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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. away. A piece of plank 12 in. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. Noble. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. --Contributed by J. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. long will make six boomerangs. 1. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. 1. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. as shown in Fig. The pieces are then dressed round. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in.Fig. wide and 2 ft. 2. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. 2. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. Ontario. with the hollow side away from you. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. Fig. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. To throw a boomerang. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. It is held in this curve until dry. 1. grasp it and hold the same as a club. Toronto. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. distant. as shown in Fig. 2 -. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. E. apart. until it is bound as shown in Fig.

The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. one inside of the circle and the other outside. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. long. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. the block will drop out. and with a movable bottom. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. dry snow will not pack easily. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. or rather no bottom at all. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. which makes the building simpler and easier. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. blocks . but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. A wall. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. and it may be necessary to use a little water. it is not essential to the support of the walls. however. forcing it down closely. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. minus the top. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. First. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. but about 12 in. thick. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. 6 in. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. high and 4 or 5 in. made of 6-in. A very light. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. If the snow is of the right consistency.

A nail. long and 1 in. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. 3. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. wide. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. 3 -. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. 2. 1. which can be made of wood. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. Goodbrod. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. There is no outward thrust. which is about 1 ft. Ore. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. --Contributed by Geo. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. or an old safe dial will do. 1. Fig. and the young architect can imitate them. above the ground. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. Union. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. Fig.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. Fig. a. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. The piece of wood. D. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. It also keeps them out. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. 2. C. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. is 6 or 8 in. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle.

Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. S. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts.When taking hot dishes from the stove. one pair of special hinges. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. --Contributed by R. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. as the weight always draws them back to place. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. the box locked . allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. If ordinary butts are used. Syracuse. says the Sphinx. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. Merrill. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. New York.

on drawing paper. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. It remains to bend the flaps. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. If the measuring has been done properly. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. Alberta Norrell. 1. -Contributed by L. as shown. one for each corner. To make a design similar to the one shown. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. When the sieve is shaken. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. Ga. Fig. as shown in Fig. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. With the metal shears. 3. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. allowing each coat time to dry. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. as shown in Fig. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. Place the piece in a vise. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. proceed as follows: First. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. 2. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. about 1-32 of an inch. Augusta. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. draw one-half of it. If they do not. Cover the back and all the face except the white background.and the performer steps out in view. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. All . smooth surface. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth.

separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. as shown at AA. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. Colo. and in the positions shown in the sketch. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. --Contributed by R. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. 25 gauge German-silver wire. 25 German-silver wire. The current. H. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. R. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. heats the strip of German-silver wire. causing it to expand. Denver. in diameter. A piece of porcelain tube. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. long. C. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. To keep the metal from tarnishing. should be in the line. The common cork. If a touch of color is desired. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. if rolled under the shoe sole. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. In boring through rubber corks. A resistance. about 6 in. is fitted tightly in the third hole. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. of No. Galbreath. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. which is about 6 in. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. After this has dried. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the .the edges should be left smooth. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. used for insulation. in passing through the lamp. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. B. When the current is turned off. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. from the back end. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose.

cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. leaving a space of 4 in. Purchase two long book straps. as shown in Fig. 1. 2. Kansas City. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. with thin strips of wood. Fig. Mo. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. . 3. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. between them as shown in Fig. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. --Contributed by David Brown.bottom ring. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole.

and also prevent any leakage of the contents. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Fig. 1. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. which is the right weight for family use. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. 2. 4. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. 3. These are shown in Fig. Morse. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. and tack smoothly. are mounted on the outside of the box. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. Pa. having a gong 2-1/2 in. as . Fig.. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. and one weighing 25 lb. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. Two strips of brass. and a pocket battery. Y. Doylestown. long. 1. The string is then tied. C.. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood.An ordinary electric bell. --Contributed by Katharine D. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. 1. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. A. 36 in. Fig. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. The folds are made over the string. to form a handle. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. --Contributed by James M. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Kane. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. Syracuse. in diameter. just the right weight for a woman to use. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. When the aeroplane tips. N. one weighing 15 lb. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig.

and many fancy knick-knacks. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. AA. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. such as brackets. two 1/8 -in. Day. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. four washers and four square nuts. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. --Contributed by Louis J. if once used. The rod should be 36 or 38 in.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. long. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. 1. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. bent as shown in Fig. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. Floral Park. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. N. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. Frame Made of a Rod . in diameter. 3/32 or 1/4 in. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. Y. machine screws. 2. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. 2. The saw.

--Contributed by W. it has the correct strength. In the design shown. Scranton. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. of water. as well as the depth of etching desired. The buckle is to be purchased. green and browns are the most popular.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. if copper or brass. using a swab and an old stiff brush. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. though almost any color may be obtained. as well as brass and copper. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Apply two coats. An Austrian Top [12] . Michigan. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Silver is the most desirable but. be covered the same as the back.. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. use them in place of the outside nuts. If it colors the metal red. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. File these edges. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. For etching. copper. Rub off the highlights.may be made of either brass. 1 part sulphuric acid. treat it with color. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. after breaking up. Detroit. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. Watch Fob For coloring silver. of course. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. of water in which dissolve. Drying will cause this to change to purple. A. therefore. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. the most expensive. 1 part nitric acid. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. allowing each time to dry. Of the leathers. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. or silver.

set the top in the 3/4 -in. A 1/16-in. long. --Contributed by J. A handle. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. 3/4 in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. starting at the bottom and winding upward. Bore a 3/4-in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. wide and 3/4 in. . hole. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. Tholl. 1-1/4 in. long. allowing only 1-1/4 in. pass one end through the 1/16-in. Michigan. The handle is a piece of pine. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. Ypsilanti.F. hole in this end for the top. in diameter. thick. When the shank is covered. is formed on one end. Parts of the Top To spin the top. 5-1/4 in.

The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. tarts or similar pastry. Augusta. having no sides. A. --Contributed by Miss L. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Alberta Norrell. Mich. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. . to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Northville. Ga. For black leathers. Houghton. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. The baking surface. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. --A. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length.

screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Centralia. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. says Studio Light. two turns will remove the jar.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. glass fruit jar. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Mo. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. Stringing Wires [13] A. the same as shown in the illustration. then solder cover and socket together. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. When you desire to work by white light. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end.

The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. square by 62 in. and not tip over. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. Wis. 1-1/4 in. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. They are fastened. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. 1-1/4 in.for loading and development. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. Janesville. 4 Vertical pieces. 4 Braces. so it can be folded up. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. square by 12 in. . The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. 16 Horizontal bars. as shown in the cross-section sketch.

The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. Phillipsburg. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. The whole. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. after filling the pail with water. C. O. H. The front can be covered . No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. If the loop is tied at the proper place. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. New York. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. and a loop made in the end. from scrap material. -Contributed by Charles Stem. Rosenthal. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. Cincinnati. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. After rounding the ends of the studs. --Contributed by Dr.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall.

as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. The results will be poor. the mouth of which rests against a.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. The . Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. Develop them into strong prints. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. In my own practice. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. Baltimore. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. you are. If the gate is raised slightly. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. the color will be an undesirable. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. Wehr. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. --Contributed by Gilbert A. sickly one. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. either for contact printing or enlargements. By using the following method. and. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. by all rules of the game. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. principally mayonnaise dressing. FIG. if you try to tone them afterward. 1 FIG. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. Md. thoroughly fix.

2...." Cyanide of potassium . The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper.. when it starts to bleach. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder............ transfer it to a tray of water. A good final washing completes the process.... Place the dry print... 1 and again as in Fig. San Francisco.. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. Iodide of potassium .. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. three times... Water . --Contributed by T. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. It will bleach slowly and evenly. to make it 5 by 5 in. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.. L.. but.. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished... as it will appear clean much longer than the white... 20 gr....... etc. 5 by 15 in.. The blotting paper can .... in size..... When the desired reduction has taken place. Gray. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. Cal.. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. long to admit the angle support. preferably the colored kind. wide and 4 in..bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison... without previous wetting. 16 oz.. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes.. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. With a little practice.. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. in this solution. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print..... An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in... 2 oz. where it will continue to bleach. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.

3. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Wisconsin. Canada. 20 gauge. Make a design similar to that shown. wide below the . How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Monahan.J. the head of which is 2 in. and a length of 5 in. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. --Contributed by J. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Oshkosh. having a width of 2-1/4 in. wide. the shaft 1 in. --Contributed by L.

then trace the other half in the usual way. using carbon paper. being held perpendicular to the work. Allow this to dry. With the metal shears. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. Make one-half of the design. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. Fig. deep. Apply with a small brush. 1 Fig. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. 2. 1. 1 part nitric acid. as shown in Fig. freehand. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. but use a swab on a stick. 4. The lines at A and B will need to be cut.FIG. After the sawing. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. . using a small metal saw. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. 3. which gives the outline of the design Fig. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. then coloring. With files. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. 1 part sulphuric acid. then put on a second coat. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. After this has dried. Pierce a hole with a small drill. after folding along the center line. Do not put the hands in the solution. For coloring olive green. The metal must be held firmly. Trace the design on the metal. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. using turpentine.

The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. --Contributed by M. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. then stain it a mahogany color. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. . A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. --Contributed by Katharine D. it does the work rapidly. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. Burnett. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. thick. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Conn. on a chopping board. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. --Contributed by H. Cal. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. attach brass handles. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. M. as shown. When this is cold.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Morse. Ii is an ordinary staple. After the stain has dried. Richmond. Syracuse. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Carl Cramer. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. East Hartford. New York.

thick. 1. or tin. thick and 4 in. holes. 1/4 in. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. Atwell. saucers or pans. and several 1/8-in. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. not over 1/4 in. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. brass. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. in width at the shank. Fig. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. A. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. 53 steel pens. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. . Florida. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. Cal. also locate the drill holes. some pieces of brass. 4. L. square. H. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. Richmond. as shown in Fig. one shaft. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. machine screws. WARNECKE Procure some brass. about 3/16 in. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. Kissimmee. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. Jaquythe. indicating the depth of the slots. --Contributed by W. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. --Contributed by Mrs. two enameled.. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. as shown at A.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron.

and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. Bend as shown in Fig. with the face of the disk. The shaft hole may also be filed square. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. A 3/4-in. using two nuts on each screw. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. as shown. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. hole in the center. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. supply pipe. and pins inserted. with 1/8-in. machine screws and nuts. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. long and 5/16 in. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. thick. in diameter and 1/32 in. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. a square shaft used. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. If metal dishes. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. into the hole. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. machine screws. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. 6. brass and bolted to the casing. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . There should be a space of 1/16 in. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. 2. as in Fig. If the shaft is square. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. as shown in Fig. 7. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. 3. long by 3/4 in. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. wide and bend as shown in Fig. each about 1 in. hole is drilled to run off the water. Fig.. hole. lead should be run into the segments. can be procured. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. Fig. about 1/32 in. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. These are connected to a 3/8-in. 3. 2. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. Fig. thick. with a 3/8-in. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. wide. 5. 1.

The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. make these seams come between the two back legs. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. V. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. --Contributed by S. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. three of which are in the basket. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Stain the wood before putting in the . It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Fasten with 3/4-in. Now you will have the box in two pieces. using four to each leg. With a string or tape measure. Canada. we will call the basket. 8-1/2 in. The lower part. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. to make the bottom. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. The four legs are each 3/4-in. or more in diameter. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. long. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. --Contributed by F. When assembling. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Ill. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. deep and 1-1/4 in. from the bottom end of the legs. Hamilton. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. square and 30-1/2 in. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. screws. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Smith. from the top of the box. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. Be sure to have the cover. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. La Salle. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. high and 15 in. Cooke. deep over all. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents.

wide. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. Packard. Mass. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. sewing on the back side. -Contributed by Stanley H. When making the display. and gather it at that point. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Baltimore. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. The side. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. --also the lower edge when necessary. 2.2 Fig. Sew on to the covered cardboards. Boston. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. The folded part in the center is pasted together. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Md. you can. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. as shown in the sketch. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. 1. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. Cover them with the cretonne. wide and four strips 10 in. Fig. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. If all the parts are well sandpapered. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining.lining. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks.

and. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Fig. with slight modifications. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Gloversville. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. --Contributed by B. saving all the solid part. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. 3. It is not difficult to . Crockett.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Cross Timbers. N. Y. L. --Contributed by H. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. It is cleanly. Mo. When through using the pad. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Orlando Taylor.

and secure it in place with glue or paste. it should be new and sharp. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Bourne. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Texas. Lane. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. El Paso. -Contributed by C. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. are shown in the diagram. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. After stirring. After this is done. Mass. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. or if desired. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Both of these methods are wasteful. If a file is used. --Contributed by Edith E. S. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Lowell. remove the contents. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. across the face. and scrape out the rough parts. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the .

He captured several pounds in a few hours. Those having houses . air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. Des Moines. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. The process works well and needs no watching. Greenleaf. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. As these were single-faced disk records. A Postcard Rack [25]. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork.cooking utensil. Ill. --Contributed by Geo. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Wheeler. Iowa. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. F. Ill. --Contributed by Marion P. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. Oregon. Turl. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. circled over the funnel and disappeared. The insects came to the light. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. After several hours' drying. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. --Contributed by Loren Ward. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Canton. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Oak Park. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel.

. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. not even with the boards themselves. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. Conn. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. and both exactly alike. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. The single boards can then be fixed. and the second one for the developing bench. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. 6 in. Mass. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. --Contributed by Wm. thick. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. and as they are simple in design. Worcester. by 2 ft. boards are preferable. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. Lay the floor next.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. the bottom being 3/8 in. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. material. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used.. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. Both sides can be put together in this way. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. Only three pieces are required. Dobbins. 6 in. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. plane and pocket knife. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. --Contributed by Thomas E. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. Rosenberg. but for cheapness 3/4 in. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. one on each side of what will be the . will do as well. the best material to use being matched boards. Glenbrook.

which is fixed on as shown . 5. 11. of the top of the door for the same reason. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. and should be zinc lined. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. brown wrapping paper. 3 and 4. 6 and 9. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. At the top of the doorway. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. In hinging the door. etc. is cut. 6. as shown in Figs. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. and to the outside board of the sides. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. It is shown in detail in Fig. Fig. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. The roof boards may next be put on. the closing side as at B. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. wide.. by screwing to the floor. hinged to it. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. so that the water will drain off into the sink. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces.. 2 in section..doorway. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. The developing bench is 18 in. below which is fixed the sink. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. 7. nailing them to each other at the ridge. and act as a trap for the light. and the top as at C in the same drawing. 6. and in the middle an opening. 8. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. so that it will fit inside the sink. 9 by 11 in. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. 9). 10).

Details of the Dark Rook .

Erie. The handle should be at least 12 in. 14. Pennsylvania. screwing them each way into the boards. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. as shown in Fig. these being shown in Fig. as shown in the sections. 6. and a 3/8-in. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. and a tank stand on it. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. which makes it possible to have white light. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. Fig. as at M. preferably maple or ash. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. Fig. mixing flour and water. Fig. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. hole bored in the center for a handle. four coats at first is not too many. 17. Fig. after lining with brown paper. 15. though this is hardly advisable. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. as in Fig. 19. 16. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. 16. or the room may be made with a flat roof. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground.in Fig. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. A circular piece about 2 in. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . are fastened in the corners inside. The house will be much strengthened if strips. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. 2. In use. 20. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. 13. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. as at I. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. but not the red glass and frame. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. Karl Hilbrich. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. --Contributed by W. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. or red light as at K. it is better than anything on the market. if desired. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. For beating up an egg in a glass. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. 1. 18. 13. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig.

Mo. To operate. for a handle. L. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. -Contributed by E. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Eureka Springs. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. as shown in the sketch. Yonkers. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Mitchell. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. --Contributed by Wm. about 3/8 in. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. long. G. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Smith.copper should be. Kansas City. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. --Contributed by L. D. when put together properly is a puzzle. which. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Schweiger. Ark. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. New York.

If the sill is inclined. Having completed the bare box. A number of 1/2-in. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. as shown in Fig. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. 2. 1. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. The design shown in Fig. 3. The corks in use are shown in Fig. as is usually the case. which binds them together. as well as improve its appearance. . 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. in order to thoroughly preserve it. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. After the box is trimmed. the rustic work should be varnished. 3. need them. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. especially for filling-in purposes. Each cork is cut as in Fig. for the moment. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. the box will require a greater height in front. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. holes should be drilled in the bottom. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. to make it set level. as shown in Fig.

but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. too dangerous. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. etc. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. 1. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. share the same fate. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. can't use poison. 4. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. as shown in Fig. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. Each long projection represents a leg. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. drilled at right angles. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. it's easy. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. F. When the corn is gone cucumbers. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. cabbages. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. being partly eaten into. Traps do no good. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. But I have solved the difficulty.. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. life in the summer time is a vexation. 3. . The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. and observe results. 2.

tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. If. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. cut in 1/2-in. The solution can be used over and over again. by trial.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. and made up and kept in large bottles. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. cut some of it off and try again. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. long. Iowa. the coil does not heat sufficiently. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. -. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. . of No. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. About 9-1/2 ft. strips.

