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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

Fig. Fig. 2 -. long will make six boomerangs. away. 1. Toronto. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. E. 1. Ontario. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. distant. It is held in this curve until dry.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. To throw a boomerang. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. 2. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. 1. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. with the hollow side away from you. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. Noble. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . as shown in Fig. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. as shown in Fig. apart. wide and 2 ft. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. --Contributed by J. until it is bound as shown in Fig. grasp it and hold the same as a club. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. The pieces are then dressed round. A piece of plank 12 in. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. 2. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. Practice first at some object about 25 ft.

In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. and it may be necessary to use a little water. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. First. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. forcing it down closely. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. thick. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. one inside of the circle and the other outside. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. If the snow is of the right consistency. 6 in. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. long. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. or rather no bottom at all.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. it is not essential to the support of the walls. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. A very light. dry snow will not pack easily. however. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. minus the top. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. high and 4 or 5 in. and with a movable bottom. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. which makes the building simpler and easier. made of 6-in. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. A wall. the block will drop out. blocks . the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. but about 12 in. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle.

Fig. 1. Goodbrod. and the young architect can imitate them. --Contributed by Geo. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. a.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. 1. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. above the ground. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. There is no outward thrust. which can be made of wood. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. It also keeps them out. Union. 3. which is about 1 ft. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. D. 2. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. long and 1 in. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. Ore. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . 2. is 6 or 8 in.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. C. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. Fig. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. wide. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. or an old safe dial will do. A nail. The piece of wood. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. 3 -. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. Fig. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned.

The bolts are replaced in the hinges. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. S.When taking hot dishes from the stove. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. Merrill. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. Syracuse. the box locked . and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. as the weight always draws them back to place. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. says the Sphinx. one pair of special hinges. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. If ordinary butts are used. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. New York. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. --Contributed by R. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes.

When the sieve is shaken. With the metal shears. It remains to bend the flaps. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. as shown in Fig. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. draw one-half of it. about 1-32 of an inch. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. on drawing paper. All . allowing each coat time to dry. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. Alberta Norrell. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Place the piece in a vise. one for each corner. Ga. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. smooth surface. Fig. If they do not. 3. To make a design similar to the one shown. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. as shown in Fig. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. as shown. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. 1. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. 2. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. proceed as follows: First.and the performer steps out in view. -Contributed by L. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Augusta. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. If the measuring has been done properly.

Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. heats the strip of German-silver wire. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. Galbreath. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. A resistance. if rolled under the shoe sole. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. A piece of porcelain tube. When the current is turned off. about 6 in. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. In boring through rubber corks. C. is fitted tightly in the third hole. of No.the edges should be left smooth. and in the positions shown in the sketch. The common cork. To keep the metal from tarnishing. from the back end. Denver. Colo. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. The current. should be in the line. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. H. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. causing it to expand. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. 25 German-silver wire. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. long. If a touch of color is desired. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. R. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. used for insulation. which is about 6 in. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. in diameter. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . 25 gauge German-silver wire. --Contributed by R. as shown at AA. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. in passing through the lamp. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. After this has dried. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. B. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft.

This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. 2. 3. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Mo. Fig. --Contributed by David Brown. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. . and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. as shown in Fig. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. with thin strips of wood. leaving a space of 4 in. Purchase two long book straps.bottom ring. between them as shown in Fig. 1. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Kansas City. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole.

The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. Kane. 36 in. N.. in diameter. Fig. Morse. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. The folds are made over the string. Pa. 1. C. as . Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. and a pocket battery. Syracuse. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. which is the right weight for family use. Y. Doylestown. 1. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. 1. one weighing 15 lb. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. 4. having a gong 2-1/2 in. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. long. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. --Contributed by James M. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. 2. Fig. These are shown in Fig. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. The string is then tied.. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. and tack smoothly. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. When the aeroplane tips. to form a handle.An ordinary electric bell. just the right weight for a woman to use. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. 3. Fig. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. A. and one weighing 25 lb. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. --Contributed by Katharine D. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. are mounted on the outside of the box. Two strips of brass.

--Contributed by Louis J. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. Day. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. bent as shown in Fig. N. machine screws. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. Frame Made of a Rod . 2. and many fancy knick-knacks. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. such as brackets. The saw. 1.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. 2. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. if once used. Floral Park. two 1/8 -in. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. Y. AA. in diameter. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. long. four washers and four square nuts. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. 3/32 or 1/4 in.

Silver is the most desirable but. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. using a swab and an old stiff brush. of water. If it colors the metal red. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. 1 part sulphuric acid. Of the leathers. the most expensive. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. of course. it has the correct strength. treat it with color. Apply two coats. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. File these edges. of water in which dissolve.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. A. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. Rub off the highlights. For etching. The buckle is to be purchased. An Austrian Top [12] . after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. if copper or brass. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. as well as the depth of etching desired. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. Scranton. Detroit. as well as brass and copper. In the design shown. Watch Fob For coloring silver. Drying will cause this to change to purple.may be made of either brass. or silver. be covered the same as the back. allowing each time to dry. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. --Contributed by W. green and browns are the most popular. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. after breaking up. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. though almost any color may be obtained. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. Michigan. 1 part nitric acid. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures.. use them in place of the outside nuts. copper. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. therefore.

in diameter. allowing only 1-1/4 in. The handle is a piece of pine. pass one end through the 1/16-in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. 1-1/4 in. hole. starting at the bottom and winding upward.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. wide and 3/4 in. thick. --Contributed by J. long. long. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. Ypsilanti. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. A handle. is formed on one end. 3/4 in. Bore a 3/4-in. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. Tholl. 5-1/4 in. When the shank is covered. set the top in the 3/4 -in.F. . Parts of the Top To spin the top. A 1/16-in. Michigan. hole in this end for the top. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way.

Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Ga. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Augusta. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Alberta Norrell. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. The baking surface. Northville. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. --A. A. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. For black leathers. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. tarts or similar pastry. having no sides. --Contributed by Miss L. Mich. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Houghton.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. .

screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . Mo. two turns will remove the jar. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. When you desire to work by white light. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. then solder cover and socket together. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. --Contributed by Irl Hicks.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Stringing Wires [13] A. Centralia. says Studio Light. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. glass fruit jar. the same as shown in the illustration.

so it can be folded up. 16 Horizontal bars. 4 Braces. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. 1-1/4 in. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 1-1/4 in. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. Wis. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. and not tip over. 4 Vertical pieces. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. Janesville.for loading and development. They are fastened. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. as shown in the cross-section sketch. . square by 12 in. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. square by 62 in. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue.

The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. O. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. After rounding the ends of the studs. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. The whole. C. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. The front can be covered . Phillipsburg. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. Rosenthal. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. after filling the pail with water. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. New York. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. Cincinnati. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. -Contributed by Charles Stem. If the loop is tied at the proper place. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. H. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. --Contributed by Dr. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. and a loop made in the end. from scrap material. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth.

and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. the color will be an undesirable. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. principally mayonnaise dressing. 1 FIG. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. By using the following method. thoroughly fix. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. and. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. by all rules of the game. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. either for contact printing or enlargements.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. sickly one. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. The . I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. If the gate is raised slightly. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. Develop them into strong prints. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. In my own practice. Wehr. FIG. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. Baltimore. the mouth of which rests against a. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. The results will be poor. --Contributed by Gilbert A. if you try to tone them afterward. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. Md. you are.

. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. Place the dry print... Iodide of potassium . 2 oz.. preferably the colored kind.. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. Cal... It will bleach slowly and evenly. The blotting paper can .. in this solution..... when it starts to bleach.. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. as it will appear clean much longer than the white..... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. With a little practice.. 1 and again as in Fig.. Gray.. 16 oz. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder... without previous wetting. Water ...... A good final washing completes the process... The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. 5 by 15 in. --Contributed by T... 20 gr.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison... wide and 4 in.. 2. in size. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. to make it 5 by 5 in.. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. three times.. San Francisco.. When the desired reduction has taken place......... The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. where it will continue to bleach.... but. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper." Cyanide of potassium .... An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. transfer it to a tray of water.... The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes....... long to admit the angle support. etc. L.

Wilson Aldred Toronto. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Corners complete are shown in Fig.J. the head of which is 2 in. --Contributed by L. wide below the .Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Oshkosh. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Wisconsin. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. wide. Monahan. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. the shaft 1 in. Make a design similar to that shown. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. 3. 20 gauge. --Contributed by J. and a length of 5 in. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Canada.

then put on a second coat. 4. using a small metal saw. With the metal shears. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. freehand. . which gives the outline of the design Fig.FIG. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. after folding along the center line. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. Apply with a small brush. Pierce a hole with a small drill. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. 3. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. being held perpendicular to the work. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. After this has dried. The metal must be held firmly. 1 part sulphuric acid. With files. Fig. then trace the other half in the usual way. For coloring olive green. 2. 1 part nitric acid. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. Allow this to dry. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. as shown in Fig. Do not put the hands in the solution. but use a swab on a stick. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. deep. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. using turpentine. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. Make one-half of the design. Trace the design on the metal. 1 Fig. then coloring. 1. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. After the sawing. using carbon paper.

First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. attach brass handles. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. M. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. After the stain has dried. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. Richmond. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Burnett. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. New York. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. --Contributed by Katharine D. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. East Hartford. Conn. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. --Contributed by M. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. as shown. thick. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. Carl Cramer. it does the work rapidly. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. .Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Morse. --Contributed by H. Syracuse. Cal. Ii is an ordinary staple. then stain it a mahogany color. on a chopping board. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. When this is cold. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in.

Atwell. H. 53 steel pens. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. holes. Florida. Kissimmee. two enameled. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. or tin. one shaft. 1/4 in. . Cal. --Contributed by W. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. WARNECKE Procure some brass. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered.. Richmond. A. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. saucers or pans. square. as shown in Fig. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. as shown at A. some pieces of brass. also locate the drill holes. Fig. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. not over 1/4 in. brass. thick and 4 in. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. 4.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. in width at the shank. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. Jaquythe. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. indicating the depth of the slots. machine screws. about 3/16 in. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. and several 1/8-in. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. 1. thick. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. --Contributed by Mrs. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. L.

hole is drilled to run off the water. with 1/8-in. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. each about 1 in. hole. These are connected to a 3/8-in. If the shaft is square. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. a square shaft used. 5. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. Two nuts should be placed on each screw.. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. thick. as shown. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. Fig. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. 6. supply pipe. Fig. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. 3. If metal dishes. long by 3/4 in. wide. hole in the center. about 1/32 in. A 3/4-in. The shaft hole may also be filed square. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. long and 5/16 in. into the hole. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. 1. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. 2. thick. Fig. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. in diameter and 1/32 in. with the face of the disk. brass and bolted to the casing. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. and pins inserted. There should be a space of 1/16 in. wide and bend as shown in Fig. Bend as shown in Fig. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. as in Fig. with a 3/8-in. and the ends filed round for the bearings. as shown in Fig. using two nuts on each screw. machine screws and nuts. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. 7. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. lead should be run into the segments. machine screws. can be procured. 2. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . 3. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base.

from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. --Contributed by F. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. V. The lower part. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Ill. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. from the top of the box. La Salle. screws. deep and 1-1/4 in. from the bottom end of the legs. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Cooke. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. square and 30-1/2 in. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. deep over all. using four to each leg. --Contributed by S. long. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. Hamilton. high and 15 in. or more in diameter. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. make these seams come between the two back legs. Be sure to have the cover. Smith. Fasten with 3/4-in. 8-1/2 in. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Canada. to make the bottom. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Stain the wood before putting in the . When assembling. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. With a string or tape measure. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. three of which are in the basket. The four legs are each 3/4-in. Now you will have the box in two pieces. we will call the basket.

lining. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. If all the parts are well sandpapered. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. The folded part in the center is pasted together. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Boston. Fig. 1. wide and four strips 10 in. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. --also the lower edge when necessary. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. When making the display. as shown in the sketch. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. -Contributed by Stanley H. Cover them with the cretonne. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. The side. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. Md. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. Packard. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. Sew on to the covered cardboards. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. 2. wide. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. and gather it at that point. Mass.2 Fig. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. sewing on the back side. you can. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. Baltimore.

and. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. --Contributed by H. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Crockett. Gloversville. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Fig. L. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Orlando Taylor. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Cross Timbers. When through using the pad. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. It is cleanly. Y. saving all the solid part. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. N. 3. with slight modifications. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Mo. --Contributed by B. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. It is not difficult to .

Texas. If a file is used. Both of these methods are wasteful. Lowell. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. across the face. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. El Paso. and secure it in place with glue or paste. and scrape out the rough parts. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Bourne. After this is done. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. -Contributed by C. or if desired. remove the contents. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. --Contributed by Edith E. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. S. After stirring. Mass. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. are shown in the diagram. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. it should be new and sharp. Lane.

Ill. Iowa. He captured several pounds in a few hours. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. After several hours' drying. A Postcard Rack [25]. Those having houses . Des Moines. Ill. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. circled over the funnel and disappeared. Wheeler. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. As these were single-faced disk records. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. --Contributed by Loren Ward. The insects came to the light. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe.cooking utensil. F. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Canton. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. Oregon. Oak Park. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. --Contributed by Geo. Turl. The process works well and needs no watching. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Greenleaf. --Contributed by Marion P. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork.

and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. and as they are simple in design. material. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. 6 in. 6 in. --Contributed by Thomas E. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe.. Both sides can be put together in this way. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. by 2 ft. not even with the boards themselves. but for cheapness 3/4 in. the bottom being 3/8 in. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. and the second one for the developing bench. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. will do as well. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. Conn.. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. and both exactly alike. Mass. --Contributed by Wm. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. The single boards can then be fixed. Only three pieces are required. boards are preferable. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. thick. plane and pocket knife.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. the best material to use being matched boards. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. Dobbins. Rosenberg. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Lay the floor next. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. one on each side of what will be the . Worcester. Glenbrook.

The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. which is fixed on as shown . etc. below which is fixed the sink. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. 10). 3 and 4... 7. by screwing to the floor. as shown in Figs. and the top as at C in the same drawing.doorway. 11. At the top of the doorway. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. 5. brown wrapping paper. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. The developing bench is 18 in. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. 8. of the top of the door for the same reason. It is shown in detail in Fig. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. and in the middle an opening. nailing them to each other at the ridge. so that the water will drain off into the sink. 6. the closing side as at B. wide. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. 6 and 9. In hinging the door. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. and act as a trap for the light. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. The roof boards may next be put on. 6. hinged to it. 6) and another as F in the same drawing.. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. and to the outside board of the sides. so that it will fit inside the sink. 2 in section. Fig. 9 by 11 in. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. and should be zinc lined. is cut. 9).

Details of the Dark Rook .

as at I. after lining with brown paper. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. and a tank stand on it. 16. 16. it is better than anything on the market. four coats at first is not too many. Erie. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. 19. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . Karl Hilbrich. 20. as shown in Fig. or red light as at K. which makes it possible to have white light. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. 15. as at M. 1. Fig. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. screwing them each way into the boards. 2. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. 14. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. mixing flour and water. A circular piece about 2 in. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. Fig. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. if desired. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. Fig. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. Pennsylvania. hole bored in the center for a handle. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. as shown in the sections. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. --Contributed by W. but not the red glass and frame. In use. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. 13. 18. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. For beating up an egg in a glass. Fig. though this is hardly advisable. or the room may be made with a flat roof. and a 3/8-in. are fastened in the corners inside. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. these being shown in Fig. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. 6. 13. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H.in Fig. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. 17. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. The house will be much strengthened if strips. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. as in Fig. preferably maple or ash. The handle should be at least 12 in.

Ark. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Mo. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. which. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. --Contributed by L. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. Schweiger. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. L. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . To operate. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. -Contributed by E. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. for a handle. Yonkers. G. Eureka Springs. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. Smith. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. --Contributed by Wm. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Mitchell.copper should be. New York. as shown in the sketch. long. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. about 3/8 in. when put together properly is a puzzle. Kansas City. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. D.

Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. 2. After the box is trimmed. as is usually the case. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. which binds them together.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. Each cork is cut as in Fig. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. for the moment. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. holes should be drilled in the bottom. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. as well as improve its appearance. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. The design shown in Fig. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. A number of 1/2-in. The corks in use are shown in Fig. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. 3. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. especially for filling-in purposes. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. in order to thoroughly preserve it. need them. . as shown in Fig. If the sill is inclined. the rustic work should be varnished. as shown in Fig. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. to make it set level. Having completed the bare box. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. 3. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. the box will require a greater height in front. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. 1.

1. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. But I have solved the difficulty. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. it's easy. F. and observe results. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. life in the summer time is a vexation. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. cabbages. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. . 3. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law.. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. Each long projection represents a leg. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. When the corn is gone cucumbers. etc. too dangerous. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. share the same fate. drilled at right angles. being partly eaten into. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. 4. 2. can't use poison. Traps do no good. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica.

This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. If. The solution can be used over and over again. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. the coil does not heat sufficiently. by trial. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. cut some of it off and try again. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. strips. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. cut in 1/2-in. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. and made up and kept in large bottles. About 9-1/2 ft. long. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. . Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. -. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. of No. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. Iowa.

which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Doylestown. to cause the door to swing shut. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. forks. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. of oleic acid with 1 gal. --Contributed by James M. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. C. Pa. --Contributed by Katharine D. as shown in the sketch. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. D. is a good size--in this compound. Y. of gasoline. coffee pot. In cleaning silver. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Kane. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. hot-water pot. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. but with unsatisfactory results.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Do not wash them. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. Texas. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. and a strip. Fig 2. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. it falls to stop G. Syracuse. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Morse. 1) removed. . A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. Knives. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Dallas. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. Stir and mix thoroughly. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. N. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame.

Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. --Contributed by Theodore L. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Sprout. Waverly. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. . later fixed and washed as usual. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. which is. Pa. Fisher. --Contributed by Oliver S. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. of course.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. but unfixed. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. New Orleans. negatives. Ill. using the paper dry. Harrisburg. La.

one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. To obviate this difficulty. In this uncertainty lies the charm. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. then . No two hamonograms are exactly alike. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. 1. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. metal. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. Fig. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. a harmonograph is a good prescription. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. The harmonograph. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. graceful sweep of the long pendulum.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest.

A small table or platform. 1. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. --Contributed by Wm. Holes up to 3 in. such as a shoe buttoner. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. for instance. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. ceiling.. provides a means of support for the stylus. Chicago. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. of about 30 or 40 lb. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. one-fifth. A small weight.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. which can be regulated. Arizona. R. in the center of the circle to be cut. 1. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. is about right for a 10-ft. A pedestal. to prevent any side motion. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. Another weight of about 10 lb. exactly one-third. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. K. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. Gaffney. The length of the short pendulum H. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. as long as the other. --Contributed by James T. is attached as shown at H. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum.. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. G. J. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] .-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. in diameter. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. what is most important. Rosemont. and unless the shorter pendulum is. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. or the lines will overlap and blur. 1-3/4 by 2 in. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. as shown in Fig. A weight. that is. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. Ingham. makes respectively 3. A length of 7 ft. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. Punch a hole. etc. with a nail set or punch. one-fourth. as shown in the lower part of Fig.

H. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. --Contributed by J. 3. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. Chicago. Cape May City. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. one for the sender and one for the receiver. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. distributing them over the whole card. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. The capacity of the vise. N. 2. 5. and proceed as before. 1.J. dividing them into quarters. a correspondent of . Fig. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. Fig. Morey. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. and 4 as in Fig.J. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. of course. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Cruger. -Contributed by W. then 3 as in Fig. The two key cards are made alike. 4. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. 6. then put 2 at the top. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory.

remove the prints. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. citrate of iron and ammonia. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. says Popular Electricity. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. After securing the tint desired. Wind the successive turns of . Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. deep. --Contributed by L. 1/2 oz. the portion of the base under the coil. of ferricyanide of potash. long. 6 gauge wires shown. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. of the uprights. To assemble. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. Asbestos board is to be preferred. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. respectively. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. Alberta Norrell. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. sheet of well made asbestos paper. from the top and bottom. of 18-per-cent No. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. 30 gr. Augusta. Ga. If constructed of the former. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. Cut through the center. 22 gauge German-silver wire. After preparing the base and uprights. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. 1/4 in.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. wood-screws. drill 15 holes. acetic acid and 4 oz. of water. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in.

A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. rivets. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. square. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. The case may be made of 1/2-in. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. screws. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. 16 gauge copper wire. Labels of some kind are needed. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . Y. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. etc. if one is not a smoker. Small knobs may be added if desired. --Contributed by Frederick E. then fasten the upright in place. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. which. N. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. but these are not necessary. 14 gauge. cut and dressed 1/2 in. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. as they are usually thrown away when empty.. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Ward. Ampere.

of water. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. brass. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. If the soldering copper is an old one. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. B. galvanized iron. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. of glycerine to 16 oz. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. The material can be of any wood. especially if a large tub is used. --Contributed by A. --Contributed by W. Kenosha. Heat it until hot (not red hot). A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. sandpaper or steel wool. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. Eureka Springs. A. Wis. The parts are put together with dowel pins. S. lead. or has become corroded. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. and one made of poplar finished black. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. then to the joint to be soldered. Larson. tin. D. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. G. In soldering galvanized iron.. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap.14 oz. Jaquythe. the pure muriatic acid should be used. . as shown in the sketch. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. being careful about the heat. and rub the point of the copper on it. Copper. zinc. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. tinner's acid. Richmond. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. C. Ark. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. --C. a piece of solder. it must be ground or filed to a point. California. E and F. and labeled "Poison. This is considerable annoyance. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. particularly so when the iron has once been used. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket.

in diameter. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. W. Apart from this. This will leave a clear hole. Brass rings can be plated when finished. 7/8 in. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. wide. The covers of the magazines are removed. The dimensions shown in Fig. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. The disk will come out pan shaped. Y. I bind my magazines at home evenings. The punch A. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. -Contributed by H. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. Fig. Six issues make a well proportioned book. 2. Take a 3/4-in. N. Hankin. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. D. with good results. and drill out the threads. Troy. Place the band. 1. This completes the die. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . in diameter and 1-1/4 in. C. such as copper. in diameter. thick and 1-1/4 in. B. nut. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. Fig. which gives two bound volumes each year. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. brass and silver. round iron. a ring may be made from any metal. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. however.

The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. and a third piece. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. . 2. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. 1 in Fig. size 16 or larger. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in.4. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. Coarse white thread. If started with the January or the July issue. using . Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. is used for the sewing material. The covering should be cut out 1 in. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. 5. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. of the ends extending on each side. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. Place the cardboard covers on the book. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Start with the front of the book. After drawing the thread tightly. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. C. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. deep. 1. as shown in Fig. 1. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. allowing about 2 in. on all edges except the back. threaded double. 1/8 in. The string No. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. The sections are then prepared for sewing. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. 1. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. then back through the notch on the right side. which is fastened the same as the first. is nailed across the top. through the notch on the left side of the string No. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. and place them against the strings in the frame. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. 2. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. Five cuts. and then to string No. The covering can be of cloth.

on which to hook the blade. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. and. Encanto. Nebr. Place the cover on the book in the right position. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Tinplate. College View. round iron. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. --Contributed by Clyde E. Divine. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. For the blade an old talking-machine . after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Cal.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. at opposite sides to each other. and mark around each one. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around.

Moorhead. and 1/4 in. Miss.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. and a long thread plug. as it is sometimes called. Hays. in order to drill the holes in the ends. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. with a steel sleeve. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame.. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. Summitville. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. as shown. F. B. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. with 10 teeth to the inch. hydraulic pipe. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. thick. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. Ohio. thick. E. and another piece (B) 6 in. bore. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. A. at the same end. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. by 1 in. Then on the board put .. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. and 1/4 in. Make the blade 12 in. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. and file in the teeth. by 4-1/2 in. -Contributed by Willard J. fuse hole at D. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. long. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. On the upper side. C. or double extra heavy.

about 5 ft. Connect up as shown. If you are going to use a current of low tension. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. Philadelphia. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. 4 jars. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. and some No. the jars need not be very large. of rubber-covered wire. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Boyd. high around this apparatus. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. of wire to each coil. --Contributed by Chas. A lid may be added if desired. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. using about 8 in. H. as from batteries. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire.

thick. 27 B. The illustration shows how to shape it. oak boards. 2 and 3. apart. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. 1 is connected to point No.. 15-1/2 in. B and C. 4) of 3/4-in. 7 in. by 5 in. Z. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No.. For the front runners these measurements are: A. The stock required for them is oak. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. and bolt through. 1. beginning at the rear. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. For the brass trimmings use No. In proportioning them the points A. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. direct to wire across jars. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. sheet brass 1 in. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. No. two pieces 14 in. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution.. and for the rear runners: A. The top disk in jar No. B.. Fig. First sandpaper all the wood. two for each jar. At the front 24 or 26 in. as they are not substantial enough.. On the door of the auto front put the . Equip block X with screw eyes. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. . two pieces 34 in. is used to reduce friction.. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. as they "snatch" the ice. 3 and No. 2 is lower down than in No. on No. 30 in. gives full current and full speed. 2. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. 2 in. long. 16-1/2 in. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. square by 14 ft. 2. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. by 1 in. See Fig. above the ground. with the cushion about 15 in. long by 22 in. long. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. by 2 in. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. & S. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. Use no screws on the running surface. C. thick. 3. by 1-1/4 in. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. wide. and plane it on all edges. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. C. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. 4. wide by 3/4 in. or source of current. by 1-1/4 in. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. 34 in. A 3/4-in. Put arm of switch on point No. 11 in. however. To wire the apparatus. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery.. 1 and so on for No. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. 2. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. An iron washer. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. and four pieces 14 in. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. B. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. are important. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. wide and 2 in. Construct the auto front (Fig. steel rod makes a good steering rod. wide and 3/4 in. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. two pieces 30 in.the way. long. 4 in. by 6 in. A variation of 1/16 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. The sled completed should be 15 ft. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. Their size also depends on the voltage. by 2 in. making them clear those in the front runner. by 5 in. 1 on switch. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. The connection between point No. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. The current then will flow through the motor. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. 5 on switch. 3 in. Use no nails. long. then apply a coat of thin enamel.

by 1/2 in. The best way is to get some strong. fasten a cord through the loop. a number of boys may share in the ownership. etc. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. to the wheel. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. lunch. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. cheap material. If desired. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. a brake may be added to the sled. which is somewhat moist. long. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. If desired. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. overshoes. Then get some upholstery buttons. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. or with these for $25. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. parcels. cutting it out of sheet brass. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. to improve the appearance. If the expense is greater than one can afford. brass plated.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. Fasten a horn. such as used on automobiles. may be stowed within. such as burlap. by 30 in. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15.

Leland. --Contributed by Stewart H. . and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Ill. Lexington.tree and bring. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same.

The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. a compass. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. Fig. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. sheet metal. FC. The Model Engineer. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. A small clearance space. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. First take the case of a small gearwheel. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. made from 1/16-in. the cut will be central on the line.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. 1. thick. though more difficult. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. say 1 in. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . will be over the line FG. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. Draw a circle on paper. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. London. Fig. 2. mild steel or iron. outside diameter and 1/16 in. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. from F to G. Fig. The straight-edge. CD. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. some files. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. the same diameter as the wheel. with twenty-four teeth. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. With no other tools than a hacksaw. by drawing diameters. so that the center of the blade. The first tooth may now be cut. This guide should have a beveled edge. 3. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. which. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. 4). when flat against it. E. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig.

. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. or several pieces bound tightly together. each in the center. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. 1. No shock will be perceptible. B. hold in one hand. transmitter. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. ground it with a large piece of zinc. either the pencils for arc lamps. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. as shown in Fig. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. R. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. as shown in Fig. Focus the camera in the usual manner. as shown in Fig. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. Then take one outlet wire. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house.Four Photos on One Plate of them. 2. and the other outlet wire. If there is no faucet in the house. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. some wire and some carbons. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. electric lamp. A bright. 1. Make a hole in the other. B.

Slattery. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. one at the receiver can hear what is said. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. as shown. by 1 in. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. at each end for terminals. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. Ashland. Wrenn. 36 wire around it. Several battery cells. Dry batteries are most convenient. If desired. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. Emsworth. Pa. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. and will then burn the string C.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. --Contributed by Geo. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. leaving about 10 in. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. For a base use a pine board 10 in. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. and about that size. are also needed. J. One like a loaf of bread. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. a transmitter which induces no current is used. They have screw ends. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. as indicated by E E. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. of course. under the gable. Ohio. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. B. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . or more of the latter has been used. D D are binding posts for electric wires. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. But in this experiment. A is a wooden block. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. Then set the whole core away to dry. by 12 in. serves admirably. and again wind the wire around it.

14 wire. while C is open. as shown. From the other set of binding-posts. the terminal of the coil. until the hand points to zero on the scale. Place 16-cp. The oven is now ready to be connected. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. At one side secure two receptacles. First make a support. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. and one single post switch. for the . run a No. D. B B. and the lamps. F. in parallel. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. Jr. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. 2. The apparatus is now ready for operation. 12 or No. Turn on switch. C. D. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. Newark. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. These should have hollow ends. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. connecting lamp receptacles. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. and switch. Fig. in series with bindingpost. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. E.. C. as shown. Connect these three to switch. Fig. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian.wire. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. Ohio. The coil will commence to become warm. 1. B B.

A wooden box. Montreal. is made of wire. 6. inside measurements. 14 wire. drill through the entire case and valve. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument.. 4 amperes. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. until the scale is full. 5. 7. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. 2.E. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. To make one. to prevent it turning on the axle. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. a standard ammeter. drill a hole as shown at H. Fig. After drilling. --Contributed by J. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. 5. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. B. Fig. high. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. remove the valve. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. etc. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. Dussault. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. a battery. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. 4 in. wide and 1-3/4 in. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. 36 magnet wire instead of No. and D. long. wide and 1/8 in. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. long.or 4-way valve or cock. D. It is 1 in. This may be made of wood. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. although copper or steel will do. where A is the homemade ammeter. D. If for 3-way. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. This is slipped on the pivot. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. deep. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. C. drill in only to the opening already through. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. is then made and provided with a glass front. 10 turns to each layer. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. 1. a variable resistance. 1/4 in. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for .) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. At a point a little above the center. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. long and make a loop. although brass is better. but if for a 4way. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. is made of iron. wind with plenty of No. Fig. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. 1/2 in. thick. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. 3. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. 3 amperes. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. The pointer or hand. The core.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. Mine is wound with two layers of No. 14. Fig. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. 4. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. E. The box is 5-1/2 in. as shown in the cut. from the lower end. 1.

To start the light. D. which is used for reducing the current. This stopper should be pierced. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. One wire runs to the switch. making two holes about 1/4 in.performing electrical experiments. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. and the other connects with the water rheostat. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. F. provided with a rubber stopper. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. E. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. in thickness . The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. and a metal rod. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. A. high. in diameter. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. By connecting the motor. B. as shown. and the arc light. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large.

Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Fig. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. A piece of wood. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. Jones. N. Fig. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Having finished the interrupter. where he is placed in an upright open . as shown in C. If the interrupter does not work at first. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. 1. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Turn on the current and press the button. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. 2. 1. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. 1. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Carthage. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. --Contributed by Harold L. 2. as shown in B. If all adjustments are correct. Fig. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. A. Fig. B. As there shown. long. To insert the lead plate. Y. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A.

All . should be colored a dull black. by 7-1/2 in. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. especially the joints and background near A. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. A white shroud is thrown over his body. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. light-colored garments. which can be run by three dry cells. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. figures and lights. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. from which the gong has been removed. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. inside dimensions. If everything is not black. and can be bought at Japanese stores. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. The model. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. to aid the illusion. giving a limp. The lights. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. should be miniature electric lamps. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. until it is dark there. Its edges should nowhere be visible. by 7 in. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. The skeleton is made of papier maché. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. loosejointed effect. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. could expect from a skeleton. the illusion will be spoiled. They need to give a fairly strong light. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. A. dressed in brilliant. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. as the entire interior. with the exception of the glass. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. If it is desired to place the box lower down.. and wave his arms up and down. within the limits of an ordinary room.coffin. especially L. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. L and M. is constructed as shown in the drawings. high. and must be thoroughly cleansed. The glass should be the clearest possible.

and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. --Contributed by Geo. If a gradual transformation is desired. placed about a foot apart. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. Fry. square block. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. after which it assumes its normal color. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for .that is necessary is a two-point switch. fat spark. Two finishing nails were driven in. as shown in the sketch. Cal. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. San Jose. W. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs.

Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. or a solution of sal soda. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. as shown. In Fig. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. by small pieces of wood. One of these plates is connected to metal top. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. 1. A (see sketch). This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. The plates are separated 6 in. into the receiver G. In Fig. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. If a lighted match . connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. New York. This is a wide-mouth bottle. hydrogen gas is generated. soldered in the top. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. Cohen. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. with two tubes.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. F. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. to make it airtight. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. the remaining space will be filled with air. B and C. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. and should be separated about 1/8 in. -Contributed by Dudley H.

A. in diameter and 6 in. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. If desired. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. says the Model Engineer. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. 1-5/16 in. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. The distance between the nipple. A. then a suitable burner is necessary. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. 1. 36 insulated wire. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. as is shown in the illustration. A piece of 1/8-in. copper pipe. and the ends of the tube. N. London. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. One row is drilled to come directly on top. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. N. A. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. is made by drilling a 1/8in. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. long. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. either by passing a current of electricity around it. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. which forms the vaporizing coil. which is plugged up at both ends. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. of No. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. by means of the clips. should be only 5/16 of an inch. long. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. 1/2 in. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. 2 shows the end view. is then coiled around the brass tube. Fig. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. P. from the bottom. B. Fig. A. A 1/64-in. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. A nipple. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. C C. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. copper pipe. or by direct contact with another magnet.

cut to the size of the pages. larger all around than the book. Take two strips of stout cloth. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Fig. boards and all. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. 2). smoothly. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. 3. about 8 or 10 in. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . 1. at the front and back for fly leaves. longer and 1/4 in. Turn the book over and paste the other side. duck or linen. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. Fig. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. Fig. Cut four pieces of cardboard. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. this makes a much nicer book. trim both ends and the front edge. leaving the folded edge uncut.lamp cord. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. fold and cut it 1 in. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. 1/4 in. with a fine saw. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. A disk of thin sheet-iron. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). taking care not to bend the iron. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. should be cut to the diameter of the can. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. but if the paper knife cannot be used. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in.

It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. Bedford City. Another can. D. in diameter and 30 in. is fitted in it and soldered. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. of tank A is cut a hole. 18 in. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. Noble. Ont. is perforated with a number of holes. A. 4). but its diameter is a little smaller. Toronto. . Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. as shown. and a little can. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. without a head. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. This will cause some air to be enclosed. --Contributed by James E. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. or rather the top now. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. H. B. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. Parker. In the bottom. Another tank. the joint will be gas tight. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. is turned on it. is made the same depth as B. pasting them down (Fig. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. --Contributed by Joseph N. is soldered onto tank A. which will just slip inside the little can. E. deep. A gas cock. C. as shown in the sketch. Va. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge.

Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. B. should be cut a little too long. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. -Contributed by H. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. The bridle knots. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. B.. The wiring diagram. long. as shown at C. are shown in detail at H and J. The small guards. should be 3/8 in. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. Bott. E. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. which moves to either right or left. The longitudinal corner spines. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. If the pushbutton A is closed. Fig. S. thus adjusting the . and about 26 in. to prevent splitting. If the back armature. J. B. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. with an electric-bell magnet. fastened in the bottom. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. D. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. when finished. tacks. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. 1. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. by 1/2 in. A. exactly 12 in. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. which may be either spruce. long. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. 2. A A. and the four diagonal struts. C. H is a square knot. D. N. should be 1/4 in. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. square by 42 in. shows how the connections are to be made. making the width. The armature. and sewed double to give extra strength. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. Fig. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. basswood or white pine. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. Beverly. The diagonal struts. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat.

but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. Chicago. E. and if a strong wind is blowing. the batteries do not run down for a long time. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. for producing electricity direct from heat. --Contributed by A. however. Stoddard. D. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. Harbert. Closing either key will operate both sounders. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. Kan. as shown. can be made of a wooden . loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. to prevent slipping. A bowline knot should be tied at J.lengths of F and G. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. with gratifying results. shift toward F. --Contributed by Edw. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. If the kite is used in a light wind. Clay Center. and. thus shortening G and lengthening F. that refuse to slide easily.

placed on top. A. C. D. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. which conducts the current into the cannon. Then. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. A. E. F. A and B. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. 14 or No. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. spark. Fasten a piece of wood. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. to the cannon. Chicago. A. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. E.frame. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. The wood screw. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. with a number of nails. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. B. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. with a pocket compass. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. in position. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. and the current may then be detected by means. and also holds the pieces of wood. 16 single-covered wire. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. by means of machine screws or. --Contributed by A. C. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. When the cannon is loaded. or parallel with the compass needle.. C. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after .

In Fig. screw is bored in the block. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. press the button. Marion. Connect as shown in the illustration. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L.the current is shut off. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. 1. Keil. with the long arm at L'. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. A hole for a 1/2 in. To reverse. square and 3/8 in. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. 1. --Contributed by Henry Peck. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. A. Chicago. A and S. --Contributed by Joseph B. Ohio. 1. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. A and S. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. L. Fig. . turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. within the reach of the magnet. Mich. to receive the screw in the center. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. but no weights or strings. requiring a strong magnet. B. in this position the door is locked. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. when in position at A'. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. H. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. To lock the door. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. where there is a staple. To unlock the door. now at A' and S'. Big Rapids. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Bend the strips BB (Fig. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Fig.

The standard and base. hole. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. about 18 in. or for microscopic work. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. long. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. put in the handle. J. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. Rand. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. and if desired the handles may . Mass. West Somerville. When the holes are finished and your lines set. if enameled white on the concave side. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. When ready for use. --Contributed by C. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. and may be made at very slight expense. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. are enameled a jet black. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. pipe with 1-2-in. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. Thread the other end of the pipe. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. gas-pipe. and C is a dumbbell. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport.

while a new one will cost about 80 cents. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. B. North Easton. 8 in. Mass. 1. Fig. --Contributed by C.. D. inside the pail. Fig. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1.be covered with leather. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. across. A. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. which shall project at least 2 in. long and 8 in. Warren. Make a cylindrical core of wood. M. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. with a cover. 1. E. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . across. high by 1 ft. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. as shown at A in the sketch.

While these are drying you may be making a muffle. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. but it will burn a great deal of gas. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. Set aside for a few days until well dried. about 1 in. and with especial caution the first time. long. It is placed inside the kiln. to hold the clay mixture. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support.mixture of clay. Fig. and varnish. thick. passing wire nails through and clinching them. W. and 3/8 in. and cut it 3-1/2 in.. The 2 in. long over the lid hole as a chimney. the point of the blue flame. pipe 2-ft. thick. pack this space-top. This done. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. if there is to be any glazing done. cutting the hole a little smaller. Whatever burner is used. When lighted. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. the firing should be gradual. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. C. After removing all the paper. E. and 3/4 in. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried.. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. in diameter. 15%. make two wood ends. layer of the clay mixture. but will be cheaper in operation. 1390°-1410°. hard porcelain. 1330°. which is the hottest part. C. hotel china. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in.-G. strip of sheet iron. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. 1). 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. such . By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. or make one yourself. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. bottom and sides. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. in diameter. C. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. as is shown in the sketch. and your kiln is ready for business. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. full length of iron core. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. 3) with false top and bottom. 1). After finishing the core. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. 25%. Line the pail. L. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. 2 in. sand. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. If the cover of the pail has no rim. Wind about 1/8 in. carefully centering it. Fit all the parts together snugly.. wider than the kiln. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. and on it set the paper wrapped core. diameter. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. 2. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. 60%. say 1/4 in. Cover with paper and shellac as before. if you have the materials. projecting from each end (Fig. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. pipe. as dictated by fancy and expense. let this dry thoroughly. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. and graphite. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. of fine wire.

around the coil. as shown in the sketch herewith. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. all cards facing the same way. --Contributed by J. 2. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. Take the red cards. as in Fig. T.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators.. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. C. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. B. 8 in. Of course. and divide it into two piles. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. D. about 1/16 in. procure a new deck. the next black. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. every alternate card being the same color. red and black. bind tightly with black silk. length of . so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. R. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. and so on. 2). overlaps and rests on the body. Chicago. and discharges into the tube. and plane off about 1/16 in.53 in. Then. Then take the black cards. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. Washington. square them up. A. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. The funnel. square them up and place in a vise. . a regulator must be had for the vibrator. 2. leaving long terminals. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. with a plane. 1. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. Next restore all the cards to one pack. as in Fig. C. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. taking care to have the first card red. diameter. C. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. You can display either color called for.

Drill all the horizontal pieces. Let . E. so that when they are assembled.C. B. Long Branch. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. about 20 in. to form a dovetail joint as shown. To find the fall of snow. It should be placed in an exposed location. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. B. 1 gill of fine white sand. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. A. of the frame. When the glass is put in the frame a space. The cement. 1. D.. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. and then the frame is ready to assemble. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. All the horizontal pieces. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. angle iron for the frame. the first thing to decide on is the size. A. stove bolts. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. thus making all the holes coincide. stove bolts. 1 gill of litharge. B. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. E. Fig. The bottom glass should be a good fit.J. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. through the holes already drilled. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. The upright pieces. as the difficulties increase with the size. and this is inexpensive to build. N. F. the same ends will come together again. C. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. should be countersunk as shown in the detail.

a centerpiece (A.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. Aquarium Finished If desired. if desired. D. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . A. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. Fig. B. having a swinging connection at C. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. Fasten the lever. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. on the door by means of a metal plate. to the door knob. and. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement.

to form the main supports of the frame. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. Do not fasten these boards now. which is 15 in. will open the door about 1/2 in. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. long. as at E. D. Fig. wide by 1 in. long. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. B. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. Buffalo. according to the slant given C. Fig. White. 1 is the motor with one side removed. but mark their position on the frame. screwed to the door frame. 6 in. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. --Contributed by Orton E. AA. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. 1 . approximately 1 ft. 2 ft. PAUL S. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. wide . Fig.. to keep the frame from spreading. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. another. A small piece of spring brass. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. 1. They are shown in Fig. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. 2 at GG. E. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. Cut two pieces 30 in. long. and Fig. C. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. long. another. with a water pressure of 70 lb. To make the frame. hoping it may solve the same question for them. 26 in. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. several lengths of scantling 3 in. thus doing away with the spring. Y. Fig. to form the slanting part. N. soldered to the end of the cylinder. Fig. 3 shows one of the paddles. Cut two of them 4 ft. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. 2 is an end view. and another. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. showing the paddle-wheel in position. Two short boards 1 in. F. for the top. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. 1. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. from the outside top of the frame. I referred this question to my husband. Fig.

3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. iron 3 by 4 in. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. hole through their sides centrally. with the wheel and shaft in place. 2) form a substantial base. by 1-1/2 in. When it has cooled. hole to form the bearings. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. remove the cardboard. iron. take down the crosspieces. 2) with a 5/8-in. GG. (I. long to the wheel about 8 in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Make this hole conical. Fig. thick (HH. 24 in. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. to a full 1/2 in. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. and drill a 1/8-in. Fig. thick. tapering from 3/16 in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. from one end by means of a key. as shown in Fig. hole through its center. then drill a 3/16-in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. pipe. Fig. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. Drill 1/8-in. hole through them.burlap will do -. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. Take the side pieces.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. These are the paddles. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. 1. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). steel shaft 12 in. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. Now block the wheel. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. and a 1/4 -in. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. and drill a 1-in. 4. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. 2) and another 1 in. that is. Fasten them in their proper position. after which drill a 5/8 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Next secure a 5/8-in.along the edges under the zinc to form . after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. in diameter. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. holes. Tack one side on. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame.

getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. and leave them for an hour or so. Drill a hole through the zinc. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. says the Photographic Times. Do not stop down the lens. Focus the camera carefully. place the outlet over a drain. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. ice-cream freezer. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. start the motor. It is obvious that. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. Correct exposure depends. on the lens. If the bearings are now oiled. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. or what is called a process plate. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. light and the plate. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. any window will do. but now I put them in the machine. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. remove any white curtains there may be. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. . and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. sewing machine. and the subject may move. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. drill press. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. as this makes long exposure necessary. shutting out all light from above and the sides. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. The best plate to use is a very slow one. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. as shown in the sketch at B. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. Darken the rest of the window. Raise the window shade half way. and as near to it as possible. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick.a water-tight joint. it would be more durable. of course. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. If sheet-iron is used. but as it would have cost several times as much. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly.

a glass tube. The core C. 2. D. The current required is very small. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. as a slight current will answer. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. until the core slowly rises. hard rubber. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. by twisting. and without fog. or wood. an empty pill bottle may be used. With a piece of black paper. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. On completing . C. 2. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. a core. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. with binding posts as shown. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. and a base. the core is drawn down out of sight. full of water. A. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. The glass tube may be a test tube. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. or can be taken from an old magnet. which is made of iron and cork. as shown in Fig.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. B. without detail in the face. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. or an empty developer tube.

Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. and are changed by reversing the rotation. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . according to his control of the current. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. finest graphite. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. water and 3 oz. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. This is a mysterious looking instrument. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. white lead. 1 lb. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. and one not easy to explain. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. whale oil. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. The colors appear different to different people. is Benham's color top. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. 1. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. and make a pinhole in the center. 1 pt.

C. or three spot. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. In making hydrogen. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. -Contributed by D. when the action ceases. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. Chicago. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. A. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base.L. deuce. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. especially if the deck is a new one. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. In prize games. thus partly filling bottles A and C. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. before cutting. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B.B. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. As this device is easily upset. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. nearly every time. B.. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. fan-like. 2 can cut the cards at the ace.

Detail of Phonograph Horn . to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. Fig. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Fig. 3). Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. 2.. long and 3 in. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. Bently. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. W. 4. Huron. in length and 3 in. Detroit. --Contributed by C. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. (Fig. Form a cone of heavy paper. long. Jr. --Contributed by F. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. 1. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. 9 in.. 12 in. in diameter.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. J. Make a 10-sided stick. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. S. 10 in. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. . How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. S. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. Dak. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. as shown in Fig. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. that will fit loosely in the tube A.

it is equally easy to block that trick. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. on one side and the top. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. with a pin driven in each end. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. Cut out paper sections (Fig. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. --Contributed by Reader. allowing 1 in. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. making it three-ply thick. bend it at right angles throughout its length. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . Fasten the sections all around in like manner. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. Denver. 6. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. but bends toward D. A piece of tin. E. Fortunately. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. long. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. push back the bolt. Remove the form. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. about the size of a leadpencil. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. will cause an increased movement of C. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. and walk in. C. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. A second piece of silk thread. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. Fig. A.

long. W. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. The reverse switch. B. are 7 ft. put together as shown in the sketch. long. A. will last for several years. Paul. or left to right. as shown. B. and rest on a brick placed under each end. West St. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. S. R.. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. are made 2 by 4 in. 4 ft. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. Fremont Hilscher. --Contributed by J. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. S S. Two wood-base switches.. is connected each point to a battery. Jr. The feet. The 2 by 4-in.strip. Minn. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. S. posts. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. while the lower switch. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. The upper switch. By this arrangement one.

and in Fig. thick. and the crank bearing C. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. In Fig. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. is an old bicycle pump. The piston is made of a stove bolt. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. and a cylindrical . The hose E connects to the boiler. or anything available. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. pulley wheel. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. which is made of tin. FF. either an old sewing-machine wheel. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. The valve motion is shown in Figs. The base is made of wood. 1. 2 and 3. 2.every house. The steam chest D. Fig. E. with two washers. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. and has two wood blocks. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. Fig. 3/8 in. cut in half. and valve crank S. which will be described later. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. H and K. the size of the hole in the bearing B. the other parts being used for the bearing B.

J. as shown in Fig. San Jose. Wis. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. . 1. C. Fry. This engine was built by W. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. and a very amusing trick. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. Eustice. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. powder can. 3. can be an old oil can. to receive the connecting rod H. 4. Schuh and A. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. or galvanized iron. First. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. This is wound with soft string. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. using the positive wire as a pen. W.piece of hard wood. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. is cut out of tin. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. G. Fig. The boiler. of Cuba. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. at that. The valve crank S. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. G. Fig. and saturated with thick oil. --Contributed by Geo. as it is merely a trick of photography. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. and the desired result is obtained. Cal.

considering the nature of the material employed in making it. B. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. Fig. 1 by covering up Figs. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. 1 will be seen to rotate. and Fig. and pass ropes around . Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. and place a bell on the four ends. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. Fig. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. as shown. Fig. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. as shown at AA. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. to cross in the center. The smaller wheel. B. Cut half circles out of each stave. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. C. diameter. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. When turning. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. They may be of any size.

procure a wooden spool. long. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. which allows the use of small sized ropes. W. such as clothes lines.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. which accounts for the sound. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers.. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. --Contributed by H. Mo. as shown in the illustration.G. but not on all. To make this lensless microscope. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. Louis. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. from the transmitter. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. This in turn will act on the transmitter. produces a higher magnifying power). From a piece of thin . St. A (a short spool. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two.M.

is made of iron. otherwise the image will be blurred. B. if the distance is reduced to one-half. (The area would appear 64 times as large. place a small object on the transparent disk. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. and at the center. or 64 times. A. and look through the hole D. by means of brads. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. which costs little or nothing to make. i. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. held at arm's length. cut out a small disk. fastened to a wooden base. Fig. B. D. . is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. The spring. can be made of brass and the armature. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. is fastened at each end by pins. C. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. bent as shown. D. An innocent-looking drop of water. the object should be of a transparent nature. The pivot. darting across the field in every direction. E. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings.. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. in which hay has been soaking for several days. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. if the distance is reduced to one-third. and so on.) But an object 3/4-in. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. C. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size.. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. To use this microscope. Viewed through this microscope. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. the diameter will appear three times as large. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. 2. 3. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. the diameter will appear twice as large. H. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. e. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. which are pieces of hard wood. 1. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. as in all microscopes of any power. The lever.

soft iron. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. B. 16 in. KEY-A. wide. The door. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. wood: F. D. B. fastened near the end. A. Cut the top. which are made to receive a pivot. is cut from a board about 36 in. binding posts: H spring The stop. and are connected to the contacts. wide and about 20 in. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. C. 1. between the armature and the magnet. The binding posts. long and 14-1/2 in. DD. . FF. F. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. 2. coils wound with No. or taken from a small one-point switch. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. can be made panel as shown. long. 16 in. brass. long by 16 in. wide. nail soldered on A. similar to the one used in the sounder. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. wood. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. Fig. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. AA. wood: C. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. brass: E. connection of D to nail. K. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. E. wide and set in between sides AA. Each side. wide. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. D. should be about 22 in. A switch. K.SOUNDER-A. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. Fig. The base of the key. or a single piece. thick. D. brass: B. 26 wire: E. C. The back. in length and 16 in. brass or iron soldered to nail. wide. HH.

Make 12 cleats. long. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. 13-1/2 in. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. brads. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. In operation. Garfield. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . Ill. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. When the electrical waves strike the needle. E. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. AA. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. cut in them. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. 2 and made from 1/4-in. material. as shown. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. with 3/4-in.. as shown in the sketch.

and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . A fairly stiff spring. down into the water increases the surface in contact. --Contributed by R. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. A. A. will give a greater speed. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. --Contributed by John Koehler. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. when used with a motor. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. The cord is also fastened to a lever. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. J. Y. E. Brown. the magnet. and thus decreases the resistance. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. Fairport. When the pipe is used. F. N. pulls down the armature. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. Pushing the wire. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. C. through which a piece of wire is passed. B. N. and. Ridgewood. A (see sketch). filled with water. in order to increase the surface. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire.

for the secret contact. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. if desired. N. Gachville. Of course. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . B. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. even those who read this description. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. --Contributed by Perry A. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Borden. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door.

and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. wide. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. A. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. as shown in Fig. C. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. 2. records. thick and 12-in. The top board is made 28-in. and on both sides of the middle shelf. wide. --Contributed by H. D. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. deep and 3/4 in. H. . East Orange. With about 9 ft. wide. E. records and 5-5/8 in. from the bottom. wide. apart. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. in a semicircle 2 in. Mangold. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. long and 5 in. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. From a piece of brass a switch. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. Connect switch to post B. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Dobson. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. N. J. for 10in. Cal. for 6-in. where the other end of wire is fastened. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. The three shelves are cut 25-in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. 1. wide. Washington. long and full 12-in. Compton.whenever the bell rings. Two drawers are fitted in this space. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Dr. C. Jr. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in..

which in operation is bent. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. 1. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. B. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. Va. closed. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. as shown by the dotted lines. to which is fastened a cord. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. A. E. Roanoke. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. When the cord is passed over pulley C.

CC. in diameter. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. as shown in the illustration. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. 4 shows the wheel-holder. These wheels should be 3/4 in. in diameter. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Put the rubber tube. E.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. against which the rubber tubing. Bore two 1/4 in. E. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. B. in diameter. Fig. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. Fig. they will bind. Fig. In these grooves place wheels. 1 in. apart. 3. but a larger one could be built in proportion. Do not fasten the sides too . one in each end. deep. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. deep and 1/2 in. D. 1 in. in diameter. 5) when they are placed. is compressed by wheels. thick (A. square and 7/8 in. excepting the crank and tubing. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. to turn on pins of stout wire. The crankpin should fit tightly. they will let the air through. holes (HH. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. long. Figs. it too loose. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. wide. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. 1. which should be about 1/2 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. through one of these holes. 3). Now put all these parts together. Figs. wide. Cut two grooves. thick. If the wheels fit too tightly. In the sides (Fig. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. Notice the break (S) in the track.

though a small iron wheel is better. beyond each of these two.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. For ease in handling the pump. the pump will give a steady stream. Take the center of the bar. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. is all the expense necessary. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. A in Fig. 15 in. from that mark the next hole. Hubbard. of material. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. AA. mark again. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. from each end. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. 1. --Contributed by Dan H. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. stands 20 in. 1. B. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. The animal does not fear to enter the box. If the motion of the wheels is regular. AA. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. 1. To use the pump. from each end. 2. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. Fig. In the two cross bars 1 in. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. and are 30 in. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. Fig. because he can . the other wheel has reached the bottom. a platform should be added. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. Fig. mark for hole and 3 in. Two feet of 1/4-in. and 3-1/2 in. Fig. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. Then turn the crank from left to right. as shown in Fig. 1. 17-1/2 in. as it gives steadiness to the motion. Idana. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. 1. from each end. The screen which is shown in Fig. 2. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. long. tubing. costing 10 cents. iron. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. from the bottom and 2 in. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. and mark for a hole. The three legs marked BBB. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Cut six pieces. Kan.

