluminum. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. An old teaspoon. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. The cloth bag. Fig. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. which should be nailed in." or upper half. The flask. CC. DD.

" and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. turn the drag other side up. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. as shown at C. and if water is added. Place another cover board on top. where they can watch the molders at work. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. and scatter about 1/16 in. as shown. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. After ramming. as shown at D. the surface of the sand at . everything will be ready for the operation of molding. in order to remove the lumps. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. The sand is then ready for molding. as described. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. and by grasping with both hands. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. or "cope. It is then rammed again as before. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. as it is much easier to learn by observation. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. In finishing the ramming. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag." in position. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. and thus judge for himself. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. or "drag. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. as shown at E. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. and then more sand is added until Fig. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. but care should be taken not to get it too wet.

thus holding the crucible securely. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. it shows that the sand is too wet. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. deep. thus making a dirty casting. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. Fig. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. wide and about 1/4 in. as shown at F. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. III. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. made out of steel rod. as shown at G. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing." or pouring-hole. place the cope back on the drag. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. and then pour. The "sprue. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. Place a brick or other flat. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream.E should be covered with coal-dust. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. After drawing the pattern.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. in diameter. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. is next cut. as shown in the sketch. This is done with a spoon. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. after being poured. as shown at H. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. . When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. as shown at J. to give the air a chance to escape. as shown at H. in order to prevent overheating.

Morton. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. In my own case I used four batteries. Referring to the figure. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. used only for zinc. 15% lead. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. although somewhat expensive. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. If a good furnace is available. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. babbitt. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. Although the effect in the illustration . and. but any reasonable number may be used. battery zincs. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. the following device will be found most convenient. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. --Contributed by Harold S. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. or from any adjacent pair of cells. Minneapolis. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. and the casting is then ready for finishing. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. may be used in either direction. is very desirable. white metal and other scrap available. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling.

outward. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. as shown at A. shaft made. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . Then replace the table. connected by cords to the rudder. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. By replacing the oars with paddles. To make it take a sheet-iron band. which will be sufficient to hold it. 3/4 in. B. If desired. Put a sharp needle point. backward. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. may be made of hardwood. B. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. Chicago. A. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. The bearings. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. 2. Make one of these pieces for each arm. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. --Contributed by Draughtsman. as shown in the illustration. The brass rings also appear distorted. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. Then walk down among the audience. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. Fig. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages.

The hubs. as shown in Fig. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. W. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid.melted babbitt. If babbitt is used. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. D. Snow. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. but when in motion. should be made of wood. or the paint will come off. 1. when it will again return to its original state. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. Fig. spoiling its appearance. The covers. 1. 1. 2 and 3. 3. If galvanized iron is used. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. being simply finely divided ice. as shown in Fig. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. A. and a weight. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. C. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. 2. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. or under pressure. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. E. In the same way. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. It may seem strange that ice . either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. A block of ice.

The current is flowing through both bells all the time. and assume the shape shown at B. which resembles ice in this respect. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. by 1/4. as per sketch. square. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. The rate of flow is often very slow. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . brass. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. sometimes only one or two feet a day. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. by 2 in. Pa. by 5 in. but. B. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. Crafton. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. but by placing it between books. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. P. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight.. whenever there is any connection made at all. by 1/2 in. Lane. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. or supporting it in some similar way. as shown on page 65. it will gradually change from the original shape A. --Contributed by Gordon T. no matter how slow the motion may be. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself.should flow like water. Pressing either push button. thus giving a high resistance contact. in. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions.

vertical lever. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. H. alarm clock. furnace. E. as shown. about the size used for automobiles. Wilkinsburg. the induction coil. J. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time.thumb screws. A is the circuit breaker. C. G. Ward. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. K . B. F. wooden supports. The success depends upon a slow current. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. and C. B. I. horizontal lever. cord. the battery. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. Pa. The parts are: A. draft chain. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. D. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. pulleys. as shown. G. Indianapolis. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. draft. In the wiring diagram. and five dry batteries. weight. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. --Contributed by A. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3.000 ft.

such as used for a storm window. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. The frame (Fig. 2 are dressed to the right angle. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. where house plants are kept in the home. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. will fit nicely in them. Mich. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. material framed together as shown in Fig. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. Kalamazoo. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. 3. How to Make an Electroscope [103] .shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. Artistic Window Boxes The top. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. which will provide a fine place for the plants. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. as well as the bottom.

By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. in this connection. --Contributed by Wm. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. However. as if drawn upon for its total output. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. a cork and a needle. However. one can regulate the batteries as required. but maintain the voltage constant. where they are glad to have them taken away. Grant. S. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. which sells for 25 cents. A certain number of these. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. as indicated by Fig. and the instrument will then be complete. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. for some time very satisfactorily. Thus. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. in diameter. multiples of series of three. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. and cost 27 cents FIG. i. 1 each complete with base. and a suitable source of power. this must be done with very great caution. after a rest. in any system of lamps. N. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel.. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. Canada.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. can be connected up in series. 1. This is more economical than dry cells. so as to increase the current. and will give the . e. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. W. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. since a battery is the most popular source of power. It must be remembered. by connecting them in series. Push the needle into the cork.. The 1/2-cp. Halifax. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. 1 cp. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs.. is something that will interest the average American boy.

Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. and diffused light in a room. However. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. making. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. especially those of low internal resistance. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. 1-cp. or 22 lights. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. double insulated wire wherever needed. Thus. we simply turn on the water. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. and running the series in parallel. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. Fig. 2 shows the scheme. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. lamps. generates the power for the lights. So. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. although the first cost is greater. Thus. lamps. . 18 B & S. where the water pressure is the greatest. for display of show cases. each. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. and for Christmas trees.. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. FIG.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance.proper voltage. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. which is the same as that of one battery. 11 series. by the proper combination of these. If wound for 10 volts. Chicago. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. according to the water pressure obtainable. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. These will give 3 cp. if wound for 6 volts. and then lead No. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. 3. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. In conclusion. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. to secure light by this method. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. lamp. as in Fig. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet.

This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. . The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. B. are cut just alike. CC. A. Ind. a bait of meat. and C. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Plymouth. --Contributed by F. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. switch. Emig. simply change the switch. field of motor. A indicates the ground. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. AA. --Contributed by Leonard E. the letters indicate as follows: FF. Cal. DD. Parker. center points of switch. as shown in the sketch. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. BB. or a tempting bone. and the sides.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Santa Clara. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. thus reversing the machine. outside points of switch. After I connected up my induction coil. or from one pattern. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. brushes of motor. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. To reverse the motor. B. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. bars of pole-changing switch. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. we were not bothered with them.

W. one cell being sufficient. 903 Vine St. Fry. as it is the key to the lock. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. If it is not. merely push the button E. Hutchinson. or would remain locked. Minn.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. a piece of string. and a table or bench. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. The button can be hidden.. attached to the end of the armature B. Melchior. To unlock the door. When the circuit is broken a weight. The experiment works best . Cal. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. -Contributed by Claude B. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. a hammer. thus locking the door. A. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. which is in the door. San Jose. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch.

D. Tie the ends of the string together. Wis. Crawford Curry. 2. I. C. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. the current flows with the small arrows. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table.Contributed by F. where it will remain suspended as shown.. A. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Canada. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Porto Rico. Madison. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. which pulls the draft open. Culebra. --Contributed by Geo. P. the stick falls away. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. . 3. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Ontario. as shown in Fig. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. forming a loop. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. attached at the other end. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. 4). in the ceiling and has a window weight. releasing the weight. On another block of wood fasten two wires. 3. Schmidt. the key turns. 18 Gorham St. Brockville. -. run through a pulley. 1). W. is attached to the draft B of the furnace.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. When the alarm rings in the early morning. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord.

and the other to the battery. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. get two pieces of plate glass. thence to a switch. Farley. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. and break the corners off to make them round. 6 in.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. Use a barrel to work on.. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. --Contributed by Wm. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. The cut shows the arrangement. S. N. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. made with his own hands. or from a bed of flowers. and . which fasten to the horn. square and 1 in. thick. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. Camden. and then to the receiver. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. running one direct to the receiver. or tree. First. J. Connect two wires to the transmitter. D. including the mouthpiece. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. Jr. J. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. R.

twice the focal length away. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. in length. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. A.. while walking around the barrel.. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. then take 2 lb. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. a round 4-in. with 1/4-in. and label. melt 1 lb. and a large lamp. and spread on the glass.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. Then warm and press again with the speculum. unless a longer focal length is wanted. and is ready for polishing. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. Fasten. Fig. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. of water. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. set the speculum against the wall. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. When dry. then 8 minutes. When polishing the speculum. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. as in Fig. wetting it to the consistency of cream. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. 2. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. also rotate the glass. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. When done the glass should be semitransparent. the coarse grinding must be continued. spaces. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. and the under glass or tool convex. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. or less. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. Have ready six large dishes. 2. using straight strokes 2 in. Use a binger to spread it on with. so the light . 1. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Fig.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. L. with pitch. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. or it will not polish evenly. by the side of the lamp. wide around the convex glass or tool. In a dark room. wet till soft like paint. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave.

then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. When the focus is found..……………………………. Solution D: Sugar loaf . face down. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. from the lamp. deep. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke.. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. Then add 1 oz. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. then ammonia until bath is clear.. the speculum is ready to be silvered. 4 oz. Nitric acid . the speculum will show some dark rings. 840 gr. The polishing and testing done. touched with rouge.100 gr. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. 2. cement a strip of board 8 in. Now add enough of the solution A. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. Fig. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency.. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. if a hill in the center. also how the rays R from a star . Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. with distilled water. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. longer strokes.……………. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. 39 gr. When dry. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. 100 gr. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. 2. 25 gr. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. Fig.. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. Place the speculum. fill the dish with distilled water.. Place the speculum S. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. 4 oz.. that was set aside. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. Silver nitrate …………………………….. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. Fig.………………………………... Then add solution B. or hills. long to the back of the speculum. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. With pitch. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. must be procured. as in K. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. The knife should not be more than 6 in. Two glass or earthenware dishes. If not. and pour the rest into the empty dish.

deg. telescope can be made at home. and proceed as for any picture. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. long and cost me just $15. stop down well after focusing. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. Mellish. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. with an outlay of only a few dollars. cover with paper and cloth. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. slightly wider than the lens mount. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. is a satisfactory angle. Thus an excellent 6-in. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. The flatter they are the less they will distort. Place over lens. My telescope is 64 in. . When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. which proves to be easy of execution. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. Then I made the one described. two glass prisms. using strawboard and black paper.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. About 20. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. Make the tube I of sheet iron. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch.John E.. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers.

Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. -Contributed by A. The paper is exposed. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. unobstructed light strike the mirror. instead of the contrary. The rays of the clear. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. To unlock. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. Ill. Fig. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. through the lens of the camera and on the board. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. Zimmerman. then add a little sulphate of potash. and reflect through the negative. add the plaster gradually to the water. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. says the Master Painter. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. 2. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. Boody. . 1. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. but will not preserve its hardening. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. as shown in Fig. B. push the button D. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. or powdered alum. Do not stir it. complete the arrangement.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. A. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. D. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard.

Then blow through the spool. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. but will remain suspended without any visible support. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. 2. also provide them with a handle. 3.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. as in Fig. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. Fasten on the switch lever. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. To reverse. 2. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. 1). and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. throw . A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. Fig. as at A and B. use a string. so that it can rotate about these points.

wash in running water. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Tex. carbon sockets. San Antonio. Take out. L. Tex. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. --Contributed by R. C C. Levy. the armature. B. --Contributed by Geo. D. binding posts. . making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. rinse in alcohol. although this is not necessary. and E E. Thomas. as shown in the sketch. A is the electricbell magnet. San Marcos. Neb. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. In the sketch. North Bend. carbons. and rub dry with linen cloth. -Contributed by Morris L. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. Push one end of the tire into the hole. Go McVicker.

it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. 36 magnet wire. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. By means of two or more layers of No. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. Bell. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. long or more. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. --Contributed by Joseph B. wound evenly about this core. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. Brooklyn. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. 16 magnet wire. 14 or No.

hole is bored in the center of one end. and finally the fourth strip of paper. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. diameter. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. in length. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. 4. wide. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. The condenser is next wrapped . which is desirable. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. long and 2-5/8 in. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. The primary is made of fine annealed No.which would be better to buy ready-made. with room also for a small condenser. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. Beginning half an inch from one end. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. long and 5 in. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. the entire core may be purchased readymade. at a time. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. After the core wires are bundled. but if it is not convenient to do this work. The following method of completing a 1-in. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. making two layers. then the strip of tin-foil. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. one piece of the paper is laid down. and the results are often unsatisfactory. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. in diameter. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. This makes a condenser which may be folded. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. which is an important factor of the coil. about 6 in. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. 1. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. In shaping the condenser. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. or 8 in. a box like that shown in Fig. 2 yd. A 7/8-in. No. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. as the maker prefers. as shown in Fig. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. When cut and laid in one continuous length. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. coil illustrates the general details of the work. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired.

E. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. A. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. 3. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. 4 in. I. go. The alarm key will turn and drop down.. wide. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. C. V-shaped copper strip. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. F. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. bell. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. copper lever with 1-in. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. and one from battery. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. one from bell. by 12 in. spark. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. round so that the inside . shows how the connections are made. which allows wiring at the back. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. flange turned on one side. forms the other pole or terminal. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. long to key. the letters indicate as follows: A.securely with bands of paper or tape. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. B. G. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. to the door. D. open switch C. ready for assembling. battery . lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. switch. lines H. long and 12 in. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter.) The wiring diagram. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. shelf for clock. whole length. and the other sheet. which is insulated from the first. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. Fig. B.

from the bottom. instead of close to it. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. Short-circuit for three hours. That is what they are for. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. This is for blowing. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. but add 5 or 6 oz. The circuit should also have a high resistance. Line the furnace. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. says the Model Engineer. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. 2 in. If desired for use immediately. and the battery is ready for use. Use a glass or metal shade. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. and then rivet the seam. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. but with the circuit. London. of zinc sulphate. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. . The usual trouble is not with the battery itself..diameter is 7 in. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. do not shortcircuit. of blue stone. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage.

In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. the second finger along the side. If any or your audience presume to dispute. below the bottom of the zinc. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right.. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. long. affects . and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. To operate the trick. imparting to them a violet tinge. while for others it will not revolve at all. herein I describe a much better trick. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. or think they can do the same let them try it. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. square and about 9 in. porcelain and paper. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. 1. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. oxygen to ozone. changes white phosphorus to yellow.9 of a volt. At least it is amusing. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. g. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. and then. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. If too low. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. This type of battery will give about 0. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. Try it and see. but the thing would not move at all. grip the stick firmly in one hand. 2." which created much merriment. for some it will turn one way. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. for others the opposite way. as in the other movement. Ohio. Outside of the scientific side involved. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. thus producing two different vibrations. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Enlarge the hole slightly. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. and therein is the trick. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood.

On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. a short-focus lens. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. To the front board is attached a box. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. chemicals. says the Photographic Times. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. and one of them is photomicrography. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. but this is less satisfactory. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. earth. insects. but small flowers. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. an old tripod screw. and. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. but not essential. a means for holding it vertical. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. if possible. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. however. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus.

11 ft. AB. and a line. Fig.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 7 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. or 3 ft. A line. 381 24 lb. in diameter. 6 ft. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. If the balloon is 10 ft. 5 in. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 12 ft. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. 1. 113 7 lb. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. while it is not so with the quill. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. balloon. in Cu. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 5 ft. 7-1/2 in. 8 ft. The following table will give the size. 9 ft. 268 17 lb. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 65 4 lb. Madison. CD. Ft Lifting Power. 179 11 lb. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. long and 3 ft. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 905 57 lb. Mass. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 7-1/2 in. Cap. 697 44 lb. Divide one-quarter of the circle . as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. Boston. or 31 ft. which is 15 ft.--Contributed by George C. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. wide from which to cut a pattern.

The cloth segments are sewed together. on the curved line from B to C. Repeat this operation four times. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. 4. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. keeping the marked part on the outside. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. 3. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. using a fine needle and No. The amounts necessary for a 10- . until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. of beeswax and boil well together. cutting all four quarters at the same time. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. 70 thread. of the very best heavy body. 2. and so on. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. Procure 1 gal. making a double seam as shown in Fig. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. The pattern is now cut. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. This test will show if the bag is airtight. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas.

150 gr. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. with 3/4in. B. B. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. C. 5 . Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. oil the spindle holes carefully. After washing a part. should not enter into the water over 8 in. by fixing. of iron borings and 125 lb. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. In the barrel. of water will make 4 cu. B. . wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. or a fan. . this should be repeated frequently.ft. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. if it is good it will dry off. using a fine brush. a clean white rag. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. pipe. balloon are 125 lb..Green Iron ammonium citrate . Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. 5. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. or dusting with a dry brush. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. A. Water 1 oz. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. About 15 lb. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. The 3/4-in. but if any grease remains on the hand. with water 2 in. until no more dirt is seen. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. above the level of the water in barrel A. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. ]. as shown in Fig. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. 1 lb. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. leaving the hand quite clean. C. All FIG. of gas in one hour. of sulphuric acid. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. Fill the other barrel. When the clock has dried. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. The outlet. ft. to the bag. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. of iron. A.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. it is not fit to use. with the iron borings. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. which may sound rather absurd. capacity and connect them. 1 lb. Vegetable oils should never be used. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. A.

This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. and a vigorous negative must be used. The negative pole.000 ft. and keep in the dark until used. 20 to 30 minutes. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. A cold. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. or carbon. or battery. at the time of employment. A longer exposure will be necessary. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. fix in hypo. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. keeping the fingers out of the solution.. says the Moving Picture World. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band.Water 1 oz. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. of any make. This aerial collector can be made in . dry atmosphere will give best results. The positive pole. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. Exposure. The miniature 16 cp. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. . Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. Dry the plates in the dark. to avoid blackened skin. Port Melbourne. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. toning first if desired. Dry in the dark. Printing is done in the sun. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. or zinc. . A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp.

of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. long. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. As the telephone offers a high resistance. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. lead pipe. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. If the wave ceases. when left exposed to the air. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. will soon become dry and useless. the resistance is less. and have the other connected with another aerial line. lay a needle. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. The storage cell. in diameter. holes . a positive and a negative.various ways. If the waves strike across the needle. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. making a ground with one wire. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. both positive and negative. and as less current will flow the short way. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. 5 in. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. forming a cup of the pipe. as described below. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. This will complete the receiving station.

The other plate is connected to the zinc. or tube C. except for about 1 in. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. says the Pathfinder. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. This. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. D. an oblong one and a triangular one. Two binding-posts should be attached. on each end.as possible. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. a round one. When mixing the acid and water. B. This support or block. or tube B. This box can be square. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. by soldering the joint. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. does not need to be watertight. one to the positive. and the other to the negative. of course. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. namely: a square hole. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell.

is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. about 20 in. 1. deep and 4 ft. back and under. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. thick cut two pieces alike. 3. C. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. and has plenty of good seating capacity. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. wide. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. as shown in Fig. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. Only galvanized nails should be used. leaving about 1/16 in. as it is not readily overturned. 1. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. Ill. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. is built 15 ft. were fitted by this one plug. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. all around the edge. as shown in Fig. The third piece of brass. wide. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. This punt. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. 2. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. C. long. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. . One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. 2. A and B. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. in place on the wood. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. and match them together. Chicago.