The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. Y. Dallas. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. Do not wash them. D. Knives. Syracuse. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. hot-water pot. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Stir and mix thoroughly. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. to cause the door to swing shut. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. . but with unsatisfactory results. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. it falls to stop G. of gasoline. Fig 2. Kane. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. forks. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. N. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. of whiting and 1/2 oz. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. --Contributed by Katharine D. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Texas. coffee pot. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. of oleic acid with 1 gal. In cleaning silver. and a strip. C. Doylestown. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Morse. --Contributed by James M. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Pa. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. as shown in the sketch. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. is a good size--in this compound. 1) removed. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor.

Sprout. La. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Pa. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Ill. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. negatives. which is. but unfixed. . using the paper dry. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. later fixed and washed as usual. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. --Contributed by Theodore L. Fisher.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Harrisburg. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. --Contributed by Oliver S. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. of course. Waverly. New Orleans. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over.

then . the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. In this uncertainty lies the charm. The harmonograph. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. 1. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. Fig. metal. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. a harmonograph is a good prescription. To obviate this difficulty.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. graceful sweep of the long pendulum.

The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. Holes up to 3 in. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. Rosemont. Ingham. Punch a hole. what is most important. in the center of the circle to be cut. one-fifth. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. one-fourth. 1. Chicago. and unless the shorter pendulum is. is about right for a 10-ft. A small weight. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. --Contributed by James T. in diameter.. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. The length of the short pendulum H. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. with a nail set or punch. Gaffney. provides a means of support for the stylus. A pedestal. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. exactly one-third. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. ceiling. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. etc. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. of about 30 or 40 lb. J. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. such as a shoe buttoner. is attached as shown at H. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. as long as the other. 1. 1-3/4 by 2 in. A weight. Another weight of about 10 lb. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. K. --Contributed by Wm. which can be regulated. Arizona. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. as shown in Fig. to prevent any side motion. as shown in the lower part of Fig. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. G. A length of 7 ft. that is.. A small table or platform. makes respectively 3. for instance. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. or the lines will overlap and blur. R.

-Contributed by W.J. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. N. 4. of course. then put 2 at the top. 6.J. and proceed as before. The capacity of the vise.H. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. Fig. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. The two key cards are made alike. and 4 as in Fig. Chicago. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. then 3 as in Fig. 1. Cruger. Morey. distributing them over the whole card. 5. Fig. --Contributed by J. 3. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. dividing them into quarters. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. one for the sender and one for the receiver. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. Cape May City.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. a correspondent of . Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. 2. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block.

1/2 oz. of 18-per-cent No. respectively. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. --Contributed by L. To assemble. the portion of the base under the coil. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. Asbestos board is to be preferred. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. says Popular Electricity. Cut through the center. After preparing the base and uprights. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. deep. Ga. 22 gauge German-silver wire. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. After securing the tint desired. acetic acid and 4 oz. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. long. drill 15 holes. remove the prints. from the top and bottom. sheet of well made asbestos paper. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. Alberta Norrell. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. Wind the successive turns of . citrate of iron and ammonia. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. wood-screws. of ferricyanide of potash. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. Augusta.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. of the uprights. of water. 30 gr. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. 1/4 in. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. If constructed of the former. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. 6 gauge wires shown. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board.

as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. as they are usually thrown away when empty. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. --Contributed by Frederick E. square. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. but these are not necessary. screws. Ward. Labels of some kind are needed. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label.. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. if one is not a smoker.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. etc. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. 14 gauge. Small knobs may be added if desired. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. which. cut and dressed 1/2 in. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . then fasten the upright in place. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. Ampere. The case may be made of 1/2-in. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. 16 gauge copper wire. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. Y. rivets. N.

as shown in the sketch. lead. sandpaper or steel wool. a piece of solder. the pure muriatic acid should be used. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. G. it must be ground or filed to a point. then to the joint to be soldered. Jaquythe. C. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. Wis. S. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. of glycerine to 16 oz. Kenosha. and one made of poplar finished black. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. A. This is considerable annoyance. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. Larson. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. --Contributed by A. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. --Contributed by W. B. particularly so when the iron has once been used. In soldering galvanized iron. tin. D. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. If the soldering copper is an old one. of water. being careful about the heat. Copper. and rub the point of the copper on it." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. Eureka Springs. especially if a large tub is used. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. tinner's acid. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac.. California.14 oz. Heat it until hot (not red hot). or has become corroded. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. Ark. galvanized iron. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. . --C. The material can be of any wood. Richmond. and labeled "Poison. The parts are put together with dowel pins. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. brass. zinc. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. E and F.

Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. Y. brass and silver. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. 1. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. which gives two bound volumes each year. however. Fig. 7/8 in. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. The covers of the magazines are removed. Brass rings can be plated when finished. -Contributed by H. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . nut. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. wide. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. This will leave a clear hole. 2. with good results. in diameter. Fig. Take a 3/4-in. Hankin. D. The disk will come out pan shaped. round iron. Apart from this. B. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. The punch A. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. Troy. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Place the band. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. and drill out the threads. N. I bind my magazines at home evenings. C. in diameter. Six issues make a well proportioned book. thick and 1-1/4 in. W. such as copper. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. a ring may be made from any metal. This completes the die.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. The dimensions shown in Fig.

using . 1. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. The covering can be of cloth. . 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. After drawing the thread tightly.4. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. Five cuts. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. allowing about 2 in. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. 2. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. The sections are then prepared for sewing. as shown in Fig. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. 1 in Fig. 2. C. is used for the sewing material. 5. and then to string No. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. size 16 or larger. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. which is fastened the same as the first. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. 1. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. and place them against the strings in the frame. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. 1. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. If started with the January or the July issue. The string No. is nailed across the top. 1/8 in. and a third piece. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. Coarse white thread. threaded double. Start with the front of the book. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. on all edges except the back. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. deep. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. Place the cardboard covers on the book. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. The covering should be cut out 1 in. then back through the notch on the right side. of the ends extending on each side. through the notch on the left side of the string No. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner.

Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Divine. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Tinplate. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Encanto. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. and. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Cal. For the blade an old talking-machine . Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. round iron. on which to hook the blade. Place the cover on the book in the right position. --Contributed by Clyde E. and mark around each one. College View. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Nebr. at opposite sides to each other.

Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Moorhead. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in.. in order to drill the holes in the ends. Summitville. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. by 1 in. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. B. with a steel sleeve. and 1/4 in. as shown. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. and file in the teeth.. Then on the board put . Ohio. long. F. and another piece (B) 6 in. E. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. On the upper side. A. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. and a long thread plug. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. with 10 teeth to the inch. as it is sometimes called. Miss. Hays. thick. C. thick. and 1/4 in. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. -Contributed by Willard J. or double extra heavy. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C).Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. at the same end. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. bore. hydraulic pipe. by 4-1/2 in. fuse hole at D. Make the blade 12 in.

the jars need not be very large. A lid may be added if desired. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. about 5 ft. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. of rubber-covered wire. as from batteries. --Contributed by Chas. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . some sheet copper or brass for plates. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. of wire to each coil. high around this apparatus. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. using about 8 in. Boyd. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. H. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. Connect up as shown. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. Philadelphia. If you are going to use a current of low tension. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. and some No. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. 4 jars.

The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. two pieces 34 in. as they are not substantial enough. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. The current then will flow through the motor.. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. by 1 in. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. Put arm of switch on point No.. A 3/4-in. by 1-1/4 in. by 2 in. Their size also depends on the voltage. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. two pieces 14 in. The top disk in jar No. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. and plane it on all edges. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. For the front runners these measurements are: A. Z. two for each jar. as they "snatch" the ice. sheet brass 1 in. & S. B. 27 B. B. by 6 in. 2 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. 7 in. In proportioning them the points A. thick. Use no nails. steel rod makes a good steering rod. 2. then apply a coat of thin enamel. 1 is connected to point No. long. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. are important. First sandpaper all the wood. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. 1 and so on for No. with the cushion about 15 in.. The stock required for them is oak. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. by 5 in. On the door of the auto front put the . How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. 15-1/2 in. wide by 3/4 in. 5 on switch. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. two pieces 30 in. C. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. by 5 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. 2 and 3. 2 is lower down than in No. C. gives full current and full speed. however. or source of current. 3 and No. wide and 3/4 in. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. The sled completed should be 15 ft. 4) of 3/4-in. and for the rear runners: A. 4 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs.. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. A variation of 1/16 in. Fig. The illustration shows how to shape it. is used to reduce friction. 34 in. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. To wire the apparatus. apart. 3 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. making them clear those in the front runner. direct to wire across jars.. At the front 24 or 26 in. 16-1/2 in. oak boards. Use no screws on the running surface. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. B and C. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. For the steel runners use 3/8 in.the way. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. thick. 4. wide and 2 in. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. 1 on switch. See Fig. long by 22 in. For the brass trimmings use No. and bolt through. No. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. by 1-1/4 in. 3. above the ground. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. . 30 in. on No.. 2. wide. 2. Construct the auto front (Fig. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. long. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. by 2 in. An iron washer. 1. long. The connection between point No. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. beginning at the rear. long. and four pieces 14 in.. square by 14 ft. 11 in.

sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. a number of boys may share in the ownership. or with these for $25. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. cheap material. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. by 1/2 in. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. a brake may be added to the sled. long. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. The best way is to get some strong. lunch. by 30 in. to the wheel. cutting it out of sheet brass. If desired. such as burlap. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. to improve the appearance. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. If desired. parcels. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. such as used on automobiles. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. Fasten a horn. may be stowed within. brass plated. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. etc. Then get some upholstery buttons. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . which is somewhat moist. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. overshoes.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. If the expense is greater than one can afford. fasten a cord through the loop. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15.

the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Ill. Leland.tree and bring. . The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. --Contributed by Stewart H. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. Lexington.

A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. so that the center of the blade. 1. sheet metal. E. with twenty-four teeth. made from 1/16-in. when flat against it. mild steel or iron. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. First take the case of a small gearwheel. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. Fig. the same diameter as the wheel. though more difficult.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. from F to G. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. London. The Model Engineer. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. FC. which. the cut will be central on the line. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. CD. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. 3. Fig. say 1 in. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. by drawing diameters. 4). A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. Draw a circle on paper. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. The straight-edge. Fig. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. 2. thick. a compass. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. some files. A small clearance space. will be over the line FG. The first tooth may now be cut. outside diameter and 1/16 in. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. With no other tools than a hacksaw. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. This guide should have a beveled edge. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill.

The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. 2. or several pieces bound tightly together. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. B. Focus the camera in the usual manner. electric lamp. hold in one hand. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. transmitter. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. A bright. 1. and the other outlet wire. R. either the pencils for arc lamps. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. some wire and some carbons. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. B. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver.Four Photos on One Plate of them. as shown in Fig. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. No shock will be perceptible. ground it with a large piece of zinc. 1. each in the center. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. as shown in Fig. Make a hole in the other. If there is no faucet in the house. Then take one outlet wire. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. as shown in Fig. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. .

even though there are no batteries in the circuit. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. Ashland. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. Dry batteries are most convenient. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. by 12 in. Several battery cells. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. and again wind the wire around it. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. one at the receiver can hear what is said. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. are also needed. For a base use a pine board 10 in. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. One like a loaf of bread. B. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. as shown. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. 36 wire around it. Slattery. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. under the gable. and will then burn the string C. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. J. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. a transmitter which induces no current is used. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. or more of the latter has been used. Pa. A is a wooden block. --Contributed by Geo. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . If desired. But in this experiment. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. Wrenn. Ohio. serves admirably. Then set the whole core away to dry. They have screw ends. D D are binding posts for electric wires. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. of course. as indicated by E E. leaving about 10 in. at each end for terminals. Emsworth. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. by 1 in. and about that size. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft.

which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. The apparatus is now ready for operation. Connect these three to switch.. in parallel. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. The oven is now ready to be connected. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. First make a support. These should have hollow ends. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. Turn on switch. while C is open. F. Fig. Newark. 14 wire. Ohio. for the . How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. C. in series with bindingpost. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. and one single post switch. until the hand points to zero on the scale. Jr. From the other set of binding-posts. D. Place 16-cp. C. The coil will commence to become warm. as shown. 2. Fig. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. as shown. At one side secure two receptacles.wire. and switch. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. 1. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. E. 12 or No. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. the terminal of the coil. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. B B. B B. connecting lamp receptacles. run a No. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. D. and the lamps. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit.

1. a variable resistance. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. long.E. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. until the scale is full. drill a hole as shown at H. 4 in. thick. 7. This may be made of wood. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. but if for a 4way. is made of wire. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. Mine is wound with two layers of No. To make one. After drilling. Fig. Fig. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. although brass is better.. Fig. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. D.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. a standard ammeter. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. 1. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. long. drill through the entire case and valve. Fig. is made of iron. remove the valve. Montreal. inside measurements. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. 5. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. and D. This is slipped on the pivot. It is 1 in. 14. to prevent it turning on the axle. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. 3 amperes. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. The core. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. wide and 1-3/4 in. A wooden box. 1/4 in. 2. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. C.or 4-way valve or cock. 6. B. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. The pointer or hand. is then made and provided with a glass front. from the lower end. 1/2 in. 14 wire. 4 amperes. The box is 5-1/2 in. If for 3-way. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. Dussault. 4. At a point a little above the center. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. 3. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. as shown in the cut. wide and 1/8 in. a battery. drill in only to the opening already through. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. D. high. long and make a loop. E. etc.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. 5. where A is the homemade ammeter. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. although copper or steel will do. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. 10 turns to each layer. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. 36 magnet wire instead of No. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. deep. wind with plenty of No.

which is used for reducing the current. D. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. as shown. This stopper should be pierced. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. E. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. By connecting the motor. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. A. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. making two holes about 1/4 in. high. To start the light. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. and the arc light. provided with a rubber stopper. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. and the other connects with the water rheostat. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. in diameter. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. F. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. B. and a metal rod. in thickness . One wire runs to the switch. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases.performing electrical experiments. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water.

N. long. If all adjustments are correct. 1. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. B. as shown in C. --Contributed by Harold L. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Fig. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. 2. where he is placed in an upright open . Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. To insert the lead plate. A piece of wood. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. 2. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. Carthage. Fig. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. 1. Turn on the current and press the button. Fig. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Having finished the interrupter. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Having fixed the lead plate in position. 1. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. If the interrupter does not work at first. Y. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. One of the audience is invited onto the stage.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. As there shown. Jones. as shown in B. Fig. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. A. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper.

L and M. inside dimensions. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. light-colored garments. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. should be miniature electric lamps. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. within the limits of an ordinary room. could expect from a skeleton. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. If everything is not black. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. by 7-1/2 in. The model. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. figures and lights. They need to give a fairly strong light. If it is desired to place the box lower down. The lights. A. The glass should be the clearest possible. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. the illusion will be spoiled. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. especially L. which can be run by three dry cells. Its edges should nowhere be visible. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. as the entire interior. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. dressed in brilliant. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. loosejointed effect. by 7 in. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. from which the gong has been removed. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall.coffin. should be colored a dull black. with the exception of the glass. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. The skeleton is made of papier maché. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. high. and wave his arms up and down. is constructed as shown in the drawings. A white shroud is thrown over his body. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. and must be thoroughly cleansed.. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. and can be bought at Japanese stores. All . and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. giving a limp. especially the joints and background near A. to aid the illusion. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. until it is dark there.

as shown in the sketch. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. --Contributed by Geo. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. If a gradual transformation is desired. square block. San Jose. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. W. Cal. Two finishing nails were driven in. after which it assumes its normal color. placed about a foot apart. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. fat spark. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . Fry. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on.that is necessary is a two-point switch.

1. or a solution of sal soda. In Fig. by small pieces of wood. In Fig. hydrogen gas is generated. One of these plates is connected to metal top. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. the remaining space will be filled with air. New York. B and C. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. The plates are separated 6 in. soldered in the top. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. This is a wide-mouth bottle. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. F. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. into the receiver G.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. If a lighted match . the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. as shown. with two tubes. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. -Contributed by Dudley H. to make it airtight. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. A (see sketch). and should be separated about 1/8 in. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. Cohen. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates.

from the bottom. says the Model Engineer. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. 2 shows the end view. A. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . A piece of 1/8-in. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. 1/2 in. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. London. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. If desired. long. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. The distance between the nipple. A nipple. which is plugged up at both ends. N. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. N. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. Fig. Fig. by means of the clips. then a suitable burner is necessary. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. long. is then coiled around the brass tube. as is shown in the illustration. copper pipe. in diameter and 6 in. of No. A 1/64-in. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. 1. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. copper pipe. One row is drilled to come directly on top. is made by drilling a 1/8in. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. A. A. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. either by passing a current of electricity around it. C C. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. 36 insulated wire. B. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. 1-5/16 in. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. A.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. and the ends of the tube. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. should be only 5/16 of an inch. P. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. which forms the vaporizing coil. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. or by direct contact with another magnet.

Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. A disk of thin sheet-iron. fold and cut it 1 in. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. 1/4 in. longer and 1/4 in. cut to the size of the pages. duck or linen. with a fine saw. Fig. should be cut to the diameter of the can. taking care not to bend the iron. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. Turn the book over and paste the other side. smoothly. trim both ends and the front edge. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. Cut four pieces of cardboard. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). If you have access to a printer's paper knife. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. leaving the folded edge uncut. Fig. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. 1. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth.lamp cord. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . but if the paper knife cannot be used. boards and all. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. larger all around than the book. 2). After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. Take two strips of stout cloth. about 8 or 10 in. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. this makes a much nicer book. 3. Fig. at the front and back for fly leaves.

Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. the joint will be gas tight. B. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. is soldered onto tank A. Va. A gas cock. Parker. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. --Contributed by James E. Ont. or rather the top now. is perforated with a number of holes. Noble. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. deep. as shown. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Another tank. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. Another can.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. H. Toronto. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. In the bottom. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. of tank A is cut a hole. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. --Contributed by Joseph N. E. . and a little can. in diameter and 30 in. A. D. is fitted in it and soldered. as shown in the sketch. C. Bedford City. pasting them down (Fig. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. 18 in. This will cause some air to be enclosed. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. which will just slip inside the little can. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. but its diameter is a little smaller. is made the same depth as B. 4). which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. without a head. is turned on it.

A A. when finished. are shown in detail at H and J. J. as shown at C. by 1/2 in. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. B. 2. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. fastened in the bottom. to prevent splitting. The diagonal struts. The longitudinal corner spines. H is a square knot. square by 42 in. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. with an electric-bell magnet. If the back armature. and sewed double to give extra strength. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. and about 26 in. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. N. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. making the width. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. Fig. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. long. should be 1/4 in. thus adjusting the . Bott. long. D. which moves to either right or left. Beverly. D. basswood or white pine. should be cut a little too long. The small guards. E. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. -Contributed by H. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. should be 3/8 in.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. exactly 12 in. C. S. Fig. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. 1. B. The armature. B. The bridle knots. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. which may be either spruce. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. shows how the connections are to be made. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. and the four diagonal struts.. If the pushbutton A is closed. tacks. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. The wiring diagram. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. A.

Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. and. E. that refuse to slide easily. Clay Center. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. thus shortening G and lengthening F. however. --Contributed by Edw. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. Stoddard. If the kite is used in a light wind. A bowline knot should be tied at J. --Contributed by A. the batteries do not run down for a long time. and if a strong wind is blowing. shift toward F. D. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Closing either key will operate both sounders. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. to prevent slipping. Kan. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. with gratifying results. can be made of a wooden . as shown. Chicago.lengths of F and G. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. for producing electricity direct from heat. Harbert.

the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. placed on top. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. 14 or No. A and B. Then. D. E. C. F. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. spark. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. with a number of nails. with a pocket compass.frame. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . 16 single-covered wire. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. --Contributed by A. C. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. A. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. in position. Chicago. B. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. by means of machine screws or. Fasten a piece of wood. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. to the cannon.. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. and the current may then be detected by means. When the cannon is loaded. A. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. which conducts the current into the cannon. C. or parallel with the compass needle. E. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. The wood screw. A. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. and also holds the pieces of wood.

Before putting the reverse block on the motor. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. To lock the door. now at A' and S'. Keil. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. --Contributed by Henry Peck. when in position at A'. Fig. Big Rapids. H. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. screw is bored in the block. Chicago. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. Marion. to receive the screw in the center. --Contributed by Joseph B. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm.the current is shut off. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Fig. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. Ohio. In Fig. L. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. A. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. To reverse. Bend the strips BB (Fig. press the button. 1. within the reach of the magnet. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. in this position the door is locked. Mich. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. A and S. Connect as shown in the illustration. To unlock the door. 1. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. requiring a strong magnet. where there is a staple. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. A hole for a 1/2 in. but no weights or strings. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. A and S. 1. B. . press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. with the long arm at L'. square and 3/8 in.

J. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. about 18 in. or for microscopic work. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. and C is a dumbbell. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. West Somerville. hole. gas-pipe. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. When ready for use. Thread the other end of the pipe. long. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. if enameled white on the concave side. The standard and base. and may be made at very slight expense. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. pipe with 1-2-in. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. are enameled a jet black. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. and if desired the handles may . put in the handle. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. When the holes are finished and your lines set. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. Rand. --Contributed by C. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. Mass.

which shall project at least 2 in. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . A. 8 in. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. Fig. long and 8 in. Fig. Warren. M. North Easton. Mass.be covered with leather. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. across. as shown at A in the sketch. D. across. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. inside the pail. 1. B. 1.. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. E. with a cover. high by 1 ft. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. --Contributed by C. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Make a cylindrical core of wood. Get an iron pail about 1 ft.

After removing all the paper. the firing should be gradual. diameter. as dictated by fancy and expense. The 2 in. Cover with paper and shellac as before. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. C. sand. let this dry thoroughly. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. as is shown in the sketch. projecting from each end (Fig. the point of the blue flame. in diameter. 1330°. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. Fit all the parts together snugly. make two wood ends. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. 15%. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. layer of the clay mixture. It is placed inside the kiln. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. W. such . bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig.mixture of clay. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. strip of sheet iron. cutting the hole a little smaller. but will be cheaper in operation. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. which is the hottest part. E. When lighted. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. carefully centering it. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this.. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. pipe 2-ft. If the cover of the pail has no rim. if there is to be any glazing done. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. thick. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. and 3/8 in. of fine wire. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. and cut it 3-1/2 in. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. to hold the clay mixture. in diameter. C. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. 1). This done. 25%. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. pack this space-top. L. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. passing wire nails through and clinching them. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. if you have the materials. 60%. about 1 in. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. Whatever burner is used. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. After finishing the core. 2. long over the lid hole as a chimney. thick. 1390°-1410°. or make one yourself. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust.. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. say 1/4 in. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. 3) with false top and bottom. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. bottom and sides. wider than the kiln. Set aside for a few days until well dried. Wind about 1/8 in. 1). and on it set the paper wrapped core. 2 in. C. and graphite.. long. hotel china. Line the pail. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. hard porcelain. but it will burn a great deal of gas. and with especial caution the first time. and 3/4 in. full length of iron core. pipe. and your kiln is ready for business.-G. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. and varnish. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. Fig.

Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. T. taking care to have the first card red. square them up and place in a vise. around the coil. and divide it into two piles. as shown in the sketch herewith. every alternate card being the same color. Then. bind tightly with black silk. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. Of course. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. 2). 8 in. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. about 1/16 in. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. procure a new deck. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. B. D. as in Fig. Then take the black cards. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. A. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. 2. 2. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. C. Next restore all the cards to one pack. overlaps and rests on the body. leaving long terminals.53 in. Take the red cards. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. . one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. as in Fig. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. The funnel.. red and black. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. C. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. and plane off about 1/16 in. length of . R. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. and discharges into the tube. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. diameter. Washington. Chicago. --Contributed by J. 1. with a plane. the next black. C. and so on. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. all cards facing the same way. square them up. You can display either color called for.

All the horizontal pieces. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. and then the frame is ready to assemble. E. To find the fall of snow. so that when they are assembled. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. The cement. to form a dovetail joint as shown. as the difficulties increase with the size. N. the same ends will come together again. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. stove bolts. It should be placed in an exposed location. The upright pieces. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. When the glass is put in the frame a space. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. thus making all the holes coincide. C. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. through the holes already drilled. Fig. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces.J. Long Branch. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. E. about 20 in. stove bolts. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson.. F. B. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. D. B. 1. angle iron for the frame. of the frame. 1 gill of fine white sand. The bottom glass should be a good fit. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. B. Let . This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. and this is inexpensive to build. the first thing to decide on is the size. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. 1 gill of litharge.C. A. Drill all the horizontal pieces. A. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium.

D. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. and. Fasten the lever. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. if desired. Aquarium Finished If desired. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. to the door knob. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. B. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. a centerpiece (A. having a swinging connection at C. on the door by means of a metal plate. Fig. A. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece.

to form the slanting part. Fig. with a water pressure of 70 lb. screwed to the door frame. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. Two short boards 1 in. 2 is an end view. 1 . Fig. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. to form the main supports of the frame. showing the paddle-wheel in position. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. B. 2 at GG. I referred this question to my husband. 6 in. 1 is the motor with one side removed. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. from the outside top of the frame. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. 1. --Contributed by Orton E. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. thus doing away with the spring. soldered to the end of the cylinder.. long. N. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. E. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. Buffalo. F. to keep the frame from spreading. long. Fig. 3 shows one of the paddles. but mark their position on the frame. for the top. Do not fasten these boards now. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. another. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. several lengths of scantling 3 in. long. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. PAUL S. Fig. Fig. will open the door about 1/2 in. C. Fig.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. and Fig. hoping it may solve the same question for them. Cut two pieces 30 in. AA. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. according to the slant given C. To make the frame. as at E. A small piece of spring brass. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. wide . approximately 1 ft. 2 ft. which is 15 in. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. They are shown in Fig. Cut two of them 4 ft. long. Y. 1. and another. another. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. D. 26 in. White. wide by 1 in.

Tack one side on. as shown in Fig. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. 1. Make this hole conical. Now block the wheel. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. Fig. 2) form a substantial base. tapering from 3/16 in. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. iron. in diameter. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. These are the paddles. hole through the exact center of the wheel. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. hole through them. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. thick (HH. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Fig.burlap will do -. 2) and another 1 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). and drill a 1/8-in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. thick. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. hole through its center.along the edges under the zinc to form . Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. take down the crosspieces. Drill 1/8-in. by 1-1/2 in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. then drill a 3/16-in. When it has cooled. Take the side pieces. remove the cardboard. steel shaft 12 in. (I. Next secure a 5/8-in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. GG. holes. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. pipe. Fasten them in their proper position. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. and a 1/4 -in. 2) with a 5/8-in. from one end by means of a key. Fig. 24 in. to a full 1/2 in. iron 3 by 4 in. hole through their sides centrally. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. after which drill a 5/8 in. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. and drill a 1-in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. that is. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. long to the wheel about 8 in. hole to form the bearings. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. 4. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. with the wheel and shaft in place. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in.

in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. and as near to it as possible. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. as this makes long exposure necessary. and leave them for an hour or so. Raise the window shade half way. on the lens. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. sewing machine. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. says the Photographic Times. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. Darken the rest of the window. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. and the subject may move. remove any white curtains there may be. Do not stop down the lens. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. start the motor.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly.a water-tight joint. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. drill press. If sheet-iron is used. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. any window will do. light and the plate. but now I put them in the machine. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. of course. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. but as it would have cost several times as much. The best plate to use is a very slow one. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. Correct exposure depends. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. If the bearings are now oiled. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. shutting out all light from above and the sides. or what is called a process plate. Drill a hole through the zinc. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. as shown in the sketch at B. place the outlet over a drain. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. ice-cream freezer. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. . Focus the camera carefully. it would be more durable. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. It is obvious that.

The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. or an empty developer tube. 2. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. On completing . The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. with binding posts as shown. The core C. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. which is made of iron and cork. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. or wood. 2. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. A. until the core slowly rises. and a base. The current required is very small. the core is drawn down out of sight. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. an empty pill bottle may be used. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. by twisting. full of water. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. hard rubber. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. The glass tube may be a test tube. a core. as shown in Fig. a glass tube. With a piece of black paper. C. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. D. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. and without fog. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. B. or can be taken from an old magnet. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. without detail in the face. as a slight current will answer. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork.

whale oil. white lead. finest graphite. according to his control of the current. This is a mysterious looking instrument. 1 lb. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. and one not easy to explain. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. 1 pt. 1. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. The colors appear different to different people. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. water and 3 oz. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. is Benham's color top. and make a pinhole in the center. and are changed by reversing the rotation.

a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. nearly every time. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. Chicago.L. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. As this device is easily upset. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. In making hydrogen.B. fan-like. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. A. before cutting. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. especially if the deck is a new one. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . deuce. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. -Contributed by D. thus partly filling bottles A and C. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig.. when the action ceases. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. In prize games. or three spot. C. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. B. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base.

Dak. J. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. 4.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. . long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. long and 3 in. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Make a 10-sided stick. S. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. long. 2. Detroit. 1. --Contributed by C. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Detail of Phonograph Horn . making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. Jr.. (Fig. 12 in. Huron. 10 in. W. 9 in. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Fig. Bently. in length and 3 in. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Fig. as shown in Fig. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue.. --Contributed by F. Form a cone of heavy paper. in diameter. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. 3). to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. S. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack.

When the glue is thoroughly hardened. but bends toward D. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. it is equally easy to block that trick. C. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. --Contributed by Reader. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. Fortunately. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. Denver. Cut out paper sections (Fig. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. Remove the form. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . A second piece of silk thread. and walk in. Fig. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. push back the bolt. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. on one side and the top. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. A. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. long. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. about the size of a leadpencil. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. allowing 1 in. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. with a pin driven in each end.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. E. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. making it three-ply thick. will cause an increased movement of C. 6. A piece of tin. bend it at right angles throughout its length. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B.

West St. are 7 ft. The feet. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. W. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other.. Minn. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. 4 ft. S. B.strip. or left to right. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. posts. Paul. R.. is connected each point to a battery. The reverse switch. S. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. A. are made 2 by 4 in. The 2 by 4-in. Fremont Hilscher. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. put together as shown in the sketch. will last for several years. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. as shown. Two wood-base switches. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. long. By this arrangement one. --Contributed by J. Jr. B. long. and rest on a brick placed under each end. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. S S. The upper switch. while the lower switch.

The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. the other parts being used for the bearing B. Fig. FF. thick. E. 3/8 in. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. which is made of tin. or anything available. which will be described later. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. the size of the hole in the bearing B. and has two wood blocks. 2 and 3. either an old sewing-machine wheel. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. 2. The hose E connects to the boiler. pulley wheel. The valve motion is shown in Figs. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. H and K. and valve crank S. is an old bicycle pump. The steam chest D. 1. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. and the crank bearing C. cut in half. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. The base is made of wood. and in Fig. Fig. with two washers. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. The piston is made of a stove bolt. In Fig. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder.every house. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. and a cylindrical .

Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. powder can. Fig. Fig. C. San Jose. G. Eustice. This engine was built by W. Wis. is cut out of tin. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. The valve crank S. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. 1. J. and the desired result is obtained. W. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. can be an old oil can. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke.piece of hard wood. --Contributed by Geo. and saturated with thick oil. 4. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. Fry. . with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. Schuh and A. at that. First. or galvanized iron. as it is merely a trick of photography. as shown in Fig. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. G. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. The boiler. This is wound with soft string. using the positive wire as a pen. Cal. and a very amusing trick. of Cuba. 3. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. to receive the connecting rod H.

1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. 1 by covering up Figs. and Fig. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. When turning. as shown at AA. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. diameter. to cross in the center. Cut half circles out of each stave. 1 will be seen to rotate. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. Fig. Fig. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. C. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. as shown.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. The smaller wheel. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. Fig. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. and place a bell on the four ends. B. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. They may be of any size. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. and pass ropes around . 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. B. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction.

This in turn will act on the transmitter.. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. St.G. Mo. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. Louis. A (a short spool. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. To make this lensless microscope. but not on all. From a piece of thin . which allows the use of small sized ropes. from the transmitter. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. such as clothes lines. --Contributed by H. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. W. as shown in the illustration. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. long. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. produces a higher magnifying power).M. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. procure a wooden spool. which accounts for the sound. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in.

fastened to a wooden base. The spring. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings.. C. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. is fastened at each end by pins. D. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. the diameter will appear three times as large. i. B. if the distance is reduced to one-half. . and at the center. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. by means of brads. The lever. the object should be of a transparent nature. held at arm's length. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. bent as shown.) But an object 3/4-in. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. as in all microscopes of any power. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. 1. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. Viewed through this microscope. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. place a small object on the transparent disk. darting across the field in every direction. and look through the hole D. E. if the distance is reduced to one-third. C. cut out a small disk. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. the diameter will appear twice as large. The pivot. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. To use this microscope. H. and so on.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. can be made of brass and the armature. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument.. or 64 times. 2. e. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. B. which costs little or nothing to make. otherwise the image will be blurred. An innocent-looking drop of water. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. in which hay has been soaking for several days. Fig. D. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. A. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. (The area would appear 64 times as large. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. which are pieces of hard wood. is made of iron. 3.

or taken from a small one-point switch. K. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. HH. The door. Fig. soft iron. is cut from a board about 36 in. FF. brass: E. C. Fig. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. or a single piece. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. Each side. in length and 16 in. binding posts: H spring The stop. long. brass or iron soldered to nail. 1. which are made to receive a pivot. fastened near the end. 2. B. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. E. wide. B. wood: F. . can be made panel as shown. K. wide and about 20 in. wood.SOUNDER-A. coils wound with No. wide and set in between sides AA. DD. C. wood: C. The binding posts. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. Cut the top. wide. D. D. The back. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. connection of D to nail. wide. brass: B. The base of the key. long by 16 in. KEY-A. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. nail soldered on A. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. between the armature and the magnet. 16 in. wide. long and 14-1/2 in. 26 wire: E. F. A. D. A switch. similar to the one used in the sounder. 16 in. thick. should be about 22 in. AA. brass. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. and are connected to the contacts. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern.

from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. with 3/4-in. brads.. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. Ill. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. Garfield. 13-1/2 in. In operation. cut in them. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. as shown in the sketch.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. long. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. as shown. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. AA. E. material. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. 2 and made from 1/4-in. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. When the electrical waves strike the needle. Make 12 cleats.