Then pour the solution into the battery jar. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. some of it should be poured out. When the bichromate has all dissolved. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. however. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. shuts him in. dropping. sulphuric acid. or small electric motors. If the solution touches the zinc. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. Meyer. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. long having two thumb screws. and the solution (Fig. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. 2). but if one casts his own zinc. stirring constantly. 14 copper wire. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. The mercury will adhere. of water dissolve 4 oz. The battery is now ready for use. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. It is useful for running induction coils. When through using the battery. 1) must be prepared. add slowly. 4 oz. --Contributed by H. Place the carbon in the jar. If the battery has been used before. until it is within 3 in. acid 1 part). silvery appearance. C. If it is wet. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. or. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. of the top. Philadelphia. The battery is now complete. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. . The truncated. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. there is too much liquid in the jar. rub the zinc well. potassium bichromate. giving it a bright.see through it: when he enters. To cause a flow of electricity. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. and touches the bait the lid is released and.

A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. Madison. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. the battery circuit. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. while the coal door is being opened. with slight changes. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. however. Wis. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. i. After putting in the coal. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch.. If. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. The price of the coil depends upon its size. e. the jump-spark coil . The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. which opens the door.Fig.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. pressing the pedal closes the door.

W W. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. in a partial vacuum. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. as shown in Fig. Change the coil described. 7. while a 12-in. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. 7. apart. After winding. This coil. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. This will make an excellent receiver. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. diameter.7. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. the full length of the coil. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. coil. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. which is made of light copper wire. Now for the receiving apparatus.described elsewhere in this book. 6. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". being a 1-in. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. 6. as shown in Fig. W W. 5. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. Fig. . which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. in a straight line from top to bottom. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. and closer for longer distances. made of No. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. 7).

B the bed and C the tailstock. as it matches the color well.6 stranded. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. 90°. but it could be run by foot power if desired. 90°. but simply illustrates the above to show that. and hence the aerial line. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. being vertical. where A is the headstock. Figs. No. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. 1 to 4. which will be described later.The aerial line. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. are analogous to the flow of induction. Run a wire from the other binding post. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. may be easily made at very little expense. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. A. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. after all. above the ground. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. 1). To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. I run my lathe by power. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. For an illustration. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. being at right angles. only. in the air. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. A large cone pulley would then be required. These circles. at any point to any metal which is grounded. . using an electric motor and countershaft. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. The writer does not claim to be the originator. to the direction of the current.

it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. Heat the babbitt well. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. 6. B. A. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. If the bearing has been properly made. 5. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. To make these bearings. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. Fig. and runs in babbitt bearings. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. The bolts B (Fig. After pouring. Fig. which are let into holes FIG. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. The bearing is then ready to be poured. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. 6 Headstock Details D. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. and Fig. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. deep. and it is well to have the shaft hot. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. which pass through a piece of wood. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. The headstock. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. Fig. too. one of which is shown in Fig. Fig. thick. steel tubing about 1/8 in. but not hot enough to burn it. 2 and 3. 4. tapered wooden pin. 5. 4. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. just touching the shaft. pitch and 1/8 in. on the under side of the bed.

but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. of the walk . 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. the alarm is easy to fix up.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. FIG. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. B. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. embedded in the wood. Take up about 5 ft. A. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. This prevents corrosion. Oak Park. If not perfectly true. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. Ill. N.other machines. lock nut. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. The tail stock (Fig.J. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. Newark. they may be turned up after assembling. If one has a wooden walk. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. so I had to buy one. and a 1/2-in. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary.

the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. and the alarm is complete. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. so that they will not touch. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. hang the articles on the wires. before dipping them in the potash solution. silver or other metal. add potassium cyanide again. --Contributed by R. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. S. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. (A. Finally. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Then make the solution . To avoid touching it. to roughen the surface slightly. water. Minneapolis. leaving a clear solution. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Jackson. clean the articles thoroughly. Minn. 2). save when a weight is on the trap. of water. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. to remove all traces of grease. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Fig. Connect up an electric bell.

A 1/4 in. German silver. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. and the larger part (F. When all this is set up. In rigging it to a sliding door. long.5 to 4 volts. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. an old electric bell or buzzer. will serve for the key. Screw the two blocks together. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. To provide the keyhole. 3) strikes the bent wire L. 10 in. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. and then treated as copper. use 2 volts for large articles. which is held by catch B. Fig. Repeat six times. Take quick. The wooden catch. make a key and keyhole. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. nickel and such metals. with water. saw a piece of wood. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. 1 in. If accumulators are used. such metals as iron. On brass. long. 1. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. Fig. Fig. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. B should be of the same wood. 18 wire. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. Where Bunsen cells are used. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. which is advised. Fig. --Model Engineer. shaking. The wooden block C. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. Having finished washing the precipitate. silver can be plated direct. must be about 1 in. lead. A (Fig. thick by 3 in. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. and 4 volts for very small ones. 1 not only unlocks. but opens the door. 3. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. 1). Make a somewhat larger block (E. square. of water. if one does not possess a buffing machine. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. as shown in Fig.up to 2 qt. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. zinc. hole in its center. with the pivot 2 in. Then. which . of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. copper. light strokes. a circuit is completed. 1). as at F. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. from the lower end. This solution. of clothesline rope and some No. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. With an electric pressure of 3. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. I. Can be made of a 2-in. 3) directly over the hole. about 25 ft. Before silver plating. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. with water. when the point of the key touches the tin. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. also. piece of broomstick. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. If more solution is required. a hand scratch brush is good. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. pewter.

enlarged. such as forks. which unlocks the door. the illumination in front must be arranged. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. East Orange. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). and the heavier weight N immediately opens it.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. One end is removed. 2. some black cloth. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. he tosses it into the cave. Heavy metal objects. H. H. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. and plenty of candles. H. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. although a little more trouble. Fig. Receiving the bowl again. To prepare such a magic cave. with the lights turned low. or cave. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. B. 0. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. --Contributed by E. the box should be painted black both inside and out. the requisites are a large soap box. Next. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. 1. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. with a switch as in Fig. spoons and jackknives.. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. surrounding a perfectly black space. half way from open end to closed end. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. floor. 2. The box must be altered first. Objects appear and disappear. 116 Prospect St. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. Next. On either side of the box. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. Thus. in his shirt sleeves. shows catch B. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. New Jersey. Klipstein. Fig. some black paint. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. 1. cut in one side. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. and finally lined inside with black cloth. One thing changes to another and back again. Fig. The interior must be a dead black. 3. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. sides and end. top. he points with one finger to the box. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. no painting inside is required. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. He removes the bowl from the black box. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. so much the better. heighten the illusion. and a slit. and hands its contents round to the audience. . between the parlor and the room back of it. should be cut a hole. a few simple tools. one-third of the length from the remaining end. and black art reigns supreme. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. Fig. to throw the light toward the audience. is the cut through which the rope runs. The magician stands in front of this. In front of you.

and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. and if portieres are impossible. of course. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. in which are oranges and apples. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. which are let down through the slit in the top. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which.Finally. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. you must have an assistant. But illusions suggest themselves. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. The exhibitor should be . his confederate behind inserts his hand. as presented by Hermann. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. The illusion. if. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. a screen must be used. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. the room where the cave is should be dark. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. of course. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. Consequently. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. was identical with this. had a big stage. into the eyes of him who looks. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. and pours them from the bag into a dish. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. The audience room should have only low lights. one on each side of the box. and several black drop curtains. only he. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. is on a table) so much the better. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. which can be made to dance either by strings.

a boy who can talk. b3. b2. or binding posts. c1. with three brass strips. 1. at L. making contact with them. terminal c3 will show +. held down by another disk F (Fig. About the center piece H moves a disk. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. and c2 to the zinc. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. 2. f2. is shown in the diagram. b1. On the disk G are two brass strips. by 4 in. their one end just slips under the strips b1. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. FIG. when handle K is turned to one side. e1 and e2. held down on disk F by two other terminals. and c4 + electricity. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. and a common screw. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). A represents a pine board 4 in. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. c2. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. terminal c3 will show . Fig. 2). A. as shown in Fig. c4. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. Then. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. so arranged that. c3. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. respectively. and c1 – electricity. Finally. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . d. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. 1. b2.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. held down on it by two terminals. respectively. if you turn handle K to the right. or b2. b3. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. respectively. square. making contact with them as shown at y. 2. by means of two wood screws. vice versa..

By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. Joerin. 5. 4. you have the current of one battery. from four batteries. and C and C1 are binding posts. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. Tuttle. . from three batteries. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). thus making the message audible in the receiver. jump spark coil. 3. when A is on No. E. -Contributed by A. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. and when on No. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. and then hold the receiver to your ear. Jr. --Contributed by Eugene F. from five batteries. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna.. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. when on No. Ohio. 1. when on No. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. When switch B is closed and A is on No. B is a onepoint switch. Newark. 2 you receive the current from two batteries.

it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. per second. and supporting the small weight. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and placed on the windowsill of the car. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. per second for each second. A. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. rule. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. The device thus arranged. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. over the bent portion of the rule. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. so one can see the time. which may be a button or other small object. mark. P. Thus. of Burlington. When you do not have a graduate at hand. A. as shown in the sketch. E. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. La. New Orleans. A. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. B. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. mark. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second.. Wis. is the device of H. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. Redmond. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. Handy Electric Alarm . traveled by the thread. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. Thus if the thread moves 1 in.

do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. but may be closed at F any time desired. --Contributed by Gordon T. which illuminates the face of the clock. Pa. B. and with the same result. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. S. --C. for a wetting is the inevitable result. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. Crafton. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge.which has a piece of metal. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. Then if a mishap comes. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. Instead. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. soldered to the alarm winder. . the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. C. wrapping the wire around the can several times. When the alarm goes off. Lane. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. It was not long before a big greyhound came along.

The first thing to make is a molding bench.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. bearings. AA.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . It is possible to make molds without a bench. If there is no foundry Fig. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. and duplicates of all these. as shown. when it is being prepared. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. which may. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. ornaments of various kinds. battery zincs. With the easily made devices about to be described. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. 1 . L. and many other interesting and useful articles. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. whence it is soon tracked into the house. New York City. C. as shown in Fig. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. models and miniature objects. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. Two cleats. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. but it is a mistake to try to do this. engines. binding posts. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. cannons. 1. small machinery parts. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. Macey. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. A. BE. --Contributed by A.

but this operation will be described more fully later on." or lower part. A wedge-shaped piece. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. makes a very good sieve. and this. is made of wood. Fig. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. white metal.near at hand. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. 2. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. and saw it in half longitudinally. 1. say 12 in.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. The cloth bag.How to Make a Mold [96] . After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. If the box is not very strong. The rammer. is nailed to each end of the cope. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. which can be either aluminum." or upper half. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. as shown. is shown more clearly in Fig. and the lower pieces. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. II . and a sieve. J. 2 . DD. A A. If desired the sieve may be homemade. is about the right mesh. try using sand from other sources. D. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. H. G. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. It is made of wood and is in two halves. A slight shake of the bag Fig. CC. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. by 8 in. by 6 in. a little larger than the outside of the flask. is filled with coal dust. 1. high. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. as shown. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. which can be made of a knitted stocking. F. An old teaspoon. Fig. previous to sawing. which should be nailed in. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. will be required. The dowels. and the "drag. the "cope. CC. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. E. The flask. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated.

" and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. as shown at E. It is then rammed again as before. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. as it is much easier to learn by observation. as shown at C. as shown at D. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. the surface of the sand at . It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. and if water is added. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. as described. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. as shown. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. and thus judge for himself. and by grasping with both hands. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. or "cope. turn the drag other side up. or "drag. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. it has a sufficient amount of moisture." in position. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. and then more sand is added until Fig. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. and scatter about 1/16 in. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. Place another cover board on top. The sand is then ready for molding. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. in order to remove the lumps. where they can watch the molders at work. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. In finishing the ramming. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. After ramming.

place the cope back on the drag. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. Place a brick or other flat. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. to give the air a chance to escape. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. as shown at F. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. after being poured. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. made out of steel rod. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. This is done with a spoon. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. and then pour. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. in order to prevent overheating. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. as shown at H. thus holding the crucible securely. wide and about 1/4 in. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. as shown in the sketch. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. a channel being cut about 3/4 in.E should be covered with coal-dust. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. deep. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. as shown at H. in diameter. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it." or pouring-hole. as shown at J. it shows that the sand is too wet. as shown at G. . The pattern is then drawn from the mold. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. thus making a dirty casting. III. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. The "sprue. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. After drawing the pattern. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. Fig. is next cut.

and. battery zincs. --Contributed by Harold S. used only for zinc. Minneapolis. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. the following device will be found most convenient. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. In my own case I used four batteries. may be used in either direction. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. 15% lead. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. and the casting is then ready for finishing. or from any adjacent pair of cells. Referring to the figure. although somewhat expensive. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. babbitt. is very desirable. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. but any reasonable number may be used. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. Although the effect in the illustration . the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. Morton. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. white metal and other scrap available. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. If a good furnace is available. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal.

and the oarsman is obliged to travel. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. Then replace the table. connected by cords to the rudder. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. as shown at A.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. outward. 2. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. If desired. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. which will be sufficient to hold it. as shown in the illustration. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. A. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. Fig. Put a sharp needle point. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. may be made of hardwood. The bearings. Chicago. B. Then walk down among the audience. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. shaft made. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. The brass rings also appear distorted. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. B. Make one of these pieces for each arm. To make it take a sheet-iron band. --Contributed by Draughtsman. 3/4 in. backward. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. By replacing the oars with paddles.

2. but when in motion. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. or under pressure. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. 2 and 3. If babbitt is used. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. A block of ice. It may seem strange that ice . Fig. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. should be made of wood. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. If galvanized iron is used. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. C.melted babbitt. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. being simply finely divided ice. Snow. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. The hubs. or the paint will come off. as shown in Fig. A. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. 1. 3. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. as shown in Fig. In the same way. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. E. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. 1. D. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. 1. and a weight. The covers. spoiling its appearance. when it will again return to its original state. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. W. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure.

but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. P. --Contributed by Gordon T. brass. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. whenever there is any connection made at all. or supporting it in some similar way. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening.should flow like water. which resembles ice in this respect. thus giving a high resistance contact. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. The rate of flow is often very slow. no matter how slow the motion may be. by 1/4. and assume the shape shown at B. Lane. Crafton. as per sketch. sometimes only one or two feet a day. square. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. Pa. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends.. by 5 in. as shown on page 65. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . The current is flowing through both bells all the time. by 1/2 in. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. but. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. but by placing it between books. in. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. Pressing either push button. by 2 in. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. B. it will gradually change from the original shape A.

000 ft. draft chain. horizontal lever. F. draft. The success depends upon a slow current. A is the circuit breaker. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. Indianapolis. K . pulleys. about the size used for automobiles. the battery. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. D. the induction coil. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. vertical lever. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. alarm clock. J. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. and five dry batteries. C. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. E. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. In the wiring diagram. furnace. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. --Contributed by A. Wilkinsburg. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. B. cord. B. Pa. as shown. as shown. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. G. I. H.thumb screws. Ward. and C. wooden supports. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. The parts are: A. G. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. weight.

The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. where house plants are kept in the home. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. material framed together as shown in Fig. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. 2 are dressed to the right angle. Mich. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. which will provide a fine place for the plants. such as used for a storm window. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. Artistic Window Boxes The top. The frame (Fig. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. Kalamazoo. 3. will fit nicely in them. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. as well as the bottom.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. How to Make an Electroscope [103] .

It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. and the instrument will then be complete. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. This is more economical than dry cells. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. where they are glad to have them taken away. Thus. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. i. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. by connecting them in series. after a rest. can be connected up in series. Push the needle into the cork. However. N. and will give the . this must be done with very great caution. e. --Contributed by Wm. as if drawn upon for its total output. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. W. Canada. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. 1 each complete with base. is something that will interest the average American boy. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. The 1/2-cp. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. since a battery is the most popular source of power.. and a suitable source of power. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. for some time very satisfactorily. Halifax. but maintain the voltage constant. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. as indicated by Fig. one can regulate the batteries as required. However. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. and cost 27 cents FIG. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. in any system of lamps. It must be remembered. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. which sells for 25 cents. in diameter. S.. multiples of series of three. a cork and a needle. so as to increase the current. 1 cp. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. in this connection. 1. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom.. Grant. A certain number of these.

or 1-1/4 cents per hour. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. 18 B & S. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. Chicago. especially those of low internal resistance. which is the same as that of one battery. and diffused light in a room. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. and for Christmas trees. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. double insulated wire wherever needed. Fig. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. These will give 3 cp. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. In conclusion. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. lamps. where the water pressure is the greatest. generates the power for the lights. If wound for 10 volts. we simply turn on the water. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. or 22 lights. as in Fig. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. However. by the proper combination of these. each. according to the water pressure obtainable. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. for display of show cases. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. 3. So. to secure light by this method. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. 1-cp. lamp. and running the series in parallel. and then lead No. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. lamps. 11 series.proper voltage. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. . although the first cost is greater. Thus. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. making. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. if wound for 6 volts. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. FIG. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose.. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. Thus. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. 2 shows the scheme.

How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. AA. simply change the switch. a bait of meat. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. bars of pole-changing switch. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. After I connected up my induction coil. BB. Plymouth. B. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. and the sides. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. DD. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. brushes of motor. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. A indicates the ground. as shown in the sketch.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. --Contributed by Leonard E. and C. B. Parker. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. we were not bothered with them. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. CC. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. center points of switch. the letters indicate as follows: FF. thus reversing the machine. or a tempting bone. . A. Santa Clara. --Contributed by F. outside points of switch. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. To reverse the motor. Ind. switch. Emig. or from one pattern. are cut just alike. Cal. field of motor.

A. merely push the button E. Minn. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. W. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. Cal. Fry. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. To unlock the door. which is in the door. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. a hammer. If it is not. 903 Vine St. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. a piece of string.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. The button can be hidden. When the circuit is broken a weight. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. -Contributed by Claude B. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. attached to the end of the armature B. thus locking the door. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity.. Melchior. Hutchinson. San Jose. one cell being sufficient. The experiment works best . or would remain locked. and a table or bench. as it is the key to the lock.

Ontario. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. Tie the ends of the string together. I. 2. D. C. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table..Contributed by F. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. the key turns. . -. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. releasing the weight. Madison. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. which pulls the draft open. 18 Gorham St. Culebra. the stick falls away. A. P. Wis. W. --Contributed by Geo. Schmidt. 3. attached at the other end. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. 4). When the alarm rings in the early morning. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. 1). the current flows with the small arrows. as shown in Fig. run through a pulley. 3. Brockville. forming a loop.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. in the ceiling and has a window weight. Canada. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Crawford Curry. Porto Rico. On another block of wood fasten two wires. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. where it will remain suspended as shown.

get two pieces of plate glass. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. --Contributed by Wm. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. and . made with his own hands. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. or from a bed of flowers.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. Camden. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. J. 6 in. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. square and 1 in. First. Jr. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. D. and break the corners off to make them round.. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. thick. R. N. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. or tree. running one direct to the receiver. J. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. The cut shows the arrangement. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. and then to the receiver. Use a barrel to work on. S. which fasten to the horn. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. and the other to the battery. thence to a switch. Connect two wires to the transmitter. Farley. including the mouthpiece.

unless a longer focal length is wanted. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. wetting it to the consistency of cream. and spread on the glass. wet till soft like paint. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. set the speculum against the wall. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. a round 4-in. 1. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. In a dark room. A. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle.. by the side of the lamp. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. the coarse grinding must be continued. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. with 1/4-in. When polishing the speculum. Use a binger to spread it on with. Fig. Fasten. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. and is ready for polishing. and the under glass or tool convex.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. in length. Have ready six large dishes. while walking around the barrel. L. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. or less. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. 2. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. 2. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. When dry. with pitch. wide around the convex glass or tool. and a large lamp. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. also rotate the glass. When done the glass should be semitransparent. of water. Fig. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. and label. then 8 minutes.. using straight strokes 2 in. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. melt 1 lb. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. as in Fig. twice the focal length away. so the light . with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. which is necessary to make it grind evenly.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. then take 2 lb. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. or it will not polish evenly. spaces. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. Then warm and press again with the speculum.

the speculum is ready to be silvered. fill the dish with distilled water.. add the ammonia solution drop by drop.100 gr. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. must be procured. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. The knife should not be more than 6 in. 25 gr. face down.……………………………. 39 gr.. Place the speculum.. Place the speculum S. as in K. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. Fig. If not. with distilled water. Fig.. that was set aside. 2. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Fig. the speculum will show some dark rings. 4 oz. The polishing and testing done. cement a strip of board 8 in. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use.. from the lamp. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. With pitch. and pour the rest into the empty dish. 4 oz. Now add enough of the solution A. deep. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. Then add solution B. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …..Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. 840 gr. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. When dry. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. longer strokes. Then add 1 oz. Solution D: Sugar loaf ... or hills.. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. Nitric acid . Alcohol (Pure) ……………. touched with rouge.…………….………………………………. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). 2. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. Two glass or earthenware dishes. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. When the focus is found. if a hill in the center. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. long to the back of the speculum. Silver nitrate ……………………………. also how the rays R from a star .. then ammonia until bath is clear. 100 gr. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center.

The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. is a satisfactory angle. two glass prisms. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. deg. Mellish.. and proceed as for any picture. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. My telescope is 64 in. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms.John E. About 20. Then I made the one described. . Thus an excellent 6-in. cover with paper and cloth. with an outlay of only a few dollars. which proves to be easy of execution. Place over lens. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. The flatter they are the less they will distort. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. stop down well after focusing. slightly wider than the lens mount.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. long and cost me just $15. telescope can be made at home. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. using strawboard and black paper. Make the tube I of sheet iron.

when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. B. -Contributed by A. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. The rays of the clear. then add a little sulphate of potash. Ill. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. A. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. says the Master Painter. as shown in Fig. Fig. through the lens of the camera and on the board. instead of the contrary. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. Do not stir it. and reflect through the negative. . In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. To unlock. The paper is exposed. Zimmerman. add the plaster gradually to the water. complete the arrangement. 1. unobstructed light strike the mirror. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. Boody. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. D. but will not preserve its hardening. or powdered alum. push the button D. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. 2.

To reverse. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. as in Fig. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. throw . I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. 3. Fig. Then blow through the spool. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. as shown in the sketch. use a string. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. but will remain suspended without any visible support. 2. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. 2. also provide them with a handle. Fasten on the switch lever. 1). Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. so that it can rotate about these points. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. as at A and B.

Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Go McVicker. D. rinse in alcohol. Levy. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Take out. San Antonio. C C. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. L. Neb. carbon sockets. and E E. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. Tex. . A is the electricbell magnet. Push one end of the tire into the hole. and rub dry with linen cloth. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. B. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. as shown in the sketch. San Marcos. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. In the sketch.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. Tex. Thomas. --Contributed by Geo. the armature. wash in running water. North Bend. --Contributed by R. although this is not necessary. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. carbons. -Contributed by Morris L. binding posts.

The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. By means of two or more layers of No. Bell. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. long or more. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . 14 or No.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Joseph B. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. 36 magnet wire. 16 magnet wire. wound evenly about this core. Brooklyn. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made.

The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. about 6 in. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. After the core wires are bundled. as shown in Fig. wide. coil illustrates the general details of the work. in length. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. the entire core may be purchased readymade. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. one piece of the paper is laid down. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. a box like that shown in Fig. which is an important factor of the coil. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. The primary is made of fine annealed No. at a time. A 7/8-in. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. No. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. 2 yd. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. making two layers. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils.which would be better to buy ready-made. The condenser is next wrapped . and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. as the maker prefers. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. long and 5 in. 4. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. diameter. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. long and 2-5/8 in. Beginning half an inch from one end. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. This makes a condenser which may be folded. with room also for a small condenser. in diameter. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. or 8 in. and finally the fourth strip of paper. The following method of completing a 1-in. then the strip of tin-foil. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. which is desirable. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. and the results are often unsatisfactory. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. In shaping the condenser. 1. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. hole is bored in the center of one end. but if it is not convenient to do this work. When cut and laid in one continuous length. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound.

securely with bands of paper or tape.) The wiring diagram. A. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. 4 in. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. shows how the connections are made. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. and the other sheet. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. V-shaped copper strip. F. B. and one from battery. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. ready for assembling. flange turned on one side. which is insulated from the first. round so that the inside . Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. to the door. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. G. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. which allows wiring at the back. The alarm key will turn and drop down. C. battery . Fig. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. copper lever with 1-in. E. go. B. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. open switch C. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. I. whole length. 3. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. long and 12 in. long to key. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down.. by 12 in. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. switch. the letters indicate as follows: A. shelf for clock. lines H. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. spark. bell. D. forms the other pole or terminal. one from bell. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. wide. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser.

If desired for use immediately.diameter is 7 in. but add 5 or 6 oz. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. and then rivet the seam. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. but with the circuit. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. says the Model Engineer.. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. This is for blowing. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. of blue stone. Line the furnace. 2 in. and the battery is ready for use. . A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Short-circuit for three hours. That is what they are for. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. Use a glass or metal shade. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. London. do not shortcircuit. from the bottom. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. of zinc sulphate. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. The circuit should also have a high resistance. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. instead of close to it. This makes it impractical for running fan motors.

the thumb and second finger changing places: e. changes white phosphorus to yellow. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated.. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. To operate the trick.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. This type of battery will give about 0. or think they can do the same let them try it. Ohio. Enlarge the hole slightly. for others the opposite way. and then. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. At least it is amusing. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. porcelain and paper. for some it will turn one way. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. If any or your audience presume to dispute. Outside of the scientific side involved. as in the other movement." which created much merriment. grip the stick firmly in one hand.9 of a volt. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. g. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and therein is the trick. the second finger along the side. square and about 9 in. long. herein I describe a much better trick. while for others it will not revolve at all. 1. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. imparting to them a violet tinge. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. but the thing would not move at all. If too low. 2. thus producing two different vibrations. below the bottom of the zinc. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. affects . and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. oxygen to ozone. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Try it and see. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it.

says the Photographic Times. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. a short-focus lens. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. a means for holding it vertical. and one of them is photomicrography. To the front board is attached a box. but this is less satisfactory. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. if possible. an old tripod screw. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. however. insects. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. but not essential. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. chemicals. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . earth.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. and. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. but small flowers.

If the balloon is 10 ft. 5 in. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. wide from which to cut a pattern. Divide one-quarter of the circle . The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. or 3 ft. 1. Madison. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. 12 ft.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. Cap. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Fig. 381 24 lb. 7 ft. 9 ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 11 ft. in Cu. or 31 ft. Mass. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 8 ft. Boston. 268 17 lb. The following table will give the size. 905 57 lb. 6 ft. 697 44 lb. 5 ft. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E.--Contributed by George C. 7-1/2 in. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. and a line. A line. Ft Lifting Power. AB. 7-1/2 in. long and 3 ft. 113 7 lb. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. balloon. while it is not so with the quill. which is 15 ft. in diameter. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. CD. 179 11 lb. 65 4 lb.

of the very best heavy body. cutting all four quarters at the same time. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. 70 thread. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. 4. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. of beeswax and boil well together. This test will show if the bag is airtight. Procure 1 gal. keeping the marked part on the outside. making a double seam as shown in Fig. The amounts necessary for a 10- . 2. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. using a fine needle and No. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. on the curved line from B to C. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. The pattern is now cut. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. The cloth segments are sewed together. Repeat this operation four times. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. and so on. 3. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB.