-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. square (Fig 2). thick and 3-1/2 in. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. B. Wash. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . gas pipe. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. A. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. In Fig. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Tacoma. is cut 1 in. A piece of 1/4-in.

In designing. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. if possible. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. says the Model Engineer.--Contributed by Charles H. or "rotor. no special materials could be obtained. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. H. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. with the exception of insulated wire. which the writer has made. may be of interest to some of our readers. it had to be borne in mind that. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. lamp." has no connection with the outside circuit. no more current than a 16-cp. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. The winding of the armature. which can be developed in the usual manner. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. without auxiliary phase. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. Wagner. and to consume. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning.

4. wrought iron. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. holes. to be filed out after they are placed together. being used. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. no steel being obtainable. A. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. B. while the beginnings . After assembling a second time. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. also varnished before they were put in. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. C. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. 2. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. 5. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. They are not particularly accurate as it is. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. as shown in Fig. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. 1. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. thick. this little machine is not self-starting. Unfortunately. Holes 5-32 in. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. bolts put in and tightened up. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. about 2-1/2 lb. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. with the dotted line. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. as shown in Fig. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. and all sparking is avoided. 3. and filled with rivets. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. in diameter were drilled in the corners. or "stator. were then drilled and 1/4-in.the field-magnet. The stator is wound full with No.

which will make it appear as shown in Fig. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. it would be very simple to build. if applied immediately. and all wound in the same direction. E. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. film to film. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. Newark. Jr. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. If too late for alcohol to be of use. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. 3-Contributed by C. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. N. This type of motor has drawbacks. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. a regulating resistance is not needed. 1. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. J. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. as before stated. and the other by reduction in the camera. as shown in Fig. and would not easily get out of order. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. having no commutator or brushes. and especially of colored ones. 2. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. The image should . How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways.. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. One is by contact. as a means of illustrating songs. and as each layer of wire was wound. and as the motor runs at constant speed. The rotor is wound with No. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. No starting resistance is needed. The lantern slide is a glass plate. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. In making slides by contact. McKinney. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open.

place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. the formulas being found in each package of plates. a little extra work will be necessary. except that the binding is different. they are much used by travelers. If the exposure has been correct. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. Select a room with one window. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. 2. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors.appear in. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. Being unbreakable. 3. as shown in Fig. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. 5. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. over the mat. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. 4. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . B. also. Fig. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. It is best. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. C. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. if possible. and development should be over in three or four minutes. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. about a minute. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. D. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. These can be purchased from any photo material store. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. as shown in Fig. and then a plain glass. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. 1. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. A. to use a plain fixing bath. Draw lines with a pencil.

The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. A piece of canvas. holes bored in the end pieces. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. wide and 50 in. long. in diameter and 40 in. while the dot will be in front of the other. Corinth. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. Fig. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. from the end piece of the chair. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. is to be used for the seat. Fig. known as rods and cones. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. These longer pieces can be made square. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. 1. Vt. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. from the ends. long. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. long. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. If the star is in front of the left eye. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . and two pieces 1-1/4 in. in diameter and 20 in. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. as shown at B. from the center of this dot draw a star. as shown in Fig. 2. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. 16 in. 1. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. Hastings. as shown at A.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. or other stout cloth. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes.

They will be found to be exactly the same distance. as shown in Fig. Cal. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. A belt. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. as shown in Fig. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. .The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. A disk 1 in. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. O'Gara. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. J. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. A pitman was attached to the large pulley.-Contributed by P. in thickness and 10 in. 2. 1. Auburn. as well as to operate other household machines. per square inch. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. made from an ordinary sash cord.

to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. wide. direction. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. thick and 2-1/2 in. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. Cut out a piece from the block combination. or inconvenient to measure. square for a support. The part of a rotation of the bolt. 3/4 in. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. screwing it through the nut. with as fine a thread as possible. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. Bore a 1/4-in. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. then removing the object. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. long. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. A simple. divided by the number of threads to the inch. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. says the Scientific American. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. to the top of the bench. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. and the construction is complete. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. will be the thickness of the object. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. leaving it shaped like a bench. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. fairly accurate. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. . it serves a very useful purpose. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. Put the bolt in the hole.

A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. globe that has been thrown away as useless. which show up fine at night. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. piece of wood 12 ft. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. bolt in each hole. Place a 3/4-in. long is used for the center pole. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. long. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. beyond the end of the wood. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. The wheel should be open . Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Bore a 3/4-in. material 12 ft. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Santa Maria. Oal. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform.

bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. thick. L. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. from the ends. long. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. H and J. thick. wide and 1/8 in. which should be 1/4 in. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. C. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. at the bottom. thick is used for the armature. pieces used for the spokes. and the lower part 61/2 in. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. long. B. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. A. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in.-Contributed by A. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. 1/2 in. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. of the ends with boards. Graham. Fort Worth. at the top and 4 in. from the top end. and on its lower end a socket. The spool . long with the upper or wider part 4 in. long. is soldered. square and 3 or 4 in. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. wide and 1/8 in. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. long. The boards may be nailed or bolted. The coil. O. P. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. A cross bar. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft.Side and Top View or have spokes. in diameter. A piece of brass 2 in. C. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. to be operated by the magnet coil. Tex. made of the same material.

is drilled. or a water rheostat heretofore described. 2. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. B.is about 2-1/2 in. Mass. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. that holds the lower carbon. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. The armature. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. A soft piece of iron.E. one without either rubber or metal end. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. and directly centering the holes H and J. A. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. which may be had by using German silver wire. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. At the bottom end of the frame. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. Randolph. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. do it without any apparent effort. S. 2 the hat hanging on it. When you slide the pencil along the casing. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. --Contributed by Arthur D. R. D and E. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. This tie can be used on grain sacks. . which is also connected to the brass ferrule. and place it against a door or window casing.J. and it will stay as if glued to the casing.000 for irrigation work. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. and in numerous other like instances. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. F. This is a very neat trick if performed right. S. 1. Bradlev. by soldering. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame.--A. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. long. C. for insulating the brass ferrule.000. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. then with a firm.

C. for adjustment. about 3/16 in. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. Experiment with Heat [134] . about 1 in. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. Fig. S. in diameter and 1/16 in. is connected to a flash lamp battery. for the secondary. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. D. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. thick. with a 3/16-in. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. for the primary. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. B. About 70 turns of No. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. The core of the coil. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. wide. F. The vibrator. may be made from a 3/8-in. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. about 1/8 in. 1. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. mixed with water to form a paste. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. and then 1. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. Fig. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. in diameter. A. in diameter. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. The coil ends are made from cardboard. from the core and directly opposite. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. leaving the projections as shown. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. The vibrator B. is constructed in the usual manner. 1. long. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. S. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. The switch. in diameter and 2 in.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil.500 turns of No. 2. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. long and 1 in. hole in the center.

The tin is 4 in. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. thick on the inside. brass plate. between the boards. board. The knob on the dial extends out too far. The hasp. as shown in the sketch. .Place a small piece of paper. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. which seemed to be insufficient. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. it laps down about 8 in. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. which is only 3/8-in. as shown. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. 1. long and when placed over the board. 1. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. 2 to fit the two holes. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. with which to operate the dial. in an ordinary water glass. was to be secured by only three brass screws. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. lighted. 16 in. which is cut with two holes. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. The three screws were then put in the hasp. The lock. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. and then well clinched. Fig. wide. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. and the same distance inside of the new board.

one in each division. black color. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. but when the front part is illuminated. When the rear part is illuminated. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. square and 10-1/2 in. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. the glass. If the box is made large enough. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. not shiny. any article placed therein will be reflected in. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. and the back left dark. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. high for use in window displays. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. or in the larger size mentioned. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . When making of wood. which completely divides the box into two parts. square and 8-1/2 in. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. clear glass as shown.

place the goods in one part and the price in the other. . or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. as shown in the sketch. as it appears. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. a tank 2 ft. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. as shown at A in the sketch. When there is no electric current available. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. long and 1 ft. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in.. above the top of the tank. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. When using as a window display. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. into the other.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. and with the proper illumination one is changed. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. alternately. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. wide will be about the right size.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

Shape the under sides first. and 6 ft. each. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. or ferrous sulphate. thick and 3 in. hole. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. If a planing mill is near. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. using a 3/4-in. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. and a solution of iron sulphate added. is the green vitriol. 6 in. 2 ft. The pieces can then be taken out. This precipitate is then washed. A small platform. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. and a door in front. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. is built on the front. however. from the ground. gauge for depth. dried and mixed with linseed oil. long. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. bore from each end. 1 in. but with a length of 12 in. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. then use a red-hot iron to finish. wide. 5 ft. high. Three windows are provided. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. square. wide. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. under sides together. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. one for each side. and boring two holes with a 1-in. radius. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. This hole must be continued . Iron sulphate. square and 40 in. Columbus. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. lines gauged on each side of each. bit. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. two pieces 1-1/8 in. as shown. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. with a length of 13 in. long. O. The 13-in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. hole bored the full length through the center. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap.

If the parts are to be riveted. if shade is purchased. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. A better way. When this is dry. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. three or four may be attached as shown.through the pieces forming the base. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. thick and 3 in. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. apply two coats of wax. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. Electric globes--two. Saw the two blocks apart. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. hole in each block. Directions will be found on the filler cans. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. The sketch shows one method of attaching. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. For art-glass the metal panels are . square and drawing a diagonal on each. When the filler has hardened. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect.

such as copper. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. METAL SHADE .The Completed Lamp cut out. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. as brass. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.Construction of Shade .

Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. The arms holding the glass. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. the object and the background. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. Figure 1 shows the side. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. and Fig. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. 2 the front view of this stand. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. as in ordinary devices. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. as shown in the sketch. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. one way and 1/2 in. the other. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera.

The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. and swinging freely. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. If the light becomes dim. Before mounting the ring on the base. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. and an inside diameter of 9 in. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Put the ring in place on the base. as it is very poisonous. in diameter. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. wide and 11 in. thus forming a 1/4-in. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. channel in the circumference of the ring. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. in diameter for a base. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. outside diameter. as shown in the sketch. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. uncork and recork again. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. as shown in the cut. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . pointing north and south. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. thick 5/8-in. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. Cut another circular piece 11 in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. An ordinary pocket compass. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. long. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. wide and 6-5/16 in. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. about 1-1/4 in.

An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. and mirrors. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. 1 oz. from the second to the third.600 . The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. into these cylinders.289 . Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz.088 . and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. CC. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. in diameter and 8 in. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. AA. of the top. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. are mounted on a base. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. The results given should be multiplied by 1. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.182 . are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. and north of the Ohio river. EE. Corresponding mirrors. Place on top the so- .715 .500 . above the half can. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. black oxide of copper. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. B. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere.865 1.420 . For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country.

and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. slender bottle. 62 gr. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. 31 gr. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. which otherwise remains clear. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. Colo. University Park. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. then they will not rust fast. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. the wheel will revolve in one direction. When renewing. says Metal Worker. of pulverized campor.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. always remove the oil with a siphon. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. Put the solution in a long. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . little crystals forming in the liquid. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. alcohol. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. In Fig. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows.

Attach to the wires. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. If zinc and copper are used. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. about 1-1/4 in. If zinc and carbon are used. A paper-fastener box. If two of them are floating on the same solution.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. on the under side of the cork. floating on a solution. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. Solder in the side of the box . A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. will allow the magnet to point north and south. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. Lloyd Enos. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. --Contributed by C. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. This is used in place of the spoon.

Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. E. Thos. C. thick. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. piece of 1/4-in. glass tubing . The base. . E. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. Use a board 1/2. H. of No. A. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. The spring should be about 1 in. Put ends. 10 wire about 10 in. D. stained and varnished. If the hose is not a tight fit. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. The bottom of the box.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch.in.in. to it. 3 in. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. 1-1/4 in. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. long. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. D. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. 14 wire will do. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight.not shorter than 18 in. and then solder on the cover. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine.1-in. The standard. To this standard solder the supporting wire. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. A circular piece of cardboard. G--No. or made with a little black paint. is made from a piece of No. wide and 6 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. A. Bore holes for binding-posts. C. 1. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. long. as shown in Fig. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. F.Contributed by J. C. D. Take a small piece of soft iron. B. can be made of oak. 1/2. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. brass tubing. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. hole. Wind evenly about 2 oz. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. and on the other around the glass tube. B. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. long that has about 1/4-in. of wire on each end extending from the coil. away. Rhamstine. one on each side of the board.

Milwaukee. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. D.--Contributed by R. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. .The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. is drawn nearer to the coil. long. J. Smith. long. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. long. 2. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft.--Contributed by Edward M. canvas. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. of No. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. Teasdale. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. about 1 in. 5. The iron plunger. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. 3-in. About 1-1/2 lb. making a support as shown in Fig. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. N. of mercury will be sufficient. four hinges. two pieces 2 ft. long. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. E. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. Y.of the coil. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. 1. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. Cuba. 3 in. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. When the glass becomes soft. Wis. as shown in Fig. in diameter. 3. long are used for the legs. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. from the right hand. of 8-oz. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place.

from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. thus leaving a. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. Take 1/2 in. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . 6. This tube as described will be 8 in. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. The tube now must be filled completely. 4. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. Keys. --Contributed by David A. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. small aperture in the long tube. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. expelling all the air. long. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. Measure 8 in. Break off the piece of glass. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. 3. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. holding in the left hand. leaving 8 in. Toronto. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level.. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. of vacuum at the top. Fig. 2. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Can.. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. 5.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in.

wood screws. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. long. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. 7. from the end of same. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. long. cut in the shape shown in Fig. and 1/4 in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. The large pulley is about 14 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. wide and 5 ft. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . 4.6 -. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. joint be accurately put together. thick. A crosspiece 3/4-in. wide and 3 in. 3 in. 1 in. thick.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. in diameter. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. These are bent and nailed. wide and 5 ft. 1. thick. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. as shown in Fig. 3. 5. 4 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. and the single projection 3/4 in. 2. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. wide and 12 in. as in Fig. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. FIG. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. as shown in Fig. 3 in. 9 in. Fig. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. 6. long. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. Four blocks 1/4 in. with each projection 3-in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. material 2 in. but yellow pine is the best. thick. 1 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. thick. long. This forms a slot. wide and 5 ft.

first removing the crank. by 1-in. Welsh. R. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Manhattan. Water 1 oz. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. . The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. says Photography. above the runner level. --Contributed by C. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Kan. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. attach runners and use it on the ice. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel.

then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. Treasdale. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. The print is washed. --Contributed by Wallace C. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. also. of water. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. as shown in Fig. from an ordinary clamp skate. 1 oz. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. 3. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. --Contributed by Edward M. . Mass. 1. 2. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. Newton. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. as shown in Fig. Printing is carried rather far. and very much cheaper. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. This is done with a camel's hair brush. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Leominster. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper.

How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. Then. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. too. The swing door B. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. extending the width of the box. Fig. wide. Church. A. which represents the back side of the door. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. Alexandria. 1. causing the door to swing back and up. Fig. The thread is broken off at the . say. F. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. with about 1/8-in. as shown in the sketch. 1. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. Place a 10-in. 2. hole. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. high for rabbits. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. from one end. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. and 3 ft. high. --Contributed by H. Va. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. long. and bend them as shown in the sketch. and to the bottom. fasten a 2-in. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. about 10 in. 1-1/2 ft. wide and 4 in. Take two glass tubes. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. 1 ft. square piece. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork.

and go in the holder in the same way. inside of the opening. shorter. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people.by 7-in. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. Out two rectangular holes. black surfaced if possible. and exactly 5 by 7 in. long. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. Take two pieces of pasteboard. say 8 in. . Chicago. wide and 5 in. to be used as a driving pulley. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. A and B. D. from the edge on each side of these openings. says Camera Craft. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. C. Jr. being 1/8 in. making the appearance of the ordinary stage.proper place to make a small hole. horses and dogs. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders.. 1 in. 3. plates. 1. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. This opening. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. Fig. Crilly. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. -Contributed by William M. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. camera and wish to use some 4. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. long. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. Paste a piece of strong black paper. 2. wide.by 5-in. wide. Fig. shorter at each end. trolley cars. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. automobiles. Cut an opening in the other piece. as shown in Fig. high and 12 in. 10 in. in size. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. in size. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. B. but cut it 1/4 in.

A cell of this kind can easily be made. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. into which the dog is harnessed. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent.." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. making a . This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. The needle will then point north and south. long and 6 in. in diameter. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. if it has previously been magnetized. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear.in. wide will be required. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile.

File the rods to remove the copper plate. zinc oxide. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. This makes the wire smooth. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. in which P is the pan. 1 lb. and a notch between the base and the pan. B is a base of 1 in. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. with narrow flanges. beeswax melted together.in. only the joints. F is a spool. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. for a connection. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. of the plate at one end. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. Form a 1/2-in. in diameter and 6 in. A is a block of l-in. one that will hold about 1 qt. sal ammoniac. . making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. under the spool in the paraffin. Do not paint any surface. says Electrician and Mechanic. fuel and packing purposes. of rosin and 2 oz. when the paraffin is melted. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. pine. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. of water. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. pull out the wire as needed. long which are copper plated. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. 3/4 lb. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. plaster of paris. leaving about 1/2-in.watertight receptacle. short time. of the top. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. 1/4 lb. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. filter. fodder. Pack the paste in. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. Place the pan on the stove. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated.

from vexation. Make a hole through the center of this one arm." which created much merriment. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. 2. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick.. and he finally. for some it will turn one way. Ohio. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. as in the other movement. g. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. but the thing would not move at all. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. square and about 9 in. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. let them try it. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. long. grip the stick firmly in one hand. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Enlarge the hole slightly. Try it and see. while for others it will not revolve at all. At least it is amusing. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. and then. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. thus producing two different vibrations. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Toledo. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. and therein is the trick. or think they can do the same. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. and one friend tells me that they were . If any of your audience presume to dispute. for others the opposite way. by the Hindoos in India. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement.

so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand.100 r.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. p. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. 3. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. To operate. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. secondly. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. by means of a center punch. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. rotation was obtained. and. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. and I think the results may be of interest. 6. m. no rotation resulted. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. the rotation may be obtained. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. gave the best results. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. 7. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. Thus a circular or . The experiments were as follows: 1. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. If the pressure was upon an edge. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. Speeds between 700 and 1. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. A square stick with notches on edge is best. 4. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. 5. 2. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion.

Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. Sloan. A. and the height of the fall about 6 in. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. --Contributed by G. C. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. as shown. Duluth. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. so far as can be seen from the photographs. Lloyd. Ph. forming a handle for carrying. --Contributed by M. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. D. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. it will be clockwise. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). if the pressure is from the left. is driven violently away. or greasy. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. . A wire is tied around the can. G. and not to friction of the pin in the hole.. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. and the resultant "basket splash. Minn..elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops.D. a piece of wire and a candle. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. Washington. the upper portion is. unwetted by the liquid. at first.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

Each wheel is 1/4 in. 1. in diameter. axle. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. about 2-5/8 in." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. as shown in Fig. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. long. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. flange and a 1/4-in. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. with a 1/16-in.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. thick and 1 in. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. hole drilled in the center. as shown. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal.

The other two pieces are 1/2-in. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. as shown in Fig. A trolley. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. is made from brass. wood. bottom side up. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. as shown in Fig. bent as shown. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. are shown in Fig. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. If the ends are to be soldered. long. Texas. 5. holes 1 in.50. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. is made from a piece of clock spring. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. 1 from 1/4-in. of No. These ends are fastened together. wide and 16 in. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. each in its proper place. and the locomotive is ready for running. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. 4. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. 2. Fuller. --Contributed by Maurice E. The first piece. Fig. 3. 3. San Antonio.brass. which must be 110 volt alternating current. or main part of the frame. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. 6. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. This will save buying a track. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. with cardboard 3 in. put together complete. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . lamp in series with the coil. Fig. The motor is now bolted. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. 3/4 in. 2. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. The current. The parts. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig.

When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Fig. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. O. and as this end . This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. 1. 3. then continue to tighten much more. Fig 1. When cold treat the other end in the same way. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. as shown in Fig. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. the length of a paper clip. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. and holes drilled in them. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Cincinnati. The quarter will not go all the way down. 2. but do not heat the center. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened.

The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. In the sketch. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. When the trick is to be performed. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. When the cutter A. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. and adjusted . All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. has finished a cut for a tooth. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. or apparent security of the knot. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. 2 and 1 respectively.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. A pair of centers are fitted. or should the lathe head be raised. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form.

spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. 2. note book. draw center lines across the required space. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). about 1-1/2 in. lady's belt bag. N.to run true. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. (5. --Contributed by Samuel C. Fold over along these center lines. (3. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. Make free-hand one quarter of the design.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. An ordinary machine will do. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. above the surface. (4. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . and a nut pick. When connecting to batteries. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. blotter back. 1. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. (1. In this manner gears 3 in. The frame holding the mandrel. --Contributed by Howard S. tea cosey. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. at the same time striking light. or one-half of the design. lady's card case. dividing it into as many parts as desired. coin purse. if four parts are to be alike. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. long. swing lathe. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. watch fob ready for fastenings. trace the outline. Fig. holding it in place with the left hand. Bunker. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. tea cosey. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. (6. gentleman's card case or bill book. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. twisted around itself and soldered. book mark. Y. such as brass or marble.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. Brooklyn. if but two parts. Bott. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. (2. Second row: -Two book marks.) Make on paper the design wanted. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster.) Place the paper design on the leather and.

Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. some heavy rubber hose. and an ordinary bottle.

and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. into which fit a small piece of tube. Thrust a pin. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. a distance of 900 miles. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. D. Florida.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. and push it through a cork. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches.C. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. where it condenses. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. from Key West. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. A.. The electrodes are made . The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. and bore a hole through the center. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. B. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. If the needle is not horizontal. C.

wide and 4 ft. D. If 20-ft. long. 16 piano wire. Powell. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The operator can then land safely and . lengths and splice them. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. 1. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. Washington. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. 2 arm sticks 1 in. 1/2. square and 8 ft long. 2. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. 2 in. C. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. by 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. 1-1/2 in. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. long. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. wide and 3 ft. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. free from knots. wide and 20 ft. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. using a high resistance receiver. which is tacked to the front edge. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. 1. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. apart and extend 1 ft. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. 12 uprights 1/2 in. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. thick. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. long. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. long. 3/4 in. All wiring is done with No. take the glider to the top of a hill. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. To make a glide. wide and 4 ft. 1-1/4 in. slacken speed and settle. thick. long. 2. several strips 1/2 in. thick. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. Four long beams 3/4 in. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. use 10-ft. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. wide and 4 ft long. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. wide and 3 ft. as shown in Fig. thick. long for the body of the operator. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. lumber cannot be procured. Connect as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Edwin L. as shown in Fig. or flying-machine. thick. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. and also to keep it steady in its flight. 1. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam.in. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. both laterally and longitudinally. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. 3. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs.

gently on his feet. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. Glides are always made against the wind. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. but this must be found by experience. Great care should be . gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Of course. and the balancing is done by moving the legs.

Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . a creature of Greek mythology. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. as shown in Fig. 2. M. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. 1. which causes the dip in the line. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. half man and half horse. When heated a little. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes.exercised in making landings. Bellingham. --Contributed by L. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Olson.

Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. outside the box. 14 in. about the size of stove pipe wire. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. of small rubber tubing. long and about 3/8 in. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. long. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. about the size of door screen wire. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. a piece of brass or steel wire. at the other. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. in diameter. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. this will cost about 15 cents. making it 2-1/2 in. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. square. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. will complete the material list. The light from the . Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in.

The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. 2.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. Dayton. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. If done properly the card will flyaway. 1. O. M. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. --Photo by M.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. as shown in the sketch. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. while others will fail time after time. . Hunting. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. This is very simple when you know how.

one between the thumb and finger of each hand. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. as described. as before. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. This game is played by five persons. place the other two. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. When the desired shape has been obtained. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. hold the lump over the flame. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. closing both hands quickly. then put it on the hatpin head. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop." or the Chinese students' favorite game. as shown. If a certain color is to be more prominent. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. Cool in water and dry.

square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. these sectors. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. distribute electric charges . How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. passing through neutralizing brushes. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. or more in width.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator.

are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. and pins inserted and soldered. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. 1 in. Two solid glass rods. The drive wheels. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. The plates are trued up. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. in diameter and 15 in. to which insulating handles . the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. long and the standards 3 in. and of a uniform thickness. 4. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. EE. and this should be done before cutting the circle. turned wood pieces. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. in diameter. C C. 2. The collectors are made. from about 1/4-in. as shown in Fig. wide. Two pieces of 1-in. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. material 7 in. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. are made from solid. Fig. in diameter. are made from 7/8-in. in diameter. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. Fig. 3. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. long. in diameter. free from wrinkles. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. 3. after they are mounted. 1. and 4 in. or teeth. long and the shank 4 in. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. RR. long. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. GG. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. These pins. brass tubing and the discharging rods. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. 1-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. The plates. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. at the other. the side pieces being 24 in. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. wide at one end. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. The fork part is 6 in. in diameter. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. in diameter. The two pieces. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. 3/4 in. and the outer end 11/2 in. D.

. 12 ft. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. Colo. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. one having a 2-in. D. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. wide and 22 ft. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. KK. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. Lloyd Enos. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. in diameter. and the work was done by themselves. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. long. Colorado City. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes.are attached. which are bent as shown. --Contributed by C. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. ball and the other one 3/4 in.

How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. string together. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. yet such a thing can be done. deep. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. bit. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. using a 1-in. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. as at A. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. The key will drop from the string. They can be used to keep pins and needles. pens .is a good one. and bore a hole 1/2 in.

the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. 4. 3. Draw one-half the design free hand. 6. slim screw. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. This is to make a clean. or cigar ashes. etc. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. inside the second on all.. unless it would be the metal shears. file. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. and the third one 1/4 in. extra metal on each of the four sides. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. inside the first on all. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. 2.and pencils. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. They are easily made. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. 8. 5. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. Having determined the size of the tray. Raise the ends. using a nail filed to chisel edge.. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. two spikes. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. very rapid progress can be made. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. above the metal. Inside this oblong. 23 gauge. 9. Proceed as follows: 1. Use . When the stamping is completed. sharp division between background and design. they make attractive little pieces to have about. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. flat and round-nosed pliers. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. then the other side. etc. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. stamp the background promiscuously. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. also trace the decorative design. 7. The second oblong was 3/4 in. about 3/4-in.

Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. 6. 10. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. The eyes. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are .the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. 7. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. second fingers. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. 9. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. and fourth fingers. first fingers. 8. third fingers. and the effect will be most pleasing. In the first numbering.

and 20 plus 16 equals 36. etc. etc. 12. or the product of 8 times 9.. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. there are no fingers above. Two times one are two. . and the six lower fingers as six tens. 400. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. renumber your fingers.. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. thumbs. or numbers above 10. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. Still. the product of 12 times 12. above 15 times 15 it is 200. if we wish. above 20 times 20. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. as high as you want to go. or 60. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. which would be 70. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. first fingers. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. or the product of 6 times 6. In the second numbering. Let us multiply 12 by 12. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. etc. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. or 80. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. 600. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. 25 times 25. viz. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. Put your thumbs together.. which tens are added. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. At a glance you see four tens or 40. which would be 16. 11. but being simple it saves time and trouble. 2 times 2 equals 4.

the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. the lump sum to add. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. lastly. when he removes his spectacles. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. Proceed as in the second lumbering. any two figures between 45 and 55. The inversion and reversion did not take place. or what. the value which the upper fingers have. first finger 17. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. Take For example 18 times 18. It takes place also. and so on. 3. or from above or from below. twenties. the inversion takes place against his will. as one might suppose. thumbs. about a vertical axis. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. And the lump sum to add. and. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. the revolution seems to reverse. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. 8.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. 2. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. 21. the value of the upper fingers being 20. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. however. first fingers 22. whether the one described in second or third numbering. not rotation. further. thirties. For example. 7.. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. . whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. forties. etc. For figures ending in 6. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. 75 and 85. in the case of a nearsighted person. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. at the will of the observer. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. adding 400 instead of 100. being 80). beginning the thumbs with 16. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. which is the half-way point between the two fives.

The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. as . It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. sometimes the point towards him. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. when he knows which direction is right. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. the other appearance asserts itself. A flat slide valve was used. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. and putting a cork on the point. Looking at it in semidarkness. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. tee. The ports were not easy to make. The cylinder consists of a 3-in.

and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. -Contributed by W.. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. bottom side up. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. across and 1/2 in. inexpensive. Next take a block of wood. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. The tools are simple and can be made easily. Fasten the block solidly. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. it is easily built.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. Beating copper tends to harden it and. If nothing better is at hand. as in a vise. across the head. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. if continued too long without proper treatment. secure a piece of No. pipe 10 in. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. deep. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. The eccentric is constructed of washers. saw off a section of a broom handle. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. H. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. such as is shown in the illustration. While this engine does not give much power. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. pipe. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. and make in one end a hollow. Ill. apart. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. in diameter. Kutscher. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. . about 2 in. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. Springfield. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. The steam chest is round.

--Contributed by W. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . To produce color effects on copper. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. and. To overcome this hardness.will cause the metal to break. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. the other to the left. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. Vinegar. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. O. C. This process is called annealing. as it softens the metal. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. especially when the object is near to the observer. S. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. Camden. Hay. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture.

while both eyes together see a white background. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. So with the stereograph. although they pass through the screen. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. that for the right. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. It is just as though they were not there. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. because. as for instance red and green. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. In order to make them appear before the card. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. But they seem black. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. . Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. disappears fully. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. the further from the card will the composite image appear. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. The further apart the pictures are. in the proper choice of colors.stereoscope. would serve the same purpose. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. because of the rays coming from them. however. and without any picture. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. the left eye sees through a blue screen. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. only the orange rays may pass through. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. they must be a very trifle apart. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. and lies to the right on the picture. from the stereograph. it. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. the one for the left eye being blue. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. The red portions of the picture are not seen. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. with the stereograph. orange. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. diameter. not two mounted side by side. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil.

14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. The weight of the air in round . A No. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. thick. or the middle of the bottle. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. long and a hole drilled in each end. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. Place a NO. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. 12 gauge wire. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. in the shape of a crank. Cal. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. etc. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. This should only be bored about half way through the block. in diameter. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. wireless. wide and 1 in. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. San Francisco. 1/4 in. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly.

long. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. But if a standard barometer is not available. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. or a column of mercury (density 13. long.6) 1 in. high. Before fastening the scale. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. the instrument. Only redistilled mercury should be used. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. the contrary. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. square. . After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. but before attempting to put in the mercury. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. if accurately constructed. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. internal diameter and about 34 in. 30 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. In general. or. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. 34 ft. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. long. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed.. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. high. a bottle 1 in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. wide and 4 in. The 4 in. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. thick. and a slow fall. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. a glass tube 1/8 in. wide and 40 in. high.numbers is 15 lb. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. will calibrate itself. pine 3 in. square. if you choose. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. inside diameter and 2 in.

the size of the outside of the bottle. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. and place them as shown in Fig. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. Procure a metal can cover.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. Number the pieces 1. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. 5. wide and 10 in. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. thick. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. 1. 6 and 7. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. Mark out seven 1-in. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. 3. a cover from a baking powder can will do. long. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . 2. which is slipped quickly over the end.

Move 3-Move No. Move 9-Jump No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. in diameter. Move 12-Jump No. To make such a tent. as shown in Fig. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. Move 13-Move No. 5 over No. 2 over No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Move 5-Jump No. 3. 6 over No. 1. L. Move 15-Move No. procure unbleached tent duck.Position of the Men move only one at a time. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 7 over No. Move 2-Jump No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. l over No. long and 2 ft. This can be done on a checker board. 6 in. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 2's place. N. 2 . 2. 3 into No. Move 8-Jump No. Move 14-Jump No. 6.J. 5's place. 2's place. 3 to the center. 6 into No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 1. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Woolson. 2 over No. Move 10-Move No. 6 to No. Move 6-Move No. Move 4-Jump No. each 10 ft. 5's place. shaped like Fig. 2. 3. 1 to No. Cape May Point. Move 7-Jump No. 3 over No. 6. 5. which is the very best material for the purpose. Move ll-Jump No. using checkers for men. 5 over No. 7's place. 7 over No. Make 22 sections. 7. 3. 1 into No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No.-Contributed by W.

Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. 6-in. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. --Contributed by G. about 9 in. 5. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Fig. 3 in. 2 in. added. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. fill with canvas edging. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. as in Fig. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. Fig. high. Use blocks. As shown in the sketch. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. These are ventilators. in diameter. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. 9 by 12 in. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. long. wide at the bottom. to a smooth board of soft wood. 6. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Tress. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. will do. In raising the tent. 5) stuck in the ground. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. round galvanized iron. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Have the tent pole 3 in. leaving the rest for an opening. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. Emsworth. wide at the bottom. wide by 12 in. long and 4 in. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. diameter. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. 2. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. made in two sections. Nail a thin sheet of brass. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent.J. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. from the top.. Pa.in. After transferring the design to the brass. Punch holes in the brass in . Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in.

I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. apart. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. around the outside of the pattern. When the edges are brought together by bending. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. When all the holes are punched. Chicago. cut out the brass on the outside lines. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. . The pattern is traced as before. bend into shape. but before punching the holes. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. excepting the 1/4-in.the spaces around the outlined figures. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. Corr. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. It will not.

the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. Oregon. --Contributed by H. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. or less. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. G. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. These pipes are . grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. Mayger. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. between which is placed the fruit jar. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. pipe is used for the hub. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. Dunham. Que.. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. If a wheel is selected. Badger.however. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. A 6-in. Stevens. or center on which the frame swings. or. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. A cast-iron ring. better still. --Contributed by Geo. allowing 2 ft. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. partially filled with cream. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. E. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. pipe.

A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe. pipe clamps. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. An extra wheel 18 in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. bent to the desired circle.

The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. 3. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. and dropped on the table. while doing this. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. which was placed in an upright position. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. as shown in Fig. The performer. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. 1. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. and the guide withdrawn.

Harkins. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Louis. --Contributed by H. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. in diameter on another piece of tin. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. first. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. 2.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. it requires no expensive condensing lens. and second. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Colo. 1. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. F. in a half circle. White. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. Denver. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. -Contributed by C. The box can be made of selected oak or . The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. St. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. D. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. Mo. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in.

Two or three holes about 1 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. as shown in Fig. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. If a camera lens is used. from each end. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. This will be 3/4 in. 3-1/2 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. long and should be placed vertically.mahogany. 5-1/2 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. An open space 4 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. The door covering this hole in the back. high and must . Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. AA. high and 11 in. 1. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. wide by 5 in. long. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. but not tight. 2. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. and. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. and 2 in. wide and 5 in. fit into the runners. wide. wide and 6-1/2 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. from each end of the outside of the box. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. focal length. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. long.

This process is rather a difficult one. --Contributed by Chas. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. then the second knuckle will be March.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection." etc. April.. provided it is airtight. West Toledo. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. the article may be propped up . C. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. calling that knuckle January. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. and extending the whole height of the lantern. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. and so on. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. Ohio. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. 1. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. Bradley. June and November. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. as it requires an airtight case. calling this February.

and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. and set aside for half a day. 1 and 2. and the lead 24 sq. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. The top of a table will do. or suspended by a string. Crawford. running small motors and lighting small lamps. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. --Contributed by J. Y. 2. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. . the lid or cover closed. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. In each place two electrodes. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. in. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. in. giving it an occasional stir. N. Schenectady. but waxed. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. 1. fruit jars are required. taking care to have all the edges closed. In both Fig. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. one of lead and one of aluminum. Pour in a little turpentine.with small sticks. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. H. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum.

After a few seconds' time. which you warm with your hands. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. O. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. Cleveland. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up.. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. as well as others. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. he throws the other. You have an understanding with some one in the company. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. you remove the glass. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. as you have held it all the time. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . This trick is very simple. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. He.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner.

wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. if any snags are encountered. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. but by being careful at shores. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Colo. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Pull the ends quickly. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Crocker. in diameter in the center. Victor. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out.-Contributed by E. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. but in making one. near a partition or curtain. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. put it under the glass. on a table. . The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole.take the handiest one. J. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Be sure that this is the right one. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. leaving a hole about 3/4 in.

and the other 12 in. 1 in. by 2 in. 1 in. of 1-yd. for center deck braces. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. for cockpit frame. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. long. for the stern piece. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. apart. long. 11 yd. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 9 ft. selected pine. of rope. screws and cleats. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. Fig. 1 mast. and is removed after the ribs are in place. at the ends. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. for the bow. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. and fastened with screws. and. 3 in. 1/8 in. square by 16 ft. 1/4 in. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. the smaller is placed 3 ft. are as follows: 1 keelson. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 14 rib bands. is 14 ft. of 1-1/2-yd. 1 in. long. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. wide. by 16 ft. 3 in. 3 and 4. 7 ft. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 1. as illustrated in the engraving. from the stern. 1 piece. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 1 piece. wide and 12 ft. 8 yd. ducking. by 12 in. long. from the bow and the large one. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 50 ft. 1 in. 8 in. by 10 ft.. 4 outwales. 2 and braced with an iron band. clear pine.. Both ends are mortised. by 8 in. by 2 in. from each end to 1 in. Paint. by 15 ft. 2 gunwales. thick and 3/4 in. The keelson. wide and 12 ft. drilled and fastened with screws. wide 12-oz. by 16 ft. 2 in. one 6 in. wide unbleached muslin.

Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. thick 1-1/2 in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. They are 1 in. wide and 14 in. 3-1/2 ft. apart. is cut to fit under the top boards. thick. Figs. a piece 1/4 in. corner braces. thick and 1/2 in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. wood screws.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. 6 and 7. A seam should be made along the center piece. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. 1 in. wide. from the bow. Fig. also. Before making the deck. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. long. These are put in 6 in. 7 and 8. A 6-in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. screws. wide and 24 in. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. 1/4 in. 6. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. 9. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. A block of pine. wide. gunwales and keelson. long is well soaked in water. length of canvas is cut in the center. Braces. 6 in. 5. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. The block is fastened to the keelson. long. is a cube having sides 6 in. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. 4 in. in diameter through the block. A piece of oak. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. The deck is not so hard to do. The 11-yd. thick. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. Fig. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. wide and 3 ft. 1 in. and fastened to them with bolts. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. thick and 12 in. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. . Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. doubled. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. The trimming is wood. This block. long.

10 with a movable handle. is 6 in. long. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. . The inside of the rooms should be stained black. wide. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. apart in the muslin. thick by 2 in. 11. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. The keel. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. The sail is a triangle. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. wide at one end and 12 in. each 1 in. --Contributed by O. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. are used for the boom and gaff. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. E. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. at the other. Wilmette. 12. Tronnes. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. in diameter and 10 ft. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. Fig. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. long. A strip 1 in. Ill. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The mast has two side and one front stay. The house will accommodate 20 families. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air.

one 11-1/2 in. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. and the other 18 in. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. Cut the maple.into two 14-in. Wilmette. five 1/2-in. 3. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. Tronnes. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. thick. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. and 3 ft. long and five 1/2-in. E. wide and 2 ft. 1 yd. 4. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. --Contributed by O. with the ends and the other side rounding. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. flat-headed screws. 2 in. thick. wide. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. 2-1/2 in. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. 2. 5. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. long. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. flat on one side. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. Bevel both sides of the pieces. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. flat headed screws. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. Take this and fold it over . wide. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. as shown in Fig. about 5/16 in. wide and 30 in. long. Fig. Ill. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. 2-1/2 in. square. long. thick. 1.

the mechanical parts can be put together. thick. long. After the glue. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. thick and 3 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. Louis. wide and 6-3/4 in. wide . are rounded. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. A. and the four outside edges. --Contributed by W. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. but can be governed by circumstances. and make a turn in each end of the wires. C. Bliss. this square box is well sandpapered. 6-1/2 in. long. pieces 2-5/8 in. C. wide and 3 ft. long. Figs. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. soaked with water and blown up. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. If carefully and neatly made. and take care that the pieces are all square. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. square. wide and 2-3/4 in. long. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. then centered. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. A. 2 and 3. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. Make a double stitch all around the edge. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. Wind three layers of about No. The front. Fig. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. E. The sides are 3-1/4 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. long. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. the top and bottom. B. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. wide and 5 in. St. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. thick. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. is set. 3-1/4 in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. of each end unwound for connections. 1. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. 3/8 in. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. Cut another piece of board. F. 1-1/4 in. square. About 1/2 in. wide and 4-1/2 in. long. When the glue is set. long.once. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. forming an eye for a screw. Glue a three cornered piece. long. Another piece. as well as the edges around the opening. 5 from 1/16-in. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. The bag is then turned inside out. 3 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. wide and 2-1/2 in. Mo. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. about 3/8 in. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. D. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out.

Fig. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. and as the part Fig. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. I. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. thick. Fig.R. in diameter. The resistance is now adjusted to show . G. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. 4. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. 4. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. so it will just clear the tin. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. and fasten in place. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. 5. wide and 9 in. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. L.A. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. The stronger the current. Like poles repel each other. 1/16 in. W. bored in the back. Yorkshire. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. long. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. These wires should be about 1 in.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. A pointer 12 in. from the spindle. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. the same size as the first. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in.and 2-5/8 in. F. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. C. Another strip of tin. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. The end of the polar axis B. and the farther apart they will be forced. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. from one end. Chapman. board. showing a greater defection of the pointer. 4 is not movable. --Contributed by George Heimroth. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. The base is a board 5 in. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. hole is fastened to the pointer. wide and 2-1/2 in. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . When the current flows through the coil. the part carrying the pointer moves away.S. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. 1/4 in. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. 5-1/2 in. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. long. long. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. Austwick Hall. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. Place the tin. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. R. that has the end turned with a shoulder. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. Richmond Hill. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place.

say Venus at the date of observation. A.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. 10 min. shows mean siderial. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. at 9 hr. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. 1881. 30 min. thus: 9 hr. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. M. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. and vice . Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. The following formula will show how this may be found. 10 min. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time.

This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. New Haven. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. get a glazed vessel of similar construction.f. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. owing to the low internal resistance. Conn. if one of these cannot be had. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. or. . and then verify its correctness by measurement. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. --Contributed by Robert W.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Hall.m. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess.

A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. of alum and 4 oz. inside diameter and about 5 in. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. cover up with the same. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. The boring bar. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. 3/8 in. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. especially for cooking fish. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . and heap the glowing coals on top. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. as shown in the accompanying picture. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. Fig. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. arsenic to every 20 lb. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. Then. put the fish among the ashes. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. leaves or bark. Wet paper will answer. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. 1-3/4 in. thick. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. fresh grass. long. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. 1. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. When the follower is screwed down.

bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. and threaded on both ends. thick. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. about 1/2 in. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . pipe. fastened with a pin. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. pipe. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. when they were turned in.

a jump spark would be much better. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. thick and 3 in. 3. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place.valve stems. long. Iowa. wide. Clermont. If the valve keeps dripping. 4. Fig. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. labor and time. Fig. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. was then finished on an emery wheel. as the one illustrated herewith. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. but never one which required so little material. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. 30 in. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. and which gave such satisfactory results. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. however. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. Fig. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. It . bent in the shape of a U. This plate also supports the rocker arms. 5. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. The rough frame. 2. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. the float is too high. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. A 1-in. square iron. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. then it should be ground to a fit. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig.

you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. long. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. The illustration largely explains itself. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. hole bored in the post. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. set 3 ft. butting against short stakes. 12 ft. for the "motive power" to grasp. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. long is the pivot. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. --Contributed by C. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. square and 5 ft. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. long. no matter what your age or size may be. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. in the ground with 8 ft. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. square. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. and a little junk. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. extending above. W. completes the merry-go-round. timber. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in." little and big. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. As there is no bracing. A malleable iron bolt. rope is not too heavy. The seats are regular swing boards. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . 3/4 in. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. with no trees or buildings in the way. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. It looks like a toy. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. Use a heavy washer at the head. square and 2 ft. This makes an easy adjustment. strengthened by a piece 4 in. and. so it must be strong enough. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. Nieman. being held in position by spikes as shown. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. from the center. strong clear material only should be employed. in fact. A 3/4 -in. from all over the neighborhood. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. The crosspiece is 2 in. If it is to be used for adults. long. in diameter and 15 in.

A reel is next made. as shown in Fig. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. 2. 4. light and strong. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. a wreck. The backbone is flat. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. one for the backbone and one for the bow. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. if nothing better is at hand. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. then it is securely fastened. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. These ends are placed about 14 in. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. Both have large reels full of .2 emery. long. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately.the fingers. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. Having placed the backbone in position. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. 1. The bow is now bent. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. away. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. and 18 in. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. and sent to earth. 1/4 by 3/32 in. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. To wind the string upon the reel. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. square. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft.

If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. Newburyport. Y. common packing thread. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. often several hundred yards of it. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. the balance. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. --Contributed' by Harry S. First. N. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration.-Contributed by S. Moody. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Bunker. If the second kite is close enough. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . or glass-covered string. Mass. The handle end is held down with a staple. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites.string. Brooklyn. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. he pays out a large amount of string. C. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench.

length of 2-in. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. --Contributed by Earl R. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. must be attached to a 3-ft. then a dust protector. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . then draw the string up tight. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. make the pad as shown in the illustration. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Hastings. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. cutting the circular piece into quarters. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. If the table is round. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. lengths (Fig. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Vt. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. square (Fig. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. each the size of half the table top. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. such as mill men use. Corinth. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table.

If leaves are wanted in extending the table. and E to G. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. G to H. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. . Make the other half circular disk in the same way. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. Moisten the . E. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. hard pencil. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. 17-1/2 in. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp.9-1/4 in. Oakland. 6-1/4 in. from E to F... Use a smooth.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. 16-1/4 in. from C to D. which spoils the leather effect. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. Wharton.-Contributed by H. 2-1/4 in. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. Calif.. trace the design carefully on the leather.

Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. G-J. To complete the bag. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Now cut narrow thongs. with the rounded sides of the tools. if not more than 1 in. and corresponding lines on the other side. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. also lines A-G. about 1/8 in. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. Cut it the same size as the bag. and E-G. apart. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. wide. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. H-B. get something with which to make a lining. and lace through the holes. Trace the openings for the handles. place both together and with a leather punch. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. I made this motor . Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. is taken off at a time. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag.

The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. 1. each being a half circle. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. 2-1/4 in. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. iron. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. Pasadena. 2.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones.M. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. Calif. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. in length. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. D. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. 24 gauge magnet wire. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. of No. B. as shown in Fig. . The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. Shannon. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. long. --Contributed by J. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. 1. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base.

pasted in alternately. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. near the center. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. and the gores cut from these. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . 1. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. are the best kind to make. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. high. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. balloon should be about 8 ft. The gores for a 6-ft. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. from the bottom end.

A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. The boat soon attains considerable speed. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. so it will hang as shown in Fig. using about 1/2-in. 4. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. 2. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. saturating it thoroughly. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. leaving the solution on over night. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat.widest point. A. coming through the small pipe A. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. As the boat is driven forward by this force. lap on the edges. 3. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. If the gores have been put together right. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. leaving a long wake behind. E. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. 5. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. in diameter. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. Fig. In starting the balloon on its flight. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. somewhat larger in size. B. The steam. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. after which the paint will adhere permanently. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. In removing grease from wood. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . These are to hold the wick ball. After washing. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. Staunton. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. 1. --Contributed by R. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed.

then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . apart on these lines. if you have several copies of the photograph. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. There are three ways of doing this: First. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. In using either of the two methods described. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. long and each provided with a handle. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. 1. long. wide by 6 in. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. Second. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. as is shown in Fig. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The blocks are about 6 in. Third. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. in bowling form. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. high and 8 in.

The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. N. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. 2. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed .Fig. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Fig. --Contributed by John A. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Hellwig. not pointed down at the road at an angle. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Albany. being careful not to dent the metal. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. Rinse the plate in cold water. Y. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. thick.

with a set screw. B. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. and. wide and of any desired height. In Fig. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. These corner irons are also screwed to. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. 1 Fig. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. long for the base. A. --Contributed by R. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. and Fig. 6 in. in diameter. which is 4 in. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. Paine. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. are screwed to the circular piece. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. A circular piece of wood. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. 5 in. S. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. A. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. wide and 8 in. through which passes the set screw S. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. Richmond. With this device. 2 the front view. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. CC. and not produce the right sound. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. Break off the frame. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do.upon any particular object. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. Va. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Corner irons. is fastened to a common camera tripod. thick.

The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. This horn. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. This will make a very compact electric horn. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. pine boards. S. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Ill. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. Kidder. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. . Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. thus producing sound waves. D. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. Lake Preston. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. in diameter of some 1-in. R. as only the can is visible. -1. I made a wheel 26 in. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. La Salle.

Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. 2. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. B. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. The frame is made of a heavy card. If there is a large collection of coins. Ghent. thick and 12 in. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Doylestown. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. --Contributed by C. A. --Contributed by James R. If the collection consists of only a few coins. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. 1. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. 1. Kane. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. square. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. the same thickness as the coins. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Fig. Purdy. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. O.

plus a 3/8-in. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. Wis. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. a hammer or mallet. If desired. border all around. cut and grooved. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. for after the slides have been shown a few times. It will hold 4 oz. Cal. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Noble.E. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. Smith. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. thick. though not absolutely necessary. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. A rivet punch is desirable. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. --Contributed by J. Milwaukee. they become uninteresting. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. several large nails. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. and then glued together as indicated. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. One Cloud. --Contributed by R. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. Canada. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in.J. A lead pencil. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. of developer. into which to place the screws . --Contributed by August T. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. melted and applied with a brush. Neyer.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. The material required is a sheet of No. Toronto. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom.

like the one shown. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. Remove the screws. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. never upon the metal directly. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. draw one part. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. and file it to a chisel edge. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. both outline and decoration. screws placed about 1 in. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the .that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. using 1/2-in. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. Take the nail. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. There are several ways of working up the design. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom.

long. each 1 in. in the other. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. for the top. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. two lengths. About 1/2 yd. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. long. 3. and two lengths. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in.wall. as shown in Fig. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. Provide four lengths for the legs. . The pedal. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. square and 181/2 in. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. square. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. being ball bearing. l-1/8 in. 3/4 in. Rivet the band to the holder. for the lower rails. using a 1/2in. 1. up from the lower end. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. Do not bend it over or flatten it. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. long. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. square and 11 in. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. 2. of 11-in.

was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. --Contributed by W. F. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. Ala. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. --Contributed by John Shahan. Quackenbush. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. Attalla. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. having quite a length of threads. New York City. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt.

from the end. long. initial. each 1-1/4 in. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Assemble as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by C. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. one about 1 in. college or lodge colors. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . wide and 8-1/4 in. in depth. stitched on both edges for appearance.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. D.. something that is carbonated. wide and 4-1/4 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. using class. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. long. Two pieces of felt. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. making a lap of about 1 in. and the other 2-3/4 in. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. and 3/8 in. long. Luther. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. Ironwood. Mich. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. and two holes in the other. from one end. the end of the other piece is folded over. The desired emblem.

from the center and opposite each other. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. --Contributed by John H. in the cover and the bottom. A piece of lead. Punch two holes A. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. which can be procured from a plumber. Ind. in diameter and 2 in. as shown in the sketch. if desired by the operator. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. 2. 1/4 in. about 2 in.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Fig. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. and the cork will be driven out. or more in height. as shown at B. 1. or a pasteboard box. Schatz. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. Indianapolis. This method allows a wide range of designs.

putting in the design. 4. 5. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. it winds up the rubber band. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. The pieces of tin between the holes A. Fig. or marble will serve. O. 3. as shown in Fig. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand.Rolling Can Toy lead. allowing the two ends to be free. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. Columbus. A piece of thick glass. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. metal. and the ends of the bands looped over them. When the can is rolled away from you. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. on both top and bottom. 1. . Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. are turned up as in Fig. made of paper strips pasted on the tin.

The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. Next place the leather on the glass. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. 1 in. thick. deep in its face. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. wide and 20 in. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. 3 in. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. hole through it. If it is desired to "line" the inside. A pencil may be used the first time over. long and bored a 1/2-in. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. The edges should be about 1/8 in. After this has been done. I secured a board 3/4 in. thicker than the pinion. or more thick on each side. New York City. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. face up. mark over the design. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. from each end. and. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer.

Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. much of the hard labor will be saved. 2. 1 piece. New York. 2 by 2 by 18 in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 3 by 3 by 36. Fig. 1. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 1 top board. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 1 piece for clamp. countersinking the heads of the vise end. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. pieces for the vise slides. Make the lower frame first. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Y. 1 screw block. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. --Contributed by A. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 3 by 3 by 6 in.in the board into the bench top. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 1 piece for clamp. 4 guides. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 2 crosspieces. lag screws as shown. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. in diameter. thick top board. 1 by 9 by 80 in. Rice. 2 end rails. 1 back board. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. M. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. Cut the 2-in. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. Brooklyn. Syracuse. 1 top board. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 2 side rails. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. and fit it in place for the side vise. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. N. Now fit up the two clamps.

1 cross cut saw. 2 screwdrivers. 1 compass saw. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 rip saw. 1 set chisels. 1 brace and set of bits.. 1 bench plane or jointer. in diameter.. 1 pair dividers. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 countersink. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. Only the long run. 1 wood scraper. 1 2-ft.screws. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. If each tool is kept in a certain place. The amateur workman. it can be easily found when wanted. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 set gimlets. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. . rule. 1 monkey wrench. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. as well as the pattern maker. 1 pair pliers. 24 in. The bench is now complete. 3 and 6 in. 1 nail set. 1 marking gauge. 1 pocket level. 24 in. They can be purchased at a hardware store. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 claw hammer.. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 jack plane or smoother.

Kane. will sink into the handle as shown at D. 1. after constant use. Fig. being softer. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. Fig. the projecting point A. Doylestown. will be easier to work. 2 and 00 sandpaper. 1. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. No. Fig. ---Contributed by James M.1. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. 3. but will not make . To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. 1 oilstone. 2. becomes like A. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. The calf skin.1 6-in. Pa. try square. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. Fig.

After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. . New York City. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. then prepare the leather. cover it completely with water enamel and. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. which steam. -Contributed by Julia A. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. secure a piece of modeling calf. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. The form can be made of a stick of wood. If calf skin is to be used. water or heat will not affect. If cow hide is preferred. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. the same method of treatment is used. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. such as copper or brass. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. Having prepared the two sides.as rigid a case as the cow skin. White. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. After the outlines are traced. but a V-shaped nut pick. when dry. Turn the leather. Two pieces will be required of this size. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. and the length 6-5/8 in. First draw the design on paper. lay the design on the face. will do just as well. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish.

and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Maine. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. as shown in the sketch. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Cal. Portland. . --Contributed by Chester L. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Richmond. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Cobb. --Contributed by W. Jaquythe. New York City. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. C. A. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. --Contributed by Chas. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Herrman.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel.

To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. was marked out as shown. Roberts. . 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. --Contributed by Wm. for instance. This was very difficult. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. A thick piece of tin. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Conn. an inverted stewpan. Middletown. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop.. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. Cambridge. B. --Contributed by Geo.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. Mass. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Wright.

well calcined and powdered. Ind. pulverized and applied. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. If any traces of the grease are left. and the grease will disappear. When dry. face down. used as part of furniture. Chicago. such as chair seats. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. but not running over. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. Illinois. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. on a clear piece of glass. A beautifully bound book.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. Bone. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation.. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. If the article is highly polished. but only an odor which soon vanished. --Contributed by Paul Keller. and quite new. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. There was no quicklime to be had. --Contributed by C. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. of boiling water. which has been tried out several times with success. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. . apply powdered calcined magnesia. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. so some bones were quickly calcined. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. The next morning there was no trace of oil. as shown. Indianapolis. Herbert. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. L. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. F.

How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine.. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by Geo. Howe.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. New York. deep and 5 in. If properly adjusted. A. long. set and thumbscrews. 6 in. says Scientific American. the pieces . true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. wide and 12 in. The pieces marked S are single. high and are bolted to a block of wood. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. 2 in.. This coaster is simple and easy to make. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. soft steel with the opening 6 in. thick. Tarrytown. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in.