E. When the pipe is used. A (see sketch). which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . C. down into the water increases the surface in contact. --Contributed by R. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. --Contributed by John Koehler. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. and. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. A. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. Pushing the wire. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. A fairly stiff spring. The cord is also fastened to a lever. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. in order to increase the surface. Ridgewood. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. will give a greater speed. N. filled with water. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. pulls down the armature. and thus decreases the resistance. A. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. Brown. B. N. F. Y. Fairport. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. through which a piece of wire is passed. when used with a motor. J. the magnet.

while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. even those who read this description. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. N. B. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. if desired. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. Gachville. Of course. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated.for the secret contact. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Perry A. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Borden. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time.

1. long and 5 in. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. in a semicircle 2 in. wide. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. D. The top board is made 28-in. The three shelves are cut 25-in. With about 9 ft. --Contributed by H. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. Jr. records and 5-5/8 in. thick and 12-in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. apart. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. . Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. wide.whenever the bell rings. --Contributed by Dr. Cal. Two drawers are fitted in this space. for 10in. Mangold. from the bottom. as shown in Fig. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. long and full 12-in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. East Orange. N. deep and 3/4 in.. for 6-in. C. wide. A. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. 2. Connect switch to post B. Nails for stops are placed at DD. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. E. Washington. C. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. H. J. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Compton. as shown in Fig. and on both sides of the middle shelf. where the other end of wire is fastened. From a piece of brass a switch. records. Dobson. wide. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. wide.

as shown in Fig. which in operation is bent. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. When the cord is passed over pulley C. Va. 1. A. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] .Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. E. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. B. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. Roanoke. closed. to which is fastened a cord. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. as shown by the dotted lines.

1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. E. Now put all these parts together. Do not fasten the sides too . 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. wide. wide. 5) when they are placed. D. In these grooves place wheels. Cut two grooves. Notice the break (S) in the track. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. Figs. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. Fig. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. as shown in the illustration. but a larger one could be built in proportion. it too loose.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. thick. through one of these holes. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. These wheels should be 3/4 in. 4 shows the wheel-holder. If the wheels fit too tightly. E. Put the rubber tube. holes (HH. The crankpin should fit tightly. which should be about 1/2 in. they will bind. one in each end. Figs. against which the rubber tubing. in diameter. to turn on pins of stout wire. long. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. they will let the air through. thick (A. excepting the crank and tubing. is compressed by wheels. deep. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. In the sides (Fig. Fig. Bore two 1/4 in. Fig. 1 in. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. square and 7/8 in. CC. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. 3. B. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. apart. 3). leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. 1. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. 1 in. in diameter. in diameter. in diameter. deep and 1/2 in.

creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. and are 30 in. AA. 1. Fig. Fig. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. 15 in. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Take the center of the bar. though a small iron wheel is better. and 3-1/2 in. and mark for a hole. The screen which is shown in Fig. the other wheel has reached the bottom. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. Then turn the crank from left to right. 1. In the two cross bars 1 in. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. To use the pump. --Contributed by Dan H. from that mark the next hole. is all the expense necessary. as it gives steadiness to the motion. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. The animal does not fear to enter the box. mark for hole and 3 in. If the motion of the wheels is regular. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. from each end.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. as shown in Fig. the pump will give a steady stream. 2. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. AA. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. Idana. a platform should be added. costing 10 cents.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. 17-1/2 in. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. Cut six pieces. Fig. Hubbard. Two feet of 1/4-in. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. 1. B. from the bottom and 2 in. A in Fig. iron. The three legs marked BBB. For ease in handling the pump. 1. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. from each end. 1. from each end. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. tubing. because he can . on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. Fig. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. mark again. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. stands 20 in. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. 2. Kan. beyond each of these two. of material. long.

the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. sulphuric acid. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. 2). and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. The mercury will adhere. 4 oz. or. To cause a flow of electricity. If the solution touches the zinc. When through using the battery. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. of water dissolve 4 oz. silvery appearance. 14 copper wire. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. add slowly. shuts him in. Place the carbon in the jar. If the battery has been used before. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. giving it a bright. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. dropping. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. and touches the bait the lid is released and. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. or small electric motors. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. but if one casts his own zinc. until it is within 3 in. C. potassium bichromate. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. there is too much liquid in the jar. stirring constantly. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. rub the zinc well. . If it is wet. and the solution (Fig. some of it should be poured out. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. Philadelphia. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. however. The truncated. --Contributed by H. of the top. 1) must be prepared. The battery is now ready for use. Meyer. When the bichromate has all dissolved. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. The battery is now complete. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. acid 1 part). It is useful for running induction coils. long having two thumb screws.see through it: when he enters. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure.

and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. pressing the pedal closes the door. which opens the door. i. however. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. After putting in the coal. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use.Fig. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W.. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. with slight changes.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. the jump-spark coil . the battery circuit. If. Wis. The price of the coil depends upon its size. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. e. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. while the coal door is being opened. Madison.

W W. 6. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. This coil. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. as shown in Fig. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. 7. apart. Now for the receiving apparatus. which is made of light copper wire. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. Change the coil described. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. Fig. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. W W. as shown in Fig. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. made of No. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. and closer for longer distances. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. 7). This will make an excellent receiver. After winding. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. the full length of the coil.described elsewhere in this book. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. while a 12-in. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. 6. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. 5. 7. being a 1-in. coil. diameter. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. in a straight line from top to bottom. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". to suit the distance the message is to be worked. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. in a partial vacuum. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil.7. . uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece.

To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. but it could be run by foot power if desired. B the bed and C the tailstock. which will be described later. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil.The aerial line. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. as it matches the color well. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. 1). and hence the aerial line. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. and for best results should extend up 50 ft.6 stranded. 1 to 4. to the direction of the current. only. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. A. above the ground. 90°. may be easily made at very little expense. . and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. using an electric motor and countershaft. being vertical. Figs. No. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. The writer does not claim to be the originator. These circles. 90°. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. after all. A large cone pulley would then be required. in the air. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. For an illustration. being at right angles. Run a wire from the other binding post. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. at any point to any metal which is grounded. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. I run my lathe by power. but simply illustrates the above to show that. are analogous to the flow of induction. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. where A is the headstock. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated).

The shaft is made of 3/4-in. 4. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. but not hot enough to burn it. pitch and 1/8 in. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. The bolts B (Fig. on the under side of the bed. and it is well to have the shaft hot. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . thick. deep. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. 5. just touching the shaft. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. Heat the babbitt well. Fig. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. To make these bearings. which are let into holes FIG. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. and Fig. which pass through a piece of wood. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. too. 6. 5. A. 4. The headstock. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. If the bearing has been properly made. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. B. Fig. Fig. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. 2 and 3. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. tapered wooden pin. The bearing is then ready to be poured. Fig. After pouring. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. one of which is shown in Fig. 6 Headstock Details D. and runs in babbitt bearings. steel tubing about 1/8 in.

After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft.J. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. embedded in the wood. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. Newark.other machines. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. the alarm is easy to fix up. of the walk . FIG. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. Oak Park.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. Ill. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. N. and a 1/2-in. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. This prevents corrosion. they may be turned up after assembling. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. If not perfectly true. The tail stock (Fig. B. A. Take up about 5 ft. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. so I had to buy one. lock nut. If one has a wooden walk. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts.

of water. Fig. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. S. Then make the solution . leaving a clear solution. clean the articles thoroughly. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Minn. --Contributed by R. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. before dipping them in the potash solution. add potassium cyanide again. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Finally. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. To avoid touching it. save when a weight is on the trap. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. Do not touch the work with the hands again. to remove all traces of grease. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. silver or other metal. Jackson. 2). to roughen the surface slightly. and the alarm is complete. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Connect up an electric bell. hang the articles on the wires. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Minneapolis. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. water. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. (A. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. so that they will not touch. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz.

3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. silver can be plated direct. 1 in.up to 2 qt. light strokes. Can be made of a 2-in.5 to 4 volts. 1. and the larger part (F. a hand scratch brush is good. Fig. and 4 volts for very small ones. 1). with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. with water. Take quick. A (Fig. In rigging it to a sliding door. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. German silver. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. make a key and keyhole. Screw the two blocks together. from the lower end. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. B should be of the same wood. Then. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. On brass. The wooden block C. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. of clothesline rope and some No. --Model Engineer. 3) strikes the bent wire L. about 25 ft. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. which . but opens the door. Before silver plating. saw a piece of wood. must be about 1 in. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. If accumulators are used. use 2 volts for large articles. 3. thick by 3 in. 10 in. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. piece of broomstick. long. when the point of the key touches the tin. pewter. 1 not only unlocks. square. long. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. zinc. as shown in Fig. with water. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. Where Bunsen cells are used. Having finished washing the precipitate. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. will serve for the key. also. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. if one does not possess a buffing machine. as at F. such metals as iron. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. nickel and such metals. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. A 1/4 in. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. If more solution is required. 3) directly over the hole. shaking. 1). Fig. Fig. which is held by catch B. which is advised. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. 18 wire. I. When all this is set up. With an electric pressure of 3. hole in its center. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. lead. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. Make a somewhat larger block (E. and then treated as copper. a circuit is completed. The wooden catch. with the pivot 2 in. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. Repeat six times. Fig. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. This solution. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. an old electric bell or buzzer. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. of water. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. copper. To provide the keyhole.

the illumination in front must be arranged. East Orange. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. --Contributed by E. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. H. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. One thing changes to another and back again.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann.. Fig. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. 2. and plenty of candles. he tosses it into the cave. Next. Heavy metal objects. should be cut a hole. Receiving the bowl again. is the cut through which the rope runs. The box must be altered first. the box should be painted black both inside and out. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. the requisites are a large soap box. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. cut in one side. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. The interior must be a dead black. and hands its contents round to the audience. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. The magician stands in front of this. top. 3. enlarged. He removes the bowl from the black box. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. some black paint. Objects appear and disappear. 1. with a switch as in Fig. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. B. and black art reigns supreme. Fig. a few simple tools. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. some black cloth. he points with one finger to the box. and a slit. with the lights turned low. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. H. 116 Prospect St. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. and finally lined inside with black cloth. surrounding a perfectly black space. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. Next. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. H. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. Klipstein. Fig. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. To prepare such a magic cave. such as forks. On either side of the box. one-third of the length from the remaining end. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. 2. although a little more trouble. Thus. floor. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. between the parlor and the room back of it. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. 0. no painting inside is required. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. 1. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. to throw the light toward the audience. heighten the illusion. One end is removed. so much the better. In front of you. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. half way from open end to closed end. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. spoons and jackknives. in his shirt sleeves. Fig. New Jersey. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. or cave. which unlocks the door. . This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. sides and end. shows catch B.

A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. which can be made to dance either by strings. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. was identical with this. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. if. But illusions suggest themselves. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. as presented by Hermann. and pours them from the bag into a dish. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. you must have an assistant. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. and if portieres are impossible. The exhibitor should be . and the skeleton can change to a white cat. had a big stage. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. of course. The audience room should have only low lights. which are let down through the slit in the top. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. his confederate behind inserts his hand. only he. of course. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. the room where the cave is should be dark. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. is on a table) so much the better. into the eyes of him who looks. Consequently. in which are oranges and apples. and several black drop curtains. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. one on each side of the box. The illusion. a screen must be used. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye.Finally.

A. terminal c3 will show +. 1. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. d. Finally.. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. or binding posts. About the center piece H moves a disk. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). The action of the switch is shown in Fig. at L. A represents a pine board 4 in. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. square. b3. and c4 + electricity. making contact with them. c4. and a common screw. respectively. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. is shown in the diagram. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. held down on it by two terminals. b2. 1. held down by another disk F (Fig. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . their one end just slips under the strips b1. c1. respectively. and c2 to the zinc. vice versa. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. by means of two wood screws. and c1 – electricity.a boy who can talk.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. Then. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. 2.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. b2. if you turn handle K to the right. making contact with them as shown at y. c3. 2). when handle K is turned to one side. so arranged that. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. with three brass strips. b3. e1 and e2. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. or b2. 2. On the disk G are two brass strips. f2. held down on disk F by two other terminals. c2. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. respectively. Fig. by 4 in. terminal c3 will show . b1. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. FIG.

When switch B is closed and A is on No. E. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. Newark. you have the current of one battery. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. 4. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. --Contributed by Eugene F. and C and C1 are binding posts. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . and then hold the receiver to your ear. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. when on No. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. 1. when A is on No. Jr. 3. and when on No. jump spark coil. -Contributed by A. thus making the message audible in the receiver. Ohio. when on No. from three batteries. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. from four batteries. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. B is a onepoint switch. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Joerin. Tuttle. 5.. . from five batteries. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade).

as shown in the sketch. and supporting the small weight. P. B. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. which may be a button or other small object. is the device of H. of Burlington. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. Redmond. New Orleans. per second for each second. E. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. over the bent portion of the rule. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. rule. mark. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. mark. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. and placed on the windowsill of the car. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. Handy Electric Alarm . When you do not have a graduate at hand. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. so one can see the time.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. Thus. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train.. traveled by the thread. The device thus arranged. La. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. per second. A. A. Wis. A.

which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. C. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. for a wetting is the inevitable result. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. Pa. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. B. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. wrapping the wire around the can several times. but may be closed at F any time desired. --Contributed by Gordon T. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. soldered to the alarm winder. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. Instead. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. When the alarm goes off. . being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. which illuminates the face of the clock. Lane. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. S. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. Crafton.which has a piece of metal. --C. Then if a mishap comes. and with the same result.

should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. C. 1 . cannons. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. as shown in Fig. which may. 1. The first thing to make is a molding bench.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . With the easily made devices about to be described. whence it is soon tracked into the house. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. but it is a mistake to try to do this. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. It is possible to make molds without a bench. as shown. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. when it is being prepared. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. models and miniature objects. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. Macey. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. AA. and many other interesting and useful articles. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. binding posts. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. Two cleats. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. battery zincs. engines. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. New York City. bearings. ornaments of various kinds. BE. small machinery parts. and duplicates of all these. If there is no foundry Fig. --Contributed by A. A. L.

the "cope. and a sieve. A wedge-shaped piece. If the box is not very strong. J. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. is filled with coal dust. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. and the "drag. The flask. and the lower pieces. DD. A A. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. It is made of wood and is in two halves. by 8 in.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. Fig. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. The rammer. 2 ." or upper half. which should be nailed in. but this operation will be described more fully later on. makes a very good sieve. previous to sawing. by 6 in. CC. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. H. CC. The cloth bag. which can be made of a knitted stocking. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. 1. and saw it in half longitudinally. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. and this. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. high. If desired the sieve may be homemade. An old teaspoon. as shown. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. 2. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. try using sand from other sources. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. II . G. white metal. The dowels. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag.near at hand. 1. say 12 in. D. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand.How to Make a Mold [96] . Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. as shown. is shown more clearly in Fig. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. is made of wood. is about the right mesh. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. will be required. E. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. is nailed to each end of the cope. F. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. A slight shake of the bag Fig. a little larger than the outside of the flask. Fig." or lower part. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. which can be either aluminum.

or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. and thus judge for himself. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. and then more sand is added until Fig. as it is much easier to learn by observation. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. as described. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. In finishing the ramming. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. as shown at D. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together." in position. or "drag. The sand is then ready for molding. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. as shown at C. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. It is then rammed again as before. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. in order to remove the lumps.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. Place another cover board on top. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. and by grasping with both hands. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. turn the drag other side up. and scatter about 1/16 in. or "cope. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. as shown at E. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. and if water is added. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. the surface of the sand at . as shown. After ramming. where they can watch the molders at work. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask.

thus holding the crucible securely. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. III." or pouring-hole. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. it shows that the sand is too wet. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. place the cope back on the drag. as shown at G. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. . to give the air a chance to escape. after being poured. as shown at J. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. in diameter. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. Fig. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. is next cut. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. made out of steel rod. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. as shown in the sketch. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. deep. as shown at H. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. This is done with a spoon. After drawing the pattern.E should be covered with coal-dust. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. The "sprue. and then pour. Place a brick or other flat. in order to prevent overheating. thus making a dirty casting. wide and about 1/4 in. as shown at F. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. as shown at H. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand.

it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. but any reasonable number may be used. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. Although the effect in the illustration . 15% lead. Minneapolis. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. and. may be used in either direction. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. white metal and other scrap available. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. and the casting is then ready for finishing. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. Morton. battery zincs. Referring to the figure. --Contributed by Harold S. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. although somewhat expensive. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. If a good furnace is available. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. babbitt. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. In my own case I used four batteries. the following device will be found most convenient. is very desirable. used only for zinc. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. or from any adjacent pair of cells.

the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. Fig. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. --Contributed by Draughtsman. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. as shown in the illustration. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. B. The bearings. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. Then walk down among the audience. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. B. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. 3/4 in. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. Make one of these pieces for each arm. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. which will be sufficient to hold it. outward. connected by cords to the rudder. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. The brass rings also appear distorted. backward. By replacing the oars with paddles. If desired. as shown at A. may be made of hardwood. Then replace the table. 2. To make it take a sheet-iron band. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . says a correspondent of the Sphinx. Put a sharp needle point. shaft made. Chicago. A. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in.

3. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. 1. being simply finely divided ice. 2 and 3. should be made of wood. spoiling its appearance. C. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. as shown in Fig. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. when it will again return to its original state. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. 2. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. E. or the paint will come off. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. The covers. A block of ice. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. as shown in Fig. 1. If galvanized iron is used. In the same way. Fig. Snow. If babbitt is used. or under pressure. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. It may seem strange that ice .melted babbitt. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. D. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. but when in motion. and a weight. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. W. 1. A. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. The hubs.

but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. by 5 in. Crafton. --Contributed by Gordon T. and assume the shape shown at B. by 1/2 in. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. Pa. or supporting it in some similar way. as shown on page 65. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. square. by 2 in. in. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. P. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder.should flow like water. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. but by placing it between books. no matter how slow the motion may be. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. which resembles ice in this respect. as per sketch. whenever there is any connection made at all. it will gradually change from the original shape A. sometimes only one or two feet a day. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in.. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. B. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. Lane. The rate of flow is often very slow. brass. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. but. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. by 1/4. Pressing either push button. thus giving a high resistance contact.

The parts are: A. vertical lever. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. K . pulleys. about the size used for automobiles. the battery. The success depends upon a slow current. E. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. alarm clock. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. wooden supports. as shown.000 ft. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. B. In the wiring diagram. draft. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. Ward. A is the circuit breaker. C. as shown. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. J. G. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. and C.thumb screws. weight. the induction coil. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. G. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. --Contributed by A. H. B. D. I. cord. furnace. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. draft chain. horizontal lever. and five dry batteries. Indianapolis. Wilkinsburg. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. Pa. F. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit.

which will provide a fine place for the plants. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. will fit nicely in them. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. 3. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. where house plants are kept in the home. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. as well as the bottom. Mich. 2 are dressed to the right angle. material framed together as shown in Fig. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. Artistic Window Boxes The top. The frame (Fig. Kalamazoo. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. such as used for a storm window. -Contributed by Gordon Davis.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning.

A certain number of these. S. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. Push the needle into the cork. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. after a rest. is something that will interest the average American boy. Halifax. It must be remembered. as indicated by Fig. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. and the instrument will then be complete. which sells for 25 cents. by connecting them in series. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. a cork and a needle. e. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. N. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. but maintain the voltage constant. W.. in any system of lamps. i. However. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. in this connection. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom.. 1. so as to increase the current. for some time very satisfactorily. Grant. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. multiples of series of three. and cost 27 cents FIG. 1 cp. this must be done with very great caution. --Contributed by Wm. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. Canada. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. in diameter. can be connected up in series. 1 each complete with base.. where they are glad to have them taken away. since a battery is the most popular source of power. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. as if drawn upon for its total output. one can regulate the batteries as required. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. This is more economical than dry cells. and will give the .An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. Thus. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. The 1/2-cp. However. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. and a suitable source of power.

each. double insulated wire wherever needed. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. making. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. where the water pressure is the greatest. Thus. Fig. However. FIG. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. by the proper combination of these. 1-cp. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. although the first cost is greater. lamps. 3. lamp. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. 2 shows the scheme. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. we simply turn on the water. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. 11 series. to secure light by this method. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. or 22 lights. especially those of low internal resistance. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. as in Fig. if wound for 6 volts. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. which is the same as that of one battery. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage.. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. and running the series in parallel. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. Thus. for display of show cases. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. So. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. . In conclusion. 18 B & S. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. according to the water pressure obtainable. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. and diffused light in a room. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage.proper voltage. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. Chicago. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. These will give 3 cp. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. lamps. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. and then lead No. If wound for 10 volts. generates the power for the lights. and for Christmas trees.

center points of switch. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. Santa Clara. B. B. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. or a tempting bone. BB. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. CC. Emig. To reverse the motor. or from one pattern. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. as shown in the sketch. Cal. After I connected up my induction coil. --Contributed by F. the letters indicate as follows: FF.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Parker. switch. . and the sides. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. --Contributed by Leonard E. Plymouth. a bait of meat. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. AA. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. are cut just alike. A. A indicates the ground. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. Ind. we were not bothered with them. field of motor. and C. DD. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. outside points of switch. simply change the switch. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. bars of pole-changing switch. brushes of motor. thus reversing the machine.

To unlock the door. merely push the button E. San Jose. Minn. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. thus locking the door. The experiment works best . All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. A.. as it is the key to the lock. Hutchinson. attached to the end of the armature B. The button can be hidden. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. -Contributed by Claude B. 903 Vine St. a piece of string. and a table or bench. which is in the door. Melchior. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. Cal. one cell being sufficient. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. or would remain locked. W. Fry. If it is not. a hammer. When the circuit is broken a weight.

1). 3. --Contributed by Geo. 3. . To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. the current flows with the small arrows. A. the key turns. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. 2.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. C. Porto Rico. On another block of wood fasten two wires. where it will remain suspended as shown. in the ceiling and has a window weight. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. D. When the alarm rings in the early morning. run through a pulley. 18 Gorham St. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord.Contributed by F.. Brockville. Canada. Ontario. Madison. Culebra. which pulls the draft open. the stick falls away. Crawford Curry. Wis. Tie the ends of the string together. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. attached at the other end. -. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. releasing the weight. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. forming a loop. I. Schmidt. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. 4). The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. as shown in Fig. W. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. P.

--Contributed by Wm. D. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance.. and . including the mouthpiece.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. or from a bed of flowers. which fasten to the horn. J. made with his own hands. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. Use a barrel to work on. Jr. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. running one direct to the receiver. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. Connect two wires to the transmitter. get two pieces of plate glass. thence to a switch. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. J. and the other to the battery. First. 6 in. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. S. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. or tree. The cut shows the arrangement. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. R. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. and then to the receiver. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. N. square and 1 in. and break the corners off to make them round. Farley. Camden. thick. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone.

of water. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. Then take a little of the coarsest powder.. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. or it will not polish evenly. a round 4-in. In a dark room. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. then 8 minutes. Have ready six large dishes. When dry. the coarse grinding must be continued. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. Fasten. wetting it to the consistency of cream. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. wide around the convex glass or tool. L. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. Fig. or less. A. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. in length. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. spaces. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. then take 2 lb. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. 2. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. with 1/4-in. twice the focal length away. Fig. by the side of the lamp. When done the glass should be semitransparent. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. with pitch. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. set the speculum against the wall. and the under glass or tool convex. 2. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. so the light . flour emery and mix in 12 qt. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. melt 1 lb. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. Use a binger to spread it on with. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. and spread on the glass. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. 1. and a large lamp. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft..Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. and label. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. while walking around the barrel. wet till soft like paint. Then warm and press again with the speculum. and is ready for polishing. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. using straight strokes 2 in. as in Fig. also rotate the glass. When polishing the speculum. unless a longer focal length is wanted.

. then ammonia until bath is clear. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way... When dry. 4 oz.100 gr. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. The polishing and testing done. with distilled water... to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. Now add enough of the solution A. Fig. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. or hills. if a hill in the center. 25 gr.……………. Two glass or earthenware dishes. Fig. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. 39 gr. long to the back of the speculum. Place the speculum S. The knife should not be more than 6 in. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. the speculum will show some dark rings. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes.. must be procured. Nitric acid . deep. as in K. also how the rays R from a star . cement a strip of board 8 in. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. Alcohol (Pure) …………….Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. With pitch. Silver nitrate ……………………………. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. Fig. Then add 1 oz. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. If not. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. touched with rouge. longer strokes. 4 oz. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. fill the dish with distilled water. Place the speculum. that was set aside. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. the speculum is ready to be silvered. When the focus is found. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. 2.. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. from the lamp. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right.………………………………. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. 100 gr.……………………………. Then add solution B.. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears.. and pour the rest into the empty dish. face down. Solution D: Sugar loaf . a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. 840 gr. 2. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum)..

. long and cost me just $15. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. telescope can be made at home. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. deg. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. slightly wider than the lens mount. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. cover with paper and cloth. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. Place over lens. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. and proceed as for any picture. stop down well after focusing. using strawboard and black paper. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. My telescope is 64 in.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. Mellish. is a satisfactory angle. Thus an excellent 6-in. . About 20. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. Then I made the one described.John E. Make the tube I of sheet iron. which proves to be easy of execution. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. two glass prisms. with an outlay of only a few dollars. The flatter they are the less they will distort. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment.

and reflect through the negative. add the plaster gradually to the water. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. B. push the button D. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. Boody. A. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. . instead of the contrary. The rays of the clear. To unlock. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. 1. Zimmerman. unobstructed light strike the mirror. or powdered alum. but will not preserve its hardening. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. Ill. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. says the Master Painter. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. complete the arrangement. The paper is exposed. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. -Contributed by A. then add a little sulphate of potash. 2. as shown in Fig. D. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. through the lens of the camera and on the board. Fig. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. Do not stir it.

Fig. 1). I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. use a string. as shown in the sketch. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. also provide them with a handle. so that it can rotate about these points. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. Then blow through the spool. 2. Fasten on the switch lever. 3. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. as in Fig. To reverse. throw . and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. as at A and B. but will remain suspended without any visible support. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. 2. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card.

North Bend. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. and E E. D. the armature. Thomas. and rub dry with linen cloth. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. although this is not necessary. --Contributed by R. In the sketch. Take out. B. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. carbons. carbon sockets. rinse in alcohol. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. San Marcos. as shown in the sketch. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Tex. San Antonio. -Contributed by Morris L. Push one end of the tire into the hole. binding posts. L. Levy. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Tex. Go McVicker. C C. --Contributed by Geo. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. . A is the electricbell magnet. wash in running water. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Neb.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other.

Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. wound evenly about this core. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Divested of nearly all technical phrases. long or more. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. Bell. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. --Contributed by Joseph B.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. 36 magnet wire. 14 or No. Brooklyn. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. 16 magnet wire. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. By means of two or more layers of No. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp.

which would be better to buy ready-made. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. which is desirable. in diameter. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. and the results are often unsatisfactory. at a time. No. with room also for a small condenser. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. and finally the fourth strip of paper. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. long and 2-5/8 in. which is an important factor of the coil. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. as shown in Fig. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. but if it is not convenient to do this work. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. coil illustrates the general details of the work. one piece of the paper is laid down. diameter. wide. then the strip of tin-foil. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. in length. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. 1. the entire core may be purchased readymade. hole is bored in the center of one end. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. long and 5 in. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. as the maker prefers. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. The following method of completing a 1-in. The condenser is next wrapped . 2 yd. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. a box like that shown in Fig. When cut and laid in one continuous length. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. or 8 in. This makes a condenser which may be folded. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. making two layers. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. 4. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. Beginning half an inch from one end. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. In shaping the condenser. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. about 6 in. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. A 7/8-in. After the core wires are bundled. The primary is made of fine annealed No.

which is insulated from the first. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser.) The wiring diagram. open switch C. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. go. spark. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. forms the other pole or terminal. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. A. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. whole length. copper lever with 1-in. round so that the inside . lines H. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. flange turned on one side. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. E. 4 in.. one from bell. battery . and the other sheet. C. by 12 in. switch. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. bell. long to key. long and 12 in. The alarm key will turn and drop down. ready for assembling. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. the letters indicate as follows: A. D. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. I. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. shows how the connections are made. Fig. G.securely with bands of paper or tape. and one from battery. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. which allows wiring at the back. to the door. F. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. wide. shelf for clock. 3. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. B. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. B. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. V-shaped copper strip. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C.

induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. London. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. but add 5 or 6 oz. of zinc sulphate. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. Line the furnace. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. This is for blowing. do not shortcircuit. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. instead of close to it. from the bottom. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in.. Short-circuit for three hours. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. Use a glass or metal shade. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. of blue stone.diameter is 7 in. and then rivet the seam. If desired for use immediately. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. says the Model Engineer. The circuit should also have a high resistance. but with the circuit. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. . That is what they are for. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. 2 in. and the battery is ready for use.

Make a hole through the center or this one arm. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. If any or your audience presume to dispute. g.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in.. or think they can do the same let them try it. as in the other movement. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. but the thing would not move at all.9 of a volt. 1. and therein is the trick. 2. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. herein I describe a much better trick." which created much merriment. for some it will turn one way. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Ohio. imparting to them a violet tinge. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. porcelain and paper. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. At least it is amusing. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. while for others it will not revolve at all. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. oxygen to ozone. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. square and about 9 in. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. long. affects . for others the opposite way. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. If too low. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Try it and see. changes white phosphorus to yellow. below the bottom of the zinc. and then. This type of battery will give about 0. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Outside of the scientific side involved. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. Enlarge the hole slightly. thus producing two different vibrations. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. the second finger along the side. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. grip the stick firmly in one hand. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. To operate the trick.

Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. but this is less satisfactory. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. but small flowers. however. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. and. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. an old tripod screw. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. but not essential.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. chemicals. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. insects. a short-focus lens. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. To the front board is attached a box. a means for holding it vertical. if possible. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. and one of them is photomicrography. earth. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. says the Photographic Times. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times.

is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb. Divide one-quarter of the circle . is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Mass. CD. long and 3 ft.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 381 24 lb. Ft Lifting Power. The following table will give the size. wide from which to cut a pattern. A line. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. in Cu. in diameter. 6 ft. 12 ft. 7-1/2 in. Boston. 905 57 lb. 179 11 lb. If the balloon is 10 ft. AB. 7-1/2 in. and a line. 7 ft. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. while it is not so with the quill. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments.--Contributed by George C. 5 ft. which is 15 ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. or 3 ft. 5 in. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. balloon. or 31 ft. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. Madison. 113 7 lb. 268 17 lb. 8 ft. 697 44 lb. 65 4 lb. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. 9 ft. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. Fig. 11 ft. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. Cap. 1.

cutting all four quarters at the same time. of the very best heavy body. Repeat this operation four times. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. 4. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. The pattern is now cut. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. and so on. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. using a fine needle and No. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. Procure 1 gal. The cloth segments are sewed together. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. keeping the marked part on the outside. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. making a double seam as shown in Fig. 3. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. The amounts necessary for a 10- . Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. 70 thread. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. on the curved line from B to C. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. This test will show if the bag is airtight. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. of beeswax and boil well together. 2. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid.

A. or a fan. above the level of the water in barrel A. oil the spindle holes carefully. of water will make 4 cu. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. of sulphuric acid. capacity and connect them. 5 . About 15 lb. 5. of iron. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. Vegetable oils should never be used. it is not fit to use. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. C. 1 lb. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. 1 lb. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. of iron borings and 125 lb. but if any grease remains on the hand.. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. until no more dirt is seen. which may sound rather absurd. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. B. should not enter into the water over 8 in. by fixing. C. 150 gr. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. The outlet. with the iron borings. A. Fill the other barrel. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. When the clock has dried. leaving the hand quite clean. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. A.Green Iron ammonium citrate . The benzine should be clean and free from oil. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. B. as shown in Fig. Water 1 oz. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. After washing a part. All FIG. or dusting with a dry brush. using a fine brush. . a clean white rag. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. of gas in one hour. to the bag. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. balloon are 125 lb. with 3/4in. The 3/4-in. . this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr.ft. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. pipe. In the barrel. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. ft. if it is good it will dry off. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. ]. B. with water 2 in. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. this should be repeated frequently.

at the time of employment. The miniature 16 cp. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. of any make. The positive pole. keeping the fingers out of the solution. . 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Printing is done in the sun. fix in hypo. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. toning first if desired. to avoid blackened skin. Dry the plates in the dark. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. Port Melbourne. or zinc. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. and a vigorous negative must be used. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. or battery. or carbon. dry atmosphere will give best results. Exposure. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use..000 ft. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking.Water 1 oz. This aerial collector can be made in . * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. . but the 110-volt globes will not glow. says the Moving Picture World. Dry in the dark. A longer exposure will be necessary. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. The negative pole. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. and keep in the dark until used. A cold. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. 20 to 30 minutes. Bathe the plates 5 minutes.