All FIG. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. as shown in Fig. C. of sulphuric acid. The outlet. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. . . Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes.ft. B. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. with the iron borings. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. leaving the hand quite clean. balloon are 125 lb. The 3/4-in. if it is good it will dry off. Water 1 oz. should not enter into the water over 8 in. A. above the level of the water in barrel A. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. B. 150 gr. this should be repeated frequently. capacity and connect them. a clean white rag. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. 1 lb. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. to the bag. oil the spindle holes carefully. pipe. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. When the clock has dried. of iron. Fill the other barrel. 5 . The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. with water 2 in. by fixing. A. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. until no more dirt is seen. with 3/4in. of iron borings and 125 lb. After washing a part. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. ft. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. or dusting with a dry brush. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. or a fan. but if any grease remains on the hand. About 15 lb. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. of water will make 4 cu. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. A. B. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. which may sound rather absurd. 1 lb. C. using a fine brush. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. 5. it is not fit to use. In the barrel. of gas in one hour. Vegetable oils should never be used. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action.Green Iron ammonium citrate .. ].

. or carbon. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. 20 to 30 minutes. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Sliver nitrate 50 gr.Water 1 oz. Exposure. to avoid blackened skin. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. or zinc.. Port Melbourne. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. The miniature 16 cp. The positive pole. dry atmosphere will give best results. of any make. at the time of employment. Dry in the dark. Printing is done in the sun. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. or battery. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. and a vigorous negative must be used. says the Moving Picture World. toning first if desired. A longer exposure will be necessary. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. The negative pole. and keep in the dark until used. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. keeping the fingers out of the solution. This aerial collector can be made in . Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. of the cell is connected to the aerial line.000 ft. . but the 110-volt globes will not glow. fix in hypo. Dry the plates in the dark. A cold. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz.

Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. the resistance is less. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. a positive and a negative. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. If the waves strike across the needle. in diameter. when left exposed to the air. both positive and negative. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. and as less current will flow the short way. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. This will complete the receiving station. will soon become dry and useless. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. as described below. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. The storage cell. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates.various ways. holes . I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. lay a needle. forming a cup of the pipe. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. 5 in. and have the other connected with another aerial line. making a ground with one wire. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. If the wave ceases. long. As the telephone offers a high resistance. lead pipe.

does not need to be watertight. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. When mixing the acid and water. or tube C. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. by soldering the joint. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C.as possible. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. B. on each end. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. This box can be square. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. except for about 1 in. Two binding-posts should be attached. an oblong one and a triangular one. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. a round one. D. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. This. or tube B. says the Pathfinder. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. namely: a square hole. and the other to the negative. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. The other plate is connected to the zinc. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. of course. This support or block. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . one to the positive.

Chicago. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. as shown in Fig. thick cut two pieces alike. were fitted by this one plug. 1. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. 2. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. and match them together. long. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. A and B. all around the edge. 1. 2. 3. about 20 in. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. This punt. The third piece of brass. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. . using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. is built 15 ft.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. C. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. wide. as it is not readily overturned. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. back and under. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. leaving about 1/16 in. wide. and has plenty of good seating capacity. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. as shown in Fig. Only galvanized nails should be used. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. in place on the wood. deep and 4 ft. C. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. Ill.

long and fitted with a thumbscrew.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. square (Fig 2). The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Tacoma. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Wash. is cut 1 in. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . thick and 3-1/2 in. In Fig. A piece of 1/4-in. A. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. gas pipe. B. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill.

to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. says the Model Engineer. In designing. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. no special materials could be obtained. The winding of the armature." has no connection with the outside circuit. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . or "rotor. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning.--Contributed by Charles H. and to consume. H. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. lamp. with the exception of insulated wire. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. which the writer has made. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. no more current than a 16-cp. may be of interest to some of our readers. without auxiliary phase. it had to be borne in mind that. which can be developed in the usual manner. Wagner. if possible. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure.

The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. A. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. as shown in Fig. After assembling a second time.the field-magnet. and all sparking is avoided. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. in diameter were drilled in the corners. thick. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. They are not particularly accurate as it is. bolts put in and tightened up. C. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. while the beginnings . and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. Unfortunately. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. with the dotted line." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. to be filed out after they are placed together. also varnished before they were put in. The stator is wound full with No. 1. B. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. or "stator. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. being used. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. no steel being obtainable. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. 5. wrought iron. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. as shown in Fig. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. 2. 3. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. about 2-1/2 lb. this little machine is not self-starting. holes. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. and filled with rivets. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. Holes 5-32 in. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. 4. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. were then drilled and 1/4-in. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine.

The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. The rotor is wound with No. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. and would not easily get out of order. as before stated. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. and especially of colored ones. J. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. 1. 3-Contributed by C. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. as shown in Fig. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. and as each layer of wire was wound. having no commutator or brushes. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. and all wound in the same direction. The lantern slide is a glass plate.. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. No starting resistance is needed. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. a regulating resistance is not needed. N. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. and as the motor runs at constant speed. This type of motor has drawbacks. Jr. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. In making slides by contact. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. film to film. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. it would be very simple to build. 2. McKinney. Newark. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. One is by contact. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. The image should . How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. E. as a means of illustrating songs. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. and the other by reduction in the camera.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. if applied immediately. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. If too late for alcohol to be of use.

5. D. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. the formulas being found in each package of plates. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. about a minute. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. 4. C. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. 1. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig.appear in. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. to use a plain fixing bath. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. 2. Being unbreakable. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. also. A. if possible. and then a plain glass. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. These can be purchased from any photo material store. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. Select a room with one window. If the exposure has been correct. and development should be over in three or four minutes. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. over the mat. as shown in Fig. Draw lines with a pencil. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. B. as shown in Fig. Fig. a little extra work will be necessary. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. It is best. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. they are much used by travelers. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. 3. except that the binding is different.

as shown at B. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. A piece of canvas. Hastings. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. long. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. If the star is in front of the left eye. long. as shown at A. from the center of this dot draw a star. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. Corinth. 2. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. in diameter and 20 in. These longer pieces can be made square. Vt. while the dot will be in front of the other. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. 1. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. from the ends. is to be used for the seat. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . Fig. or other stout cloth. in diameter and 40 in. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. Fig. 1. from the end piece of the chair. as shown in Fig. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. holes bored in the end pieces. known as rods and cones. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. 16 in. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. long. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. wide and 50 in. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye.

was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. per square inch.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. as shown in Fig.-Contributed by P. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. Cal. A disk 1 in. as shown in Fig. O'Gara. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. 2. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. 1. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. . in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. J. Auburn. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. A belt. made from an ordinary sash cord. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. in thickness and 10 in. as well as to operate other household machines. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely.

direction. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. A simple. long. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. 3/4 in. then removing the object. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. leaving it shaped like a bench. screwing it through the nut. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. will be the thickness of the object. . A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. or inconvenient to measure. The part of a rotation of the bolt. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. divided by the number of threads to the inch. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. and the construction is complete. Bore a 1/4-in.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. fairly accurate. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. square for a support. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. with as fine a thread as possible. thick and 2-1/2 in. Put the bolt in the hole. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. wide. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. it serves a very useful purpose. says the Scientific American. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. to the top of the bench. Cut out a piece from the block combination.

globe that has been thrown away as useless. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. beyond the end of the wood. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. piece of wood 12 ft. The wheel should be open . This may appear to be a hard thing to do. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. long. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. material 12 ft. Place a 3/4-in. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. Bore a 3/4-in. long is used for the center pole. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Santa Maria. which show up fine at night. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. bolt in each hole. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Oal. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform.

Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. The coil. thick is used for the armature. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. B. C. at the bottom. A cross bar. from the ends. Graham. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. made of the same material. from the top end. to be operated by the magnet coil. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. C. The boards may be nailed or bolted. long. The spool . 1/2 in. wide and 1/8 in.-Contributed by A. and on its lower end a socket. at the top and 4 in. which should be 1/4 in. P. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. pieces used for the spokes. long. L. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. in diameter. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. thick. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. square and 3 or 4 in. is soldered. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core.Side and Top View or have spokes. thick. long. long. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. Fort Worth. H and J. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. of the ends with boards. Tex. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. A. O. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. wide and 1/8 in. and the lower part 61/2 in. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. A piece of brass 2 in.

The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. long. F. A soft piece of iron. The armature. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. A. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. and in numerous other like instances. by soldering. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. . then with a firm. This tie can be used on grain sacks. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil.E. do it without any apparent effort. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. that holds the lower carbon. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. S. R. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. At the bottom end of the frame. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. D and E. Mass. and place it against a door or window casing. --Contributed by Arthur D.000 for irrigation work. for insulating the brass ferrule.J. C. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. B. is drilled.000. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. S. Bradlev. 2 the hat hanging on it. or a water rheostat heretofore described. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. When you slide the pencil along the casing. one without either rubber or metal end. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. 1. which may be had by using German silver wire. 2. which is also connected to the brass ferrule.--A.is about 2-1/2 in. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. Randolph. and directly centering the holes H and J. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. This is a very neat trick if performed right.

of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. hole in the center. for adjustment. about 1 in. 2. is constructed in the usual manner. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. for the secondary. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. C. in diameter and 2 in. with a 3/16-in.500 turns of No. mixed with water to form a paste. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. wide. Fig. about 3/16 in. long. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. about 1/8 in. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. Fig. leaving the projections as shown. The coil ends are made from cardboard. F. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. The core of the coil. About 70 turns of No. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. long and 1 in. thick. for the primary. The vibrator B. from the core and directly opposite. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. A. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. S. Experiment with Heat [134] . where it can be pressed without attracting attention. The vibrator. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. B. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. may be made from a 3/8-in. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. is connected to a flash lamp battery. 1. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. in diameter and 1/16 in. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. in diameter. in diameter. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. S. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. and then 1. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. D. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. 1. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. The switch. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil.

between the boards. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. board. wide. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. which is only 3/8-in. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. 2 to fit the two holes. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. The lock. thick on the inside. in an ordinary water glass. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. 1. The knob on the dial extends out too far. as shown in the sketch. with which to operate the dial. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. brass plate. which seemed to be insufficient. The tin is 4 in. as shown. long and when placed over the board. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. 1. lighted. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover.Place a small piece of paper. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. 16 in. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. The three screws were then put in the hasp. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. The hasp. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. it laps down about 8 in. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. and then well clinched. and the same distance inside of the new board. Fig. . which is cut with two holes. was to be secured by only three brass screws.

square and 10-1/2 in. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. clear glass as shown. square and 8-1/2 in. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. or in the larger size mentioned. If the box is made large enough. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. black color. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. not shiny. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. which completely divides the box into two parts. When the rear part is illuminated. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. the glass. but when the front part is illuminated. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. and the back left dark. high for use in window displays. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. When making of wood. one in each division. any article placed therein will be reflected in.

into the other. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. wide will be about the right size. . above the top of the tank. When there is no electric current available. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. a tank 2 ft. as shown at A in the sketch. alternately. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water.. as shown in the sketch. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. and with the proper illumination one is changed. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. When using as a window display. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. long and 1 ft.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. as it appears.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

Iron sulphate. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. bit. as shown. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. two pieces 1-1/8 in. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. then use a red-hot iron to finish. one for each side. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. hole. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. and 6 ft. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. hole bored the full length through the center. Columbus. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. long. 6 in. using a 3/4-in. and a solution of iron sulphate added. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. however. 5 ft. square. Three windows are provided. The pieces can then be taken out. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. square and 40 in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. This precipitate is then washed. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. A small platform. thick and 3 in. but with a length of 12 in. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. high. Shape the under sides first. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. is the green vitriol. The 13-in. under sides together. each. bore from each end. This hole must be continued . with a length of 13 in. and boring two holes with a 1-in. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. 2 ft. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. or ferrous sulphate. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. long. and a door in front. 1 in. gauge for depth. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. from the ground. O. If a planing mill is near. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. wide. is built on the front. lines gauged on each side of each. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. dried and mixed with linseed oil.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. wide. radius.

" This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. If the parts are to be riveted. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. apply two coats of wax. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. A better way. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. if shade is purchased. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. hole in each block. Electric globes--two. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws.through the pieces forming the base. When the filler has hardened. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. When this is dry. square and drawing a diagonal on each. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. thick and 3 in. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Saw the two blocks apart. three or four may be attached as shown. For art-glass the metal panels are . Directions will be found on the filler cans. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges.

such as copper. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.Construction of Shade . the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. as brass. METAL SHADE .The Completed Lamp cut out.

The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. 2 the front view of this stand. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. the other. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. as in ordinary devices. the object and the background. as shown in the sketch. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. one way and 1/2 in. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. The arms holding the glass. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. and Fig. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. Figure 1 shows the side. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube.

Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. Cut another circular piece 11 in. and swinging freely. outside diameter. Put the ring in place on the base. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. uncork and recork again. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. long. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. wide and 11 in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. If the light becomes dim. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. wide and 6-5/16 in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. An ordinary pocket compass.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. in diameter for a base. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. thus forming a 1/4-in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. channel in the circumference of the ring. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. in diameter. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. pointing north and south. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. Before mounting the ring on the base. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. and an inside diameter of 9 in. thick 5/8-in. about 1-1/4 in. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. as it is very poisonous. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . as shown in the sketch. as shown in the cut.

Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. are mounted on a base. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. AA. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi.865 1. from the second to the third. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . Place on top the so- . and north of the Ohio river. CC. EE. above the half can. black oxide of copper. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders.182 . B. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago.600 . of the top. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. Corresponding mirrors. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through.715 .088 . from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye.420 . An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. in diameter and 8 in. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. into these cylinders.500 . black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. and mirrors. The results given should be multiplied by 1. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. to which a wire has been soldered for connections.289 . 1 oz.

University Park. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. slender bottle. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. which otherwise remains clear. of pulverized campor. the wheel will revolve in one direction. Put the solution in a long. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. says Metal Worker. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. In Fig. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. then they will not rust fast. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. 31 gr. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. 62 gr. When renewing. -Contributed by Robert Canfield.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. Colo. little crystals forming in the liquid. alcohol. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. always remove the oil with a siphon. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. the threads should be painted with pure white lead.

floating on a solution. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. This is used in place of the spoon. about 1-1/4 in. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. Attach to the wires. A paper-fastener box. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. If two of them are floating on the same solution. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. --Contributed by C. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. Lloyd Enos. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. If zinc and carbon are used. will allow the magnet to point north and south. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. If zinc and copper are used. on the under side of the cork. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. Solder in the side of the box . The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections.

Bore holes for binding-posts. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. 1. Take a small piece of soft iron. to it. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. long. The base. A. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. The standard. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. and then solder on the cover. B. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. wide and 2-1/2 in. stained and varnished. H. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. To this standard solder the supporting wire. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. long that has about 1/4-in. piece of 1/4-in. . Secure a piece of 1/4-in. The bottom of the box.in. D. and on the other around the glass tube. hole. A circular piece of cardboard. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. one on each side of the board. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. D. of wire on each end extending from the coil. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. Wind evenly about 2 oz. 14 wire will do. E. as shown in Fig. The spring should be about 1 in. Use a board 1/2. wide and 6 in. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. C. F. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. D. or made with a little black paint. Thos. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. thick. If the hose is not a tight fit. is made from a piece of No.in. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top .Contributed by J. B. Put ends. A. of No. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. C. Rhamstine. 10 wire about 10 in. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. E. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. glass tubing . G--No.1-in. 3 in.not shorter than 18 in. brass tubing. long. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. 1-1/4 in. 1/2. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. can be made of oak. away. C. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it.

Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. J. Y. D. E. long. Cuba. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. of 8-oz. of No. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. of mercury will be sufficient. four hinges. in diameter. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. is drawn nearer to the coil. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. long. N. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands.--Contributed by Edward M. long are used for the legs. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. long. canvas. . The iron plunger. 1. long. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. making a support as shown in Fig. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. 2. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. Teasdale. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. Wis. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. When the glass becomes soft. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. 5. 3. pieces of wood as shown in Fig.of the coil. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig.--Contributed by R. About 1-1/2 lb. two pieces 2 ft. 3 in. from the right hand. Milwaukee. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. about 1 in. long. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. as shown in Fig. 3-in. Smith.

leaving 8 in. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. Take 1/2 in.. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. Fig. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. Measure 8 in. thus leaving a.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed.. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. Keys. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. Toronto. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. Break off the piece of glass. holding in the left hand. of vacuum at the top. 3. The tube now must be filled completely. 6. small aperture in the long tube. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. 4. This tube as described will be 8 in. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. 5. expelling all the air. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. 2. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. Can. long. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. --Contributed by David A.

wide and 3 in. long. 3 in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. as shown in Fig.6 -. wide and 12 in. 3 in. 4 in. These are bent and nailed.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. thick. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. from the end of same. FIG. and the single projection 3/4 in. 5. 2. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. 3. as shown in Fig. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. long. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. Four blocks 1/4 in. 1 in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. with each projection 3-in. but yellow pine is the best. long. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. thick. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. long. joint be accurately put together. material 2 in. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . thick. 9 in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. thick. 1 in. cut in the shape shown in Fig. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. 4. in diameter. 6. wood screws. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. This forms a slot. and 1/4 in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. thick. 7. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. The large pulley is about 14 in. 1. Fig. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. A crosspiece 3/4-in. wide and 5 ft. wide and 5 ft. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. wide and 5 ft. as in Fig.

and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Kan. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. says Photography. R. . The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. above the runner level. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. first removing the crank. attach runners and use it on the ice. --Contributed by C. Manhattan. Water 1 oz. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Welsh. by 1-in.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. leaving the greater part of the screw extending.

Leominster. from an ordinary clamp skate. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Printing is carried rather far. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. and very much cheaper. 1 oz. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. 3. This is done with a camel's hair brush. 1. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. 2. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Mass. of water.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. as shown in Fig. Treasdale. Newton. --Contributed by Edward M. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. also. . The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. as shown in Fig. The print is washed. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. --Contributed by Wallace C. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws.

from one end. --Contributed by H. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. square piece. high for rabbits. 1. Take two glass tubes. Va. Place a 10-in. causing the door to swing back and up. wide and 4 in. and bend them as shown in the sketch. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. The swing door B. A. and to the bottom. high. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. as shown in the sketch. extending the width of the box. Then. 1. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. Fig. hole. Alexandria. which represents the back side of the door. say. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. 1 ft. Church. and 3 ft. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. about 10 in. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. F. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. Fig. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. with about 1/8-in. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. The thread is broken off at the . the rabbit will push its way through to the bait.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. fasten a 2-in. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. too. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. 2. long. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. 1-1/2 ft. wide.

wide. -Contributed by William M. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. . black surfaced if possible. Chicago. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. 3. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. This opening. 10 in. inside of the opening. but cut it 1/4 in. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. in size. says Camera Craft. 1 in. Crilly. D. Cut an opening in the other piece. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. high and 12 in. say 8 in. Jr. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. long. plates. as shown in Fig. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. being 1/8 in. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. automobiles. B. from the edge on each side of these openings. shorter. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Paste a piece of strong black paper. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. in size. trolley cars. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. camera and wish to use some 4. wide. C. Take two pieces of pasteboard. 2. horses and dogs. long. wide and 5 in. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. and exactly 5 by 7 in. Fig. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. Fig. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. shorter at each end.proper place to make a small hole. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. A and B. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used.by 5-in. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached.. and go in the holder in the same way. to be used as a driving pulley. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. 1.by 7-in. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. Out two rectangular holes.

This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. making a . into which the dog is harnessed. if it has previously been magnetized.in. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. long and 6 in. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. wide will be required. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. in diameter. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. A cell of this kind can easily be made. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. The needle will then point north and south.. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass.

This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. This makes the wire smooth.in. pine. for a connection. of the top. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. zinc oxide.watertight receptacle. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. beeswax melted together. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. F is a spool. sal ammoniac. pull out the wire as needed. of water. Pack the paste in. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. when the paraffin is melted. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. and a notch between the base and the pan. one that will hold about 1 qt. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. A is a block of l-in. under the spool in the paraffin. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. long which are copper plated. of rosin and 2 oz. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. 1 lb. 1/4 lb. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. 3/4 lb. Do not paint any surface. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. filter. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. fodder. in diameter and 6 in. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. File the rods to remove the copper plate. of the plate at one end. plaster of paris. Form a 1/2-in. with narrow flanges. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. short time. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. B is a base of 1 in. Place the pan on the stove. . Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. only the joints. fuel and packing purposes. in which P is the pan. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. says Electrician and Mechanic. leaving about 1/2-in.

By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. but the thing would not move at all. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. while for others it will not revolve at all. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. and one friend tells me that they were . threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. square and about 9 in. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood.. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley." which created much merriment. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. Enlarge the hole slightly. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Try it and see. At least it is amusing.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and therein is the trick. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. let them try it. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. by the Hindoos in India. thus producing two different vibrations. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. long. or think they can do the same. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. g. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Ohio. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. for others the opposite way. grip the stick firmly in one hand. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. from vexation. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. If any of your audience presume to dispute. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. 2. for some it will turn one way. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. and then. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and he finally. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. as in the other movement. Toledo.

and. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. m. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. gave the best results. the rotation may be obtained. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. and I think the results may be of interest. rotation was obtained. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. Thus a circular or . this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. 6. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. p. no rotation resulted. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. Speeds between 700 and 1. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. by means of a center punch. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. To operate. If the pressure was upon an edge. 2. The experiments were as follows: 1. 5. secondly. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. A square stick with notches on edge is best. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. 7. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed.100 r. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. 3. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. 4. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion.

a piece of wire and a candle. A wire is tied around the can. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). Washington. Minn. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops.. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. Sloan. and the resultant "basket splash. it will be clockwise. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. Ph.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. Lloyd. if the pressure is from the left. forming a handle for carrying. is driven violently away. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. --Contributed by G. so far as can be seen from the photographs. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. unwetted by the liquid. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. the upper portion is. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. .. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. at first. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. and the height of the fall about 6 in." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. G. Duluth. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. --Contributed by M. the liquid is forced away from the sphere.D. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. or greasy. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. D. A. C. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. as shown. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

1. as shown.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. thick and 1 in. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. about 2-5/8 in. as shown in Fig. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. axle. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . flange and a 1/4-in. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. in diameter. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. hole drilled in the center. with a 1/16-in. long. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. Each wheel is 1/4 in. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen.

bent as shown. or main part of the frame. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig.brass. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. bottom side up. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. San Antonio. 2. put together complete. The parts. This will save buying a track. Fig. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. are shown in Fig. each in its proper place. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. wood. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. The motor is now bolted. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. If the ends are to be soldered. as shown in Fig. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. 1 from 1/4-in. as shown in Fig.50. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. 3. 3/4 in. Fig. which must be 110 volt alternating current. wide and 16 in. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. is made from brass. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. with cardboard 3 in. 6. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. 5. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. and the locomotive is ready for running. A trolley. These ends are fastened together. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. long. The first piece. 3. Fuller. lamp in series with the coil. --Contributed by Maurice E. 2. The current. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. Texas. is made from a piece of clock spring. holes 1 in. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. 4. of No.

1. as shown in Fig. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Fig 1. 2. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. as shown in Fig. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. the length of a paper clip. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Fig. 3. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. and as this end . and holes drilled in them. Cincinnati. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. but do not heat the center. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. O. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. The quarter will not go all the way down. then continue to tighten much more. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble.

the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. or apparent security of the knot.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. In the sketch. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. or should the lathe head be raised. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. A pair of centers are fitted. 2 and 1 respectively. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. When the trick is to be performed. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. When the cutter A. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. has finished a cut for a tooth. and adjusted . Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel.

holding it in place with the left hand. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. The frame holding the mandrel. watch fob ready for fastenings. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. Fig.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). (2. An ordinary machine will do. tea cosey. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. In this manner gears 3 in. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. long. trace the outline. When connecting to batteries. about 1-1/2 in.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. (1. (5. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . 2. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). above the surface. note book.) Make on paper the design wanted. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. gentleman's card case or bill book. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. swing lathe. (4. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. at the same time striking light. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. Fold over along these center lines. or one-half of the design. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. if four parts are to be alike. (3. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. if but two parts.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. dividing it into as many parts as desired. blotter back. tea cosey. 1. coin purse.to run true. Bunker.) Place the paper design on the leather and. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. book mark. twisted around itself and soldered. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. and a nut pick. (6. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. --Contributed by Howard S. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. Second row: -Two book marks. draw center lines across the required space. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. N.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Brooklyn. Y. Bott. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. --Contributed by Samuel C. lady's belt bag. such as brass or marble. lady's card case.

and an ordinary bottle.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. some heavy rubber hose. Secure .

The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. from Key West. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. If the needle is not horizontal. A. Florida. a distance of 900 miles. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. into which fit a small piece of tube. The electrodes are made . or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. B. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. where it condenses.. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. Thrust a pin. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. and push it through a cork. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. and bore a hole through the center. C. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. D. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube.C.

In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. 16 piano wire. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. free from knots. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. 12 uprights 1/2 in. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. The operator can then land safely and . apart and connect with the 12 uprights. --Contributed by Edwin L. which is tacked to the front edge. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. C. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. 2. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. wide and 3 ft. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. take the glider to the top of a hill. by 3/4 in. thick. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. several strips 1/2 in. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. long for the body of the operator. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. long. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. wide and 4 ft. Connect as shown in the illustration. All wiring is done with No. as shown in Fig. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. Four long beams 3/4 in. wide and 20 ft. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. 1-1/2 in. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. To make a glide. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. long. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. wide and 4 ft long. both laterally and longitudinally. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. square and 8 ft long. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. using a high resistance receiver. as shown in Fig. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. thick. 1. lengths and splice them. 2. Washington. 1/2. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. long. long. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. long. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. as shown in Fig. use 10-ft. 1. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. If 20-ft.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. 1. Powell. lumber cannot be procured. or flying-machine. apart and extend 1 ft. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. wide and 4 ft. thick. thick. 3. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. 1-1/4 in.in. thick. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. 2 arm sticks 1 in. slacken speed and settle. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. 3/4 in. 2 in. D. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. and also to keep it steady in its flight. wide and 3 ft. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders.

Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Glides are always made against the wind.gently on his feet. Of course. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Great care should be . but this must be found by experience. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly.

shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. a creature of Greek mythology. 1. as shown in Fig. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. --Contributed by L. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. which causes the dip in the line. Olson. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. half man and half horse. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Bellingham. When heated a little. M. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig.exercised in making landings. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . 2.

Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. this will cost about 15 cents. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. of small rubber tubing. about the size of stove pipe wire. long and about 3/8 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. about the size of door screen wire. long. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. 14 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. The light from the . These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. While at the drug store get 3 ft. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. at the other. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. making it 2-1/2 in. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. a piece of brass or steel wire. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. in diameter. outside the box. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. square. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. will complete the material list. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire.

door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. This is very simple when you know how. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. 2. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. Dayton. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. . If done properly the card will flyaway. 1.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. --Photo by M. Hunting. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. as shown in Fig. M. O. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. as shown in the sketch. while others will fail time after time. as shown in Fig.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt.