During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . to the underside of which is a block.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. no doubt. for sending to friends. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. If the letters are all cut the same height. A sharp knife. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. says Camera Craft. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. E. they will look remarkably uniform. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. albums and the like. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Their size depends on the plate used. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. The seat is a board. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in.

So made. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. and. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. using care to get it in the right position. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. for example. So arranged. pasting the prints on some thin card. mount them on short pieces of corks. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. after. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. photographing them down to the desired size. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. In cutting out an 0. The puzzle is to get .

The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. so they will lie horizontal. He smells the bait. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. says the American Thresherman. hung on pivots.J. N. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. A hole 6 or 7 in. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves.-Contributed by I. snow or anything to hide it. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. G. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. long that will just fit are set in. with the longest end outside.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. Old-Time Magic . then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. squeezes along past the center of the tube. Cape May Point. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. Bayley. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. of its top. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row.

The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside.faced up. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Brooklyn. Idaho. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. then spread the string. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Pawtucket. Pocatello. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Press the hands together. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Parker. --Contributed by L. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. E. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. --Contributed by Charles Graham. then expose again. Y. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. N. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. --Contributed by L. Szerlip. Rhode Island. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin.

full size. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. dark red. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. end of the blade. wide and 2 in. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. 2 Fig. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. 3 Fig. they will look very much like the genuine article. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. or green oil paint. thick. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. long. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. wipe the blade . Glue the other side of the blade. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. whether he requires a single sword only. in building up his work from the illustrations. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. tapering down to 1-1/2 in.. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. near the point end. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. using a straightedge and a pencil. 4 on the blade. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. The handle is next made. and if carefully made. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown.Genuine antique swords and armor. narrower. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.. 1. if any. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. says the English Mechanic. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. When the whole is quite dry. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. 1 Fig. The pieces. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The blade should be about 27 in. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. When the glue is thoroughly dry. or a complete suit of armor. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. in width.

4. follow the directions as for Fig. the illustration. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. In making this scimitar. of course. 3. and 3 in.with light strokes up and down several times. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. not for use only in cases of tableaux. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. 1. Fig. allowing for a good hold with both hands. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. square and of any length desired. as it is . 1. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. thick and 5 in. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. In the finished piece. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. the other two are identical. 3. take two pieces of wood. 2. the other is flat or half-round.. shows only two sides. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. in the widest part at the lower end. should be about 9 in. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. 1. preferably of contrasting colors. in diameter. 1. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose.. This sword is about 68 in. about 1-1/2 in. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. 2. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. long. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. In making. the other is flat or halfround. the length of the blade 28 in. 1/8 in. Both edges of the blade are sharp. The length of the handle.

N. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. however. as there was some at hand. and. as can the pitch bed or block. It is made of a plank. Doctors probed for the button without success. long. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. at the lower end. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. Franklin. Morse. On each edge of the board. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. A piece of mild steel. and if so. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. piping and jackets by hard water. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. each about 1 ft. 2 in. Y. Mass. as shown in the sketch. square.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Syracuse. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. or an insecure fastening. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. --Contributed by John Blake. --Contributed by Katharine D. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. about 3/8 in. Both can be made easily. in an attempt to remove it. The thinness of the plank. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. A cold . took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose.

To put it in another way. Trim up the edges and file them . and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. 5 lb. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. 18 gauge. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. on the pitch. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. plaster of Paris. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal..chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. To remedy this. a file to reduce the ends to shape.. When the desired form has been obtained. When this has been done. using a small metal saw. tallow. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. 5 lb. design down. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. secure a piece of brass of about No. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch.

to keep it from floating. lb. and still revolve. it may be well to know what horsepower means. or fraction of a horsepower.000 ft. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. in diameter (Fig. in diameter (Fig. Cutter. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. in the center. 3. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. This in turn divided by 33. make an unusual show window attraction. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. over the smaller vessel. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. and hang a bird swing. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Before giving the description. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. space between the vessels with water. living together in what seems like one receptacle.smooth. but not to stop it. 1 ft. Fill the 3-in.000 lb. per second. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. Clean the metal thoroughly. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. 1 ft. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. That is lifting 33. in one second. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. --Contributed by Harold H. per minute. using powdered pumice with lye. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. The smaller is placed within the larger. Fig. . 1) and the other 12 in. or 550 ft. one 18 in. 2). Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. 30 ft. A.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. in one minute or 550 lb. lb.

F. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Y. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. 1 Fig. Diameter 12 in. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Campbell. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two.18 in. --Contributed. 2 Fig. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Diameter Fig.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. or on a pedestal. N. --Contributed by J. Szerlip. by L. Mass. Brooklyn. Somerville. The effect is surprising.3 Fig.

is. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. as a rule. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. which may be of wood or tin. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. to keep the metal from tarnishing. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. This compound is impervious to water. away from the edge. and cut out the shape with the shears. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. keeping the center high. then by drawing a straightedge over it. with other defects. after which it is ready for use. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. Do not be content merely to bend them over. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. unsatisfactory. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. In riveting. often render it useless after a few months service. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. Polish both of these pieces. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. and then. Rivet the cup to the base. with the pliers. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. and the clay . This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph.copper of No. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. the same as removing writing from a slate. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. using any of the common metal polishes. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. which.

Dunlop. The siphon is made of glass tubes. Northville. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. 2. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. DeLoof. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Mich. in diameter and 5 in. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. It is made of a glass tube. the device will work for an indefinite time. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. --Contributed by A. long. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. --Contributed by John T. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. -Contributed by Thos.can be pressed back and leveled. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. 3/4 in. Grand Rapids. Mich. Scotland. Houghton. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. as shown in Fig. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. . 1. Shettleston. A. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver.

says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil.1 FIG.FIG. put up as ornaments. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. in width and 2 in. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. 1. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. stilettos and battle-axes. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. London. As the handle is to .2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. long. This sword is 4 ft.

long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. which is about 2-1/2 ft. Cut two strips of tinfoil. A German poniard is shown in Fig. These must be cut from pieces of wood. When the glue is thoroughly dry. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. 4. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. long with a dark handle of wood. This sword is about 4 ft. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. glue and put it in place. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. The ball is made as described in Fig.represent copper. string. in width. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. small rope and round-headed nails. 6. Both handle and axe are of steel. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. narrower. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. 20 spike. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. is shown in Fig. When dry. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. with wire or string' bound handle. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. 11 were used. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. This weapon is about 1 ft. 9. with both edges sharp. studded with brass or steel nails. This stiletto has a wood handle. in length. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. A German stiletto. The crossbar and blade are steel. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. one about 1/2 in. 7. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. This weapon is also about 1 ft. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. the same as used on the end of the handle. 3 is shown a claymore. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. long. Three large. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. The handle is of wood. with both edges of the blade sharp. In Fig. in length. very broad. sometimes called cuirass breakers. the axe is of steel. When the whole is quite dry. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. paint it a dark brown or black. 8. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. This axe is made similar to the one . The sword shown in Fig. the upper part iron or steel. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. In Fig. In Fig. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. 5. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. wood with a keyhole saw. firmly glued on. The lower half of the handle is of wood. then glued on the blade as shown. sharp edges on both sides. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade.

When wrapped all the way around. high.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. 2. will pull where other belts slip. W. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand.described in Fig. . 10. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. Chicago. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. so the contents cannot be seen. --Contributed by E. This will make a very good flexible belt. Davis. Old-Time Magic . such as braided fishline. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. together as shown in Fig. the ends are tied and cut off.

or using small wedges of wood. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. four glass tumblers. with the circle centrally located.J. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . apparently. 2. S. To make the flowers grow in an instant. an acid. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. held in the right hand. in a few seconds' time. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Before the performance. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. The dotted lines in Fig. There will be no change in color. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Calif. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Macdonald. about one-third the way down from the top. Bridgeton. causing the flowers to grow. some of the liquid. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. 1 and put together as in Fig. These wires are put in the jar. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. filled with water. Oakland. N. --Contributed by A. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher.

unless some special device is used. not only because of the fact just mentioned. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. says a correspondent of Photo Era. If the size wanted is No. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. practical and costs nothing. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. A. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. and equally worthy of individual treatment. This outlines the desired opening. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. Jaquythe. When many slides are to be masked. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. Richmond. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. 4 for width and No. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. --Contributed by W. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. Cal. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . 2 for height. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. and kept ready for use at any time. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. which are numbered for convenience in working. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints.

If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. and do not inhale the fumes. too.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. and the extreme length 7 in. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. a little less acid than water. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. The one shown is merely suggestive. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . may be changed. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. possibly. This done. the margin and the entire back of the metal. paint the design. 16 gauge. Secure a sheet of No. The decoration. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. Draw a design. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. the paper is folded along the center line. When etched to the desired depth. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. not the water into the acid. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. about half and half. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. or. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. but they can be easily revived. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. is about right for the No. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. or a pair of old tongs. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. With a stick. using the carbon paper. which is dangerous.

thick. so that when it is pressed down. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. 3. as shown in Fig. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. A. attached to a post at each end. as in Fig. long. When the button S is pressed. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. long and 1 ft. . They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. through it. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. about 2-1/2 in. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. about 1 in. in diameter and 1/4 in. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. it will touch post F. 2. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. The connections are simple: I. 2. wide and of the same length as the table. to the table. 1. or more wide. Paint the table any color desired. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. J is another wire attached in the same way. high. Fig. Nail a board. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. Cut out a piece of tin. It may be either nailed or screwed down. C and D. as shown in the illustration. the bell will ring.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. Fig. 4. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. about 3 ft. 3/8 in. wide. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. and bore two holes. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. 5. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. 0 indicates the batteries. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. repeat as many times as is necessary. Fig. Then get two posts. 5. 24 parts water. and about 2-1/2 ft. 2. Fig. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. Fig. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. with the wires underneath. as at H. about 8 in.

These rings can be carved out. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. long.. The entire weapon. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. The circle is marked out with a compass. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. long serves as the dowel. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. The imitation articles are made of wood. but they are somewhat difficult to make. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces.Imitation Arms and Armor . remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. handle and all. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. says the English Mechanic. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. the wood peg inserted in one of them. is to appear as steel. After the glue is dry. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. such as . the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. thick. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. A wood peg about 2 in. 2. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. This weapon is about 22 in. 1.

The entire handle should be made of one piece. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. as shown. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. as before mentioned. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. This weapon is about 22 in. as described in Fig. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. All of these axes are about the same length. flowers. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. 5. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The handle is of steel imitation. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. or the amateur cannot use it well. 8. etc.ornamental scrolls. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. 3. . Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. the hammer and spike. The axe is shown in steel. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 2. used at the end of the fifteenth century. is shown in Fig. The spikes are cut out of wood. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. The handle is of wood. with a sharp carving tool. The lower half of the handle is wood. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. If such a tool is not at hand. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. covered with red velvet. studded with large brass or steel nails. 6. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. long. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. also. Its length is about 3 ft. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. The upper half of the handle is steel. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. leaves.

calls for a home run. 1. 7) calls for one out. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. then the other plays. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 4). Each person plays until three outs have been made. Chicago. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. The knife falling on its side (Fig. and so on for nine innings. 5.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. as shown in Fig. 6. a three-base hit. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. . as in Fig. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. 3. 2. the knife resting on its back.

He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. Campbell. one of them burning . Mass. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. 2. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. of the rope and holds it. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. It may be found that the negative is not colored. as shown in Fig. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. Old-Time Magic . This he does. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. 3. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. while the committee is tying him up. If it is spotted at all.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant.-Contributed by J. as shown in Fig. hypo to 1 pt. of water for an hour or two. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. with the rope laced in the cloth. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. F. Somerville. 1.

the other without a light. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. . Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. shades the light for a few seconds.. thick. of turpentine. B. New York City. Brown.Contributed by Andrew G. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. Ky. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. --Contributed by C. and. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. --Contributed by L. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Drill Gauge screw. Lebanon. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. The magician walks over to the burning candle. Evans. He then walks over to the other candle. of sugar.brightly. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. invisible to them (the audience). Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. showing that there is nothing between them. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. 3/4 in. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. Louisville. etc. 4 oz. with which he is going to light the other candle. of plumbago. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. of water and 1 oz. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. 4 oz. Thome. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. bolt. thus causing it to light. Ky.

but is not so good. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. for the material. Denniston. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. N. H. about 5 in. steady current. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. or blotting paper. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. which will give a strong. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. Its current strength is about one volt. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. thick. Do not add water to the acid. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. Pulteney. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. diameter. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. Y. --Contributed by C. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. long. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. 5 in. In making up the solution. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. into a tube of several thicknesses. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. To make the porous cell. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can.

The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. To insure this. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The . The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. One hole was bored as well as possible.station. As to thickness. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. steel. long with a bearing at each end. steel. while the other end is attached by two screws. the other holding them apart. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. steel. carrying the hour circle at one end. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. a positive adjustment was provided. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. but somewhat lighter.) may be obtained. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. Finally. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. one drawing them together. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. After much experimentation with bearings.

The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. The pole is 1 deg. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. Declination is read directly. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up." When this is done. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. It is. excepting those on the declination axis. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. in each direction from two points 180 deg. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. apart. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. Cassiopiae. The aperture should be 1/4 in. and 15 min. Instead. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. need not be changed. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. subtract 24. If the result is more than 24 hours. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar." Only a rough setting is necessary. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. is provided with this adjustment. Set the declination circle to its reading. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. Each shaft.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. once carefully made. save the one in the pipe. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. To locate a known star on the map. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. To find a star in the heavens. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. The pointer is directed to Alpha. All these adjustments. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. When properly set it will describe a great circle. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. 45 min. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. are tightened.. Point it approximately to the north star. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. and if it is not again directed to the same point.. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. turn the pointer to the star. All set screws. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question.

-Contributed by Ray E. then add 1 2-3 dr. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. is folded several times. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. is the real cannon ball. which is the one examined. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. long. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. New Orleans. taking care not to add too much. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. as shown in the sketch. Strosnider.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. 3 or 4 in. of ether. add a little more benzole. The ball is found to be the genuine article. La. Ohio. The dance will begin. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian.. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. the others . of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. If this will be too transparent. a great effect will be produced. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. cannon balls. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. In reality the first ball. Plain City. benzole.

Return the card to the pack. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. etc. Mass. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. taps. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. small brooches. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band.. In boxes having a sliding cover. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . Fig. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. without taking up any great amount of space. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. --Contributed by J. 1). San Francisco. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. 2. Campbell. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. as shown in the illustration. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. Milwaukee.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. Somerville. Wis. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. Cal. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. F.

Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. Connecticut. Beller. prints. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. thus giving ample store room for colors. round pieces 2-1/4 in. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. from the bottom of the box. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. This box has done good service. . Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. as shown in the illustration. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. slides and extra brushes. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. Hartford. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled.

with well packed horse manure. costing 5 cents. or placed against a wall. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. holes in the bottom of one.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. -Contributed by C. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. Darke. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. . and especially are the end pieces objectionable. tacking the gauze well at the corners. West Lynn. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. 1). Fill the upper tub. Mass. about threefourths full. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. FIG. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. When the ends are turned under. will answer the purpose. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. O. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. 2). Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. and pour water on it until it is well soaked.

How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. and each bundle contains . If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. If the following directions are carried out. cutting the cane between the holes. Eifel. oil or other fluid. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. Chicago. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. If plugs are found in any of the holes. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. they should be knocked out. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. --Contributed by L. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. M. if this is not available. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. when they are raised from the pan. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms.

down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. and. a square pointed wedge. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. as it must be removed again. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. it should be held by a plug. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. as shown in Fig. put about 3 or 4 in. 1. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. then across and down. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. In addition to the cane. after having been pulled tight. No plugs . held there by inserting another plug.

Michigan. we have 4. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. trim off the surplus rosin. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction.075 in. 3. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. for 2°. There are several different designs of sundials.15 in.5 in. 1 lat. During the weaving. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. After completing the second layer. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. the next smallest. The style or gnomon. and for 1° it would be . or the style. Fig. Their difference is . 41°-30'. called the gnomon. D. and for lat. 5 in. When cool. 3. as shown in Fig. 4. as it always equals the latitude of the place. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. but the most common. the height of the line BC. lat. it is 4. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. If handled with a little care.2 in. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. 40°. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. Detroit. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. is the horizontal dial. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. as shown in Fig.2+. Even with this lubrication. It consists of a flat circular table. R.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. All added to the lesser or 40°. No weaving has been done up to this time.15+.42 in. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. W. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. stretch the third one. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. in this case) times the . 1. 1. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. and the one we shall describe in this article. This will make three layers.075 in. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . From table No. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. the height of which is taken from table No. 1. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal.3 in. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. is the base (5 in. 41 °-30'. using the same holes as for the first layer. If you have a table of natural functions. Patrick. 42° is 4.= 4. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. as the height of the line BC for lat. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. -Contributed by E. as for example. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. Fig. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. 5. --Contributed by M.

33 42° 4.40 34° 3.93 2. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. base. circle Sundial.07 4.93 6.85 1. Its thickness. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.68 5-30 6-30 5. Chords in inches for a 10 in.30 2.89 50° 5.38 .42 .55 5.55 30° 2. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. according to the size of the dial.57 3.10 6.20 60° 8. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. and perpendicular to the base or style. Draw two semi-circles.87 4.42 45 . Table NO. 2.81 4. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.82 5.33 .59 2. 1. Draw the line AD.97 5 7 4.77 2.tangent of the degree of latitude. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.87 1. an inch or two.06 2.79 4.27 2.64 4 8 3. .16 1.82 2. and intersecting the semicircles.49 3.12 52° 6.46 3. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.03 3.39 .83 27° 2.28 .37 54° 6. 2 for given latitudes.26 4.56 .37 5.46 .94 1. using the points A and C as centers.63 56° 7.76 1. and for this size dial (10 in.96 32° 3. For latitudes not given.91 58° 8. or more.11 3. To layout the hour circle.18 28° 2.41 38° 3. Fig.66 48° 5. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.57 1. if of metal. long.66 1.19 1. with a radius of 5 in.55 4. or if of stone. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .82 3.32 6.88 36° 3.66 latitude. which will represent the base in length and thickness. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.50 26° 2. 2.40 1.44 44° 4.55 46° 5.30 1. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.85 35 . for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.29 4-30 7-30 3.00 40° 4. gives the 6 o'clock points.99 2.49 30 .14 5. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.16 40 .02 1.42 1.23 6.

each article can be labelled with the name. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.01 1.12 5. Iowa. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. April 16.77 3. 2 and Dec. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.57 1.63 1. An ordinary compass. says the English Mechanic. will enable one to set the dial.46 4. adding to each piece interest and value.08 1. if west. 3. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.19 2.. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .24 5.89 3.82 3. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.71 2. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.68 3. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. Sept.93 6. it will be faster. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. 900 Chicago. --Contributed by J.means that the dial is faster than the sun. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.10 4. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. As they are the genuine reproductions. then the watch is slower. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.79 6. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. This correction can be added to the values in table No.46 5. Each weapon is cut from wood.49 3.49 5.50 55 . If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.21 2. Sun time to local mean time.72 5.34 5. London.14 1.54 60 .06 2.37 2. Mitchell. after allowing for the declination.add those marked + subtract those Marked . and for the difference between standard and local time. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.from Sundial lime.60 4.50 . Sioux City.30 2. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. June 15. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. The + means that the clock is faster. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. E. and the .87 6. 3.53 1. 25.98 4. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.52 Table No.

and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. the length of which is about 5 ft. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 1. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in.. . If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. When putting on the tinfoil. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. 3. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. Partisan. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color.