As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. and as less current will flow the short way. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. If the wave ceases. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. a positive and a negative. the resistance is less. 5 in. both positive and negative. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. lay a needle.various ways. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. making a ground with one wire. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. If the waves strike across the needle. The storage cell. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. forming a cup of the pipe. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. long. and have the other connected with another aerial line. This will complete the receiving station. lead pipe. when left exposed to the air. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. in diameter. as described below. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. As the telephone offers a high resistance. holes . will soon become dry and useless. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end.

Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. Two binding-posts should be attached. except for about 1 in. This support or block. one to the positive. This. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. D. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. on each end. When mixing the acid and water. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. does not need to be watertight. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. B. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. an oblong one and a triangular one. a round one. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. This box can be square. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. of course. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. or tube C. namely: a square hole. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. by soldering the joint. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. or tube B. says the Pathfinder. and the other to the negative. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe.as possible. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. The other plate is connected to the zinc.

1. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. is built 15 ft. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. were fitted by this one plug. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. long. . The third piece of brass. 2. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. thick cut two pieces alike. C. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. A and B. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. wide. deep and 4 ft. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. C. and has plenty of good seating capacity.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. wide. all around the edge. and match them together. about 20 in. 2. in place on the wood. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. 1. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. Only galvanized nails should be used. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. leaving about 1/16 in. 3. back and under. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. This punt. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. as it is not readily overturned. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. Chicago. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. Ill. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks.

A piece of 1/4-in. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. A. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. square (Fig 2). In Fig. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Wash. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. gas pipe. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Tacoma. thick and 3-1/2 in. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. B. is cut 1 in. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] .

no special materials could be obtained. it had to be borne in mind that. which the writer has made. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. no more current than a 16-cp. and to consume. may be of interest to some of our readers. without auxiliary phase. or "rotor. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. Wagner. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure.--Contributed by Charles H. The winding of the armature. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. with the exception of insulated wire. says the Model Engineer." has no connection with the outside circuit. which can be developed in the usual manner. lamp. In designing. H.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. if possible. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe.

wrought iron. as shown in Fig. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. 1. 5. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. The stator is wound full with No. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. bolts put in and tightened up. with the dotted line. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. They are not particularly accurate as it is. or "stator. 3. about 2-1/2 lb. this little machine is not self-starting. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. in diameter were drilled in the corners. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. After assembling a second time. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. as shown in Fig. C. B. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. and filled with rivets. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. being used. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. no steel being obtainable. and all sparking is avoided. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. 2. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. to be filed out after they are placed together. were then drilled and 1/4-in. also varnished before they were put in. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. Unfortunately. thick. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. while the beginnings . 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. Holes 5-32 in. A. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. 4. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available.the field-magnet. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. holes. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds.

exactly the same as a print is made on paper. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. and as the motor runs at constant speed. having no commutator or brushes.. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. Newark. film to film. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. it would be very simple to build. and would not easily get out of order. McKinney. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. In making slides by contact. a regulating resistance is not needed. This type of motor has drawbacks. Jr. One is by contact. E. if applied immediately. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. If too late for alcohol to be of use. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. as before stated. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. and especially of colored ones. 1. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. The rotor is wound with No. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. J. and as each layer of wire was wound. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. and all wound in the same direction. 2. The lantern slide is a glass plate. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. 3-Contributed by C. as shown in Fig. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. No starting resistance is needed. and the other by reduction in the camera. The image should . coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. N. as a means of illustrating songs. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides.

This will enable you to focus to the proper size. about a minute. Contrasty negatives make the best slides.appear in. If the exposure has been correct. 4. the formulas being found in each package of plates. Draw lines with a pencil. A. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. to use a plain fixing bath. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. except that the binding is different. 1. over the mat. Select a room with one window. they are much used by travelers. Fig. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. and then a plain glass. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. B. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. D. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. 2. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. 3. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. and development should be over in three or four minutes. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. It is best. as shown in Fig. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. Being unbreakable. These can be purchased from any photo material store. if possible. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. also. C. as shown in Fig. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. a little extra work will be necessary. 5. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide.

16 in. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. long. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. A piece of canvas. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. These longer pieces can be made square. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. holes bored in the end pieces. long. as shown at A. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. as shown at B. Vt. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. wide and 50 in. from the center of this dot draw a star. long. 1. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. while the dot will be in front of the other. 1. in diameter and 40 in. from the ends. known as rods and cones. from the end piece of the chair. or other stout cloth. is to be used for the seat. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. Fig. in diameter and 20 in. Fig. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. 2. Corinth. If the star is in front of the left eye. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. as shown in Fig.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. Hastings. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes.

It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. O'Gara. A disk 1 in. Auburn. A belt. in thickness and 10 in. as shown in Fig. per square inch. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. made from an ordinary sash cord. J. as well as to operate other household machines. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. Cal. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. 2. as shown in Fig. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine.-Contributed by P. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. . They will be found to be exactly the same distance. 1. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board.

fairly accurate. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. thick and 2-1/2 in. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. it serves a very useful purpose. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. wide. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. . with as fine a thread as possible. 3/4 in. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. Bore a 1/4-in. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. The part of a rotation of the bolt. screwing it through the nut. Put the bolt in the hole. then removing the object. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. says the Scientific American. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. square for a support. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. direction. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. long. or inconvenient to measure. leaving it shaped like a bench. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. will be the thickness of the object. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. to the top of the bench. divided by the number of threads to the inch. Cut out a piece from the block combination. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. and the construction is complete.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. A simple. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument.

bolt in each hole. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. beyond the end of the wood. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. long. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Bore a 3/4-in. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Oal. which show up fine at night. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. globe that has been thrown away as useless. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. material 12 ft. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. long is used for the center pole. Santa Maria.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. The wheel should be open . Place a 3/4-in. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. piece of wood 12 ft. from the end that is to be used for the bottom.

Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. Fort Worth. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. at the bottom. long. A piece of brass 2 in. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. The spool . the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. which should be 1/4 in. Tex.Side and Top View or have spokes. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. 1/2 in. O. The boards may be nailed or bolted. Graham. from the ends. from the top end. made of the same material. of the ends with boards. L.-Contributed by A. is soldered. to be operated by the magnet coil. C. B. C. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. in diameter. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. pieces used for the spokes. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. and the lower part 61/2 in. wide and 1/8 in. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. thick. P. thick is used for the armature. thick. A cross bar. at the top and 4 in. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. H and J. The coil. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. A. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. long. long. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. long. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. wide and 1/8 in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. and on its lower end a socket. square and 3 or 4 in. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B.

This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. and in numerous other like instances. The armature. R. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. is drilled. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. Mass. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in.000 for irrigation work. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. that holds the lower carbon. A. and place it against a door or window casing. by soldering. When you slide the pencil along the casing. This tie can be used on grain sacks.J. S. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. F. 2 the hat hanging on it. S. --Contributed by Arthur D. for insulating the brass ferrule. Bradlev. or a water rheostat heretofore described. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S.E. long. A soft piece of iron. 1. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. one without either rubber or metal end. which may be had by using German silver wire. 2. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame.--A. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. making a hole just a little larger than the rod.is about 2-1/2 in. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. then with a firm. C. At the bottom end of the frame. . How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. do it without any apparent effort. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig.000. This is a very neat trick if performed right. Randolph. D and E. B. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. and directly centering the holes H and J. and it will stay as if glued to the casing.

1. in diameter and 2 in. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. The core of the coil. for adjustment. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. and then 1. is constructed in the usual manner. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. with a 3/16-in. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. The switch. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. from the core and directly opposite. long and 1 in. in diameter. F. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. is connected to a flash lamp battery. 1. thick. C. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. A. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. S.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in.500 turns of No. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. wide. in diameter and 1/16 in. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. for the primary. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. Experiment with Heat [134] . B. mixed with water to form a paste. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. The coil ends are made from cardboard. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. About 70 turns of No. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. The vibrator B. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. long. may be made from a 3/8-in. 2. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. Fig. D. leaving the projections as shown. S. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. about 1 in. about 1/8 in. hole in the center. in diameter. The vibrator. for the secondary. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. Fig. about 3/16 in. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in.

it laps down about 8 in. 1. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. 16 in. 2 to fit the two holes.Place a small piece of paper. in an ordinary water glass. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. The three screws were then put in the hasp. thick on the inside. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. The hasp. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. 1. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. which seemed to be insufficient. brass plate. between the boards. wide. long and when placed over the board. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. as shown. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. The knob on the dial extends out too far. The lock. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. The tin is 4 in. and the same distance inside of the new board. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. Fig. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. as shown in the sketch. was to be secured by only three brass screws. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. . with which to operate the dial. which is only 3/8-in. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. which is cut with two holes. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. lighted. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. and then well clinched. board. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk.

any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. When making of wood. When the rear part is illuminated. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. and the back left dark. If the box is made large enough. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. not shiny. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. square and 10-1/2 in. any article placed therein will be reflected in. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. black color. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. or in the larger size mentioned. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. the glass. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . but when the front part is illuminated. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. one in each division. square and 8-1/2 in. clear glass as shown. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. high for use in window displays.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. which completely divides the box into two parts.

This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. long and 1 ft. as it appears. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. Instead of changing the current operated by hand.. When there is no electric current available.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. and with the proper illumination one is changed. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. . For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. alternately. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. When using as a window display. wide will be about the right size. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. a tank 2 ft. as shown in the sketch. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. as shown at A in the sketch. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. into the other. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. above the top of the tank. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. Three windows are provided. and a door in front. O. thick and 3 in. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. hole. long. is the green vitriol. gauge for depth. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. radius. under sides together. 2 ft. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. and 6 ft. Iron sulphate. This hole must be continued . dried and mixed with linseed oil. The pieces can then be taken out. and a solution of iron sulphate added. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. but with a length of 12 in. 1 in. long. with a length of 13 in. A small platform. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. bit. 5 ft. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. and boring two holes with a 1-in. 6 in. lines gauged on each side of each. square. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. one for each side. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. bore from each end. wide. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. hole bored the full length through the center. Columbus. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. however. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. The 13-in.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. each. from the ground. wide. Shape the under sides first. high. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. This precipitate is then washed. is built on the front. or ferrous sulphate. using a 3/4-in. square and 40 in. two pieces 1-1/8 in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. then use a red-hot iron to finish. as shown. If a planing mill is near. -Contributed by Mack Wilson.

The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. if shade is purchased. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. When this is dry. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. square and drawing a diagonal on each. When the filler has hardened. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. For art-glass the metal panels are . Saw the two blocks apart. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Directions will be found on the filler cans. apply two coats of wax. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. three or four may be attached as shown. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. Electric globes--two. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal.through the pieces forming the base. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. thick and 3 in. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. hole in each block. A better way. If the parts are to be riveted.

The Completed Lamp cut out. METAL SHADE . the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. as brass. such as copper.Construction of Shade . Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.

the other. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. as shown in the sketch. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. Figure 1 shows the side. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. as in ordinary devices. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The arms holding the glass. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. one way and 1/2 in. the object and the background. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. and Fig. 2 the front view of this stand. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery.

as shown in the cut. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. and an inside diameter of 9 in. and swinging freely. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. about 1-1/4 in. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. Before mounting the ring on the base. Put the ring in place on the base. wide and 6-5/16 in. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. Cut another circular piece 11 in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. If the light becomes dim. wide and 11 in.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. An ordinary pocket compass. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. uncork and recork again. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. thick 5/8-in. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. channel in the circumference of the ring. pointing north and south. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. outside diameter. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. in diameter for a base. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. long. in diameter. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. thus forming a 1/4-in. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. as it is very poisonous. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle.

Corresponding mirrors. CC. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.088 .375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country.182 . are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. are mounted on a base. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. The results given should be multiplied by 1. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. and mirrors. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. into these cylinders. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. B. 1 oz. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. of the top. Place on top the so- .600 . and north of the Ohio river.865 1.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. to which a wire has been soldered for connections.500 .715 .420 . in diameter and 8 in. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. EE. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. above the half can. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. AA.289 . The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. from the second to the third. black oxide of copper.

then they will not rust fast. 31 gr. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. 62 gr. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. says Metal Worker. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. When renewing. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. University Park. always remove the oil with a siphon.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. slender bottle. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. little crystals forming in the liquid. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. Colo. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. which otherwise remains clear. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. the wheel will revolve in one direction. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . alcohol. Put the solution in a long. In Fig. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. of pulverized campor. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel.

If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. If two of them are floating on the same solution. on the under side of the cork. A paper-fastener box. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. about 1-1/4 in. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. floating on a solution. Attach to the wires.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. --Contributed by C. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. If zinc and carbon are used. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. Lloyd Enos. Solder in the side of the box . If zinc and copper are used. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. will allow the magnet to point north and south. This is used in place of the spoon. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other.

wide and 6 in. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. and then solder on the cover. Rhamstine. one on each side of the board.Contributed by J. B. Take a small piece of soft iron. . D. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. Wind evenly about 2 oz. If the hose is not a tight fit. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. H. C. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. C. 1/2. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. F. long that has about 1/4-in. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. The bottom of the box. To this standard solder the supporting wire. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. as shown in Fig.1-in. 1-1/4 in. or made with a little black paint. wide and 2-1/2 in. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. Use a board 1/2. of No. hole. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. to it. E. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. long. The base. B. A circular piece of cardboard. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. G--No. brass tubing. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. long. and on the other around the glass tube. can be made of oak. 10 wire about 10 in. stained and varnished. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. is made from a piece of No. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. C. The standard. thick.not shorter than 18 in. of wire on each end extending from the coil. 14 wire will do. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. piece of 1/4-in. A. 3 in. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. Thos. glass tubing . away. E. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. The spring should be about 1 in. long for the base and fasten the coil to it.in. D. 1. Bore holes for binding-posts. Put ends.in. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. D. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. A.

long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. 1. as shown in Fig. Wis. N. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. long. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. canvas. About 1-1/2 lb. long. four hinges. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. 5. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Cuba. E. Smith. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. 3-in. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. is drawn nearer to the coil. 3. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. from the right hand. . The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. of 8-oz. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. Y.--Contributed by Edward M. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. of mercury will be sufficient. about 1 in. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. When the glass becomes soft. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. The iron plunger. 3 in. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. in diameter. of No. long are used for the legs. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. D. Teasdale. making a support as shown in Fig. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. long. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. two pieces 2 ft. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. J. Milwaukee. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. long. long.of the coil. 2. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. two pieces 2-1/2 ft.--Contributed by R.

Break this thread off about 1/8 in. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. expelling all the air. 5. 4. small aperture in the long tube. Break off the piece of glass. Keys. Fig. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. 2. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig.. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. Can. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. although nearly any size could be made in the same way.. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . 6. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. This tube as described will be 8 in. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. The tube now must be filled completely. Measure 8 in. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. --Contributed by David A. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Take 1/2 in. holding in the left hand. long. thus leaving a. leaving 8 in. Toronto. 3. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. of vacuum at the top.

long. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. 3 in. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. wide and 3 in. 9 in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. in diameter. 3 in. as shown in Fig. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. 7. The large pulley is about 14 in. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. Fig.6 -. wide and 12 in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. joint be accurately put together. 4 in. says a correspondent of Camera Craft.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. 5. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. thick. This forms a slot. wood screws. material 2 in. wide and 5 ft. thick. but yellow pine is the best. long. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. wide and 5 ft. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. cut in the shape shown in Fig. These are bent and nailed. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. with each projection 3-in. 1 in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. thick. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. thick. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. as shown in Fig. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. 4. 6. Four blocks 1/4 in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. and the single projection 3/4 in. and 1/4 in. 1. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. 2. FIG. wide and 5 ft. thick. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. long. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . 3. as in Fig. long. 1 in. from the end of same.

above the runner level.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Welsh. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by C. attach runners and use it on the ice. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. by 1-in. first removing the crank. . Kan. Manhattan. R. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Water 1 oz. says Photography. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. The runners can be made from 1/4-in.

Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Newton. The print is washed. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Treasdale. and very much cheaper. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. from an ordinary clamp skate.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. 3. 2. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Leominster. --Contributed by Edward M. --Contributed by Wallace C. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. also. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Mass. 1. of water. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Printing is carried rather far. . 1 oz. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat.

board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. about 10 in. high. from one end. The swing door B. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. with about 1/8-in. square piece. wide and 4 in. Fig. 1-1/2 ft. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. 2. Va. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. say. Then. A. causing the door to swing back and up. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. Fig. long. and bend them as shown in the sketch. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. The thread is broken off at the . which represents the back side of the door. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. 1 ft. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. 1. 1. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. wide. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. and to the bottom. hole. Place a 10-in. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. --Contributed by H. Take two glass tubes. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. fasten a 2-in. Alexandria. extending the width of the box. F. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. and 3 ft.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. too. Church. high for rabbits. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. as shown in the sketch.

Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. wide and 5 in. plates. shorter. Jr. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. wide. and go in the holder in the same way. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. say 8 in. 1. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. camera and wish to use some 4. D. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. and exactly 5 by 7 in. -Contributed by William M. high and 12 in. horses and dogs. being 1/8 in. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater.. inside of the opening. Paste a piece of strong black paper.by 7-in. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. 2. C.by 5-in. from the edge on each side of these openings. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. A and B. as shown in Fig. black surfaced if possible. . automobiles. 1 in. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. Cut an opening in the other piece. trolley cars. wide. Out two rectangular holes. says Camera Craft. long. but cut it 1/4 in. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. Chicago. This opening. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. to be used as a driving pulley. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. making the appearance of the ordinary stage.proper place to make a small hole. Fig. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. Crilly. long. in size. Take two pieces of pasteboard. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. shorter at each end. B. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. 3. in size. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. Fig. 10 in. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people.

long and 6 in. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile.. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. in diameter. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2.in.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. A cell of this kind can easily be made. into which the dog is harnessed. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. if it has previously been magnetized. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. making a . The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. wide will be required." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. The needle will then point north and south.

Place the pan on the stove. says Electrician and Mechanic. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. of rosin and 2 oz. and a notch between the base and the pan. sal ammoniac. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. pine.watertight receptacle. 1/4 lb. F is a spool. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H.in. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. one that will hold about 1 qt. . of water. pull out the wire as needed. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. File the rods to remove the copper plate. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. beeswax melted together. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. leaving about 1/2-in. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. short time. A is a block of l-in. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. Form a 1/2-in. B is a base of 1 in. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. filter. fuel and packing purposes. This makes the wire smooth. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. long which are copper plated. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. Pack the paste in. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. in diameter and 6 in. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. 3/4 lb. plaster of paris. 1 lb. in which P is the pan. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. zinc oxide. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. only the joints. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. when the paraffin is melted. under the spool in the paraffin. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. with narrow flanges. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. of the plate at one end. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. for a connection. Do not paint any surface. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. of the top. fodder.

and many other things in order to make the arm operate. thus producing two different vibrations. from vexation. long. Enlarge the hole slightly. while for others it will not revolve at all. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. for some it will turn one way. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Toledo. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. or think they can do the same. but the thing would not move at all. If any of your audience presume to dispute. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. grip the stick firmly in one hand.. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. At least it is amusing. and therein is the trick. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. as in the other movement.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. and one friend tells me that they were . g. Try it and see. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. and he finally. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement." which created much merriment. Ohio. square and about 9 in. 2. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. for others the opposite way. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. and then. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. let them try it. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. by the Hindoos in India. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. thus making the arm revolve in one direction.

one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. 4. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. secondly. and I think the results may be of interest. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. A square stick with notches on edge is best. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. Speeds between 700 and 1. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. 3. 2. 6. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. If the pressure was upon an edge. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. To operate. Thus a circular or . and.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. the rotation may be obtained. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. m. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. The experiments were as follows: 1. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. no rotation resulted. gave the best results. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. p. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. 5. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. by means of a center punch. 7. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly.100 r. rotation was obtained. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained.

and the resultant "basket splash. Lloyd. C. is driven violently away. forming a handle for carrying." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. the upper portion is. a piece of wire and a candle. Minn. A wire is tied around the can. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. as shown. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. --Contributed by M. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. unwetted by the liquid. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. so far as can be seen from the photographs. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. and the height of the fall about 6 in. Sloan. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. .. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. G..elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. Duluth. Ph. it will be clockwise. at first. Washington. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. if the pressure is from the left. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. --Contributed by G. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward).D. D. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. A. or greasy.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. flange and a 1/4-in. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. as shown. about 2-5/8 in. axle. 1.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. thick and 1 in. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. with a 1/16-in. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. as shown in Fig. in diameter. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. hole drilled in the center. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. Each wheel is 1/4 in. long.

brass. 6. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. 2. The motor is now bolted. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. Texas. The first piece. is made from brass. Fig. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. and the locomotive is ready for running. Fig. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. long. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. put together complete. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. This will save buying a track. 1 from 1/4-in. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . --Contributed by Maurice E. These ends are fastened together. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. San Antonio. 3. 3. lamp in series with the coil. is made from a piece of clock spring. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. A trolley. are shown in Fig. of No. each in its proper place. holes 1 in. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. which must be 110 volt alternating current. as shown in Fig. bent as shown. The current. If the ends are to be soldered. Fuller. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. wide and 16 in. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. The parts. 4. or main part of the frame. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. bottom side up. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. 5. wood. 2. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1.50. with cardboard 3 in.

Cincinnati. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. the length of a paper clip. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. 2. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. as shown in Fig. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. When cold treat the other end in the same way. 3. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. then continue to tighten much more. O. but do not heat the center. Fig 1. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. 1. and holes drilled in them. as shown in Fig. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. The quarter will not go all the way down. Fig. and as this end . pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief.

In the sketch.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. or apparent security of the knot. When the cutter A. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. or should the lathe head be raised. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. 2 and 1 respectively. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. When the trick is to be performed. has finished a cut for a tooth. A pair of centers are fitted. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. and adjusted . The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them.

Make free-hand one quarter of the design. (4. blotter back. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. swing lathe. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. Brooklyn. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. Y. --Contributed by Howard S. coin purse. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in.) Place the paper design on the leather and.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. The frame holding the mandrel. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. watch fob ready for fastenings. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. or one-half of the design. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). 2. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. and a nut pick. An ordinary machine will do. book mark. if but two parts. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. long. 1. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use.to run true. twisted around itself and soldered. tea cosey. lady's card case. (1. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. (5. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. Fold over along these center lines. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. draw center lines across the required space. above the surface.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. trace the outline. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. tea cosey. (3. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. holding it in place with the left hand. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. such as brass or marble.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. gentleman's card case or bill book. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . --Contributed by Samuel C. Fig. note book. In this manner gears 3 in. about 1-1/2 in. if four parts are to be alike. Second row: -Two book marks. Bunker. Bott. (6. dividing it into as many parts as desired. N. (2. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks).) Make on paper the design wanted. lady's belt bag. at the same time striking light. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. When connecting to batteries.

and an ordinary bottle. some heavy rubber hose. Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube.

The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. Florida. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. A. B. If the needle is not horizontal. Thrust a pin. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. The electrodes are made . In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. a distance of 900 miles. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. pull it through the cork to one side or the other.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. and push it through a cork. where it condenses. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle.. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. from Key West. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground.C. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. and bore a hole through the center. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. C. into which fit a small piece of tube. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. D.

long. 2. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. both laterally and longitudinally. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. 3/4 in. thick. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. free from knots. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. wide and 4 ft long. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. If 20-ft. wide and 4 ft. long. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. square and 8 ft long. 1-1/2 in. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. Connect as shown in the illustration. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. 1/2. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. which is tacked to the front edge. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. long. lengths and splice them. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. 1. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. as shown in Fig. 1-1/4 in. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. or flying-machine. and also to keep it steady in its flight. D. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. apart and extend 1 ft. thick. wide and 4 ft. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. using a high resistance receiver. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. take the glider to the top of a hill.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. --Contributed by Edwin L. lumber cannot be procured. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. Powell. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. wide and 3 ft. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. 2 arm sticks 1 in. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces.in. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. by 3/4 in. slacken speed and settle. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. To make a glide. use 10-ft. Washington. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. thick. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. 2. long. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. The operator can then land safely and . 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. thick. 1. All wiring is done with No. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. Four long beams 3/4 in. C. long for the body of the operator. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. as shown in Fig. several strips 1/2 in. 1. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. thick. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. wide and 3 ft. as shown in Fig. long. 16 piano wire. 12 uprights 1/2 in. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. 3. wide and 20 ft. 2 in. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving.

The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. but this must be found by experience. Great care should be . Of course.gently on his feet. Glides are always made against the wind. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. and the balancing is done by moving the legs.

Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. as shown in Fig. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. 1. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. half man and half horse. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead.exercised in making landings. a creature of Greek mythology. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. --Contributed by L. 2. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . which causes the dip in the line. When heated a little. M. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. Bellingham. Olson.

wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. this will cost about 15 cents. about the size of door screen wire. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. about the size of stove pipe wire. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. long and about 3/8 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. making it 2-1/2 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. at the other. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. a piece of brass or steel wire. in diameter. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. square. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. long. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. will complete the material list. of small rubber tubing. 14 in. The light from the . While at the drug store get 3 ft. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. outside the box. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash.

Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. as shown in the sketch. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. This is very simple when you know how. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. . while others will fail time after time. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. 1. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. If done properly the card will flyaway. Hunting. but puzzling when the trick is first seen.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. 2. O. as shown in Fig. Dayton. as shown in Fig. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. --Photo by M. M. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord.

When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. as before. as described. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. This game is played by five persons.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. Cool in water and dry." or the Chinese students' favorite game. then put it on the hatpin head. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. hold the lump over the flame. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. closing both hands quickly. place the other two. as shown. If a certain color is to be more prominent. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. When the desired shape has been obtained. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully.

these sectors. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. or more in width. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. distribute electric charges . After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. passing through neutralizing brushes. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house.

The drive wheels. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. and of a uniform thickness. as shown in Fig. material 7 in. in diameter. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. or teeth. The plates. are made from 7/8-in. 1 in. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. long. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. 2. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. in diameter. Two pieces of 1-in. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. in diameter. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. D. are made from solid. the side pieces being 24 in. free from wrinkles. to which insulating handles .Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. GG. long and the shank 4 in. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. EE. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. Fig. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. These pins. at the other. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. RR. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. 3/4 in. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. long. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. in diameter and 15 in. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. after they are mounted. brass tubing and the discharging rods. 1. The fork part is 6 in. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. and pins inserted and soldered. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. and this should be done before cutting the circle. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. turned wood pieces. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. long and the standards 3 in. The two pieces. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. 1-1/2 in. and the outer end 11/2 in. in diameter. and 4 in. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. as shown in Fig. Two solid glass rods. from about 1/4-in. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. wide. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. 3. wide at one end. in diameter. 3. in diameter. C C. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. The collectors are made. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. 4. Fig. The plates are trued up. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals.

Colo.. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. long. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. 12 ft. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. wide and 22 ft. Lloyd Enos. and the work was done by themselves. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. Colorado City. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. KK. which are bent as shown. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays .are attached. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. D. one having a 2-in. in diameter. --Contributed by C. ball and the other one 3/4 in. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates.

How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. deep. The key will drop from the string. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. using a 1-in. bit. They can be used to keep pins and needles. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. string together. as at A. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. pens . the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. and bore a hole 1/2 in. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place.is a good one. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. yet such a thing can be done. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut.

the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. When the stamping is completed. or cigar ashes. 4. stamp the background promiscuously. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. 9. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. Draw one-half the design free hand. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. 3. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. Proceed as follows: 1. Use . By holding the nail about 1/4 in. 5. extra metal on each of the four sides. flat and round-nosed pliers. above the metal. This is to make a clean. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. above the work and striking it with the hammer. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. 2. then the other side. inside the second on all. also trace the decorative design. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. two spikes. unless it would be the metal shears. file. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design.. 6. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. etc. etc. Inside this oblong. very rapid progress can be made. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. slim screw. They are easily made. Raise the ends. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in.. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. 8. they make attractive little pieces to have about. using a nail filed to chisel edge. The second oblong was 3/4 in.and pencils. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. and the third one 1/4 in. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. sharp division between background and design. 23 gauge. Having determined the size of the tray. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. 7. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. inside the first on all. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. about 3/4-in.

8. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. 10. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. 7. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . second fingers. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. 9. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. In the first numbering. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. third fingers.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. and fourth fingers. 6. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. first fingers. The eyes. and the effect will be most pleasing. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. Bradley All machinists use mathematics.

Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. and the six lower fingers as six tens. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. or 60. 400. . therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. first fingers. Put your thumbs together. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. Let us multiply 12 by 12. the product of 12 times 12. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. which would be 70. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. 12. which would be 16. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. or the product of 6 times 6. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. 25 times 25. 11. renumber your fingers. etc. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. but being simple it saves time and trouble. which tens are added. 2 times 2 equals 4.... above 15 times 15 it is 200. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. or 80. as high as you want to go. Two times one are two. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. In the second numbering. or numbers above 10. viz. etc. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. 600. above 20 times 20. thumbs. or the product of 8 times 9. Still. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. there are no fingers above. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. if we wish.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. etc. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. At a glance you see four tens or 40. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired.

This system can be carried as high as you want to go. Take For example 18 times 18. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. when he removes his spectacles. 7. the value which the upper fingers have. lastly. 21. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. any two figures between 45 and 55. And the lump sum to add. and so on. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. further. at the will of the observer. first finger 17. however. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. forties. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. 8. the value of the upper fingers being 20. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. Proceed as in the second lumbering. and.. or what. the revolution seems to reverse. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. 3. not rotation. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. thirties. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. whether the one described in second or third numbering. about a vertical axis. as one might suppose. or from above or from below. 75 and 85. For figures ending in 6. the inversion takes place against his will. For example. . 2. The inversion and reversion did not take place. first fingers 22. beginning the thumbs with 16. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. thumbs. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. etc. the lump sum to add. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. adding 400 instead of 100. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. being 80). Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. twenties. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. in the case of a nearsighted person. It takes place also. which is the half-way point between the two fives. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge.

sometimes the point towards him. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. Looking at it in semidarkness. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. the other appearance asserts itself. A flat slide valve was used. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. The ports were not easy to make. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. as . The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. and putting a cork on the point.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. when he knows which direction is right. tee. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one.

Next take a block of wood. If nothing better is at hand. across the head. -Contributed by W. pipe 10 in. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. apart. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. Kutscher. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. secure a piece of No. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. as in a vise. such as is shown in the illustration. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. about 2 in. in diameter. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. The tools are simple and can be made easily. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. H. pipe. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. bottom side up. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form.. inexpensive. and make in one end a hollow. it is easily built. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. . The eccentric is constructed of washers. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. Fasten the block solidly. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. Ill. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. While this engine does not give much power. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. across and 1/2 in. saw off a section of a broom handle. The steam chest is round. deep. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. Beating copper tends to harden it and. Springfield. if continued too long without proper treatment. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center.

Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. and. Camden. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. This process is called annealing. S. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. Vinegar. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. Hay. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. To produce color effects on copper. as it softens the metal. C. --Contributed by W. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. O. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. the other to the left. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. To overcome this hardness. especially when the object is near to the observer. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand.will cause the metal to break.

while both eyes together see a white background. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. as for instance red and green. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. with the stereograph. orange. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. So with the stereograph. only the orange rays may pass through. that for the right. It is just as though they were not there. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. they must be a very trifle apart. from the stereograph. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. in the proper choice of colors. it. because of the rays coming from them. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. the left eye sees through a blue screen. because. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. the one for the left eye being blue. disappears fully. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. diameter. The further apart the pictures are. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. and lies to the right on the picture. In order to make them appear before the card. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. not two mounted side by side. ." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. the further from the card will the composite image appear. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. however. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture.stereoscope. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. But they seem black. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. and without any picture. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. The red portions of the picture are not seen. although they pass through the screen. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. would serve the same purpose. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture.

The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. in the shape of a crank. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. This should only be bored about half way through the block. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. A No. 12 gauge wire. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. The weight of the air in round .12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. 1/4 in. wireless. thick. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. Place a NO. wide and 1 in. long and a hole drilled in each end. Cal. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. or the middle of the bottle. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. in diameter. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. etc. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. San Francisco. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break.

if accurately constructed.. square. a bottle 1 in. inside diameter and 2 in. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. The 4 in. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. or a column of mercury (density 13. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. long. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. long. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. and a slow fall. will calibrate itself. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. 30 in. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. a glass tube 1/8 in. wide and 4 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. long. . but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. 34 ft. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. wide and 40 in. In general. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. Only redistilled mercury should be used. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed.numbers is 15 lb.6) 1 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. thick. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. high. But if a standard barometer is not available. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. Before fastening the scale. pine 3 in. internal diameter and about 34 in. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. the contrary. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. but before attempting to put in the mercury. high. if you choose. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. high. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. square. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. the instrument. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. or. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in.

thick. Mark out seven 1-in. 3. 6 and 7. long. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. the size of the outside of the bottle. Number the pieces 1.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. wide and 10 in. which is slipped quickly over the end. 5. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. Procure a metal can cover. 2. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. and place them as shown in Fig. a cover from a baking powder can will do. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. 1. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring.