When the desired shape has been obtained. Cool in water and dry. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. This game is played by five persons. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . place the other two. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. hold the lump over the flame. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. closing both hands quickly. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. If a certain color is to be more prominent. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. then put it on the hatpin head. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. as described. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. as before. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster." or the Chinese students' favorite game. as shown.

Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. or more in width. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. these sectors. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. distribute electric charges . This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. passing through neutralizing brushes. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in.

The plates are trued up. D. after they are mounted. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. wide. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. brass tubing and the discharging rods. are made from solid. at the other. The drive wheels. Two pieces of 1-in. or teeth. free from wrinkles. in diameter. The two pieces. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. Fig. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. material 7 in. in diameter. C C. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. in diameter and 15 in. turned wood pieces. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. 1 in. 1-1/2 in. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. to which insulating handles . and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. and pins inserted and soldered. 3. and the outer end 11/2 in. in diameter. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. The fork part is 6 in. The plates. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. 3/4 in. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. Fig. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. and of a uniform thickness. and this should be done before cutting the circle. long. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. RR. Two solid glass rods. wide at one end. long and the shank 4 in. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. as shown in Fig. long and the standards 3 in. EE. long. 3. 4. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. in diameter. GG. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. from about 1/4-in. 1. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. These pins. The collectors are made. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. in diameter.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. 2. in diameter. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. and 4 in. are made from 7/8-in. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. the side pieces being 24 in. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle.

The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. --Contributed by C. KK. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates.. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. Colorado City. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. which are bent as shown. and the work was done by themselves. wide and 22 ft. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. D. Colo. long. in diameter. 12 ft. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. one having a 2-in. ball and the other one 3/4 in. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Lloyd Enos.are attached. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water.

Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place.is a good one. yet such a thing can be done. and bore a hole 1/2 in. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. string together. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. as at A. deep. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. The key will drop from the string. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. pens . making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. bit. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. using a 1-in. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. the boards are then put in a vise as shown.

screw-driver and sheet copper of No. slim screw. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. Use . draw on paper an oblong to represent it. When the stamping is completed. about 3/4-in. The second oblong was 3/4 in. 23 gauge. inside the second on all. Proceed as follows: 1. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. inside the first on all. 5. extra metal on each of the four sides. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. they make attractive little pieces to have about. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. unless it would be the metal shears. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. 6. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. This is to make a clean.. They are easily made. etc. then the other side. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. above the work and striking it with the hammer. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. etc. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. using a nail filed to chisel edge. 3. also trace the decorative design. Draw one-half the design free hand. very rapid progress can be made. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. stamp the background promiscuously. flat and round-nosed pliers.and pencils. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. Inside this oblong.. Raise the ends. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. sharp division between background and design. or cigar ashes. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. 8. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. above the metal. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. 7. and the third one 1/4 in. 4. two spikes. 9. 2. Having determined the size of the tray. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. file. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored.

9. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. second fingers. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. 6. In the first numbering.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. The eyes. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. first fingers. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. 8. and fourth fingers. third fingers. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. 7. 10. and the effect will be most pleasing. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. Bradley All machinists use mathematics.

then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. Let us multiply 12 by 12. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. viz. etc. 25 times 25. etc. At a glance you see four tens or 40. 400. etc. . All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. above 15 times 15 it is 200. 12. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. which tens are added. or 80. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. if we wish.. below the thumbs are four units on each hand.. as high as you want to go. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. renumber your fingers. Still. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. 2 times 2 equals 4. and the six lower fingers as six tens. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. first fingers. 11. which would be 16. the product of 12 times 12. there are no fingers above. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. but being simple it saves time and trouble. or 60. above 20 times 20. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. thumbs. Two times one are two. In the second numbering. 600. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. which would be 70. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. Put your thumbs together. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. or numbers above 10.. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. or the product of 6 times 6. or the product of 8 times 9. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand.

If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. thirties. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. any two figures between 45 and 55. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. which is the half-way point between the two fives. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution.. not rotation. at the will of the observer. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. being 80). For figures ending in 6. And the lump sum to add. 75 and 85. beginning the thumbs with 16. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. about a vertical axis.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. Take For example 18 times 18. twenties. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. or from above or from below. forties. 8. It takes place also. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. and. the revolution seems to reverse. 7. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. 3. . the value of the upper fingers being 20. the inversion takes place against his will. or what. lastly. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. first finger 17. whether the one described in second or third numbering. etc. first fingers 22. For example. as one might suppose. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. The inversion and reversion did not take place. Proceed as in the second lumbering. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. when he removes his spectacles. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. 2. further. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. however. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. adding 400 instead of 100. thumbs. and so on. in the case of a nearsighted person. the lump sum to add. 21. the value which the upper fingers have.

sometimes the point towards him. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. the other appearance asserts itself. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. tee. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. as . one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. and putting a cork on the point. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. when he knows which direction is right.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. A flat slide valve was used. Looking at it in semidarkness. The ports were not easy to make. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side.

it is easily built. about 2 in. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. if continued too long without proper treatment. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. The eccentric is constructed of washers. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. apart. . H. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. If nothing better is at hand. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. inexpensive. Springfield. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. pipe. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. pipe 10 in. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. saw off a section of a broom handle. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. across the head. and make in one end a hollow. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out.. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. Fasten the block solidly. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. The steam chest is round. in diameter. -Contributed by W. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. While this engine does not give much power. secure a piece of No. Beating copper tends to harden it and. Ill. as in a vise. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. Next take a block of wood. bottom side up. Kutscher. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. such as is shown in the illustration. The tools are simple and can be made easily. deep. across and 1/2 in.

the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. C. This process is called annealing. as it softens the metal. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. the other to the left. To overcome this hardness. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. Vinegar. and. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. Hay. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. --Contributed by W. O. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish.will cause the metal to break. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. especially when the object is near to the observer. Camden. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. To produce color effects on copper. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. S.

because of the rays coming from them. diameter. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. But they seem black. because. It is just as though they were not there. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. In order to make them appear before the card. although they pass through the screen. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. would serve the same purpose. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. while both eyes together see a white background. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. they must be a very trifle apart. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. however. it. The red portions of the picture are not seen. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. from the stereograph. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. disappears fully. . the left eye sees through a blue screen. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. the further from the card will the composite image appear. the one for the left eye being blue. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. as for instance red and green. in the proper choice of colors. The further apart the pictures are. with the stereograph. and without any picture. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. and lies to the right on the picture. So with the stereograph. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass.stereoscope. that for the right. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. only the orange rays may pass through. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. orange. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. not two mounted side by side. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself.

long and a hole drilled in each end. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. wireless. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. etc. 1/4 in. Place a NO. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. thick. or the middle of the bottle. The weight of the air in round . The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. Cal. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. This should only be bored about half way through the block. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. in the shape of a crank. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. 12 gauge wire. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. in diameter. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. wide and 1 in. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. San Francisco. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. A No. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place.

The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. the instrument. Before fastening the scale. wide and 40 in. but before attempting to put in the mercury. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. will calibrate itself. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. or. 34 ft. the contrary. high. wide and 4 in.6) 1 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. In general. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. 30 in. inside diameter and 2 in. The 4 in. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. pine 3 in. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. .. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. But if a standard barometer is not available. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. internal diameter and about 34 in. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. a bottle 1 in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. a glass tube 1/8 in. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. thick. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. and a slow fall. high. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. long. square. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. if accurately constructed. long. square. high. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in.numbers is 15 lb. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. long. Only redistilled mercury should be used. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. if you choose. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. or a column of mercury (density 13. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch.

which is slipped quickly over the end. the size of the outside of the bottle. wide and 10 in. long. Mark out seven 1-in. Procure a metal can cover. a cover from a baking powder can will do.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. Number the pieces 1. 2. 5. 3. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. 1. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. thick. 6 and 7. and place them as shown in Fig. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle.

in diameter. Move 4-Jump No. each 10 ft. Move 3-Move No. Move 12-Jump No. Move 7-Jump No. 2 over No. procure unbleached tent duck. as shown in Fig. 3 to the center. Woolson. 7 over No. 2's place. Move 2-Jump No. Move 8-Jump No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 5. 6. 2 over No. Move 5-Jump No. 7. which is the very best material for the purpose. Move 6-Move No. Move 14-Jump No. Move 13-Move No. Move 10-Move No. 5's place. 5's place.-Contributed by W. using checkers for men. 6 over No. Move ll-Jump No. long and 2 ft. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. l over No. shaped like Fig. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 3 into No. N. Move 9-Jump No. 2. 5 over No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 2. 7 over No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. Cape May Point. 6.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 5 over No. 3 over No. This can be done on a checker board.J. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Move 15-Move No. 3. 2 . 7's place. 6 into No. 3. 1 into No. 1. 3. L. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. Make 22 sections. 6 in. 1. 6 to No. 1 to No. To make such a tent. 2's place.

high. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. leaving the rest for an opening. long and 4 in. Tress. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. Fig. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. 5. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. from the top. 5) stuck in the ground. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine.. round galvanized iron. wide at the bottom. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides.J. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. added. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. 6-in. will do. made in two sections.in. Use blocks. Punch holes in the brass in . In raising the tent. --Contributed by G. as in Fig. wide by 12 in. about 9 in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. Pa. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. fill with canvas edging. 6. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. to a smooth board of soft wood. long. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. wide at the bottom. Fig. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Emsworth. As shown in the sketch. 2 in. in diameter. diameter. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. These are ventilators. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Have the tent pole 3 in. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. After transferring the design to the brass. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. 3 in. 9 by 12 in. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. 2.

but before punching the holes. When all the holes are punched. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped.the spaces around the outlined figures. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. cut out the brass on the outside lines. . remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. The pattern is traced as before. Chicago. apart. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. around the outside of the pattern. It will not. When the edges are brought together by bending. excepting the 1/4-in. Corr. bend into shape. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E.

the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. Dunham. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. --Contributed by H. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. Oregon. Mayger. --Contributed by Geo. Badger. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. or. better still. If a wheel is selected. partially filled with cream. E. allowing 2 ft. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. pipe.. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. Stevens. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. between which is placed the fruit jar. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. pipe is used for the hub. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. A cast-iron ring. A 6-in. or less. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer.however. or center on which the frame swings. G. These pipes are . so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. Que. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in.

pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. An extra wheel 18 in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. bent to the desired circle. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. Four braces made from 1/2-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. pipe. pipe clamps.

which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The performer. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. 3. while doing this. which was placed in an upright position. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. and the guide withdrawn. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. 1. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. and dropped on the table. as shown in Fig. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes.

Denver. The box can be made of selected oak or . Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. -Contributed by C. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. --Contributed by H. it requires no expensive condensing lens. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Mo. 1. Colo. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. 2. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. and second. F. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Louis. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. in a half circle. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. first. Harkins. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. in diameter on another piece of tin. St. D. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. White. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera.

the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. wide by 5 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. from each end of the outside of the box. focal length. but not tight. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. high and 11 in. wide and 5 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. and. fit into the runners. AA. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. If a camera lens is used. represented by the dotted line in Fig. 5-1/2 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. long and should be placed vertically. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. 2. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. 1. wide and 6-1/2 in. long. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. long. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. Two or three holes about 1 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. from each end. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in.mahogany. as shown in Fig. An open space 4 in. wide. 3-1/2 in. The door covering this hole in the back. This will be 3/4 in. high and must . The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. and 2 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in.

Bradley. calling that knuckle January. and extending the whole height of the lantern. the article may be propped up . and so on. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct.. This process is rather a difficult one. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. 1. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. as it requires an airtight case. June and November. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. calling this February. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. provided it is airtight. --Contributed by Chas. Ohio. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. then the second knuckle will be March. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. April. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days." etc. West Toledo. C. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door.

and the lead 24 sq. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. fruit jars are required. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. Y. one of lead and one of aluminum. . The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. In both Fig. H. running small motors and lighting small lamps. Pour in a little turpentine. Schenectady. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. in. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. the lid or cover closed. 1 and 2. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. 2. N. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. 1. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. in. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. --Contributed by J. taking care to have all the edges closed. The top of a table will do. giving it an occasional stir. but waxed. Crawford. In each place two electrodes. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. and set aside for half a day. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. or suspended by a string.with small sticks. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier.

--Contributed by Cyril Tegner. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug.. he throws the other. you remove the glass. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. This trick is very simple. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. as well as others. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. Cleveland. After a few seconds' time. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . at the time of request for handkerchiefs. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. O. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. which you warm with your hands. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. He. You have an understanding with some one in the company. as you have held it all the time. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. and take the handkerchief and unfold it.

on a table. .-Contributed by E. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. J. Pull the ends quickly. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. in diameter in the center. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. Crocker. but by being careful at shores. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. near a partition or curtain. but in making one. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded.take the handiest one. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. Be sure that this is the right one. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. Colo. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Victor. if any snags are encountered. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. put it under the glass.

drilled and fastened with screws. ducking. 1 in. 7 ft. Fig. 3 in.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. Both ends are mortised. long. square by 16 ft. as illustrated in the engraving. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. for the bow. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. 1/8 in. 2 in. 4 outwales. by 8 in. wide and 12 ft. from the bow and the large one. thick and 3/4 in. the smaller is placed 3 ft. at the ends. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 8 in. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 1 piece. 1 mast. The keelson. 1 piece. wide and 12 ft. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 1. 3 and 4. by 16 ft. 2 gunwales. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. by 2 in. is 14 ft. 1 in. long. 11 yd. wide 12-oz. for cockpit frame. and fastened with screws. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . of 1-1/2-yd. 9 ft. 3 in. for center deck braces. from the stern. apart. and the other 12 in. and is removed after the ribs are in place. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. long. one 6 in. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown.. of rope. 14 rib bands. long. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. from each end to 1 in. by 10 ft. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. wide unbleached muslin. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. by 12 in. Paint. by 2 in. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. for the stern piece. 2 and braced with an iron band. 1/4 in.. and. by 16 ft. by 15 ft. clear pine. of 1-yd. are as follows: 1 keelson. 50 ft. 1 in. wide. 1 in. screws and cleats. 8 yd. selected pine.

The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. apart. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. wide and 14 in. thick and 1/2 in. 7 and 8. gunwales and keelson. 3-1/2 ft. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. 1 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. 1 in. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. Before making the deck. 4 in. long. 6. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. thick 1-1/2 in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. length of canvas is cut in the center. and fastened to them with bolts. The 11-yd. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. is a cube having sides 6 in. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. . with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. thick. 6 and 7. 6 in. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. thick. long. These are put in 6 in. doubled. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. Fig. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. This block. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. A block of pine. from the bow. A 6-in. wide and 3 ft. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. is cut to fit under the top boards. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. Braces. screws. wide. long. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. Figs. wide. a piece 1/4 in. wood screws. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. wide and 24 in. 9.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. corner braces. in diameter through the block. The block is fastened to the keelson. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. also. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. The deck is not so hard to do. They are 1 in. 5. A seam should be made along the center piece. A piece of oak. Fig. The trimming is wood. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. long is well soaked in water. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. 1/4 in. thick and 12 in.

With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. 12. wide. Ill. long. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. wide at one end and 12 in. is 6 in.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. The house will accommodate 20 families. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. . A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. Tronnes. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. thick by 2 in. apart in the muslin. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. 11. 10 with a movable handle. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. A strip 1 in. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. E. Fig. in diameter and 10 ft. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. are used for the boom and gaff. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. The keel. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. each 1 in. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. --Contributed by O. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. Wilmette. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. long. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. at the other. The sail is a triangle. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The mast has two side and one front stay.

The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. and 3 ft. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. flat-headed screws. E.into two 14-in. Tronnes. 2 in. square. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. thick. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. long. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. Ill. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. and the other 18 in. wide. --Contributed by O. five 1/2-in. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. thick. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. Wilmette. Cut the maple. Fig. 1 yd. with the ends and the other side rounding. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. flat on one side. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. flat headed screws. wide. long. 5. wide and 30 in. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. 3. long and five 1/2-in. 1. thick. as shown in Fig. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. 2. long. Bevel both sides of the pieces. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. about 5/16 in. 4. 2-1/2 in. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. wide and 2 ft. Take this and fold it over . on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. one 11-1/2 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. 2-1/2 in.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians.

The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. 1. long. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. D. and take care that the pieces are all square. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. wide and 6-1/2 in. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. is set. 6-1/2 in. A. 3 in. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. 3-1/4 in. thick. as well as the edges around the opening. 1-1/4 in. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. St. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. wide and 6-3/4 in. A. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. forming an eye for a screw. F. soaked with water and blown up. square. Make a double stitch all around the edge. the mechanical parts can be put together. thick and 3 in. Mo. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. wide . wide and 5 in. B. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. After the glue. long. 3/8 in. about 3/8 in. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. the top and bottom. C. long. of each end unwound for connections.once. Louis. Glue a three cornered piece. wide and 4-1/2 in. Wind three layers of about No. 2 and 3. long. this square box is well sandpapered. pieces 2-5/8 in. E. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. Fig. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. long. 5 from 1/16-in. wide and 2-3/4 in. then centered. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. The bag is then turned inside out. wide and 2-1/2 in. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. are rounded. long. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. and the four outside edges. and make a turn in each end of the wires. The front. C. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. Another piece. If carefully and neatly made. When the glue is set. Figs. About 1/2 in. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. thick. wide and 3 ft. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. --Contributed by W. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. Cut another piece of board. Bliss. square. long. The sides are 3-1/4 in. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. long. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. but can be governed by circumstances. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking.

the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. A pointer 12 in. 5. bored in the back.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. Place the tin. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. Another strip of tin. W. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. the same size as the first. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center.A. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. Richmond Hill. hole is fastened to the pointer. long. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. from the spindle. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. R. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. 4. Chapman. from one end.and 2-5/8 in. in diameter. 4. I. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. long.S. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. long. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. The end of the polar axis B. L. 4 is not movable. Fig. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. G. and the farther apart they will be forced. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. 1/4 in. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . showing a greater defection of the pointer. These wires should be about 1 in. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. Like poles repel each other. the part carrying the pointer moves away. Fig. The stronger the current. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. that has the end turned with a shoulder. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. The resistance is now adjusted to show . A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. board. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. 1/16 in. 5-1/2 in. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. wide and 9 in. Austwick Hall. and as the part Fig. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. and fasten in place. The base is a board 5 in. When the current flows through the coil. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. Yorkshire. F. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. --Contributed by George Heimroth. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. thick. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. C. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig.R. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. so it will just clear the tin. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities.

and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. and vice . 10 min. 10 min. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. thus: 9 hr. say Venus at the date of observation. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. M. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. 30 min. at 9 hr. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. 1881. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. A. shows mean siderial. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. The following formula will show how this may be found. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway.

Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. . get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. New Haven. owing to the low internal resistance. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. --Contributed by Robert W. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. and then verify its correctness by measurement. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell.m.f. Hall. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. if one of these cannot be had. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. or. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Conn.

long. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. leaves or bark. 3/8 in. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. The boring bar. thick. 1. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. arsenic to every 20 lb. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. put the fish among the ashes. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. When the follower is screwed down. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. fresh grass. inside diameter and about 5 in. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. as shown in the accompanying picture. and heap the glowing coals on top. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Fig. especially for cooking fish. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. Then. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. Wet paper will answer. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. of alum and 4 oz. cover up with the same. consisted of an old shaft with a hole .One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. 1-3/4 in.

Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. fastened with a pin. pipe. pipe. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. and threaded on both ends. about 1/2 in. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. thick. when they were turned in. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat.

--Contributed by Peter Johnson. The rough frame. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. square iron.valve stems. labor and time. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. Fig. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. 5. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. Fig. 3. This plate also supports the rocker arms. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. but never one which required so little material. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. 2. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. thick and 3 in. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. the float is too high. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. A 1-in. bent in the shape of a U. was then finished on an emery wheel. however. wide. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. If the valve keeps dripping. It . as the one illustrated herewith. Clermont. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. and which gave such satisfactory results. Iowa. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. Fig. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. 30 in. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. a jump spark would be much better. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. then it should be ground to a fit. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. 4. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. long. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing.

in the ground with 8 ft. in fact. 3/4 in. extending above. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. from all over the neighborhood. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. from the center. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. hole bored in the post. The seats are regular swing boards. A malleable iron bolt. set 3 ft. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line." little and big. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. and a little junk. The crosspiece is 2 in. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. W. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. Nieman. so it must be strong enough. If it is to be used for adults. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. strong clear material only should be employed. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. and.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. timber. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. This makes an easy adjustment. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. completes the merry-go-round. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. no matter what your age or size may be. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. square. Use a heavy washer at the head. It looks like a toy. square and 5 ft. square and 2 ft. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. in diameter and 15 in. butting against short stakes. being held in position by spikes as shown. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. strengthened by a piece 4 in. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. The illustration largely explains itself." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. 12 ft. long. As there is no bracing. --Contributed by C. A 3/4 -in. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. with no trees or buildings in the way. for the "motive power" to grasp. long. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. rope is not too heavy. long is the pivot. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. long. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment.

and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. and sent to earth. square. then it is securely fastened. as shown in Fig. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. The backbone is flat. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. a wreck. These ends are placed about 14 in.the fingers. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. away. light and strong. The bow is now bent. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. and 18 in. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. long. 1/4 by 3/32 in. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. Having placed the backbone in position. To wind the string upon the reel. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. A reel is next made. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. 4. 1.2 emery. 2. Both have large reels full of . A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. one for the backbone and one for the bow. if nothing better is at hand. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately.

Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. First. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. Bunker. --Contributed' by Harry S. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. N. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. C. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Brooklyn. Moody. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. If the second kite is close enough. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. often several hundred yards of it. he pays out a large amount of string. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. common packing thread. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. The handle end is held down with a staple. the balance. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. or glass-covered string. Mass.string. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Newburyport.-Contributed by S. Y. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration.

3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. such as mill men use. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. make the pad as shown in the illustration.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. must be attached to a 3-ft. Corinth. square (Fig. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. length of 2-in. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Vt. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. each the size of half the table top. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. then a dust protector. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. then draw the string up tight. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. If the table is round. lengths (Fig. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Hastings. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. --Contributed by Earl R. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table.

6-1/4 in. hard pencil. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. Use a smooth.. Moisten the . 17-1/2 in. . How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. 16-1/4 in. from C to D. which spoils the leather effect. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. Oakland. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Wharton. trace the design carefully on the leather.-Contributed by H. 2-1/4 in. Calif. E.. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. G to H. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. and E to G. from E to F.. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B.9-1/4 in. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.

Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. apart. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. about 1/8 in. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. if not more than 1 in. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. also lines A-G. and E-G. To complete the bag. G-J. and lace through the holes. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. I made this motor . Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Cut it the same size as the bag. with the rounded sides of the tools. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. is taken off at a time. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. wide. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. and corresponding lines on the other side. Now cut narrow thongs. Trace the openings for the handles. place both together and with a leather punch. get something with which to make a lining. H-B.

long. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. --Contributed by J. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. The one shown is 3-1/2 in.M. as shown in Fig. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. 1. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. Calif. Pasadena. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. iron. 1. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. . each being a half circle. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. in length. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. 2. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. B. 2-1/4 in. of No. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. 24 gauge magnet wire. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. D. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. Shannon.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones.

are the best kind to make. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. 1. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. from the bottom end. pasted in alternately. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. The gores for a 6-ft. and the gores cut from these. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. near the center. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. balloon should be about 8 ft. high. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical.

coming through the small pipe A. lap on the edges. so it will hang as shown in Fig. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. as shown in Fig.widest point. as shown in Fig. Fig. 3. In starting the balloon on its flight. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. 5. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. leaving the solution on over night. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. 2. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. In removing grease from wood. Staunton. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. The steam. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. after which the paint will adhere permanently. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. After washing. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. The boat soon attains considerable speed. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. If the gores have been put together right. 4. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. B. E. These are to hold the wick ball. --Contributed by R. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. As the boat is driven forward by this force. using about 1/2-in. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. somewhat larger in size. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. leaving a long wake behind. A. 1. saturating it thoroughly. in diameter.

Third. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. as is shown in Fig. if you have several copies of the photograph. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. long and each provided with a handle. In using either of the two methods described. high and 8 in. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. There are three ways of doing this: First. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. in bowling form. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. Second. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. wide by 6 in. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. long. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. apart on these lines. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. 1. The blocks are about 6 in. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware .

Fig. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. thick. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Y. 2. --Contributed by John A. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Fig. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Hellwig. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Albany. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. N. Rinse the plate in cold water. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. being careful not to dent the metal.

with a set screw. CC. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. thick. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. is fastened to a common camera tripod. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. These corner irons are also screwed to. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. Va. are screwed to the circular piece. A. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . and. Break off the frame. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. A circular piece of wood. in diameter. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. 1 Fig. and Fig. B. 6 in. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. which is 4 in. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. 5 in. With this device. Paine. long for the base. 2 the front view. A.upon any particular object. In Fig. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. --Contributed by R. Richmond. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. and not produce the right sound. wide and of any desired height. through which passes the set screw S. S. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. wide and 8 in. Corner irons.

The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. in diameter of some 1-in. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. I made a wheel 26 in. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. S. This horn. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Kidder. Ill. it can be mounted on the inside of the can.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. . If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. Lake Preston. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. R. D. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. as only the can is visible. pine boards. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. -1. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. thus producing sound waves. This will make a very compact electric horn. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. La Salle.

Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Kane.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. the same thickness as the coins. 2. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Ghent. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. thick and 12 in. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. If there is a large collection of coins. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. O. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. --Contributed by James R. --Contributed by C. The frame is made of a heavy card. 1. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Fig. Purdy. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. 1. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . A. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. square. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Doylestown. B.

The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. into which to place the screws . for after the slides have been shown a few times. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Toronto. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. thick.E.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. A lead pencil. Neyer. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. plus a 3/8-in. --Contributed by August T. border all around. A rivet punch is desirable. and then glued together as indicated. Canada. melted and applied with a brush. Milwaukee. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Noble. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. Cal.J. though not absolutely necessary. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. If desired. The material required is a sheet of No. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. It will hold 4 oz. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Wis. a hammer or mallet. One Cloud. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. --Contributed by R. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. they become uninteresting. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. --Contributed by J. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Smith. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. cut and grooved. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. of developer. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. several large nails.

rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. using 1/2-in. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. draw one part. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. never upon the metal directly. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. both outline and decoration. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. screws placed about 1 in. Remove the screws. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. There are several ways of working up the design. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. like the one shown. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. and file it to a chisel edge. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. Take the nail. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece.

square and 181/2 in. Do not bend it over or flatten it. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. Provide four lengths for the legs. square and 11 in. Rivet the band to the holder. using a 1/2in. l-1/8 in. for the lower rails.wall. up from the lower end. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. . one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. long. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. The pedal. 2. 3. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. About 1/2 yd. long. each 1 in. square. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. in the other. and two lengths. 1. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. for the top. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. two lengths. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. 3/4 in. of 11-in. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. long. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. as shown in Fig. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. being ball bearing. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes.

as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. having quite a length of threads. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. Ala. New York City. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. Quackenbush.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. --Contributed by W. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. Attalla. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. F. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. --Contributed by John Shahan. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size.

and the other 2-3/4 in. long. D. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Assemble as shown in the sketch. using class. making a lap of about 1 in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. long. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. --Contributed by C. wide and 4-1/4 in. long. wide and 8-1/4 in. and 3/8 in. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. one about 1 in. Mich. initial. stitched on both edges for appearance. from one end. the end of the other piece is folded over. Ironwood. Two pieces of felt. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. and two holes in the other. something that is carbonated. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece.. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Luther. each 1-1/4 in. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . college or lodge colors. The desired emblem. in depth. from the end.This novelty watch fob is made from felt.

in diameter and 2 in. or a pasteboard box. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. This method allows a wide range of designs. Fig. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. Schatz. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Indianapolis. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. and the cork will be driven out. 1. A piece of lead. Punch two holes A. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. about 2 in. as shown in the sketch. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . as shown at B. Ind. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. 2. if desired by the operator. from the center and opposite each other. or more in height. 1/4 in. which can be procured from a plumber. --Contributed by John H. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. in the cover and the bottom.