. 7. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. 6 ft. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in.which is square. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. press it well into the carved depressions. 8. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. long with a round staff or handle. long. A gisarm or glaive. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. the holes being about 1/4 in. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. is shown in Fig. which are a part of the axe. used about the seventeenth century. 5. The extreme length is 9 ft. The spear is steel. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe.. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. long with a round wooden handle. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. about 4 in. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. in diameter. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. sharp on the outer edges. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The edges are sharp. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. long. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. It is about 6 ft. The length of this bar is about 5 in. This weapon is about 6 ft. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil.

the most durable being bamboo. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. H. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. used for spacing and binding the whole together. Substances such as straw. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. Ohio. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Workman. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. The twisted cross cords should . One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. They can be made of various materials. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. are put in place. Loudonville. 2 and 3. Cut all the cords the same length. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. 1.-Contributed by R. In Figs. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. 5. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. as shown in Fig. the cross cords. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. B. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. This is important to secure neatness. are less durable and will quickly show wear. apart. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. 4. or in holes punched in a leather strap.

Harrer. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. shaped as shown at C. in which was placed a piece of glass. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. Four V-shaped notches were cut. 3 in. La. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. for a length extending from a point 2 in. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. M. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. A slit was cut in the bottom. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. To remedy this. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. This was turned over the top of the other can. The first design shown is for using bamboo. New Orleans. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness.be of such material. -Contributed by Geo. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. Lockport. below the top to within 1/4 in. wide. bamboo or rolled paper. as shown at B. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. of the bottom. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. New York. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned.

Pasadena. Maywood. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . N. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall.tape from sticking to the carpet. --Contributed by W. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. Cal. It would be well to polish the brass at first. Newburgh. giving the appearance of hammered brass. This plank. After this is finished. Ill. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. turned over but not fastened. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. --Contributed by Chas. Shay. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. --Contributed by Joseph H. Schaffner. wide. Sanford. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. and two along the side for attaching the staff. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. the brass is loosened from the block. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. Y. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. This should be done gradually. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. is shown in the accompanying sketch. do not throw away the gloves. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. H. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. about 1/16 in.

Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Cal. Richmond. Ill. -Contributed by W. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. --E. bent as shown. in diameter. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Unlike most clocks. A. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Oak Park. Marshall. the pendulum swings . Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Jaquythe. K.

. 5/16 in. B. away. --Contributed by V. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. 6 in. 3/4 in. long and at each side of this. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. Fasten another board. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. by 1-5/16 in. about 6 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. high and 1/4 in. A. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. such as this one. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. in diameter. wide. In using this method. on the board B. says the Scientific American. and the other two 2-5/8 in. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. Secure a board. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. The construction is very simple. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. thick. about 12 in. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. Metzech. bearing on the latter. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. C. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. bar. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. high. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. the center one being 2-3/4 in. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. high. Two uprights.. to the first one with screws or glue. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. Now place the board to be joined. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. only have the opposite side up. wide that is perfectly flat. is an electromagnet. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Chicago. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. 7-1/2 in. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. are secured in the base bar. high. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in.

attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. whose dimensions are given in Fig. as shown at A. --Contributed by Elmer A. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. 2. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. . These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. Pa. wide and 1 in. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. 1. or more. wide and 5 in. from one end. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. square inside. 1. by driving a pin through the wood. Fig. Vanderslice. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. is fastened in the hole A. Phoenixville. Fig. The trigger. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. 1. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. plates should be made 8 in. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. 3. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. long. square. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. 4.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in.

one-half the length of the side pieces.A. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. 5 parts of black filler. by weight. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. if only two bands are put in the . when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. Fostoria. which allows 1/4 in. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. 2 parts of whiting. as shown in the illustration. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. rubbing varnish and turpentine. Ohio. Simonis. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. -Contributed by J. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. square. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull.

Michigan. In use. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. London. wide and about 1 ft.lower strings. If a plain glass is used. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. No. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. is necessary. A double convex lens. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. and it may be made as a model or full sized. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. and the picture can be drawn as described. place tracing paper on its surface. says the English Mechanic. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. 8 in. Mass. A piece of metal. II. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. Shaw. which may be either of ground or plain glass. deep. long. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. DeLoof. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. --Contributed by Thos. A mirror. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. It must be kept moist and well . Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. keeps the strong light out when sketching. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. Dartmouth. preferably copper. 1. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. is set at an angle of 45 deg. Grand Rapids. as shown in Fig. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. In constructing helmets. in the opposite end of the box. G. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. -Contributed by Abner B.

a few clay-modeling tools. 1. the clay model oiled. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. with a keyhole saw. All being ready. take. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. will be necessary. and continue until the clay is completely covered. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. and over the crest on top. shown in Fig. Scraps of thin. 3. brown. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. on which to place the clay. This being done. After the clay model is finished. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. or some thin glue. The clay. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. as in bas-relief. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns.kneaded. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. joined closely together. 1. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. and left over night to soak. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. and the deft use of the fingers. 2. as shown in Fig.

and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. should be modeled and made in one piece. In Fig. a crest on top. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. Indiana. and the ear guards in two pieces. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. 1. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. The center of the ear guards are perforated. When dry. as seen in the other part of the sketch. When perfectly dry. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. When the helmet is off the model. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. a few lines running down. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. the piecing could not be detected. with the exception of the vizor. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. 9. the skullcap. and so on. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. --Contributed by Paul Keller. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. will make it look neat. 5. 7. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. The band is decorated with brass studs. owing to the clay being oiled. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. then another coating of glue. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. The whole helmet. which should be no difficult matter. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. They are all covered with tinfoil. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. as shown: in the design. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. In Fig. Before taking it off the model. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. square in shape. This contrivance should be made of wood. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. one for each side.as possible. Indianapolis. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. or. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig.

Fig. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. above the collar. each 4-1/2 in. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. 2.same size. of mineral wool. AA. Fig. as shown in Fig. AA. as shown in Fig. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. should extend about 1/4 in. Fig. 3. of the top. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. The two holes. long. when they are placed in opposite positions. and C. 2. The plate. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. 12 in. 4. for connections. The reverse side of the base. 22 gauge resistance wire. high. also the switch B and the fuse block C. is then packed down inside the collar. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. 4. thick. if the measurements are correct. screws. 4. thick sheet asbestos. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. The mineral wool. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. Fig. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. 4. 4 lb. This will make an open space between the plates. one small switch. are allowed to project about 1 in. GG. 4. FF. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. Fig. and. This will allow the plate. 3 in. The holes B and C are about 3 in. one oblong piece of wood. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. 1. wide and 15 in. Fig. and two large 3in. one fuse block. Fig. with slits cut for the wires. in diameter and 9 in. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. 1. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. or. AA. of No. long. If a neat appearance is desired. long. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. JJ. is shown in Fig. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. Fig. one glass tube. 1 in. E and F. 1. A round collar of galvanized iron. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. which can be bought from a local druggist. 1. 2. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. as shown in Fig. 4. about 1/4 in. Fig. 1. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. Fig. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. about 1 lb. the fuse block. about 80 ft. 1. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. as it stands a higher temperature. two ordinary binding posts. if this cannot be obtained. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. until it is within 1 in. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . Fig. Fig. German-silver wire is better. to receive screws for holding it to the base. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. Fig. of fire clay. the holes leading to the switch. If asbestos is used. 4. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. The points marked BB are the glass tubes.

KK. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. Fig. causing a short circuit. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. Fig. II. above the rim. so that the circuit will not become broken. will slip and come in contact with each other. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. Cut a 1/2-in. more wire should be added. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. it leaves a gate for the metal. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. when heated. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. --Contributed by R. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. and pressed into it. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. Catherines. Next. 2. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. The clay. Removing Pies from Pans [275] .or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. When this is done. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. when cool. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. allowing a space between each turn. Cover over about 1 in. This completes the stove. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. A. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. Can. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. A file can be used to remove any rough places. If it is not thoroughly dry. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. deep. It should not be left heated in this condition. apart. It should not be set on end. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. When the tile is in place. This point marks the proper length to cut it. --Contributed by W. steam will form when the current is applied. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. as the turns of the wires. St. Jaquythe. Cnonyn. As these connections cannot be soldered. If this is the case. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. H. 4. Cal. using care not to get it too wet. While the clay is damp. Richmond. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. then.

Louisville. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. says the Photographic Times." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. Ky. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. --Contributed by Andrew G. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. as shown. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. the air can enter from both top and bottom. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. Then clip a little off the . the pie will be damaged. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. is large enough. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. and the frame set near a window. square material in any size. constructed of 3/4-in. Thorne. but 12 by 24 in. and the prints will dry rapidly.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame.

The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. wide. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. thereby saving time and washing. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. each 1/2 in. 1. Fig. Iowa. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. for the crank. at GG. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. wide and 3 in. 1/2 in. As the shaft revolves. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. 1.Paper Funnel point. An offset is bent in the center. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. in diameter and about 4 in. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. thick. Two supports. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. high. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. long. which gives the shaft a half turn. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. long. as shown. Figs. in diameter. 1 and 3. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. 1. which are fastened to the base. 2-1/2 in. 14 in. A 1/8-in. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. slip on two cardboard washers. The connecting rod E. long. 22 gauge magnet wire. high. high. long. The board can be raised to place . 3. open out. W. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. each 1 in. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. 1. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. 2. 1/2 in. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. Fig. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. Fig. wide and 7 in. Le Mars. 4 in. causing a break in the current. allowing each end to project for connections. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. The upright B. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. The connections are made as shown in Fig. -Contributed by S. The driving arm D. thick and 3 in. Herron. thick and 3 in.

making a framework suitable for a roost. Stecher.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. bottom side up. Place the pot. . in height. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. on a board. One or more pots may be used. as shown in the sketch. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. Dorchester. 3 in. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. Mass. In designing the roost. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. --Contributed by William F. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot.

common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. 1. preferably. F. Wind the . ordinary glue. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. windows. The bottom part of the sketch. etc. paraffin and paint or varnish. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. F. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. as shown in Fig. if it is other than straight lines. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. shelves. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. that it is heated. grills and gratings for doors. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. odd corners. Fig.. and give it time to dry.. adopt the method described. The materials required are rope or. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. will produce the pattern desired. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. 1. in diameter. when combined. without any corresponding benefit.

Lockport. Fig. M. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . six designs are shown. N. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. cut and glue them together.Fig. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. -Contributed by Geo. Harrer. 2. Y. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry.

This piece of horse armor. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. says the English Mechanic. etc. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords.. will be retained by the cotton.. when it will be observed that any organic matter. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. which was used in front of a horse's head.. As the . The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. London. etc. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. and the sides do not cover the jaws. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. chips of iron rust.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. 1. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. but no farther.

This being done. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. 8. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. which is separate. This triangularshaped support. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. the same as in Fig. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. with the exception of the thumb shield. as the surface will hold the clay. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. 2. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. This will make the model light and easy to move around. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. 2. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. the rougher the better. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. as shown in the sketch. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. but for . take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. except the thumb and fingers. but the back is not necessary. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. 6 and 7. All being ready. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. which can be made in any size. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. 4. An arrangement is shown in Fig. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. The armor is now removed from the model. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. and therefore it is not described. and will require less clay. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. then another coat of glue. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. and the clay model oiled. This can be made in one piece. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. In Fig. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes.

9. Calif. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. --Contributed by John G. N. If it does not hold a charge. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. the foils will not move. cut into the shape shown in Fig. will be about right. two for the jaws and one a wedge. Fasten a polished brass ball to. The two pieces of foil. 1/2 in. in depth. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. La Rue. each about 1/4 in. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. 2. --Contributed by Ralph L. Y. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. fastened to the rod. When locating the place for the screw eyes. wide and 1/2 in. running down the plate. Goshen. two in each jaw. are better shown in Fig. Buxton. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. . Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. the two pieces of foil will draw together. but 3-1/2 in. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. are glued to it. Redondo Beach. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. A piece of board. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. the top of the rod. and the instrument is ready for use. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. long.

long. is made of a 1/4-in. about 15 in. Corsicana. silvered. Bryan. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. 2-1/2 in. --Contributed by Mrs. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. as indicated in the . wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. from the smaller end. as this will cut under the water without splashing. hole bored through it. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. M. Texas. A. When a fish is hooked. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. The can may be bronzed. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. At a point 6 in. pine board. as shown in the illustration. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. enameled or otherwise decorated.

The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. When it has dried over night. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. using a piece of carbon paper. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner.Match Holder accompanying sketch. and trace upon it the design and outline. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. or even pine. 3/8 or 1/4 in. Basswood or butternut. Next prepare the metal holder. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. A good size is 5 in. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. as shown. punch the holes. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Having completed the drawing. wide by 6 in. then with a nail. such as basswood or pine was used." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. Polish the metal. thick. using powdered pumice and lye. take a piece of thin wood. will do as well as the more expensive woods. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. put a coat or two of wax and polish . If soft wood. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. long over all. Any kind of wood will do. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. 22 is plenty heavy enough.

The metal holder may next be fastened in place. . --Contributed by W. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. If carving is contemplated. thick. 2 in. If one has some insight in carving. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. Jaquythe. can be made on the same standards. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. wide and 5 in. Two wire nails. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. the whole being finished in linseed oil. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. is used for the base of this instrument. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. 1/2 in. It is useful for photographers. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. long. each 1 in. are used for the cores of the magnets. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. Instead of the usual two short ropes. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. of pure olive oil. Cal. A. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. long. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. Richmond.

breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. when the key is pushed down. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. cloth or baize to represent the legs. similar to that used in electric bells. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. 1. about No. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. --Contributed by W. A rubber band. Lynas. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. as shown in Fig. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. cut in the shape of the letter T. in the shape shown in the sketch. London. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. All of the parts for the armor have been described. 3. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. A piece of tin.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. as shown by the dotted lines. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. 25 gauge. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. says the English Mechanic. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. at A. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. About 1 in. acts as a spring to keep the key open. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. . the paper covering put on. H. then covered with red. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. except that for the legs. leaving about 1/4 in.

and eight small holes. Instead of using brass headed nails. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. completes the equipment. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. drill six 1/4-in. By moving the position of the bolt from. These can be purchased at a stationery store.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. Fig. for the sake of lightness. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. holes. can be made in a few minutes' time. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. apart. A 1/4-in. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. Secure two strips of wood. not too tight. hole in the center. The two pieces are bolted together. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. says Camera Craft. 1 and drill a 1/4in. 2. Cut them to a length or 40 in. Take the piece shown in Fig. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. flat headed carriage bolt. 1 in. in the other end.. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. make the same series of eight small holes and. apart. long. about 1 in. one to another . So set up. or ordinary plaster laths will do. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. 3 in. at each end. In one end of the piece. Silver paper will do very well. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush.

long. the one marked A. In this sketch. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. Fig. C over D and B. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. Start with one end. taking the same start as for the square fob. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. and lay it over the one to the right. but instead of reversing . D over A and C. A is the first string and B is the second. 2. A round fob is made in a similar way. 2. Then draw all four ends up snugly. doubled and run through the web of A. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. lay Cover B and the one under D. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. then B over C and the end stuck under A. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. as in portraiture and the like. as shown in Fig. 4. and the one beneath C. Then take B and lay it over A. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. for instance. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. in Fig. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. 1. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. of the ends remain unwoven. 2.of the larger holes in the strip.

The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. over the one to its right. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. Other designs can be made in the same manner. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. 1-1/2 in. A loop. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. long. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. Rupp. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. always lap one string. 5. is to be made of leather. --Contributed by John P. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. especially if silk strings are used. as at A in Fig. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. Monroeville. Ohio. as B. 3.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. is left out at the center before starting on one side. as in making the square fob. the design of which is shown herewith. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. The round fob is shown in Fig.

Northville. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. beeswax or paraffin. it can be easily renewed.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. pressing it against the wood. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. Mich. When the supply of wax is exhausted. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. Any smooth piece of steel. Houghton. door facing or door panel. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. using the reverse side. . filling them with wax. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. -Contributed by A. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. such as a nut pick. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. A.

and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Ill. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. J. if blueprints are used. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. although tin ones can be used with good success. Petersburg. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. . Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. apart and driven in only part way. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. --Contributed by O. The tacks should be about 1 in. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. leaving about 1/4 in. long. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. Thompson. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. place it face down in the dish. N. Y. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. E and F. Fold together on lines C. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. and after wetting. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. thick. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. D. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. but any kind that will not stick may be used. and about 12 in. it is best to leave a plain white margin. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Enough plaster should. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. remaining above the surface of the board. says Photographic Times. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. New York. those on matte paper will work best. Select the print you wish to mount.

violets. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Lower into the test tube a wire. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. etc. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. as shown in the right of the sketch. will be rendered perfectly white. as shown at the left in the sketch. bell flowers.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. One of the .. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. filling the same about onehalf full. without mixing the solutions. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. roses.

not too tightly. turned a little tapering. The diaphragm. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. long. The sound box. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. as shown in the sketch. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. but which will not wobble loose. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. long and made of wood. 2. The tin horn can be easily made. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The first point should be ground blunt. should be soldered to the box. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. L. or delicate tints of the egg. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . When soldering these parts together. South Dakota. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. 3. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. Millstown. thick. 1. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. about 1/8s in. Shabino. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm.. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. --Contributed by L. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. in diameter and 1 in. shading. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. as shown. to keep the core from coming off in turning. 1-7/8 in.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. Fig. A rod that will fit the brass tube. is about 2-1/2 in. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. made of heavy tin. and at the larger end. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box.

A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. wondering what it was. says the Iowa Homestead. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Colo. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. E. Gold. Chicago. put a board on top. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom.Contributed by E.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Victor. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. and. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. mice in the bottom. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Ill. Jr.

Y. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. . A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Ottawa. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. Can. --Contributed by Lyndwode. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. Buffalo. N. Pereira.

cut round. longer than the length of the can. --Contributed by W. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. Grand Rapids. This cart has no axle. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. De Loof. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. by means of a flatheaded tack. Jaquythe. above the end of the dasher. through which several holes have been punched. Mich. a piece of tin. Put a small nail 2 in. Cal. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. and at one end of the stick fasten. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. --Contributed by Thos. as shown.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. A. Richmond. as it can be made quickly in any size.

Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. The baseboard and top are separable. 1-1/2 in. apart. Notches 1/8 in. 1. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. thick. I reversed a door gong. 1/4 in. A wedge-shaped piece of . of course.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. --Contributed by James M. La. New Orleans. cut in the center of the rounding edge. wide and as long as the box. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. wide and 3 ft. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. wide and 1/8 in. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. 2. wide. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2. screwed it on the inside of a store box. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. Kane. 2 in. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. as shown. were below the level of the bullseye.1. Fig. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. deep and 3 in. long. 2. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. The candles. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. board. 1 ft. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. Doylestown. Pa.

the reason being that if both were solid. the blade is put back into the groove . dressing one surface of each piece. After the glue has dried. take two pieces of hard wood. The block can also be used as a paperweight. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon.. West Union. Worcester.Book Back Holders metal. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. 3. Wood. Needles. This device is very convenient for invalids. --Contributed by G. it can be removed without marring the casing. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. A. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Mass. can be picked up without any trouble. to prevent its scratching the desk top. Cover the block with rubber. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. 1. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. wide rubber bands or felt. scissors. by cutting away the ends. Ia. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. stone or wood. When not in use. wide into each side of the casing. For the handle. as shown in Fig. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. etc. After completing the handle. will. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. the shelf could not be put on the window. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. when placed as in Fig.

square and 4 in. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Cleveland. thus carrying the car up the incline. 1. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. A notch is cut in one side. is shown in the accompanying sketch. --Contributed by H. Erie. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. S. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. If desired. Hutchins. as shown in Fig. . Pa. Mass. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Ohio. Jacobs. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. A. long. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. 2. --Contributed by Maud McKee. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Malden. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. 1 in. as shown in Fig.and sharpened to a cutting edge. -Contributed by W.

The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. Prepare a design for the front. N. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. .J.. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. One sheet of metal. The letters can be put on afterward. a board on which to work it. will be needed. This will insure having all parts alike. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. and an awl and hammer. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. 6 by 9-1/2 in. If one such as is shown is to be used. Cape May Point.

Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. varnish. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. 1/4 part. but weird and distant.Fasten the metal to the board." In all appearance. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. If any polishing is required. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. 1 part. The stick may be placed by the side of. applied by means of a brush. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. mandolin or guitar. says Master Painter. if desired. behind or through the center of a table leg. which is desirable. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. One coat will do. paste the paper design right on the metal. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. Remove the metal. that can be worked in your own parlor. in the waste metal. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. So impressive are the results. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. a violin. The music will not sound natural. On the back. flat brush. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. 3/4 part. turpentine. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. or. . placed on a table. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. to right angles. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. only the marginal line is to be pierced. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. as shown. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. 2 parts white vitriol.

after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. The longest piece. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. each 28 in. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. long and spread about 8 in. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. says Work. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. thick by 1/2 in. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. With proper tools this is easy. across the top. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. is bent square so as to form two uprights. square bar iron. and is easy to construct. Two pairs of feet. . Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. each 6 in. London. it might be difficult. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. round-head machine screws. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. without them. 2. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. long. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. wide. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. long and measuring 26 in. are shaped as shown in Fig. apart. 3.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it.

better still. as shown in Fig. Fig. is held by the brads. 5. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. The design is formed in the lead. and the base border. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. 6. Fig. on it as shown. 4. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. special flux purchased for this purpose. 7. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. C. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. the latter being tapped to . 5. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. B. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. using rosin as a flux. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. While the piece of lead D. The glass. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. After the joints are soldered. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. cut a long piece of lead. in the grooves of the borders. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. lead. Place the corner piece of glass. D. After the glass is cut. A. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. The brads are then removed. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. or.

long. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. This . Bore a 5/8-in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. long. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. plank about 12 ft. as shown in Fig. then drill a 3/4-in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. This ring can be made of 1-in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. long. not less than 4 in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in.. bolt. Fasten the plates to the block B. square and of the length given in the drawing. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Two styles of hand holds are shown.the base of the clip. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Make three washers 3-in. one on each side and central with the hole. Secure a post. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. J. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. holes through their centers. thick and drill 3/4-in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. in diameter and 1/4 in. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Bore a 3/4-in. The center pin is 3/4-in. Jr. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. plates. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. in diameter and about 9 in. 8. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. rounded at the top as shown. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. Camden. bolt. wood screws in each washer. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. and two wood blocks. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Dreier. N. rocker bolt. and round the corners of one end for a ring. A and B. --Contributed by W. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. then flatten its end on the under side. H.

The four 7-in. Draw a line on the four 7-in. of 1/4-in. bolts and rope. long. long. by 2 ft. long. square by 9-1/2 ft. boards along the side of each from end to end. horse and rings. long. long and 1 piece. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. long. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 1-1/4in. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. 4 pieces. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. 1. 4 in. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. in diameter and 7 in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. maple. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. If trees are convenient. because it will not stand the weather. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. long. 4 in. 3 in. can make a first class gymnasium. by 6-1/2 ft. and some one can swing an axe. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. chestnut or ash. La. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. bit. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. the money outlay will be almost nothing. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. New Orleans. 9 in. screws. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 50 ft. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. square by 5 ft.will make an excellent cover for a pot. To substitute small. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. 7 in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. by 3 ft. 1/2 in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. straight-grained hickory. shanks. hickory. 4 pieces. 16 screws. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. 2-1/2 in. 4 filler pieces. from one edge. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. 1 by 7 in. 3/4 by 3 in. 2 by 4 in.

so the 1/2-in. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . each 3 ft. apart. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. at each end. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. 8 in. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. deep and remove all loose dirt. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. piece of wood. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. apart. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Bore a 9/16-in. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. 2. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. from the end. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. boards coincide. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed.. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig.bored. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in..

. When the interest of the crowd. in an endless belt. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. it is taken to the edge of the foot. W. was at its height. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. but most deceptive at dusk. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. and then passes in a curve across the base. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. And all he used was a black thread.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. not much to look at in daytime. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass.. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. the effect is very striking. disappearing only to reappear again. about 100 ft. which at once gathered. passing through a screweye at either end." which skimmed along the distant horizon. He stretched the thread between two buildings. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. it follows the edge for about 1 in. If the tumbler is rotated. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. just visible against the dark evening sky. not even the tumbler. and ascends the stem. apart. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. and materially heightened the illusion.

2 by 3 in. 8 in. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. preferably cedar. wide and 1 in. New Orleans. Fig. 7 in. long. from either side of the center. 4 in.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. To make the apparatus. La. and turned in a spiral D. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. square and 51/2 ft. 4 knee braces. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 1. by 7 ft. beginning at a point 9 in. long. 2 side braces. 2 by 4 in. large spikes. 2 base pieces. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 8 bolts. by 3 ft. long. long. long. deep. by 10 ft. The cork will come out easily. 4 wood screws. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. long and 1 doz. square and 6 ft. 4 in. long. 8 in. 2 by 4 in. A wire about No. long. Bevel the ends of . --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. by 2 ft. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 4 bolts. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 2 cross braces. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 2 by 4 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 2 in. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 6 in. so the point will be on top. 8 in. Chisel out two notches 4 in.

The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. equipped with a strainer. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. of 7 ft.the knee braces. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. Two endpieces must be made. using four of the 7-in bolts. jellies. except the bars. which face each other. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. save the bars. Cal. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. screws. After the trenches are dug. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. leave it undressed. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. The wood so treated will last for years. A. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. ( To be Continued. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. Richmond.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. as shown in the diagram. . The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr.. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. additional long. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. but even unpainted they are very durable. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. A large sized ladle. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. and countersinking the heads. These will allow the ladle to be turned. etc. --Contributed by W. If using mill-cut lumber. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. Jaquythe. so the bolts in both will not meet. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. leaving the strainer always in position.

Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. milling machine. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. . This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. A. drill press or planer. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. partly a barrier for jumps. of sufficient 1ength. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. or various cutting compounds of oil. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. Oil. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. In order to accomplish this experiment. thus holding the pail as shown. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. it is necessary to place a stick. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. which seems impossible.

but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. in diameter--the larger the better. but 5 ft.. These are placed 18 in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. two 1/2-in. by 3 ft. square by 5-1/2 ft. from each end. 4 in. ten 1/2-in. The material required is as follows: Two posts. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. long. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. 3 in. bolts.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. 7 in. To construct. Hand holds must be provided next. long. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. in the ground. bolt. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. long. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. square by 5 ft. is a good length. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds.. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . bolts. 4-1/2 in. projections and splinters. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. long. These are well nailed in place. piece of 2 by 4-in. wood yard or from the woods. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. beginning 1-1/2 in. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. long. and free from knots. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. long. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. 4 in. 2 by 4 in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. bolts. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. by 3 ft. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. 4 knee braces. Procure from a saw mill. apart. The round part of this log must be planed. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. by 3 ft. 2 by 4 in. 4 in. apart in a central position on the horse. long. 2 bases. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. stud cut rounding on one edge. to fasten the knee braces at the top. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. 1 cross brace. 2 by 4 in. long. 2 adjusting pieces. 1 in.

Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. pipe and fittings. snow. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. Cal. but nevertheless. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. water. Such a hand sled can be made in a . the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through.horse top. then bending to the shape desired. over and around. A. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. Also. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. Jaquythe. it is caused by some obstruction. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. no one is responsible but himself.--Contributed by W. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. Richmond. etc. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. such as a dent. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. it is caused by an overloaded shell. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in.

in width and 1/32 in. are all the tools necessary. is much better than a wood sled. Joerin. thick. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Ontario. Mass. W. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. Toronto. Boston. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. 1/4 or 3/16 in. when straightened out. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. Noble. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. --Contributed by James E. 1. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. when complete. will give the length. The end elevation. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. then run a string over each part. These. 2. . France. which. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Vener. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. --Contributed by J.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. --Contributed by Arthur E. Paris. at E and F. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig.

4. and the latter will take on a bright luster. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. are nailed. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. It is best to use soft water. AA and BB. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The method shown in Figs. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. . 3. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. nor that which is partly oxidized. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver.

The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. class ice-yacht. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. 2. or unequal widths as in Fig. 4. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. 2. 1). 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. as shown in Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. The materials used are: backbone. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. 8 and 9. . the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. or various rulings may be made. as shown in Fig. 3. Broad lines can be made. Percy Ashley in Rudder. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. 1-Details of Lathe sort. It can be made longer or shorter. a larger size of pipe should be used. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. bent and drilled as shown. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. but if it is made much longer. 1.Fig. A good and substantial homemade lathe. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. pins to keep them from turning. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. about 30 in. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The headstock is made of two tees. out from the collar. long. pipe. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. Both the lower . The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. a tee and a forging. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow.

Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. but also their insulating properties. as shown in Fig. and will answer for a great variety of work. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. 1. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Fruitvale. UpDeGraff. 2. --Contributed by W. Man. as shown in Fig.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. 2. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. --Contributed by W. 2. Musgrove. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. Indiana. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. It is about 1 in. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. thick as desired. To do this. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. a corresponding line made on this. Laporte. Cal. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. M. . 3/4 or 1 in. or a key can be used as well. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. else taper turning will result. Boissevain. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. W. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Held. a straight line should be scratched Fig. --Contributed by M.

Ft. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . Ark. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. Smith.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. long. Cline. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. as shown. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. J. --Contributed by E. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. In use. To obviate this. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. The handle is of pine about 18 in.

This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. New Orleans. if this method is followed: First. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. After being entered. and when once in true up to its size. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. Denver. on starting the lathe. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. take . To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. centering is just one operation too many. the drill does not need the tool. La. Colo. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. which should be backed out of contact. face off the end of the piece. --Contributed by Walter W. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. This prevents the drill from wobbling. White.

Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. after being shown empty. and can be varied to suit the performer. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. is put into the paper tube A. by applying caustic soda or . Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. as shown in D. The glass tube B. a long piece of glass tubing. the cap is placed over the paper tube. shorter t h a n the wand. After the wand is removed. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. says the Sphinx. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. vanishing wand. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. shown at C. a bout 1/2 in. In doing this. all the better. The handkerchief rod. and this given to someone to hold. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. unknown to the spectators. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. It can be used in a great number of tricks. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping.

Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. and if care is taken in selecting the material. End. long. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt.potash around the edges of the letters. As the cement softens. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. and glue it to the neck at F. The brace at D is 1 in. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. 1. by 14 by 17 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. across the front and back to strengthen them. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. Glue strips of soft wood. 1/4 in. This dimension and those for the frets . A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. as shown by K. can be made by the home mechanic. The sides. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. With care and patience. with the back side rounding. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. square and 1-7/8 in. 1 End. thick. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. Glue the neck to the box. 1 Neck. 3/16. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. 2 Sides. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. preferably hard maple. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. 1 Bottom. cut to any shape desired. Cut a piece of hard wood.

O. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. Stoddard. 3/16 in. long is used for a keel.should be made accurately. Frary. or backbone. in diameter. Carbondale.Pa. 1) on which to stretch the paper. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. and beveled . The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. but it is not. Norwalk. wide and 11-1/2 ft. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. -Contributed by J. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. E. When it is completed you will have a canoe. H. Six holes. A board 1 in. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. thick and about 1 ft. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. toward each end. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. --Contributed by Chas. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing.

) in notches. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. 2). For the ribs near the middle of the boat. B. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. 2). For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. 4). light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. and. long. the loose strips of ash (b. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. 3). 3. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. apart. Fig. 1. b. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. by means of a string or wire. but before doing this. C. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. slender switches of osier willow. or similar material. Fig. C. thick. thick. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. are next put in. b. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. twigs 5 or 6 ft. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. will answer nearly as well. Fig. such as hazel or birch. 3/8 in. Fig. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. some tight strips of ash. buy some split cane or rattan.. and notched at the end to receive them (B. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. long are required. as shown in Fig. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. but twigs of some other trees. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. 2. as before described. wide by 26 in. Any tough. and are not fastened. Fig. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. with long stout screws. The cross-boards (B. and so. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. as shown in Fig. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. as they are apt to do. or other place. in thickness and should be cut. which are easily made of long. Green wood is preferable. The ribs. Fig. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. b. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. 1 and 2. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. two twigs may be used to make one rib. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. Osiers probably make the best ribs. 13 in. . in such cases. when made of green elm. a. Shape these as shown by A. For the gunwales (a. Fig. probably. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. 4. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. two strips of wood (b. 3. These are better. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. Fig. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. 3). Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. In drying. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. procure at a carriage factory. Fig. such as is used for making chairbottoms.

Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. apply a second coat of the same varnish. Then take some of the split rattan and. and very tough. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. of very strong wrapping-paper. and light oars. however. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. It should be drawn tight along the edges. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. after wetting it. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. If the paper be 1 yd. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. if it has been properly constructed of good material. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. If not. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. and as soon as that has soaked in. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. The paper is then trimmed. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. wide. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. B. Fig. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. You may put in . When the paper is dry. and held in place by means of small clamps. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. 5). and steady in the water. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. When thoroughly dry. tacking it to the bottom-board. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. Being made in long rolls. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. but with less turpentine. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. but neither stiff nor very thick.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. preferably iron. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. It should be smooth on the surface.

We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. Fig. 5). and if driven as shown in the cut. 5. Fig. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. and make a movable seat (A. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. they will support very heavy weights. Fig. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. Drive the lower nail first. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. 1. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. 1 and the end in . For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. 2. fore and aft. to fit it easily. We procured a box and made a frame. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box.

Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. and the result is. Close the other end with the same operation. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. 3. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. Pittsburg. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. being softer where the flame has been applied. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. A good way to handle this work. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand.Fig. and the glass. 5. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. 4. Pa. this makes the tube airtight. This is an easy . and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. This way has its drawbacks. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity.

This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. also trace the decorative design. 23 gauge. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. second. Sixth. then reverse. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. Seventh. file. four. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. very rapid progress can be made. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. three. extra metal all around. rivet punch. fourth. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. above the work and striking it with the hammer.way to make a thermometer tube. with a piece of carbon paper. The candle holders may have two. above the metal. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. Oswald. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. flat and round-nosed pliers. After the bulb is formed. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. -Contributed by A. thin screw. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. Give the metal a circular motion. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. or six arms. third. metal shears. fifth.

The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. Metal polish of any kind will do. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. drip cup. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. Having pierced the bracket. and holder. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. Small copper rivets are used.

Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. and it will be ready for future use. smooth it down and then remove as before. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. the stick at the bottom of the sail. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. using a steel pen. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. thus it was utilized. alcohol 2 parts. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. A saw. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. Heat 6-1/2 oz. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. all the rest I found. when it will be ready for use. deep. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. and in a week . J. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. and add the gelatine. and other things as they were needed. sugar 1 part. glycerine 4 parts. I steer with the front wheel.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. Fifty. they were like an ice boat with a sail. winding the ends where they came together with wire. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. Mother let me have a sheet. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. N. Soak 1 oz. Shiloh. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. if it has not absorbed too much ink. Twenty cents was all I spent. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. on a water bath. The boom. and water 24 parts. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. of glycerine to about 200 deg. and brace and bit were the tools used. except they had wheels instead of runners. The gaff. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. F. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. hammer. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. is a broomstick. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper.

A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. a projecting lens .Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. as desired. are . 1. or glue. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. This ring is made up from two rings. G. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. 8 in. but if such a box is not found. at a point 1 in. E. H. A and B. wide. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. 1/2 to 3/4 in. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. 3. describe a 9-in. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. and 14 in. A table. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. wire brads. and the lens slide. focus enlarging a 3-in. DD. and a projecting lens 2 in. If a small saw is used. above the center. Fig. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. and. The slide support. well seasoned pine. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. or a lens of 12-in. at a distance of 24 ft. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. provided the material is of metal. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw.. slide to about 6 ft. and the work carefully done. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. about 2 ft. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. wide and 15 in. high. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. long. The board is centered both ways. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. thick.

The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. Minn. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. The arrangement is quite safe as.constructed to slip easily on the table. Paul. should the glass happen to upset. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. E. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. and when the right position is found for each. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. A sheet . The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. but not long enough. placed on the water. light burning oil. of safe. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. JJ. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides.-Contributed by G. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. the water at once extinguishes the flame. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. the strips II serving as guides. B. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. Small strips of tin. St. To reach the water. apply two coats of shellac varnish. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. P.

Y. from a tent company. --Contributed by J. form a piece of wire in the same shape. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. by 12 ft.. to cover the mattresses. 2. then the corners on one end are doubled over. 4. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. 9 in. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 3 in. Fig.H. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . Fig. 3. I ordered a canvas bag. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. 1. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. N. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. Crawford. Schenectady. If one of these clips is not at hand.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. 3. 12 ft.

long. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. 2. 2. Do not use too strong a rubber. 1/2 in. V. Fig. to the coil of small wire for volts. wide. --Contributed by Walter W. D. 2. apart. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. through which the indicator works. Fold two strips of light cardboard. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. 3/4 in. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. 3 to swing freely on the tack. first mark the binding-post A. thick. open on the edges. 1. as shown in Fig. C. A rubber band. for amperes and the other post. in the center coil. White. An arc is cut in the paper. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. Attach a piece of steel rod. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. Pa. 1. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. drill two 3/16 in. insulating them from the case with cardboard. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. Warren. To calibrate the instrument. to keep it from unwinding. 3/4 in. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. Teasdale. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. 1/2 in. holes in the edge.each edge. A Film Washing Trough [331] . The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. so as to form two oblong boxes. long and 3/16 in. Colo. and insert two binding-posts. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. Denver. Fig. Fasten the wire with gummed label. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. --Contributed by Edward M.

with the large hole up. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Hunting. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. --Contributed by M. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. O. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. M. as shown.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Wood Burning [331] . Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Dayton. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Place this can on one end of the trough. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Cut a 1/4-in.

Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. then into this bottle place. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . mouth downward.

thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. This will make a very pretty ornament. wide and 4 in. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. If the cork is adjusted properly.Y. 1. --Contributed by John Shahan. 2. If the small bottle used is opaque. but not very thick. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. 3/4 in. Auburn. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. Whitehouse. Ala. Upper Troy. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. thick. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. many puzzling effects may be obtained. Place the small bottle in as before. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. long. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . N. provided the bottle is wide. --Contributed by Fred W. as shown in the sketch.

induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. which was 6 in. 2 ft. wide. K. high without the upper half. Fig. 2. even in a light breeze. pulley. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. W. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. which gave considerable power for its size. B. The wire L was put . 4. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. 1. 1. long. The shaft C. was keyed to shaft C. which was nailed to the face plate. thick and 3 in.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. to the shaft. sugar pine on account of its softness. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. line. pulley F. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. Fig. Fig. which extended to the ground. The 21/2-in. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. in diameter and 1 in. thick. The bearing blocks were 3 in. G. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. as shown in Fig. Milter. --Contributed by D. by the method shown in Fig. thick. 3. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. Its smaller parts. 1. or ordinary telephone transmitters. Fig. 1. A staple. were constructed of 1-in. iron rod. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. Fig. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. If a transmitter is used. such as blades and pulleys. I. 1 in. Both bearings were made in this manner. 1. On a 1000-ft. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. was 1/4in.

Shaft G was but 1/4 in. 6. wide and 1 in. The power was put to various uses. H. Fig. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. G. washers were placed under pulley F. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. There a 1/4-in. 25 ft. long and bend it as . and was cut the shape shown. long. a 1/2-in. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. hole for the shaft G was in the center. providing one has a few old materials on hand. was 2 ft. with all parts in place. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. was tacked. apart in the tower. pine 18 by 12 in. cut out another piece of tin (X. long. in the center of the board P. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. This board was 12 in. Fig. The bed plate D. 1. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. 1) 4 in. 3 in. This fan was made of 1/4-in. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. 2. Two washers were placed on shaft C. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. Fig. across the thin edge of a board. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. If you have no bell. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. for instance. in diameter. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. 1. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. so that the 1/4-in. Fig. hole was bored for it. Fig. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. strips.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. The other lid. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. To make the key. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. top down also. 5. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. 6. Fig. This completes the receiver or sounder. with brass headed furniture tacks. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. Fig. To lessen the friction here. through the latter. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. The smaller one. 0. 1. R. long and 3 in. as. 1. when the windmill needed oiling. long and bend it as shown at A. long and 1/2 in. square to the board P at the top of the tower. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. Procure a block of wood about 6 in.

probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. By adjusting the coils. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. Going back to Fig. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. as indicated. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. like many another device boys make. -Contributed by John R. Now. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. although it can be made with but two. When tired of this instrument. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. as shown at Water. Thus a center drive is made. fitted with paddles as at M. leaving the other wire as it is. 2. at the front. The rear barrels are.shown. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. after the manner of bicycle wheels. McConnell. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. 1. Before tacking it to the board. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. causing a buzzing sound. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. and. using cleats to hold the board frame.

The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. as shown in Fig. can be built. feet on the pedals. 1.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. or even a little houseboat. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. 3. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . there will not be much friction. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. which will give any amount of pleasure. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. There is no danger. If the journals thus made are well oiled. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. copper piping and brass tubing for base. To propel it. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. The speed is slow at first. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. seat yourself on the bicycle seat.

If magnifying glass cannot be had. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Fig. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. and so creating a false circuit. Fig. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. A. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. Then melt out the rosin or lead. Turn a small circle of wood. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder.of pleasure for a little work. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. then the glass disc and then the other ring. 2. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. B. C. 1. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. 2. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. 1. 1. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. or it may be put to other uses if desired. 2. If it is desired to make the light very complete. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. Place one brass ring in cylinder. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. D. Fig. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Fig. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector.

In placing clock on shelf. H. S. by having the switch on the baseboard. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. Throw lever off from the right to center. Swissvale. To get the cylinder into its carriage. or 1/4in. while lying in bed. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. and pulled tight. 5-1/4 by 10 in. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. which stops bell ringing. brass rod. D.india rubber tubing. key of alarm clock. bracket. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. --Contributed by C. 4 in. C. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. copper tubing. set alarm key as shown in diagram. Utah. The parts indicated are as follows: A. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. To operate this. switch. I. bell. Chatland. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. brass strip. F. if too small. wide and 1/16 in. X. Pa. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. thick. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. To throw on light throw levers to the left. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. wire from light to switch. C. 4-1/2 in. long. Brinkerhoff. such as is used for cycle valves. B. after two turns have been made on the key. shelf. wire from batteries to switch. J. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. 3/8 in. some glue will secure them. long. E. after setting alarm. G. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] .. Ogden. dry batteries. When alarm goes off. contact post. near the bed. --Contributed by Geo. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. T. wire from bell to switch.

There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. Chapman. gives the heater a more finished appearance. 2. wide. as in Fig. Fig. All that is required is a tin covering. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Fig. a bed warmer. being careful not to get the sand in it. in diameter. will do the heating. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. as at A. beyond the end of the spindle. Minn.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. A small lamp of about 5 cp. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. 2. as . Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. about 6 in. in diameter. from one end. as at B. about 3-1/2 in. which can be made of an old can. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. Having finished this. 4 in. 1/4 in. Lanesboro. Make the spindle as in Fig. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. Make a shoulder. S. for instance. as at A. Fig. This is to form the fuse hole. 1. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. making it as true and smooth as possible. long. --Contributed by Chas. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. letting it extend 3/4 in. A flannel bag. 3. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Pull out the nail and stick. place stick and all in a pail of sand. 1. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon.

wide and a trifle over 3 ft. A piece of tin. Joerin. but if this wood cannot be procured. long. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. good straight-grained pine will do. The material must be 1-1/2 in. long. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. this is to keep the edges from splitting. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. 1 in. thick. --Contributed by Arthur E. or hickory. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. deep. 5/8 in. 1. spring and arrows. wide and 3 ft. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. wide and 6 ft. ash. wide and 3/8 in. 3/8 in. thick. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. 11/2 in. A piece of oak. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. long. thick.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. 6 in. will be sufficient to make the trigger. The illustration shows how this is done.

long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. which is 1/4 in. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. The bow is not fastened in the stock. having the latter swing quite freely. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. Fig. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. Such a temporary safe light may be . pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. in diameter. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. Wilmette. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. Fig. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. The trigger. To throw the arrow. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. Trownes. Fig. 3. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. E. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. 6.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. 4. A spring. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. as shown in Fig. 9. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. it lifts the spring up. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. --Contributed by O. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. 2. When the trigger is pulled. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. and one for the trigger 12 in. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. from the end of the stock. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. as shown in Fig. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. The stick for the bow. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. from the opposite end. 8. or through the necessity of. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. wide at each end. Ill. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. better still. thick. 7. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. To shoot the crossbow. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. place the arrow in the groove. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part.

bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. make the frame of the wigwam. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. respectively. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. it is the easiest camp to make. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. from the ground. is used as a door. and nail it in position as shown at A. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. C. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. Remove the bottom of the box. since the flame of the candle is above A. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. from the ground. making lighting and trimming convenient. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. Moreover. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. the bark lean-to is a . a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. and replace as shown at B. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. The hinged cover E. This lamp is safe. Remove one end. By chopping the trunk almost through. says Photo Era. apart. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. The cut should be about 5 ft. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side.

make the best kind of a camp bed. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. A piece of elm or hickory. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. Where bark is used. For a foot in the middle of the stick. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. thick. a 2-in. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. makes a good pair of tongs. long. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. are a convenient size for camp construction. will dry flat. 6 ft. nails are necessary to hold it in place. 3 ft. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. and cedar. spruce. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. selecting a site for a camp. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. and when the camp is pitched. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. For a permanent camp. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. piled 2 or 3 ft. long and 1-1/2 in. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. Tongs are very useful in camp. Sheets of bark. and split the tops with an ax. long and 2 or 3 ft. . The bark is easily pried off with an ax.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. wide. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. wide and 6 ft. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. In the early summer. deep and covered with blankets. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp.

A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. hinges. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. . and affording accommodation for several persons. or even a rough lock for the camp larder.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats.

to another . B. wide. --Contributed by James M. changing the water both morning and night.. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. deep and 4 in. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. B. I drove a small cork. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Doylestown. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. Fig.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. Pa. about 4 in. A. and provide a cover or door. 1. the interior can. Kane. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell.

The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. until. fused into one side. 2. 3. 2. to pass through an increasing resistance. such as ether. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. 4 and 5). With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. for instance. if necessary. The current is thus compelled. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. Fig. which project inside and outside of the tube. limit. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. a liquid. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. The diagram. C. This makes .glass tube. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. E. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. for instance.

These holes are for the bearing studs. therefore. 4-1/2 in. larger than the dimensions given. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. hole is . is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. in diameter. clamp the template. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. drill the four rivet holes. making it 1/16 in. 2. Fig. thick. to allow for finishing. thicker. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. which may be of any thickness so that. Fig. by turning the lathe with the hand. or pattern. in diameter. If the thickness is sufficient. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. 3-3/8 in. A 5/8in. and for the outside of the frame. 1. Alpena. mark off a space. thick. Then the field can be finished to these marks. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. or even 1/16 in. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. When the frame is finished so far. between centers. Michigan. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. 3-3/8 in. bent at right angles as shown. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. is composed of wrought sheet iron. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. as shown in Fig. they will make a frame 3/4 in. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. Before removing the field from the lathe. The bearing studs are now made.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. brass or iron. as shown in the left-hand sketch. two holes. tap. After the template is marked out. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. screws. brass. After cleaning them with the solution. 3. cannot be used so often. set at 1/8 in. assemble and rivet them solidly. which will make it uniform in size. but merely discolored. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. when several pieces are placed together. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. A. on a lathe.

soldered into place. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. When the bearings are located. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. The shaft of the armature. and build up the solder well. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . brass rod is inserted. into which a piece of 5/8-in. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. is turned up from machine steel. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. Fig. or otherwise finished.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. 4. solder them to the supports. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. file them out to make the proper adjustment. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft.

Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. 3. After they . in diameter and fit in a brass spider. 1/8 in. to allow for finishing to size. or segments. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. The sides are also faced off and finished. 6. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. inside diameter. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. 6. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. thick and 1/4 in. then drill a 1/8-in. When this is accomplished. by 1-1/2 in. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. thick. brass rod. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in.. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. washers. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. sheet fiber. being formed for the ends. Procure 12 strips of mica. 8. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. deep and 7/16 in. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. wide. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. After the pieces are cut out. thick. and then they are soaked in warm water. and held with a setscrew. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. When annealed. Find the centers of each segment at one end. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. 9. thick. 1-1/8 in. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. threaded. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. 3/4 in. 7. 3. thick are cut like the pattern. as shown in Fig. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. Make the core 3/4 in. The pins are made of brass. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. Rivet them together. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. hole and tap it for a pin. holes through them for rivets. 3/4 in. wide. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. as shown m Fig. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. 5. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. Armature-Ring Core.

sheet fiber. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. After one coil. or side. This winding is for a series motor. The field is wound with No. The two ends are joined at B. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Run one end of the field wire. 1. long. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. and wind on four layers. The source of current is connected to the terminals. 8 in. To connect the wires. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. until the 12 slots are filled. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. 6 in. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. about 100 ft. by bending the end around one of the projections. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. the two ends of the wire. When the glue is set. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. of the wire. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. 1. of the end to protrude. Fig. In starting to wind. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. Fig. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. The winding is started at A. All connections should be securely soldered. wide and 1 in. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. are soldered together. 5. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. being required. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. sheet fiber. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side.have dried. of No. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. shown at B. thick. they are glued to the core insulation. after the motor is on the stand. shown at A. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. which will take 50 ft. yet it shows a series of . insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent.

iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. Nine wires run from the timer.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. which serves as the ground wire. one from each of the eight contacts. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. as in the case of a spiral. A 1/2-in. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. is fastened to the metallic body. and one. still more simply. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. or. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both.

two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. of the dial. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill.The Wind Vane. It should be . the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. 6 in. Covering these is a thin. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. Without this attachment. 45 deg. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. thus giving 16 different directions. long. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. circle. board. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts.

A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. Buffalo. high. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. however. To work these outlines. thus making a universal joint. To make it. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. will answer the purpose just as well. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. and about 6 in. called a chip carving knife.about 6 ft. if not too high. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. and securely nail on the top of the box. -Contributed by James L. . Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. or. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. Y. according to who is going to use it. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. Fill the box with any handy ballast. Cut 3-in. long to give the best results. also a piece of new carpet. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. will be enough for the two sides. N. Blackmer. Before tacking the fourth side. though a special knife. is most satisfactory. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. will be sufficient. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. Place the leather on some level. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. 14 by 18 in. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. making it heavy or light.

Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. An ordinary sewing-machine . Paste the silk plush to the inner side.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. A good leather paste will be required. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.

With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. Syracuse. rather than the smooth side. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. as in cases of a sprained ankle. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Morse. temporary lameness. a needle and some feathers. can be thrown away when no longer needed.will do if a good stout needle is used. square and tying a piece of . Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. B. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. or a hip that has been wrenched. --Contributed by Katharine D. and fasten the feathers inside of it. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. and tie them together securely at the bottom. of water. away from it. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Y. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. If a fire breaks out. of common salt and 10 lb. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. N. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb.

The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. commonly called tintype tin. Paterson. Hellwig. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. G.string to each corner. deep. wide and 1/16 in.J. made up of four layers of No. Albany. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. the corners being wired. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. This not only keeps the rats out. thus helping the rats to enter. --Contributed by J. and a coil of wire. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. but not sharp. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. laying poisoned meat and meal. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. E. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. Wis. long. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. is cut on the wood. etc. long. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. which is the essential part of the instrument. F. and the receiver is ready for use. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. The body of the receiver. . board all around the bottom on the inside. The strings should be about 15 in. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. One end is removed entirely. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. as shown. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. A small wooden or fiber end. B. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. and tacked it to the boards. N. The coil is 1 in. A. Y. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. --Contributed by John A. The end is filed to an edge. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. 1/8 in. Ashland. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. The diaphragm C. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. N. Gordon Dempsey. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. cut to the length of the spool. high. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. wound on the head end. letting it go at arm's length.. There is a 1-in. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. setting traps. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in.

it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. gold. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. and bend each strip in shape. The vase is to have three supports. A single line will be sufficient. begin with the smallest scrolls. wide. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. a piece of small wire. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. To clean small articles. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. to . The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. better still. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. Take a piece of string or. Take a pair of round-nose pliers.

Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. . The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. sharp pencil. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. as shown in the sketch.. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. 3-1/2 in. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. from the lines EF on the piece. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. and does not require coloring.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. from E to F. 6-3/8 in. After taking off the pattern. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. Fold the leather on the line EF. wide when stitching up the purse. Trace also the line around the purse. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together.. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. 4-1/4 in. Work down the outside line of the design. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. from C to D. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. 3-1/4 in. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. thus raising it. through which to slip the fly AGH. About 1 in. Press or model down the leather all around the design. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B.which the supports are fastened with rivets. using a duller point of the tool.

Procure a thin board 1/4 in. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. and the projections B. with pins or small nails. This also should be slightly beveled. leaving the lug a. then place the square piece out of which Fig. 2.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. long. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. 3. 1. It is neat and efficient. with the open side down. and cut it out as shown in Fig. the "open" side. with a compass saw. with the largest side down. When it is finished. deep. as well as useful. and cut out a wheel. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. following the dotted lines. thick. around the wheel. 1 was cut. b. square. Then nail the wheel down firmly. then nail it.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. Fit this to the two . as shown in Fig. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. all the way around. deep. Now take another piece of wood. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. First. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. and tack the other piece slightly. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. It can be made without the use of a lathe. 1/2 in. and which will be very interesting. being cast in wooden molds. by 12 ft. and. Cut off six pieces 12 in. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. Make the lug 1/4 in. and a model for speed and power.

Then bolt together with six 1/4-in.pieces just finished. one of which should have a 3/8-in. hole entirely through at the same place. slightly beveled. bolts. Take the mold apart. hole 1/4 in. deep. Now take another of the 12-in. hole bored through its center. square pieces of wood. holes through it. and cut it out as shown in Fig. After it is finished. and bore six 1/4-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and lay it away to dry. Now put mold No. place it between two of the 12-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. then bolt it together. and boring a 3/8-in. 1. in the center of it. as shown by the . 4. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. square pieces of wood.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. and clean all the shavings out of it.

2. the other right-handed. and 3/8-in. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. wide and 16 in. where the casting did not fill out. This will cast a paddle-wheel. A piece of mild steel 5 in. and the exhaust hole in projection b. and pouring metal in to fill it up. take an ordinary brace. 4. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. see that the bolts are all tight. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. place the entire machine in a vise. d. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. until it is full. as shown by the black dots in Fig. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. 6. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. This is the same as Fig. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. long.2. Using the Brace .1. B. one in the projections. true it up with a square. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. 6. 5. Pour metal into mold No. holes. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. and two 1/4-in. Then bolt the castings together. and drill it entirely through. in diameter must now be obtained. Fig. and drill them in the same manner. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. as shown in illustration. only the one is left-handed. Let it stand for half an hour. and connect to the boiler. and the other in the base. lay it on a level place. drill in it. instead of the right-handed piece. After it is fitted in. over the defective part. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. put the top of the brace through this hole. b. and pour babbitt metal into it. fasten a 3/8-in. Now take mold No. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. 1. Put this together in mold No. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel.black dots in Fig. from the one end. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. place it under the drill. one in the lug. and bore three 1/4-in. long. Now cut out one of the 12-in. screw down. This is for a shaft. so that it will turn easily. This is mold No.1. Commencing 1-1/2 in. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. and run in babbitt metal again. holes at d. and lay it away to dry.

If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. one 6 ft. and if instructions have been carefully followed. At each end of the 6ft. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. and the other 8 ft. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. and. Plan of Ice Boat . Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. with a boss and a set screw. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. will do good service. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. long.. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. turn the wheel to the shape desired. piece and at right angles to it. Then take a knife or a chisel.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. while it is running at full speed. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft.

and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. at the end. should be of hardwood. 8 a reef point knot. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. so much the better will be your boat. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. Fig. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. Over the middle of the 6-ft. 3. plank. bolt the 8-ft. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. The spar should be 9 ft. long. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. The tiller. This fits in the square hole. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . tapering to 1-1/2 in. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. long. at the top. in front of the rudder block. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. piece and at right angles to it. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. in the top before the skate is put on. in diameter. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. where they often did considerable damage. being careful that no