1. 5. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. metal. A piece of thick glass. --Contributed by Mack Wilson.Rolling Can Toy lead. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. as shown in Fig. are turned up as in Fig. putting in the design. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. it winds up the rubber band. or marble will serve. 3. 4. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. When the can is rolled away from you. . non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. on both top and bottom. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. O. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. The pieces of tin between the holes A. Columbus. allowing the two ends to be free. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. and the ends of the bands looped over them. Fig.

Next place the leather on the glass. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. mark over the design.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. long and bored a 1/2-in. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. thick. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. 1 in. wide and 20 in. deep in its face. New York City. hole through it. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. thicker than the pinion. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. 3 in. or more thick on each side. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. I secured a board 3/4 in. and. A pencil may be used the first time over. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. The edges should be about 1/8 in. face up. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . from each end. After this has been done. If it is desired to "line" the inside. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent.

1 piece for clamp. New York. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. in diameter. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. N. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 1 top board. and fit it in place for the side vise. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. thick top board. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 2 by 2 by 18 in. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Syracuse. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 1 by 12 by 77 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. Brooklyn. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 1 piece. 1 piece for clamp. Fig. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 1 back board. 1 top board. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with .in the board into the bench top. Make the lower frame first. 3 by 3 by 36. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. Cut the 2-in. 1. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 4 guides. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 2. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 2 side rails. M. 2 by 12 by 77 in. pieces for the vise slides. --Contributed by A. 2 end rails. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. Now fit up the two clamps. 1 by 9 by 80 in. lag screws as shown. Y. Rice. 2 crosspieces. 1 screw block.

As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 monkey wrench. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 countersink. . They can be purchased at a hardware store. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 3 and 6 in. 1 brace and set of bits. as well as the pattern maker. 1 pocket level.. 1 bench plane or jointer. 24 in. 1 set gimlets. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 rip saw. 1 wood scraper. 1 cross cut saw. in diameter. 1 2-ft. 1 jack plane or smoother. If each tool is kept in a certain place. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 nail set. 2 screwdrivers. 1 pair pliers. 1 set chisels. Only the long run. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. rule.. The amateur workman. 1 marking gauge. it can be easily found when wanted.. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. The bench is now complete. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 compass saw. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 pair dividers.screws. 1 claw hammer. 24 in. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood.

and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. 2 and 00 sandpaper. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. Pa. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful.1 6-in. after constant use.1. 1. becomes like A. Kane. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. 1. Fig. 2. Doylestown. will be easier to work. 1 oilstone. Fig. will sink into the handle as shown at D. Fig. the projecting point A. being softer. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. Fig. but will not make . No. 3. ---Contributed by James M. try square. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. The calf skin.

Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. water or heat will not affect. cover it completely with water enamel and. -Contributed by Julia A. such as copper or brass.as rigid a case as the cow skin. Turn the leather. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. then prepare the leather. White. lay the design on the face. when dry. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. will do just as well. The form can be made of a stick of wood. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. and the length 6-5/8 in. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. Two pieces will be required of this size. . New York City. which steam. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. the same method of treatment is used. First draw the design on paper. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. but a V-shaped nut pick. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. secure a piece of modeling calf. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. After the outlines are traced. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. If calf skin is to be used. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. Having prepared the two sides. If cow hide is preferred.

On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. C. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Portland. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Jaquythe. Maine. Cobb. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. --Contributed by W. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. Cal. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Herrman. Richmond. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. and an adjustable friction-held loop. A. as shown in the sketch.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. . Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. New York City. --Contributed by Chas. --Contributed by Chester L.

A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Mass. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. Wright.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. an inverted stewpan. A thick piece of tin.. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. This was very difficult. --Contributed by Geo. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. Conn. for instance. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. . --Contributed by Wm. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Middletown. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. Roberts. B. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. Cambridge. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. was marked out as shown.

but only an odor which soon vanished. face down. If any traces of the grease are left. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. There was no quicklime to be had. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. --Contributed by Paul Keller. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. and the grease will disappear. well calcined and powdered. as shown. . Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. Illinois. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. and quite new. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. L. of boiling water. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. used as part of furniture. F. Chicago. such as chair seats. Bone. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. on a clear piece of glass. The next morning there was no trace of oil. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. so some bones were quickly calcined. but not running over. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. Indianapolis. Herbert. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. pulverized and applied. When dry. apply powdered calcined magnesia. A beautifully bound book. --Contributed by C. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. If the article is highly polished.. Ind. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. which has been tried out several times with success. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation.

This coaster is simple and easy to make. New York. A.. thick. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. deep and 5 in. The pieces marked S are single. --Contributed by Geo. high and are bolted to a block of wood. 2 in. says Scientific American. long. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. soft steel with the opening 6 in. 6 in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. Howe. set and thumbscrews. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle.. wide and 12 in. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. Tarrytown.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. If properly adjusted. the pieces . The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in.

they will look remarkably uniform. for sending to friends. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. albums and the like. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. The seat is a board. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. no doubt. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. to the underside of which is a block. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. E. says Camera Craft. Their size depends on the plate used. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. If the letters are all cut the same height. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. A sharp knife.

If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. for example. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. after. using care to get it in the right position. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. photographing them down to the desired size. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. In cutting out an 0. So arranged. So made. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. and. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. mount them on short pieces of corks. The puzzle is to get . Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. pasting the prints on some thin card. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background.

snow or anything to hide it. long that will just fit are set in. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. so they will lie horizontal. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand .-Contributed by I. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand.J. Bayley. squeezes along past the center of the tube. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. hung on pivots. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. A hole 6 or 7 in. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. says the American Thresherman. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. Old-Time Magic . Cape May Point. with the longest end outside. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. of its top. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. N. He smells the bait. G.

--Contributed by L. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Szerlip. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Pawtucket. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Rhode Island. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Press the hands together. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Pocatello. --Contributed by L. Brooklyn. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Y. then expose again. then spread the string.faced up. N. Parker. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. --Contributed by Charles Graham. E. Idaho. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through.

The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. whether he requires a single sword only. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. if any. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. full size. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. 1. or a complete suit of armor. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. The blade should be about 27 in. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. 1 Fig. The pieces. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. they will look very much like the genuine article. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. in building up his work from the illustrations. 4 on the blade. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. 2 Fig. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. dark red. says the English Mechanic.Genuine antique swords and armor. end of the blade.. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. 3 Fig. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. When the glue is thoroughly dry. When the whole is quite dry.. narrower. wipe the blade . Glue the other side of the blade. in width. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. or green oil paint. near the point end. and if carefully made. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. long. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. using a straightedge and a pencil. thick. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. wide and 2 in. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. The handle is next made. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make.

about 1-1/2 in. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. the other is flat or half-round. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. long. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood.. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. the other is flat or halfround. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. 3. should be about 9 in. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. follow the directions as for Fig. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig.. 1. 1. take two pieces of wood. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. the other two are identical. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. 4. 1/8 in. as it is . A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. In making this scimitar. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. preferably of contrasting colors. 2. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig.with light strokes up and down several times. shows only two sides. and 3 in. The length of the handle. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. 2. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. the length of the blade 28 in. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. in diameter. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. Fig. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. square and of any length desired. thick and 5 in. in the widest part at the lower end. of course. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. allowing for a good hold with both hands. Both edges of the blade are sharp. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. not for use only in cases of tableaux. In making. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. This sword is about 68 in. the illustration. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. In the finished piece. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. 1. 3. 1.

took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. N. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. 2 in. and if so. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. square. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Syracuse. as shown in the sketch. The thinness of the plank. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. --Contributed by Katharine D. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. or an insecure fastening. and. A cold . can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. each about 1 ft. It is made of a plank. about 3/8 in. Mass. long. as can the pitch bed or block. however. as there was some at hand. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. piping and jackets by hard water. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. in an attempt to remove it. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. A piece of mild steel. Both can be made easily. --Contributed by John Blake. On each edge of the board. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. at the lower end. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Franklin. Y. Morse. Doctors probed for the button without success. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased.

using a small metal saw. To remedy this. To put it in another way.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. a file to reduce the ends to shape. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. 5 lb. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. plaster of Paris. design down. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. secure a piece of brass of about No. When the desired form has been obtained. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. 18 gauge. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. Trim up the edges and file them . use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. on the pitch. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous... For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. 5 lb. When this has been done. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. tallow.

Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. Fig.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. 3. make an unusual show window attraction. or 550 ft. 1) and the other 12 in. Clean the metal thoroughly. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. 1 ft. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. The smaller is placed within the larger. and hang a bird swing. That is lifting 33. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen.000 ft. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. 1 ft. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. A. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. in diameter (Fig. and still revolve. per second. This in turn divided by 33. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. .000 lb. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. or fraction of a horsepower. in one second. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Before giving the description. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. in one minute or 550 lb. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. 30 ft. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute.smooth. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. in diameter (Fig. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. over the smaller vessel. space between the vessels with water. using powdered pumice with lye. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. lb. to keep it from floating. in the center. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. one 18 in. 2). This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. it may be well to know what horsepower means. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. lb. but not to stop it. Fill the 3-in. --Contributed by Harold H. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. per minute. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Cutter. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines.

Brooklyn. Diameter Fig. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Somerville. 2 Fig. --Contributed by J. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Campbell. or on a pedestal. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes.3 Fig.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Mass. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. F. Diameter 12 in. by L. The effect is surprising. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. --Contributed. Y. Szerlip. N. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two.18 in. 1 Fig.

The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. with the pliers. Rivet the cup to the base. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. is. often render it useless after a few months service. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. In riveting. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. This compound is impervious to water. then by drawing a straightedge over it. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. with other defects. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. away from the edge. Polish both of these pieces. which. after which it is ready for use. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. Do not be content merely to bend them over. and cut out the shape with the shears. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. which may be of wood or tin. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. as a rule. using any of the common metal polishes. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in.copper of No. the same as removing writing from a slate. unsatisfactory. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. and then. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. keeping the center high. to keep the metal from tarnishing. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. and the clay .

The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver.can be pressed back and leveled. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. Shettleston. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. long. Dunlop. It is made of a glass tube. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. DeLoof. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. . Houghton. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. A. the device will work for an indefinite time. Scotland. Mich. Northville. --Contributed by John T. 2. 3/4 in. The siphon is made of glass tubes. in diameter and 5 in. -Contributed by Thos. Mich. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. 1. Grand Rapids. --Contributed by A. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. as shown in Fig. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop.

will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. 1. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. long. put up as ornaments. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. London. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. stilettos and battle-axes. As the handle is to .FIG. in width and 2 in.1 FIG. This sword is 4 ft. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. long with the crossguard and blade of steel.

In Fig. A German stiletto. very broad. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. wood with a keyhole saw. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. which is about 2-1/2 ft. The crossbar and blade are steel. glue and put it in place. 4. In Fig. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. paint it a dark brown or black. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. 8. in length. studded with brass or steel nails. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. 11 were used. These must be cut from pieces of wood. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. This sword is about 4 ft. In Fig. with wire or string' bound handle. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. sometimes called cuirass breakers. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. long with a dark handle of wood. The handle is of wood. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. the axe is of steel. long. is shown in Fig. in width. Cut two strips of tinfoil. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. the same as used on the end of the handle. sharp edges on both sides. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. When the glue is thoroughly dry. narrower. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. string. in length. When dry. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. with both edges of the blade sharp. The sword shown in Fig. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. This stiletto has a wood handle. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. 7. small rope and round-headed nails. This weapon is about 1 ft. When the whole is quite dry. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. The ball is made as described in Fig. A German poniard is shown in Fig. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. This weapon is also about 1 ft.represent copper. firmly glued on. 20 spike. with both edges sharp. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. Three large. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. 3 is shown a claymore. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. then glued on the blade as shown. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. This axe is made similar to the one . 5. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. Both handle and axe are of steel. 6. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. The lower half of the handle is of wood. the upper part iron or steel. 9. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. one about 1/2 in.

so the contents cannot be seen. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. Davis. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. together as shown in Fig. Old-Time Magic . W. high. This will make a very good flexible belt. Chicago. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. the ends are tied and cut off. will pull where other belts slip. --Contributed by E. When wrapped all the way around.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. 10. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. .described in Fig. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. 2. such as braided fishline.

Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. filled with water. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. causing the flowers to grow. some of the liquid. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. Before the performance. --Contributed by A. about one-third the way down from the top. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . Macdonald. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. in a few seconds' time. The dotted lines in Fig. S. These wires are put in the jar. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Bridgeton. There will be no change in color. held in the right hand. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher.J. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. apparently.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. with the circle centrally located. or using small wedges of wood. 2. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. To make the flowers grow in an instant. As zinc is much lighter than iron. N. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. an acid. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. Calif. four glass tumblers. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. Oakland. 1 and put together as in Fig.

The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. 4 for width and No. practical and costs nothing. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. Cal. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. and equally worthy of individual treatment. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. says a correspondent of Photo Era. A. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. This outlines the desired opening. 2 for height. If the size wanted is No. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. Jaquythe. Richmond. unless some special device is used. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. which are numbered for convenience in working. and kept ready for use at any time. not only because of the fact just mentioned. --Contributed by W.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. When many slides are to be masked.

or a pair of old tongs. may be changed. possibly. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. When etched to the desired depth. is about right for the No. and do not inhale the fumes. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. which is dangerous. paint the design. the margin and the entire back of the metal. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. With a stick. but they can be easily revived. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. a little less acid than water. about half and half. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. This done. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. not the water into the acid. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. The one shown is merely suggestive. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. Draw a design. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. 16 gauge. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . Secure a sheet of No. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. The decoration. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. the paper is folded along the center line. and the extreme length 7 in. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. or. too. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. using the carbon paper.

through it. 5. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. or more wide. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. Fig. 3. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. with the wires underneath. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. high. repeat as many times as is necessary. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. 4. 3/8 in. attached to a post at each end. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. as shown in Fig. . Cut out a piece of tin. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. 1. and about 2-1/2 ft. The connections are simple: I. 5. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. about 3 ft. as shown in the illustration. When the button S is pressed. long and 1 ft. about 8 in. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. Then get two posts. J is another wire attached in the same way. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. 2. 0 indicates the batteries. long. A. Paint the table any color desired. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. 2. about 2-1/2 in. the bell will ring. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. Fig. It may be either nailed or screwed down. Fig. as in Fig.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. about 1 in. as at H. 2. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. thick. to the table. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. wide. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. Nail a board. 24 parts water. in diameter and 1/4 in. it will touch post F. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. and bore two holes. wide and of the same length as the table. so that when it is pressed down. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. C and D. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. Fig. Fig. Buttons for the bells may be purchased.

says the English Mechanic. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. The circle is marked out with a compass. handle and all. The imitation articles are made of wood. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. After the glue is dry. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool.. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. The entire weapon. is to appear as steel. thick. This weapon is about 22 in. A wood peg about 2 in. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. long serves as the dowel.Imitation Arms and Armor . It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. 2. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. 1. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. These rings can be carved out. the wood peg inserted in one of them. long. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. but they are somewhat difficult to make. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. such as . mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head.

The tinfoil should be applied carefully. If such a tool is not at hand. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. covered with red velvet. 6. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The lower half of the handle is wood. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. as before mentioned. studded with large brass or steel nails. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. The entire handle should be made of one piece. etc. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. the hammer and spike. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. flowers. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. 8. with a sharp carving tool. is shown in Fig. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. 5. used at the end of the fifteenth century. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The spikes are cut out of wood. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. long. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The handle is of wood. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. as described in Fig.ornamental scrolls. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. . The handle is of steel imitation. leaves. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The upper half of the handle is steel. Its length is about 3 ft. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. also. This weapon is about 22 in. 2. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. All of these axes are about the same length. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The axe is shown in steel. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. as shown. or the amateur cannot use it well. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. 3.

then the other plays. the knife resting on its back. 1. . A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. Each person plays until three outs have been made. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 5. as shown in Fig. and so on for nine innings. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. 2. calls for a home run. Chicago. Fig. 6. The knife falling on its side (Fig. a three-base hit. 3. 7) calls for one out. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. as in Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. 4).

hypo to 1 pt. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. of water for an hour or two. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. It may be found that the negative is not colored. of the rope and holds it. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. with the rope laced in the cloth. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. If it is spotted at all. Somerville. Old-Time Magic . the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. This he does. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. 1. F. as shown in Fig. one of them burning . as shown in Fig. while the committee is tying him up. Mass. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. 3. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. 2. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. Campbell. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand.-Contributed by J.

showing that there is nothing between them. Brown. Ky. 3/4 in. --Contributed by C. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. thick. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. 4 oz. invisible to them (the audience). Drill Gauge screw.Contributed by Andrew G. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. Evans. --Contributed by L. 4 oz. The magician walks over to the burning candle. . He then walks over to the other candle. Lebanon. of plumbago. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. Thome. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. thus causing it to light. B.brightly. shades the light for a few seconds. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. bolt. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. Louisville. etc. and. of water and 1 oz. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. of turpentine.. of sugar. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. with which he is going to light the other candle. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. the other without a light. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. New York City. Ky. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart.

Do not add water to the acid. To make the porous cell. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. or blotting paper. Pulteney. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. H. Denniston. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. Its current strength is about one volt. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. but is not so good. In making up the solution. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. N. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. steady current. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. into a tube of several thicknesses. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. which will give a strong. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. Y. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. for the material. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . long. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. --Contributed by C. thick. about 5 in. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. diameter. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. 5 in. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper.

carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. a positive adjustment was provided. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. carrying the hour circle at one end. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. Finally. As to thickness. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. while the other end is attached by two screws. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. steel. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. After much experimentation with bearings. one drawing them together. steel. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. One hole was bored as well as possible. The . Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument.station. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. To insure this. the other holding them apart.) may be obtained. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. long with a bearing at each end. steel. but somewhat lighter. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces.

Each shaft. To locate a known star on the map. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. excepting those on the declination axis. and if it is not again directed to the same point. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. Point it approximately to the north star. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. When properly set it will describe a great circle. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground ." When this is done. subtract 24. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. Declination is read directly. To find a star in the heavens. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. need not be changed. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. Instead. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes.. when the pointer should again cut at the same place." Only a rough setting is necessary. It is. 45 min. save the one in the pipe. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. All set screws." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. All these adjustments. apart. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. is provided with this adjustment. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. and 15 min. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. Set the declination circle to its reading. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. The aperture should be 1/4 in. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. turn the pointer to the star. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. are tightened. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. The pointer is directed to Alpha. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. Cassiopiae.. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. The pole is 1 deg. If the result is more than 24 hours. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. in each direction from two points 180 deg. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. once carefully made.

of ether. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. -Contributed by Ray E. benzole. then add 1 2-3 dr. 3 or 4 in. as shown in the sketch. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball.. If this will be too transparent. New Orleans. Ohio. long. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. taking care not to add too much. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. Strosnider. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. In reality the first ball. The ball is found to be the genuine article. cannon balls. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. which is the one examined. the others . Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. a great effect will be produced. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. is folded several times. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. Plain City. The dance will begin. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. La. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. add a little more benzole. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. is the real cannon ball.

taps. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. San Francisco. In boxes having a sliding cover. 2. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. Cal. Fig. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. 1). etc. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized .are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. --Contributed by J. without taking up any great amount of space. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Campbell. small brooches. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards.. Wis. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. as shown in the illustration. F. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. Return the card to the pack. Milwaukee. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. Mass. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. Somerville. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card.

thus giving ample store room for colors. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. Connecticut. slides and extra brushes. Beller. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. as shown in the illustration. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. . from the bottom of the box. prints. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. Hartford. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. This box has done good service. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. round pieces 2-1/4 in.

as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. Mass. holes in the bottom of one. O. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. with well packed horse manure. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. 1). or placed against a wall.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. West Lynn. about threefourths full. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. 2). and pour water on it until it is well soaked. will answer the purpose. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. costing 5 cents. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. . tacking the gauze well at the corners. When the ends are turned under. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. Darke. FIG. Fill the upper tub. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. -Contributed by C.

--Contributed by L. If plugs are found in any of the holes. oil or other fluid. If the following directions are carried out. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. if this is not available. M. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. Eifel. they should be knocked out. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. Chicago. when they are raised from the pan. and each bundle contains . cutting the cane between the holes. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft.

The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. In addition to the cane. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. 1. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. a square pointed wedge. as it must be removed again. and. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. put about 3 or 4 in. No plugs . held there by inserting another plug. as shown in Fig. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. then across and down. it should be held by a plug. after having been pulled tight. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs.

3. 41 °-30'. for 2°. it is 4. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. 1 lat. we have 4. 42° is 4. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon.15+. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. using the same holes as for the first layer. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. the height of the line BC. trim off the surplus rosin. During the weaving. as shown in Fig. lat. -Contributed by E. and for 1° it would be . Detroit. is the horizontal dial. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. 41°-30'. No weaving has been done up to this time. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease.075 in. 1. the next smallest. and the one we shall describe in this article. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. as it always equals the latitude of the place. stretch the third one. is the base (5 in. Fig. Patrick. and for lat. but the most common. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding.42 in. R. When cool. --Contributed by M. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts.5 in. 4. If handled with a little care. as the height of the line BC for lat. If you have a table of natural functions. 5.075 in. called the gnomon. 5 in. All added to the lesser or 40°. Fig.3 in.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. There are several different designs of sundials. the height of which is taken from table No. It consists of a flat circular table. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. 3. as for example. Their difference is . The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. This will make three layers.2 in. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. 1. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. D. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. in this case) times the . Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. as shown in Fig. 1. From table No. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. Even with this lubrication. or the style. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day.2+.= 4. The style or gnomon. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. After completing the second layer. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place.15 in. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . Michigan. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. W. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. 40°.

87 4. 2.23 6.50 26° 2.40 34° 3.77 2.57 3.14 5.82 3.03 3. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.55 46° 5.46 3.56 .88 36° 3.96 32° 3.42 . 2. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.66 latitude.07 4.82 5. Fig. 2 for given latitudes. circle Sundial. and intersecting the semicircles.39 . and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. according to the size of the dial.87 1. and for this size dial (10 in. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.83 27° 2.11 3. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.33 .38 . for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.28 .19 1. with a radius of 5 in.16 1. For latitudes not given.46 .66 48° 5.00 40° 4.30 1.29 4-30 7-30 3. Draw two semi-circles.93 2.57 1.68 5-30 6-30 5.02 1. gives the 6 o'clock points.91 58° 8.85 35 .20 60° 8.44 44° 4.37 54° 6. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.93 6. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. or more.40 1.42 1.63 56° 7.66 1.55 30° 2.06 2.94 1. 1.55 5. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. which will represent the base in length and thickness.76 1.10 6.99 2.89 50° 5. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.tangent of the degree of latitude.55 4. an inch or two.85 1. .12 52° 6.41 38° 3. Chords in inches for a 10 in. Table NO.32 6.79 4. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.26 4.49 3. To layout the hour circle.97 5 7 4.18 28° 2. Its thickness.30 2. using the points A and C as centers. and perpendicular to the base or style. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.42 45 . long.82 2. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.64 4 8 3.16 40 .59 2.37 5. or if of stone. if of metal. base.27 2.81 4.33 42° 4. Draw the line AD. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.49 30 .

Each weapon is cut from wood.52 Table No. Sept. will enable one to set the dial.77 3. 25.21 2.57 1.50 . April 16.46 5. The + means that the clock is faster.37 2. then the watch is slower. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.add those marked + subtract those Marked . Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.63 1.10 4.means that the dial is faster than the sun. --Contributed by J. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.89 3. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position..79 6. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .34 5. and the . The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.82 3. each article can be labelled with the name. Sioux City.98 4. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.60 4.06 2.72 5.87 6.53 1. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. An ordinary compass. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. Iowa. E.49 3. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.24 5. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. 3. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. if west. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. it will be faster. Mitchell. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.12 5.30 2. and for the difference between standard and local time.71 2. 3.50 55 .01 1. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. As they are the genuine reproductions.19 2. says the English Mechanic.49 5. June 15. Sun time to local mean time.08 1.68 3.46 4. London. This correction can be added to the values in table No.54 60 .from Sundial lime. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. 900 Chicago. adding to each piece interest and value. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.14 1.93 6. 2 and Dec. after allowing for the declination.

This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. . A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 3. Partisan. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. Glaive and Voulge brass nails.. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. the length of which is about 5 ft. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. 1. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. When putting on the tinfoil. The spear head is of steel about 15 in.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon.

The spear is steel. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. 6 ft. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. long with a round wooden handle. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. 8. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. the holes being about 1/4 in.which is square. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The length of this bar is about 5 in. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. This weapon is about 6 ft. . The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. used about the seventeenth century. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. is shown in Fig. 5.. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The extreme length is 9 ft. 7. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. long. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. long. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. about 4 in. press it well into the carved depressions. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. which are a part of the axe. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. It is about 6 ft. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. sharp on the outer edges. long with a round staff or handle. A gisarm or glaive. The edges are sharp. in diameter. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown.

Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. the cross cords. Loudonville.-Contributed by R. used for spacing and binding the whole together. This is important to secure neatness. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. or in holes punched in a leather strap. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Workman. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. Cut all the cords the same length. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. 4. They can be made of various materials. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. B. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. are less durable and will quickly show wear. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. apart. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. 5. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. are put in place. the most durable being bamboo. 1. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. as shown in Fig. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. Substances such as straw. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. H. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. The twisted cross cords should . 2 and 3. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. Ohio.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. In Figs.

Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated.be of such material. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. of the bottom. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. below the top to within 1/4 in. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. New York. The first design shown is for using bamboo. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. Lockport. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. Harrer. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. as shown at B. M. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. A slit was cut in the bottom. -Contributed by Geo. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. New Orleans. wide. shaped as shown at C. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. in which was placed a piece of glass. To remedy this. 3 in. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. Four V-shaped notches were cut. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. bamboo or rolled paper. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. for a length extending from a point 2 in. This was turned over the top of the other can. La. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw.

Sanford. wide. about 1/16 in. --Contributed by Joseph H. H. Y. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. Shay. giving the appearance of hammered brass. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. and two along the side for attaching the staff. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. Newburgh. --Contributed by W. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. do not throw away the gloves. is shown in the accompanying sketch. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. Ill. --Contributed by Chas. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges.tape from sticking to the carpet. Pasadena. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. the brass is loosened from the block. It would be well to polish the brass at first. This plank. After this is finished. turned over but not fastened. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. This should be done gradually. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. N. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. Schaffner. Cal. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. Maywood.

A. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Unlike most clocks. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Cal. in diameter. Ill. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. the pendulum swings . K. Marshall. --E. Oak Park. -Contributed by W. bent as shown. Jaquythe. Richmond.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall.

B. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. Now place the board to be joined. high. is an electromagnet. the center one being 2-3/4 in. about 12 in. away. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. Metzech. Fasten another board.. wide that is perfectly flat. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. wide. 6 in. high. Chicago. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. in diameter. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. --Contributed by V. 7-1/2 in. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. high. long and at each side of this. about 6 in. A. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. . letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. on the board B. C. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. are secured in the base bar. bearing on the latter. 5/16 in. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. 3/4 in. says the Scientific American. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. Secure a board. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. and the other two 2-5/8 in. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. to the first one with screws or glue. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. high and 1/4 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. In using this method. thick. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. by 1-5/16 in. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. bar. only have the opposite side up. such as this one. Two uprights. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. The construction is very simple.

The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. Phoenixville. 3. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. square inside. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. as shown at A. from one end. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. 1. whose dimensions are given in Fig. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. Fig. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. 1. square. 4. --Contributed by Elmer A. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. Pa. The trigger. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. by driving a pin through the wood. 2. or more. 1. . plates should be made 8 in. long. Vanderslice. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. wide and 1 in. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. is fastened in the hole A. Fig. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. wide and 5 in.

which allows 1/4 in. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. 2 parts of whiting. as shown in the illustration. Ohio. 5 parts of black filler. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. square. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. if only two bands are put in the . This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. rubbing varnish and turpentine. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. -Contributed by J.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. by weight.A. Fostoria. one-half the length of the side pieces. Simonis. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take.

lower strings. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. long. If a plain glass is used. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. preferably copper. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. is necessary. DeLoof. Mass. and the picture can be drawn as described. -Contributed by Abner B. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. A mirror. says the English Mechanic. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. Dartmouth. in the opposite end of the box. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. place tracing paper on its surface. A double convex lens. Grand Rapids. A piece of metal. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. 8 in. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. It must be kept moist and well . as shown in Fig. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. is set at an angle of 45 deg. keeps the strong light out when sketching. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. G. II. No. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. Shaw. and it may be made as a model or full sized. 1. Michigan. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. In constructing helmets. --Contributed by Thos. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. which may be either of ground or plain glass. wide and about 1 ft. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. London. In use. deep. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black.

take. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. and over the crest on top. the clay model oiled. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. will be necessary. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . or some thin glue. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. joined closely together. All being ready. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. and left over night to soak. 1. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. 3. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. The clay. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich.kneaded. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. This being done. brown. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. and the deft use of the fingers. and continue until the clay is completely covered. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. 2. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. as shown in Fig. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. Scraps of thin. on which to place the clay. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. with a keyhole saw. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. After the clay model is finished. 1. a few clay-modeling tools. as in bas-relief. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. shown in Fig. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well.

peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. or. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. The whole helmet. 7. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. Indianapolis. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. and the ear guards in two pieces. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. In Fig. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. 5. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. The center of the ear guards are perforated. as shown: in the design. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. one for each side. then another coating of glue. In Fig. square in shape. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. a few lines running down. and so on. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. This contrivance should be made of wood. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. When dry. will make it look neat. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. should be modeled and made in one piece. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. with the exception of the vizor. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. Before taking it off the model. When the helmet is off the model. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. Indiana. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. owing to the clay being oiled. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. which should be no difficult matter. When perfectly dry. The band is decorated with brass studs. as seen in the other part of the sketch. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. 1. --Contributed by Paul Keller. 9. They are all covered with tinfoil. the piecing could not be detected. a crest on top.as possible. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. the skullcap. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet.

about 80 ft. 4. long. E and F. and two large 3in. Fig. Fig. The plate. if this cannot be obtained. of fire clay. one small switch. Fig. Fig. high. AA. about 1/4 in. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. as shown in Fig. 1. 3 in. are allowed to project about 1 in. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. The holes B and C are about 3 in. 2. above the collar. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. and. as it stands a higher temperature. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. of No. one fuse block. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. Fig. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. If asbestos is used. wide and 15 in. screws. as shown in Fig. 4. JJ. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. Fig. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. Fig. also the switch B and the fuse block C. Fig. one oblong piece of wood. This will make an open space between the plates. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. in diameter and 9 in. with slits cut for the wires. each 4-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. 4. 1. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. 1. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. should extend about 1/4 in. German-silver wire is better. is shown in Fig. Fig. long. for connections. about 1 lb. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. 4. the fuse block. 3. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. 12 in. two ordinary binding posts. of the top. Fig. or. Fig. 4. The two holes. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. If a neat appearance is desired. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. GG. if the measurements are correct. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. 2. This will allow the plate. 1. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. The mineral wool. 2. when they are placed in opposite positions. thick sheet asbestos. Fig. until it is within 1 in. 22 gauge resistance wire. AA. A round collar of galvanized iron. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. one glass tube. long. AA. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. to receive screws for holding it to the base. 1.same size. 4. the holes leading to the switch. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. thick. 1 in. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . FF. is then packed down inside the collar. 4 lb. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. of mineral wool. and C. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. which can be bought from a local druggist. Fig. 1. The reverse side of the base. 4. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together.

While the clay is damp. as the turns of the wires. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . will slip and come in contact with each other. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. KK. more wire should be added. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. This completes the stove. Fig. A file can be used to remove any rough places. then. If this is the case. Fig. Cover over about 1 in. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. Richmond. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. The clay. It should not be left heated in this condition. above the rim. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. When the tile is in place. when cool. causing a short circuit. When this is done. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. This point marks the proper length to cut it. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. when heated. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. 4. Jaquythe. St. steam will form when the current is applied. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. Catherines. and pressed into it. As these connections cannot be soldered. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. A. allowing a space between each turn. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. It should not be set on end. --Contributed by W. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. Cut a 1/2-in. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. --Contributed by R. apart. Next. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. it leaves a gate for the metal. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. Can. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. H.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. If it is not thoroughly dry. 2. so that the circuit will not become broken. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. deep. using care not to get it too wet. Cal. Cnonyn. II. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. it is not necessary to know the method of molding.

constructed of 3/4-in. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. and the prints will dry rapidly." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. is large enough. the pie will be damaged. Ky. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. Then clip a little off the . If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. square material in any size. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Louisville. but 12 by 24 in. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. says the Photographic Times. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. and the frame set near a window. --Contributed by Andrew G. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. Thorne. as shown. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser.

is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. at GG. Herron. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. which are fastened to the base. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. -Contributed by S. high. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. long. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. in diameter. Two supports. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. The upright B. An offset is bent in the center. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. thick and 3 in. thereby saving time and washing. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. which gives the shaft a half turn. 2. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. 1. Iowa. 22 gauge magnet wire. allowing each end to project for connections. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. open out. thick and 3 in. wide and 3 in. 3. Fig. wide and 7 in. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. 4 in. 1 and 3. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. thick. The connecting rod E.Paper Funnel point. in diameter and about 4 in. each 1 in. long. long. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. As the shaft revolves. Fig. Figs. Fig. The driving arm D. high. 1. wide. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. long. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. The board can be raised to place . are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. each 1/2 in. A 1/8-in. as shown. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. for the crank. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. slip on two cardboard washers. 1. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. W. causing a break in the current. 1. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. 2-1/2 in. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. The connections are made as shown in Fig. 14 in. 1/2 in. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. Le Mars. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. 1/2 in. high.

and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. . or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. making a framework suitable for a roost. on a board. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. Place the pot. One or more pots may be used. Mass. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. in height. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by William F. bottom side up. Dorchester. 3 in. In designing the roost. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Stecher.

then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. if it is other than straight lines. The materials required are rope or. odd corners. 1. in diameter. Fig. when combined. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. paraffin and paint or varnish.. Wind the . 1. windows. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. ordinary glue. preferably. shelves. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. will produce the pattern desired. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. F. adopt the method described. The bottom part of the sketch. that it is heated. grills and gratings for doors. without any corresponding benefit. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. as shown in Fig.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased.. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. F. and give it time to dry. etc. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments.

Lockport. Fig. M.Fig. six designs are shown. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. -Contributed by Geo. Harrer. N. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . Y. 2. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. cut and glue them together. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig.

The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. and the sides do not cover the jaws.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. chips of iron rust. etc. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. which was used in front of a horse's head. This piece of horse armor. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay... 1. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. As the . London. when it will be observed that any organic matter. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. but no farther. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. etc. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. says the English Mechanic. will be retained by the cotton..

In Fig. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. but for . 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. and therefore it is not described. the same as in Fig. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. then another coat of glue. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. This can be made in one piece. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. with the exception of the thumb shield. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. and will require less clay. as the surface will hold the clay. which can be made in any size.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. 2. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. but the back is not necessary. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. as shown in the sketch. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. The armor is now removed from the model. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. 8. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. which is separate. 4. This will make the model light and easy to move around. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. This being done. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. 2. the rougher the better. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. This triangularshaped support. except the thumb and fingers. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. An arrangement is shown in Fig. All being ready. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. and the clay model oiled. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. 6 and 7. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the.

The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. When locating the place for the screw eyes. --Contributed by John G. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. wide and 1/2 in. are glued to it. in depth. the two pieces of foil will draw together. two in each jaw. fastened to the rod. will be about right. The two pieces of foil. and the instrument is ready for use. running down the plate. 1/2 in. Y. Redondo Beach. --Contributed by Ralph L. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. two for the jaws and one a wedge. long. the foils will not move.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. . Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. A piece of board. 2. the top of the rod. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Goshen. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. each about 1/4 in. cut into the shape shown in Fig. but 3-1/2 in. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. Calif. 9. are better shown in Fig. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. If it does not hold a charge. N. La Rue. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. Buxton. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge.

Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. Bryan. silvered. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. as this will cut under the water without splashing. 2-1/2 in. Texas. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. A. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. M. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. At a point 6 in. hole bored through it. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. long. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. is made of a 1/4-in. from the smaller end. as indicated in the . as shown in the illustration. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. The can may be bronzed. Corsicana. pine board. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. --Contributed by Mrs. When a fish is hooked. about 15 in. enameled or otherwise decorated.

A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. then with a nail. as shown.Match Holder accompanying sketch. Any kind of wood will do. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. 3/8 or 1/4 in. put a coat or two of wax and polish . Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. take a piece of thin wood. Basswood or butternut. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. using a piece of carbon paper. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. and trace upon it the design and outline. wide by 6 in. such as basswood or pine was used. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. Having completed the drawing. will do as well as the more expensive woods. If soft wood. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Next prepare the metal holder. When it has dried over night. 22 is plenty heavy enough. punch the holes. Polish the metal. or even pine. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. using powdered pumice and lye. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. long over all. thick. A good size is 5 in.

thick. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. wide and 5 in. Instead of the usual two short ropes. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. can be made on the same standards. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. It is useful for photographers. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. long. . hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. Richmond. If carving is contemplated. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. --Contributed by W. If one has some insight in carving. 1/2 in. Two wire nails. Cal. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. 2 in. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. each 1 in.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. of pure olive oil. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. A. long. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. are used for the cores of the magnets. the whole being finished in linseed oil. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. is used for the base of this instrument. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. Jaquythe.

and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. 3. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. --Contributed by W.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. H. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. leaving about 1/4 in. says the English Mechanic. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. 1. Lynas. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. the paper covering put on. in the shape shown in the sketch. at A. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. about No. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. similar to that used in electric bells. About 1 in. then covered with red. cut in the shape of the letter T. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. . and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. A rubber band. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. as shown in Fig. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. All of the parts for the armor have been described. 25 gauge. as shown by the dotted lines. cloth or baize to represent the legs. except that for the legs. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. when the key is pushed down. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. London. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. A piece of tin. acts as a spring to keep the key open. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel.

Fig.. apart. hole in the center. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. By moving the position of the bolt from.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. at each end. holes. one to another . These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. The two pieces are bolted together. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. Secure two strips of wood. not too tight. can be made in a few minutes' time. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. about 1 in. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. apart. or ordinary plaster laths will do. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. long. flat headed carriage bolt. for the sake of lightness. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. Take the piece shown in Fig. These can be purchased at a stationery store. Cut them to a length or 40 in. A 1/4-in. drill six 1/4-in. in the other end. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. Instead of using brass headed nails. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. Silver paper will do very well. In one end of the piece. 1 and drill a 1/4in. completes the equipment. So set up. and eight small holes. says Camera Craft. make the same series of eight small holes and. 1 in. 3 in. 2.

A is the first string and B is the second. 2. A round fob is made in a similar way. as shown in Fig. as in portraiture and the like. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. in Fig. of the ends remain unwoven. lay Cover B and the one under D. In this sketch. Start with one end. 1. doubled and run through the web of A. the one marked A. C over D and B. Then draw all four ends up snugly. Then take B and lay it over A. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. but instead of reversing . Fig. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. 2. and lay it over the one to the right.of the larger holes in the strip. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. D over A and C. taking the same start as for the square fob. and the one beneath C. 2. long. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. for instance. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. then B over C and the end stuck under A. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. 4.

then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. as at A in Fig. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. 3. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. as in making the square fob. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. A loop. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . 5. --Contributed by John P.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. The round fob is shown in Fig. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. Rupp. long. Other designs can be made in the same manner. is to be made of leather. always lap one string. the design of which is shown herewith. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. over the one to its right. Ohio. Monroeville. is left out at the center before starting on one side. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. as B. 1-1/2 in. especially if silk strings are used. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch.

Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. A. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. -Contributed by A. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. . On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. Any smooth piece of steel. Mich. When the supply of wax is exhausted. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. it can be easily renewed. such as a nut pick. beeswax or paraffin.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. pressing it against the wood. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. Northville. Houghton. door facing or door panel. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. using the reverse side. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. filling them with wax. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork.

if blueprints are used. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. The tacks should be about 1 in. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. . and after wetting. D. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. those on matte paper will work best. N. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. Thompson. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. --Contributed by O. remaining above the surface of the board. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. place it face down in the dish.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. apart and driven in only part way. says Photographic Times. although tin ones can be used with good success. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. and about 12 in. Y. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. New York. J. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. Ill. it is best to leave a plain white margin. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. E and F. thick. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Enough plaster should. but any kind that will not stick may be used. Fold together on lines C. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Select the print you wish to mount. long. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. leaving about 1/4 in. Petersburg. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking.

will be rendered perfectly white. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. Lower into the test tube a wire.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. without mixing the solutions. as shown at the left in the sketch. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. violets. bell flowers. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. One of the . roses. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. etc. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. filling the same about onehalf full. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. as shown in the right of the sketch.. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes.

A rod that will fit the brass tube. about 1/8s in. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube.. as shown. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. should be soldered to the box. and at the larger end. is about 2-1/2 in. or delicate tints of the egg. in diameter and 1 in. not too tightly. The sound box. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. but which will not wobble loose. Shabino. The first point should be ground blunt. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. 1-7/8 in. long and made of wood. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. L. --Contributed by L. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The diaphragm. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. made of heavy tin. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The tin horn can be easily made. Fig. thick. as shown in the sketch. long. 1. 3.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. shading. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. South Dakota. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. Millstown. When soldering these parts together. turned a little tapering. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. to keep the core from coming off in turning. 2. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens.

and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Colo. Gold. E.Contributed by E. and. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . mice in the bottom. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Victor. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. Ill. wondering what it was. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. Chicago. says the Iowa Homestead. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Jr. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. and weighted it with a heavy stone. put a board on top. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom.

. Buffalo. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. --Contributed by Lyndwode. Can. Pereira. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. Ottawa. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. N. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. Y. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers.

as it can be made quickly in any size. cut round. above the end of the dasher. A. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. longer than the length of the can. De Loof. by means of a flatheaded tack. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. through which several holes have been punched. Richmond. --Contributed by Thos. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. Jaquythe. --Contributed by W. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Mich. Grand Rapids. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. and at one end of the stick fasten. a piece of tin. This cart has no axle. as shown. Cal. Put a small nail 2 in. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends.

Notches 1/8 in. apart. I reversed a door gong. --Contributed by James M. 1. Pa. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches.1. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. 2 in. New Orleans. wide and as long as the box. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2. 2. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. The candles. wide and 1/8 in. wide and 3 ft. as shown. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. cut in the center of the rounding edge. 1/4 in. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. long. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. A wedge-shaped piece of . thick. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. 1-1/2 in. deep and 3 in.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. screwed it on the inside of a store box. La. were below the level of the bullseye. 2. of course. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. board. The baseboard and top are separable. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. 1 ft. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. Doylestown. wide. Fig. Kane. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces.

Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. Mass. the blade is put back into the groove . The block can also be used as a paperweight. 1.. stone or wood. Needles. when placed as in Fig. scissors. wide rubber bands or felt. will. as shown in Fig. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. Ia. can be picked up without any trouble. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. This device is very convenient for invalids. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. 3. to prevent its scratching the desk top. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. it can be removed without marring the casing. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. A. dressing one surface of each piece. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. When not in use. wide into each side of the casing. West Union. Worcester. etc. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. take two pieces of hard wood. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. After the glue has dried. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. For the handle. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. After completing the handle. the reason being that if both were solid. --Contributed by G. Cover the block with rubber. Wood. the shelf could not be put on the window.Book Back Holders metal. by cutting away the ends. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages.

1. If desired. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. -Contributed by W. S. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. . A notch is cut in one side. Hutchins. Mass. as shown in Fig. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. thus carrying the car up the incline. 2. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Erie. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Pa. Cleveland. Ohio.and sharpened to a cutting edge. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. --Contributed by H. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. square and 4 in. long. is shown in the accompanying sketch. as shown in Fig. 1 in. Malden. Jacobs. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Each one is made of a hardwood block. A. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop.

. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. N. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. and an awl and hammer. Cape May Point. If one such as is shown is to be used.J. 6 by 9-1/2 in. will be needed. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. . and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. This will insure having all parts alike. a board on which to work it. The letters can be put on afterward.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. Prepare a design for the front. One sheet of metal.

If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. which is desirable. mandolin or guitar. in the waste metal. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. . and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. So impressive are the results. varnish.Fasten the metal to the board. to right angles. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. 3/4 part. or. if desired. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. paste the paper design right on the metal. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. that can be worked in your own parlor. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. a violin. The stick may be placed by the side of." In all appearance. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. as shown. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. but weird and distant. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. 2 parts white vitriol. flat brush. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. says Master Painter. 1/4 part. behind or through the center of a table leg. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. Remove the metal. On the back. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. If any polishing is required. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. only the marginal line is to be pierced. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. applied by means of a brush. 1 part. One coat will do. placed on a table. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. turpentine. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. The music will not sound natural. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design.

square bar iron. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. long and spread about 8 in. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. without them. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. each 6 in. it might be difficult. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. says Work. apart. 3. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. long. across the top. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. 2. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. each 28 in. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. thick by 1/2 in. Two pairs of feet. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. The longest piece. wide. long and measuring 26 in. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. are shaped as shown in Fig. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. is bent square so as to form two uprights. round-head machine screws. With proper tools this is easy. and is easy to construct. London. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. .

C. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. better still. 5. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. in the grooves of the borders. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. Fig. The design is formed in the lead. using rosin as a flux. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. 5. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. special flux purchased for this purpose. 7. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. the latter being tapped to . Fig. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. and the base border. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. Place the corner piece of glass. as shown in Fig. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. D. lead. B. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. cut a long piece of lead. or. A. The glass. While the piece of lead D. After the glass is cut. 6. on it as shown. After the joints are soldered. is held by the brads. 4. The brads are then removed. This method is pursued until the glass is complete.

The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. long. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. as shown in Fig. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. N. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. not less than 4 in. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Bore a 5/8-in. Jr. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. holes through their centers. bolt. rocker bolt. thick and drill 3/4-in. bolt. in diameter and about 9 in. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. long. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Dreier. rounded at the top as shown. Camden. and two wood blocks. This . This bolt should be 11-1/2 in.the base of the clip. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. Secure a post. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. plank about 12 ft. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. and round the corners of one end for a ring. 8. This ring can be made of 1-in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in.. one on each side and central with the hole. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. --Contributed by W. then drill a 3/4-in. Bore a 3/4-in. then flatten its end on the under side. plates. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. in diameter and 1/4 in. square and of the length given in the drawing. Make three washers 3-in. Two styles of hand holds are shown. long. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. The center pin is 3/4-in. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. wood screws in each washer. Fasten the plates to the block B. J. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. H. A and B.

Draw a line on the four 7-in. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. long and 1 piece. 1 by 7 in. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. bit. long. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. 50 ft. 3/4 by 3 in. bolts and rope. from one edge. square by 5 ft. 1/2 in. hickory. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. 4 pieces. by 6-1/2 ft. and some one can swing an axe. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. 2-1/2 in. apart for a distance of 3 ft.will make an excellent cover for a pot. straight-grained hickory. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. 7 in. 4 in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. maple. can make a first class gymnasium. 16 screws. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. in diameter and 7 in. 3 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. shanks. 4 filler pieces. of 1/4-in. screws. 2 by 4 in. To substitute small. by 2 ft. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. chestnut or ash. 4 in. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. If trees are convenient. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. The four 7-in. boards along the side of each from end to end. long. New Orleans. La. the money outlay will be almost nothing. 1. square by 9-1/2 ft. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. long. 9 in. horse and rings. because it will not stand the weather. 4 pieces. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. 1-1/4in. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. long. long. by 3 ft. long.

The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. from the end. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. piece of wood. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. 2. apart. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. 8 in. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. deep and remove all loose dirt. so the 1/2-in. each 3 ft. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats.. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. apart. Bore a 9/16-in. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel.bored. at each end. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft.. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. boards coincide.

As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. passing through a screweye at either end. and then passes in a curve across the base. and ascends the stem. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII.. it follows the edge for about 1 in. not much to look at in daytime. in an endless belt. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. the effect is very striking. which at once gathered. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. it is taken to the edge of the foot. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. apart. W. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. . in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. about 100 ft. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. When the interest of the crowd. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. but most deceptive at dusk. just visible against the dark evening sky. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. If the tumbler is rotated. And all he used was a black thread. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. not even the tumbler. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. and materially heightened the illusion. was at its height. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud." which skimmed along the distant horizon. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. disappearing only to reappear again. He stretched the thread between two buildings. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses.

long and 1 doz. long. Chisel out two notches 4 in. 4 bolts. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. La. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. long. Bevel the ends of . New Orleans. 4 in. 1. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. long. A wire about No. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. by 10 ft. so the point will be on top. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. long. by 7 ft. 8 in. beginning at a point 9 in. Fig. 2 base pieces. by 2 ft. long. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. 8 in. square and 51/2 ft. 2 by 3 in. by 3 ft. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. large spikes. To make the apparatus. long. deep. 6 in. 2 by 4 in. 2 by 4 in. 7 in. 4 knee braces. 2 in. from either side of the center. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 2 by 4 in. 4 in. wide and 1 in. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. and turned in a spiral D. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. 8 bolts. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. 2 cross braces. 4 wood screws. The cork will come out easily. 8 in. long. preferably cedar. square and 6 ft. long. 2 side braces.

and countersinking the heads. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. Jaquythe. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. ( To be Continued. Cal. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. except the bars. but even unpainted they are very durable. as shown in the diagram. additional long. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. screws. Richmond. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. --Contributed by W. . is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. so the bolts in both will not meet. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. A large sized ladle. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. The wood so treated will last for years. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. save the bars. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks.the knee braces. leaving the strainer always in position. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. If using mill-cut lumber. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. equipped with a strainer. After the trenches are dug. Two endpieces must be made. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. of 7 ft. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. These will allow the ladle to be turned. using four of the 7-in bolts. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. leave it undressed. jellies. A. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts.. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. which face each other. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. etc. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands.

or various cutting compounds of oil. it is necessary to place a stick. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. which seems impossible. . Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. In order to accomplish this experiment. thus holding the pail as shown. Oil. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. milling machine. A. of sufficient 1ength. partly a barrier for jumps. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. drill press or planer.

and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. long. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. The round part of this log must be planed. and free from knots. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. These are well nailed in place. by 3 ft. 2 by 4 in. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. wood yard or from the woods. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. long. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. 1 cross brace. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. 4-1/2 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. These are placed 18 in. 4 in. piece of 2 by 4-in. in the ground. long. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. 2 adjusting pieces. long. bolts. 4 in. 2 bases. long. projections and splinters. bolts. The material required is as follows: Two posts. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. 3 in. from each end. long.. 1 in. by 3 ft. two 1/2-in. apart. square by 5 ft. beginning 1-1/2 in. 2 by 4 in. by 3 ft. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. in diameter--the larger the better. Hand holds must be provided next. ten 1/2-in. square by 5-1/2 ft. stud cut rounding on one edge. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. apart in a central position on the horse. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. long. to fasten the knee braces at the top. bolt. is a good length.. 4 in. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. but 5 ft. Procure from a saw mill. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. 2 by 4 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. bolts. 4 knee braces. long. To construct. 7 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in.

no one is responsible but himself. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. A. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. snow. etc. Such a hand sled can be made in a . Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration.horse top. it is caused by some obstruction. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition.--Contributed by W. then bending to the shape desired. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. Also. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. water. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. pipe and fittings. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. Richmond. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. over and around. such as a dent. Cal. but nevertheless. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Jaquythe. it is caused by an overloaded shell.

Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. thick. 1. --Contributed by Arthur E. Paris. Noble. 2. will give the length. The end elevation. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. when complete. Boston. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. . at E and F. is much better than a wood sled. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. W. in width and 1/32 in. which. are all the tools necessary. Vener. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Toronto. 1/4 or 3/16 in. --Contributed by J. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. France. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. --Contributed by James E. then run a string over each part. when straightened out. Joerin. Mass. These. Ontario. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock.

These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. It is best to use soft water.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. are nailed. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. AA and BB. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. 3. . The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. nor that which is partly oxidized. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. The method shown in Figs. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. and the latter will take on a bright luster. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. 4. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig.

If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. or various rulings may be made. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. 3. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 2. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 1). Broad lines can be made. Percy Ashley in Rudder. or unequal widths as in Fig. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. 4. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. 8 and 9. 2. class ice-yacht. as shown in Fig. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. . The materials used are: backbone. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. as shown in Fig. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The headstock is made of two tees. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. 1-Details of Lathe sort. but if it is made much longer. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The point should extend about 11/2 in. pipe. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. out from the collar. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. long. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch.Fig. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. a larger size of pipe should be used. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. about 30 in. Both the lower . The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. pins to keep them from turning. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. bent and drilled as shown. a tee and a forging. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. It can be made longer or shorter. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. A good and substantial homemade lathe. 1. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple.

thick as desired. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. as shown in Fig. 2. 3/4 or 1 in. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. a corresponding line made on this. Laporte. Boissevain. M. Musgrove. Man. or a key can be used as well. a straight line should be scratched Fig. Cal. It is about 1 in. Indiana. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. else taper turning will result. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Held. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. but also their insulating properties. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. and will answer for a great variety of work. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. W. --Contributed by M. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. 2. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. 2. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. --Contributed by W. Fruitvale. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. 1. To do this. .tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. UpDeGraff. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. as shown in Fig. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. --Contributed by W. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance.

Smith. Cline. J. In use. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. --Contributed by E. Ark. Ft. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. The handle is of pine about 18 in. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. To obviate this. as shown. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. long.

An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. which should be backed out of contact. La. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. and when once in true up to its size. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. This prevents the drill from wobbling. take . Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. New Orleans. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. if this method is followed: First. White. After being entered. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. the drill does not need the tool. centering is just one operation too many. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. face off the end of the piece. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. on starting the lathe. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. Colo. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. Denver. --Contributed by Walter W. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club.

and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. is put into the paper tube A. The handkerchief rod. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. and can be varied to suit the performer. It can be used in a great number of tricks. In doing this.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. shown at C. all the better. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. After the wand is removed. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. a long piece of glass tubing. after being shown empty. as shown in D. shorter t h a n the wand. The glass tube B. unknown to the spectators. the cap is placed over the paper tube. vanishing wand. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. says the Sphinx. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. by applying caustic soda or . so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. a bout 1/2 in. and this given to someone to hold. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand.

As the cement softens. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. The brace at D is 1 in. Cut a piece of hard wood. 2 Sides. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. 1 End. by 14 by 17 in. Glue strips of soft wood. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. 1. square and 1-7/8 in. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. 3/16. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. 1 Bottom. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. 1/4 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. thick. Glue the neck to the box. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. long. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. The sides. with the back side rounding. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. preferably hard maple. as shown by K. cut to any shape desired. and if care is taken in selecting the material. across the front and back to strengthen them. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. End. This dimension and those for the frets . With care and patience. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. can be made by the home mechanic.potash around the edges of the letters. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. and glue it to the neck at F. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 1 Neck. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A.

H. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. toward each end. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Norwalk. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing.should be made accurately. E. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. 3/16 in. 1) on which to stretch the paper. in diameter. Carbondale. long is used for a keel. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store.Pa. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. -Contributed by J. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. O. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. Stoddard. and beveled . Frary. but it is not. wide and 11-1/2 ft. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. A board 1 in. --Contributed by Chas. Six holes. or backbone. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. When it is completed you will have a canoe. thick and about 1 ft.

because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. as they are apt to do. with long stout screws. wide by 26 in. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. Fig. Fig. Shape these as shown by A. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. Fig. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. B.. Fig. C. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. 3/8 in. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. 2). and so. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. thick. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. probably. as shown in Fig. as before described. In drying. the loose strips of ash (b. 2. 1. Fig. or other place. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. Osiers probably make the best ribs. long are required. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. such as hazel or birch. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. slender switches of osier willow. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. . in such cases. Fig. 2).Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. two strips of wood (b. when made of green elm. 4). because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. a. Any tough. such as is used for making chairbottoms. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. some tight strips of ash. For the gunwales (a. 4. procure at a carriage factory. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. apart. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. 3).) in notches. by means of a string or wire. in thickness and should be cut. and are not fastened. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. Fig. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. C. are next put in. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. 1 and 2. The ribs. b. long. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. These are better. 3. but twigs of some other trees. but before doing this. thick. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. Fig. buy some split cane or rattan. twigs 5 or 6 ft. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. 3). Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. as shown in Fig. 3. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. The cross-boards (B. 13 in. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. will answer nearly as well. which are easily made of long. and notched at the end to receive them (B. Fig. two twigs may be used to make one rib. or similar material. b. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. and. b. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. Green wood is preferable. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame.

and as soon as that has soaked in. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. It should be drawn tight along the edges. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. apply a second coat of the same varnish. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. When the paper is dry. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. but neither stiff nor very thick. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. When thoroughly dry.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. wide. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. It should be smooth on the surface. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. and held in place by means of small clamps. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. B. Fig. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. preferably iron. Then take some of the split rattan and. but with less turpentine. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. 5). If the paper be 1 yd. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. You may put in . and steady in the water. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. Being made in long rolls. If not. The paper is then trimmed. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. tacking it to the bottom-board. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. and very tough. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. and light oars. however. of very strong wrapping-paper. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. after wetting it. if it has been properly constructed of good material.

5). For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. they will support very heavy weights. fore and aft. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. Drive the lower nail first. 2. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. 5. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. We procured a box and made a frame. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. 1. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. Fig. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. Fig. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. to fit it easily. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. and make a movable seat (A. Fig. and if driven as shown in the cut. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. 1 and the end in . and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry.

Pittsburg. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. A good way to handle this work. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. This is an easy . --Contributed by Albert Niemann. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. being softer where the flame has been applied. Pa. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. 3. and the glass. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. this makes the tube airtight. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. and the result is.Fig. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. Close the other end with the same operation. 4. 5. This way has its drawbacks.

thin screw. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. above the work and striking it with the hammer. then reverse. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. metal shears. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. Oswald. third. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. Seventh. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. very rapid progress can be made. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . second. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. After the bulb is formed. three. Give the metal a circular motion. -Contributed by A. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. fourth. 23 gauge. flat and round-nosed pliers. rivet punch. with a piece of carbon paper. extra metal all around. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. or six arms. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. above the metal. Sixth. file. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in.way to make a thermometer tube. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. four. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. The candle holders may have two. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. fifth. also trace the decorative design.

The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. Having pierced the bracket. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Metal polish of any kind will do. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. and holder. drip cup. Small copper rivets are used. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together.

which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. if it has not absorbed too much ink. A saw. and water 24 parts. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. The gaff. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. The boom. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. J. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. Twenty cents was all I spent. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. they were like an ice boat with a sail. hammer. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. the stick at the bottom of the sail. on a water bath. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. N. and in a week . Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. Soak 1 oz. is a broomstick. all the rest I found. Fifty. Shiloh. thus it was utilized. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. and add the gelatine. and it will be ready for future use. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. and other things as they were needed. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. alcohol 2 parts. except they had wheels instead of runners. Mother let me have a sheet. F. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. of glycerine to about 200 deg. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. sugar 1 part. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. when it will be ready for use. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. winding the ends where they came together with wire. deep. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. using a steel pen. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. smooth it down and then remove as before. and brace and bit were the tools used. I steer with the front wheel. Heat 6-1/2 oz. glycerine 4 parts. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper.

Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. a projecting lens .

focus enlarging a 3-in. This ring is made up from two rings. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light.. high. or a lens of 12-in. wire brads. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. and a projecting lens 2 in. thick. wide. well seasoned pine. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. are . Fig. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. DD. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. The slide support. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. at a point 1 in. If a small saw is used. and 14 in. about 2 ft. at a distance of 24 ft. and the work carefully done. G. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. A table. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. or glue. and. 1. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. A and B. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. 8 in. 3. above the center. H. The board is centered both ways. provided the material is of metal. 1/2 to 3/4 in. slide to about 6 ft. describe a 9-in. long. and the lens slide. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. wide and 15 in. E. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. but if such a box is not found. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. as desired.

The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. but not long enough. Small strips of tin. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. the strips II serving as guides. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. JJ. To reach the water. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. should the glass happen to upset. B. of safe. apply two coats of shellac varnish. A sheet . The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. The arrangement is quite safe as.-Contributed by G. Paul. placed on the water. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. E. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed.constructed to slip easily on the table. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. and when the right position is found for each. Minn. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. P. light burning oil. the water at once extinguishes the flame. St.

Fig. Crawford. to cover the mattresses. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . from a tent company. form a piece of wire in the same shape. 1. 3 in. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. --Contributed by J. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. N. Schenectady. I ordered a canvas bag.. Fig. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. If one of these clips is not at hand. Y. by 12 ft. 12 ft. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 3. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 4. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. 2.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. 3. then the corners on one end are doubled over.H. 9 in. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat.

3/4 in. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. wide. 2. A Film Washing Trough [331] . holes in the edge. Colo. V. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. as shown in Fig. thick. in the center coil. 3 to swing freely on the tack. for amperes and the other post.each edge. To calibrate the instrument. 3/4 in. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Fig. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. long and 3/16 in. so as to form two oblong boxes. drill two 3/16 in. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. and insert two binding-posts. Denver. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. 2. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Pa. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. 1/2 in. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. through which the indicator works. Do not use too strong a rubber. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. long. 1. first mark the binding-post A. Fasten the wire with gummed label. An arc is cut in the paper. Fold two strips of light cardboard. Fig. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. D. 2. Warren. insulating them from the case with cardboard. open on the edges. C. apart. --Contributed by Edward M. Attach a piece of steel rod. White. to the coil of small wire for volts. A rubber band. 1/2 in. --Contributed by Walter W. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. 1. to keep it from unwinding. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. Teasdale.

A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Hunting. --Contributed by M. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Cut a 1/4-in. Place this can on one end of the trough. as shown. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. O. Dayton. Wood Burning [331] . M. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. with the large hole up. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut.

Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. mouth downward. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. then into this bottle place. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle.

If the small bottle used is opaque. --Contributed by John Shahan. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. This will make a very pretty ornament. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . 1. Upper Troy. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. 2. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. wide and 4 in. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A.Y. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. If the cork is adjusted properly. thick. Place the small bottle in as before. 3/4 in.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. Ala. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. N. as shown in the sketch. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. Auburn. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. provided the bottle is wide. long. but not very thick. many puzzling effects may be obtained. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. Whitehouse. --Contributed by Fred W. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split.

held the shaft from revolving in the hub. even in a light breeze. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. The shaft C. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. The bearing blocks were 3 in. long. 3. A staple. I. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. to the shaft. K. Fig. such as blades and pulleys. 1 in. in diameter and 1 in. Its smaller parts. Both bearings were made in this manner. 2 ft. The wire L was put . The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. by the method shown in Fig. Fig. thick and 3 in. or ordinary telephone transmitters. 2.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. 1. The 21/2-in. were constructed of 1-in. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. G. thick. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. --Contributed by D. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. high without the upper half. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. as shown in Fig. line. 1. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. B. thick. sugar pine on account of its softness. which was 6 in. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. wide. 1. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. was 1/4in. Fig. which gave considerable power for its size. pulley F. 1. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. Fig. Milter. which was nailed to the face plate. If a transmitter is used. 1. W. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. On a 1000-ft. which extended to the ground. iron rod. 4. Fig. pulley. was keyed to shaft C.

1. long and 3 in. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. across the thin edge of a board. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. in the center of the board P. wide and 1 in. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. long and bend it as shown at A. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. so that the 1/4-in. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. cut out another piece of tin (X. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. for instance. H. in diameter. top down also. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. was 2 ft. 1. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. Fig. To make the key. 3 in. Fig. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. If you have no bell. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. Fig. hole was bored for it. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. Fig. as. R. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. This board was 12 in. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. There a 1/4-in. The bed plate D. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. 1. was tacked. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. Fig. To lessen the friction here. The smaller one. hole for the shaft G was in the center. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. Fig. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. 25 ft. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. Two washers were placed on shaft C. strips. long.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. The other lid. G. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. a 1/2-in. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. when the windmill needed oiling. pine 18 by 12 in. 1. 0. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. 5. 1) 4 in. Fig. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. The power was put to various uses. This completes the receiver or sounder. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. This fan was made of 1/4-in. and was cut the shape shown. square to the board P at the top of the tower. 6. long. 6. providing one has a few old materials on hand. through the latter. washers were placed under pulley F. long and 1/2 in. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. apart in the tower. with all parts in place. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. 2. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. long and bend it as . with brass headed furniture tacks. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground.

1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. When tired of this instrument. 1. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Thus a center drive is made. The rear barrels are. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. McConnell. like many another device boys make. at the front. -Contributed by John R. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. and. although it can be made with but two. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. Before tacking it to the board. Going back to Fig. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. as shown at Water. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. causing a buzzing sound. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. fitted with paddles as at M.shown. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. using cleats to hold the board frame. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. leaving the other wire as it is. as indicated. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . Now. 2. By adjusting the coils. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood.

there will not be much friction. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. 1. copper piping and brass tubing for base. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. feet on the pedals. To propel it. can be built. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . The speed is slow at first.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. If the journals thus made are well oiled. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. 3. or even a little houseboat. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. which will give any amount of pleasure. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. as shown in Fig. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. There is no danger. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it.

D. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. 2. 1. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. 2. 1. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. Fig.of pleasure for a little work. Turn a small circle of wood. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Fig. A. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. Place one brass ring in cylinder. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. B. Then melt out the rosin or lead. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. 2. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. Fig. 1. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. C. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. If magnifying glass cannot be had. then the glass disc and then the other ring. and so creating a false circuit. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. If it is desired to make the light very complete. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. Fig. or it may be put to other uses if desired. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig.

--Contributed by C. by having the switch on the baseboard. copper tubing. after two turns have been made on the key. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. brass rod. I. 4-1/2 in. brass strip. F. Ogden. C. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . Utah. When alarm goes off. bracket. J. The parts indicated are as follows: A.india rubber tubing. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. wide and 1/16 in. To throw on light throw levers to the left. near the bed. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. and pulled tight. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. E. bell. wire from light to switch. contact post. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. such as is used for cycle valves. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. S. if too small. some glue will secure them. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . X. Chatland. H. wire from batteries to switch. D. To operate this. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. 4 in. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. Brinkerhoff. T. set alarm key as shown in diagram. Throw lever off from the right to center. long. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. To get the cylinder into its carriage. long. In placing clock on shelf.. key of alarm clock. Swissvale. --Contributed by Geo. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. switch. which stops bell ringing. 3/8 in. while lying in bed. 5-1/4 by 10 in. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. wire from bell to switch. G. B. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. shelf. dry batteries. C. thick. Pa. or 1/4in. after setting alarm.

place stick and all in a pail of sand. in diameter. 1. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. will do the heating. 2. a bed warmer. 2. 4 in. letting it extend 3/4 in. 1/4 in. Make a shoulder. about 6 in. Fig. 3. wide. from one end. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. All that is required is a tin covering. Lanesboro.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. long. Fig. Fig. Minn. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. as in Fig. as at A. about 3-1/2 in. being careful not to get the sand in it. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. gives the heater a more finished appearance. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. 1. which can be made of an old can. --Contributed by Chas. as at A. A flannel bag. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. in diameter. Make the spindle as in Fig. S. as at B. Having finished this. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. This is to form the fuse hole. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. beyond the end of the spindle. Chapman. A small lamp of about 5 cp. Pull out the nail and stick. for instance. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. making it as true and smooth as possible. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. as .

5/8 in. thick. long. spring and arrows. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. wide and 6 ft. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. 6 in. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. long. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. --Contributed by Arthur E. 1. this is to keep the edges from splitting. good straight-grained pine will do. A piece of tin.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. thick. Joerin. thick. deep. wide and 3/8 in. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. 3/8 in. will be sufficient to make the trigger. wide and 3 ft. or hickory. ash. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. 1 in. The illustration shows how this is done. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. 11/2 in. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. The material must be 1-1/2 in. but if this wood cannot be procured. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. A piece of oak. long.

The trigger. which is 1/4 in. thick. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. as shown in Fig. Wilmette. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. 3. Trownes. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. When the trigger is pulled. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. --Contributed by O. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. 6. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. 7. 8. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. from the end of the stock. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. wide at each end. it lifts the spring up. in diameter. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. E. having the latter swing quite freely. To shoot the crossbow. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. Fig. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. place the arrow in the groove. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. as shown in Fig. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. The stick for the bow. Ill. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. A spring. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. Such a temporary safe light may be . Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. or through the necessity of. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. and one for the trigger 12 in. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. To throw the arrow. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. The bow is not fastened in the stock. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. Fig. from the opposite end. Fig. 4. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. better still. 9. 2.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise.

while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. This lamp is safe. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. and replace as shown at B. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. Remove the bottom of the box. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. The cut should be about 5 ft. is used as a door. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. or only as a camp on a short excursion. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. By chopping the trunk almost through. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. it is the easiest camp to make. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. Moreover. apart. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. since the flame of the candle is above A. and nail it in position as shown at A. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. Remove one end. The hinged cover E. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. from the ground. says Photo Era. from the ground. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. respectively. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. C. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. make the frame of the wigwam. making lighting and trimming convenient. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. the bark lean-to is a .

A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. makes a good pair of tongs. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. . nails are necessary to hold it in place. and split the tops with an ax. Sheets of bark. For a permanent camp. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. 6 ft. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. and cedar. The bark is easily pried off with an ax.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. Tongs are very useful in camp. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. A piece of elm or hickory. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. wide. In the early summer. make the best kind of a camp bed. deep and covered with blankets. long and 2 or 3 ft. long. 3 ft. Where bark is used. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. selecting a site for a camp. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. piled 2 or 3 ft. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. are a convenient size for camp construction. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. a 2-in. spruce. and when the camp is pitched. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. wide and 6 ft. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. will dry flat. For a foot in the middle of the stick. long and 1-1/2 in. thick. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space.

Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. and affording accommodation for several persons. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. . hinges. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats.

deep and 4 in. Doylestown. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. Fig. the interior can. and provide a cover or door. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. connected by means of a very small lead pipe.. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. changing the water both morning and night. about 4 in. B. I drove a small cork. --Contributed by James M. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Kane. B. A. to another . wide. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. 1. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. Pa.

Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. if necessary. The diagram. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. which project inside and outside of the tube. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. 2. Fig. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. for instance. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. C. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. such as ether. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. E. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. This makes . fused into one side. The current is thus compelled. until. to pass through an increasing resistance. limit. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. 2. for instance. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1.glass tube. a liquid. 3. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. 4 and 5). as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit.

in diameter. on a lathe. larger than the dimensions given. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. 3-3/8 in. thicker. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. After cleaning them with the solution. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. in diameter. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. Before removing the field from the lathe. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. or even 1/16 in. brass. thick. If the thickness is sufficient. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. thick. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. The bearing studs are now made. 3-3/8 in.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. assemble and rivet them solidly. Then the field can be finished to these marks. mark off a space. 4-1/2 in. These holes are for the bearing studs. they will make a frame 3/4 in. 1. hole is . 2. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. Alpena. tap. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. bent at right angles as shown. A 5/8in. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. therefore. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. brass or iron. cannot be used so often. as shown in the left-hand sketch. two holes. Fig. and for the outside of the frame. or pattern. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. A. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. 3. Fig. to allow for finishing. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. clamp the template. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. which will make it uniform in size. After the template is marked out. Michigan. between centers. drill the four rivet holes. but merely discolored. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. which may be of any thickness so that. by turning the lathe with the hand. screws. When the frame is finished so far. making it 1/16 in. set at 1/8 in. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. when several pieces are placed together. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. is composed of wrought sheet iron. as shown in Fig.

Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. file them out to make the proper adjustment. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. 4. into which a piece of 5/8-in. or otherwise finished. brass rod is inserted. is turned up from machine steel. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. The shaft of the armature. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. When the bearings are located. soldered into place. solder them to the supports. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. and build up the solder well.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. Fig.

Make the core 3/4 in. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. as shown in Fig. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. or segments. Procure 12 strips of mica. 6. thick. to allow for finishing to size. threaded. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. The sides are also faced off and finished. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. 7. inside diameter. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. After they . File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. and held with a setscrew. Armature-Ring Core. as shown m Fig. 3. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. as shown in Fig. wide. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. 3/4 in. When annealed. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. 3/4 in. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. 6. thick. Find the centers of each segment at one end. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. by 1-1/2 in. wide. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. 3. being formed for the ends. as shown in Fig. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. hole and tap it for a pin. 5.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. 1/8 in. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. then drill a 1/8-in. 8. After the pieces are cut out. thick are cut like the pattern. 1-1/8 in. Rivet them together. holes through them for rivets. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. thick. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. When this is accomplished. thick and 1/4 in. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. as shown in Fig. sheet fiber. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in.. deep and 7/16 in. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. and then they are soaked in warm water. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. as shown in Fig. washers. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. 9. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. The pins are made of brass. brass rod.

21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. 1. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. and wind on four layers. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. or side. Fig. This winding is for a series motor. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. wide and 1 in. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. are soldered together. until the 12 slots are filled. The source of current is connected to the terminals. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. by bending the end around one of the projections. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. of the end to protrude. Fig. The winding is started at A. of the wire. yet it shows a series of . shown at A. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. of No. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. In starting to wind. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. To connect the wires. sheet fiber. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. 8 in. When the glue is set. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. the two ends of the wire. The two ends are joined at B. Run one end of the field wire. being required. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. long. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. after the motor is on the stand. 1. All connections should be securely soldered. After one coil. they are glued to the core insulation. 6 in. shown at B. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. which will take 50 ft. about 100 ft.have dried. 5. thick. and bring the end of the wire out at B. sheet fiber. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. The field is wound with No.

still more simply. and one. Nine wires run from the timer. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. or. which serves as the ground wire. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. is fastened to the metallic body. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . as in the case of a spiral. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. A 1/2-in. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. one from each of the eight contacts. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other.

perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. circle. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. thus giving 16 different directions. Covering these is a thin. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. Without this attachment. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. 45 deg. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. board.The Wind Vane. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. of the dial. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. 6 in. It should be . thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. long. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial.

and securely nail on the top of the box. though a special knife." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. 14 by 18 in. Fill the box with any handy ballast. called a chip carving knife. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies.about 6 ft. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. making it heavy or light. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. also a piece of new carpet. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. however. will be enough for the two sides. Y. Before tacking the fourth side. and about 6 in. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. To make it. high. if not too high. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. N. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. or. Blackmer. according to who is going to use it. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. will be sufficient. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. Buffalo. Place the leather on some level. To work these outlines. . one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. -Contributed by James L. thus making a universal joint. long to give the best results. Cut 3-in. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. will answer the purpose just as well. is most satisfactory. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing.

An ordinary sewing-machine . A good leather paste will be required.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Paste the silk plush to the inner side.

Y. temporary lameness. or a hip that has been wrenched. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. away from it. Morse. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. a needle and some feathers. --Contributed by Katharine D. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. Syracuse. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. can be thrown away when no longer needed. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. of water. B. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C.will do if a good stout needle is used. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. of common salt and 10 lb. as in cases of a sprained ankle. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. and tie them together securely at the bottom. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. rather than the smooth side. If a fire breaks out. square and tying a piece of . N.

. --Contributed by J. wound on the head end. but not sharp. Gordon Dempsey. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. high. The diaphragm C. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. --Contributed by John A. deep. cut to the length of the spool. Paterson. long. thus helping the rats to enter. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. commonly called tintype tin. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft.J. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. This not only keeps the rats out. There is a 1-in. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. Wis. as shown. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. laying poisoned meat and meal. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. Y. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. The end is filed to an edge. Ashland. F. long. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. 1/8 in. G. made up of four layers of No. A small wooden or fiber end. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. etc. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. letting it go at arm's length. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. and tacked it to the boards. is cut on the wood. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool.string to each corner. and a coil of wire. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. which is the essential part of the instrument. Albany. N. One end is removed entirely. The coil is 1 in. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. board all around the bottom on the inside. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. N. and the receiver is ready for use. The body of the receiver. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. E. the corners being wired. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. A.. B. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. The strings should be about 15 in. setting traps. Hellwig. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. wide and 1/16 in. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint.

How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. Take a piece of string or. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. wide. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. The vase is to have three supports. and bend each strip in shape. gold. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. to . A single line will be sufficient. better still. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. a piece of small wire. begin with the smallest scrolls. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. To clean small articles.

000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. from the lines EF on the piece. . A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Trace also the line around the purse.. Fold the leather on the line EF.which the supports are fastened with rivets. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. as shown in the sketch. through which to slip the fly AGH. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. 3-1/4 in. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. 3-1/2 in. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. After taking off the pattern. Press or model down the leather all around the design. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. About 1 in. and does not require coloring. from E to F. wide when stitching up the purse. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. sharp pencil. using a duller point of the tool. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. 6-3/8 in. Work down the outside line of the design. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. thus raising it. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern.. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. 4-1/4 in. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. from C to D. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather.

long. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. leaving the lug a. Cut off six pieces 12 in. then place the square piece out of which Fig. Make the lug 1/4 in. thick. with a compass saw. It is neat and efficient. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. and cut out a wheel. When it is finished. around the wheel. and cut it out as shown in Fig. as well as useful.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. the "open" side. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. Fit this to the two . being cast in wooden molds. and which will be very interesting. deep. It can be made without the use of a lathe. and tack the other piece slightly. Now take another piece of wood. with the open side down.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. 1. then nail it. by 12 ft. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. deep. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. with pins or small nails. 2. b. all the way around. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. and. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. 1 was cut. square. 3. with the largest side down. and the projections B. Then nail the wheel down firmly. First. following the dotted lines. and a model for speed and power. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. This also should be slightly beveled.

pieces just finished. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. hole entirely through at the same place. one of which should have a 3/8-in. place it between two of the 12-in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. then bolt it together. bolts. holes through it. in the center of it. and bore six 1/4-in. and boring a 3/8-in. and lay it away to dry. hole bored through its center.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. as shown by the . Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. square pieces of wood. 4. and clean all the shavings out of it. Now take another of the 12-in. square pieces of wood. Take the mold apart. Now put mold No. After it is finished. hole 1/4 in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. 1. slightly beveled. deep. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in.

and lay it away to dry. only the one is left-handed. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. instead of the right-handed piece. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. holes at d. B. screw down. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. Let it stand for half an hour. the other right-handed. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. in diameter must now be obtained. lay it on a level place. put the top of the brace through this hole. from the one end. one in the projections. and run in babbitt metal again. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. This will cast a paddle-wheel. one in the lug. take an ordinary brace. This is the same as Fig.2. as shown in illustration. place the entire machine in a vise. d. After it is fitted in. drill in it.1. long. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. This is for a shaft. see that the bolts are all tight. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. and drill them in the same manner. Now cut out one of the 12-in. 5. where the casting did not fill out. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. and connect to the boiler.2. holes.black dots in Fig. and the exhaust hole in projection b. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. and 3/8-in.1. 1. place it under the drill. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. and two 1/4-in. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. fasten a 3/8-in. 6. This is mold No. Using the Brace . until it is full. Pour metal into mold No. long. as shown by the black dots in Fig. wide and 16 in. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. Now take mold No. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. and bore three 1/4-in. so that it will turn easily. and pour babbitt metal into it. and drill it entirely through. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. Commencing 1-1/2 in. 6. 4. Put this together in mold No. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. b. and pouring metal in to fill it up. A piece of mild steel 5 in. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. Then bolt the castings together. true it up with a square. over the defective part. and the other in the base. Fig.

Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. one 6 ft. will do good service. and the pleasure many times repays the effort.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. piece and at right angles to it. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. and. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. Plan of Ice Boat . turn the wheel to the shape desired. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it.. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. and with three small screw holes around the edge. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. and if instructions have been carefully followed. with a boss and a set screw. while it is running at full speed. long. At each end of the 6ft. Then take a knife or a chisel. and the other 8 ft. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular.

long and 2-1/2 in. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . Fig. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. in diameter. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. plank. 1. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. and about 8 in. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. as the runners were fastened. so much the better will be your boat. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. which may come in handy in heavy winds. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. boards to make the platform. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. should be of hardwood. at the butt and 1 in. leaving 1 ft. Over the middle of the 6-ft. Make your runners as long as possible. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. in front of the rudder block. piece and at right angles to it. Run the seam on a machine. 2 by 3 in. This fits in the square hole. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. where they often did considerable damage. 3. The spar should be 9 ft. plank nail 8