After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. shaped like Fig. Move 12-Jump No. 5's place. Move ll-Jump No. 5 over No. 3 over No. 1. 6 in. 3. Move 2-Jump No. 5. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 2 over No. 3 to the center. 7's place. 2 .Position of the Men move only one at a time. Move 15-Move No. Move 13-Move No. 2 over No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 1. as shown in Fig. Move 7-Jump No. 3. procure unbleached tent duck. long and 2 ft. 6 into No. Move 4-Jump No. 6 over No. 6 to No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. Make 22 sections. 7 over No. Move 6-Move No. l over No. Move 10-Move No. 2's place. 1 to No. N. 7. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 5's place. using checkers for men. L. Cape May Point. 6. each 10 ft. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Move 8-Jump No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. in diameter. 3.-Contributed by W. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. Move 14-Jump No.J. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 2. 2. 7 over No. 5 over No. Woolson. To make such a tent. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. which is the very best material for the purpose. 2's place. This can be done on a checker board. Move 9-Jump No. 3 into No. 1 into No. 6. Move 3-Move No. Move 5-Jump No.

in diameter. 5) stuck in the ground. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. Fig.in. In raising the tent.. high. 9 by 12 in. After transferring the design to the brass. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. from the top. --Contributed by G. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Nail a thin sheet of brass. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. leaving the rest for an opening. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. to a smooth board of soft wood. fill with canvas edging. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. made in two sections. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Use blocks. will do. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Fig. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. round galvanized iron. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. added. Emsworth. 2 in. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. Pa. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. 6-in. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. 5. Punch holes in the brass in . wide at the bottom. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. long and 4 in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. diameter. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. wide by 12 in. 6. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. long. Tress. 2. These are ventilators. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. Have the tent pole 3 in. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. wide at the bottom. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. As shown in the sketch. as in Fig.J. about 9 in. 3 in.

around the outside of the pattern. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. When all the holes are punched. but before punching the holes. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. excepting the 1/4-in. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. cut out the brass on the outside lines. Corr. apart. Chicago. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. When the edges are brought together by bending. The pattern is traced as before. . I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. bend into shape. It will not. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week.the spaces around the outlined figures.

Dunham. E. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. or less. Oregon. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. allowing 2 ft. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. between which is placed the fruit jar. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. Badger. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. G. A cast-iron ring. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. pipe.however. A 6-in. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. Mayger. These pipes are . Sometimes the cream will accumulate. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle.. Stevens. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. --Contributed by Geo. Que. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. better still. or center on which the frame swings. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. --Contributed by H. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. pipe is used for the hub. partially filled with cream. or. If a wheel is selected.

The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. bent to the desired circle. An extra wheel 18 in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. Four braces made from 1/2-in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe clamps.

which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. which was placed in an upright position. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. and dropped on the table. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . as shown in Fig. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. while doing this. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. 1. 3. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. The performer. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. and the guide withdrawn. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig.

in diameter on another piece of tin. F. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. first. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. -Contributed by C. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Colo. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. and second.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. 2. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Mo. 1. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Louis. D. in a half circle. --Contributed by H. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. Harkins. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. it requires no expensive condensing lens. White. Denver. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. The box can be made of selected oak or . St. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen.

wide and 6-1/2 in. from each end of the outside of the box. from each end. wide and 6-1/2 in. and 2 in. long and should be placed vertically. high and 11 in. high and must . from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. This will be 3/4 in. focal length. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. 3-1/2 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. 1. fit into the runners. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. long. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside.mahogany. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. The door covering this hole in the back. as shown in Fig. 5-1/2 in. wide. wide by 5 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. 2. and. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. If a camera lens is used. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. but not tight. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. AA. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. represented by the dotted line in Fig. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. Two or three holes about 1 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. An open space 4 in. wide and 5 in. long.

and so on. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown.. then the second knuckle will be March. April. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. --Contributed by Chas. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. This process is rather a difficult one. as it requires an airtight case. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. provided it is airtight. Bradley. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. the article may be propped up . and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 1. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. C. calling this February. June and November. West Toledo.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. Ohio. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. and extending the whole height of the lantern. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month." etc. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. calling that knuckle January. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box.

The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. fruit jars are required. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. N. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. 1. --Contributed by J.with small sticks. or suspended by a string. the lid or cover closed. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. taking care to have all the edges closed. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. . Schenectady. in. but waxed. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. and set aside for half a day. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. In both Fig. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. and the lead 24 sq. Y. The top of a table will do. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. Pour in a little turpentine. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. in. In each place two electrodes. Crawford. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. H. running small motors and lighting small lamps. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. one of lead and one of aluminum. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. giving it an occasional stir. 1 and 2. 2. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream.

You have an understanding with some one in the company. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. Cleveland. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. you remove the glass. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. O. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. as you have held it all the time. This trick is very simple. After a few seconds' time. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. as well as others. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. at the time of request for handkerchiefs.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. he throws the other. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. which you warm with your hands. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug.. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. He.

The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded.take the handiest one. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear.-Contributed by E. in diameter in the center. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. on a table. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. near a partition or curtain. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Victor. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Pull the ends quickly. Crocker. but in making one. J. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. but by being careful at shores. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Colo. if any snags are encountered. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. Be sure that this is the right one. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. . put it under the glass. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration.

1 in. at the ends. selected pine. 4 outwales. Fig. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. by 8 in. 7 ft. wide 12-oz. of 1-yd. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. from the stern. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . spacing them on the large mould 4 in. are as follows: 1 keelson. 11 yd.. 1 in. 1 mast. Both ends are mortised. 1/8 in. 1/4 in. for the bow. 3 in. 14 rib bands. by 16 ft. is 14 ft. by 2 in. by 12 in. wide unbleached muslin. for center deck braces. wide and 12 ft. from the bow and the large one. 50 ft. thick and 3/4 in. of rope. long.. one 6 in. the smaller is placed 3 ft. 1. long. The keelson. 8 in. and. apart. Paint. wide and 12 ft. 1 piece. by 15 ft. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. by 10 ft. for the stern piece. 3 in. as illustrated in the engraving. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. by 2 in. and fastened with screws. 1 piece. wide. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. 1 in. and the other 12 in. for cockpit frame. long. 3 and 4. screws and cleats. by 16 ft. 2 gunwales. 2 and braced with an iron band. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 9 ft. and is removed after the ribs are in place. square by 16 ft. long. ducking. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. from each end to 1 in. of 1-1/2-yd. clear pine. 2 in. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 8 yd. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 1 in. drilled and fastened with screws.

There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. 1/4 in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. and fastened to them with bolts. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. Braces. 9. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. thick. Fig. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. long. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. corner braces. . long is well soaked in water. a piece 1/4 in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. screws. Fig. The block is fastened to the keelson. from the bow. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. is a cube having sides 6 in. The deck is not so hard to do. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. long. wide. wide and 3 ft. wide. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. also. The trimming is wood. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. 4 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. The 11-yd. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. Figs. thick and 1/2 in. 5. Before making the deck. A 6-in. 3-1/2 ft. 7 and 8. thick. thick 1-1/2 in. A block of pine.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. 6 in. These are put in 6 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. wood screws. They are 1 in. in diameter through the block. thick and 12 in. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. 6 and 7. doubled. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. is cut to fit under the top boards. 1 in. A piece of oak. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. wide and 14 in. length of canvas is cut in the center. 1 in. This block. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. wide and 24 in. long. gunwales and keelson. A seam should be made along the center piece. apart. 6.

--Contributed by O. 11. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. Tronnes. A strip 1 in. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. The house will accommodate 20 families.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. at the other. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. in diameter and 10 ft. wide at one end and 12 in. long. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The sail is a triangle. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. E. Ill. The mast has two side and one front stay. Fig. thick by 2 in. apart in the muslin. . which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. are used for the boom and gaff. The keel. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. 12. each 1 in. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. Wilmette. long. 10 with a movable handle. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. wide. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. is 6 in. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut.

it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. 2-1/2 in. long. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. long and five 1/2-in. long. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. 4. wide. Tronnes. 2 in. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. five 1/2-in. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. wide. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. 3. 1 yd. flat headed screws. and the other 18 in. thick. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 2. about 5/16 in.into two 14-in. square. Fig. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. Ill. flat-headed screws. Wilmette. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. thick. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. and 3 ft. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. 5. with the ends and the other side rounding. thick. Take this and fold it over . pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. wide and 2 ft. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. flat on one side. 2-1/2 in. 1.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. E. Bevel both sides of the pieces. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. Cut the maple. long. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. wide and 30 in. --Contributed by O. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. one 11-1/2 in. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces.

--Contributed by W. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. long. Louis. wide and 2-3/4 in. and make a turn in each end of the wires. 3/8 in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. the mechanical parts can be put together. 6-1/2 in. and the four outside edges. as well as the edges around the opening. about 3/8 in. wide and 4-1/2 in. pieces 2-5/8 in. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. The bag is then turned inside out. F. this square box is well sandpapered. A. A.once. long. forming an eye for a screw. long. 5 from 1/16-in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. About 1/2 in. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. then centered. Make a double stitch all around the edge. 1. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. the top and bottom. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. Another piece. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. Glue a three cornered piece. C. long. St. 1-1/4 in. The front. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. long. When the glue is set. soaked with water and blown up. and take care that the pieces are all square. long. D. C. wide and 2-1/2 in. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. wide and 3 ft. but can be governed by circumstances. After the glue. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. long. square. E. The sides are 3-1/4 in. Mo. wide and 5 in. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. Wind three layers of about No. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. thick. thick. wide and 6-3/4 in. Fig. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. square. wide and 6-1/2 in. are rounded. of each end unwound for connections. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. is set. B. long. Figs. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. wide . with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. 2 and 3. leaving a small opening at one corner. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. If carefully and neatly made. Bliss. Cut another piece of board. thick and 3 in. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. 3-1/4 in. 3 in.

The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in.R. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. I. long. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. 4. board. 4 is not movable. Fig. long. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. that has the end turned with a shoulder. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. 1/4 in. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. 4. W. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. Chapman. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. and fasten in place. A pointer 12 in. The base is a board 5 in. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. When the current flows through the coil. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. in diameter. 5.S. and as the part Fig.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. hole is fastened to the pointer. Place the tin. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. the same size as the first. G. Austwick Hall. from the spindle. Fig. wide and 9 in. F. Yorkshire. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. wide and 2-1/2 in. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. 5-1/2 in. 1/16 in.A. L. long. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. from one end. and the farther apart they will be forced. R. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. The resistance is now adjusted to show . long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. Richmond Hill. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. bored in the back. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. thick. The stronger the current. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center .and 2-5/8 in. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. C. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. so it will just clear the tin. --Contributed by George Heimroth. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. the part carrying the pointer moves away. The end of the polar axis B. These wires should be about 1 in. showing a greater defection of the pointer. Another strip of tin. Like poles repel each other.

Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. 10 min. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. 1881. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. 10 min. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. shows mean siderial. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. M. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. and vice . There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. say Venus at the date of observation. thus: 9 hr. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. at 9 hr. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. 30 min. The following formula will show how this may be found. A. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21.

The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. and then verify its correctness by measurement. --Contributed by Robert W. Hall. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. or. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in.m. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches.f. New Haven. Conn. owing to the low internal resistance. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. . Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. if one of these cannot be had.

Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. fresh grass. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. 1. of alum and 4 oz. cover up with the same. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. as shown in the accompanying picture. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. arsenic to every 20 lb. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. Wet paper will answer. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. 1-3/4 in. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. thick. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . Fig. 3/8 in. The boring bar. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. and heap the glowing coals on top. inside diameter and about 5 in. long. Then. leaves or bark. When the follower is screwed down. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. put the fish among the ashes. especially for cooking fish. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder.

pipe were fitted to these holes so that. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. when they were turned in. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. turned to the same diameter as the flanges.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. pipe. and threaded on both ends. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. fastened with a pin. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. pipe. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. thick. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. about 1/2 in.

The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down.valve stems. bent in the shape of a U. If the valve keeps dripping. wide. Fig. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. 3. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. Fig. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. This plate also supports the rocker arms. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. A 1-in. 30 in. but never one which required so little material. Clermont. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. 5. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. long. Iowa. and which gave such satisfactory results. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. 2. labor and time. as the one illustrated herewith. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. then it should be ground to a fit. was then finished on an emery wheel. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. Fig. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. the float is too high. thick and 3 in. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. The rough frame. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. square iron. however. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. a jump spark would be much better. It . and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. 4.

One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. This makes an easy adjustment. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. strong clear material only should be employed. butting against short stakes. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. in diameter and 15 in. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. hole bored in the post.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. Nieman. in fact. and a little junk. The illustration largely explains itself. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. 3/4 in. It looks like a toy." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. being held in position by spikes as shown. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. in the ground with 8 ft. If it is to be used for adults. --Contributed by C. long. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. The crosspiece is 2 in. square and 5 ft. As there is no bracing. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. no matter what your age or size may be. timber. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. A malleable iron bolt. for the "motive power" to grasp. W. Use a heavy washer at the head. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. from the center. set 3 ft. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. completes the merry-go-round. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. long. rope is not too heavy. square. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. The seats are regular swing boards. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. extending above. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. 12 ft. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. and. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. so it must be strong enough. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. strengthened by a piece 4 in." little and big. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. long. A 3/4 -in. long is the pivot. from all over the neighborhood. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. square and 2 ft. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. with no trees or buildings in the way.

These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. The backbone is flat. 1/4 by 3/32 in. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. 2. and sent to earth. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. and 18 in.the fingers. as shown in Fig. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries.2 emery. square. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. 1. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. light and strong. 4. away. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. if nothing better is at hand. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. one for the backbone and one for the bow. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. These ends are placed about 14 in. Both have large reels full of . then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. then it is securely fastened. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. To wind the string upon the reel. a wreck. A reel is next made. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. long. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. Having placed the backbone in position. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. The bow is now bent. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread.

the balance. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. N. If the second kite is close enough. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. Moody. or glass-covered string. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. he pays out a large amount of string. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. often several hundred yards of it. Newburyport. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. C. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. Mass. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . First. Brooklyn. The handle end is held down with a staple. --Contributed' by Harry S. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Y. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. Bunker.-Contributed by S. common packing thread. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite.string.

such as mill men use. lengths (Fig. length of 2-in. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Hastings. then draw the string up tight. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . --Contributed by Earl R. must be attached to a 3-ft. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Corinth.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. then a dust protector. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Vt. square (Fig. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. each the size of half the table top. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. If the table is round. cutting the circular piece into quarters. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine.

. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working.. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. Wharton. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. 2-1/4 in. Oakland. 16-1/4 in. hard pencil. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. which spoils the leather effect. G to H. trace the design carefully on the leather. from E to F. Use a smooth. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.9-1/4 in. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. and E to G.. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. E.-Contributed by H. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. 6-1/4 in. from C to D. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. . Moisten the . and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. 17-1/2 in. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. Calif. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. If leaves are wanted in extending the table.

wide. and corresponding lines on the other side.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. G-J. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. about 1/8 in. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. H-B. apart. place both together and with a leather punch. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. Trace the openings for the handles. and E-G. with the rounded sides of the tools. get something with which to make a lining. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. I made this motor . and lace through the holes. Cut it the same size as the bag. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. if not more than 1 in. To complete the bag. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Now cut narrow thongs. is taken off at a time. also lines A-G.

The one shown is 3-1/2 in. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. 2. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. of No. D. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. --Contributed by J. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth.M. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. long. 1. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. 24 gauge magnet wire. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. each being a half circle. .Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. Calif. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. 1. Pasadena. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. Shannon. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. iron. in length. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. B. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. 2-1/4 in. as shown in Fig.

Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. The gores for a 6-ft. balloon should be about 8 ft. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. and the gores cut from these. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. high. near the center. 1. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. pasted in alternately. from the bottom end. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. are the best kind to make.

5. These are to hold the wick ball. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. If the gores have been put together right. in diameter. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. as shown in Fig. In starting the balloon on its flight. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. As the boat is driven forward by this force. 1. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. The boat soon attains considerable speed. Fig. A. lap on the edges. so it will hang as shown in Fig. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. E. using about 1/2-in. The steam. leaving the solution on over night. 2. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. saturating it thoroughly. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. After washing. after which the paint will adhere permanently. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. --Contributed by R. B. Staunton. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. 3. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. leaving a long wake behind. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. 4. coming through the small pipe A. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop.widest point. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. In removing grease from wood. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. somewhat larger in size. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney.

The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. wide by 6 in. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. long and each provided with a handle.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. in bowling form. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. if you have several copies of the photograph. There are three ways of doing this: First. The blocks are about 6 in. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. Second. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. high and 8 in. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. long. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. 1. In using either of the two methods described. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. apart on these lines. Third. as is shown in Fig.

2. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. --Contributed by John A. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Albany.Fig. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Hellwig. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Y. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Rinse the plate in cold water. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. N. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. thick. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Fig. being careful not to dent the metal.

2 the front view. S. Paine. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. In Fig. thick. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. 5 in. CC. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. A circular piece of wood. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . long for the base. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. With this device. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. which is 4 in. is fastened to a common camera tripod. and not produce the right sound. 1 Fig. A. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. through which passes the set screw S. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. 6 in. with a set screw. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. Va. A. B. --Contributed by R. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. and Fig. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. wide and of any desired height.upon any particular object. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. Richmond. Break off the frame. are screwed to the circular piece. in diameter. and. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. These corner irons are also screwed to. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. Corner irons. wide and 8 in. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water.

S. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. as only the can is visible. La Salle. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. . shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. I made a wheel 26 in. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. -1. Lake Preston. in diameter of some 1-in. R. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. Ill. This will make a very compact electric horn. thus producing sound waves. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. Kidder. pine boards. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. This horn.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. D. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal.

Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Purdy. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. square. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. The frame is made of a heavy card. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Doylestown. Ghent. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Kane. Fig. If there is a large collection of coins. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. --Contributed by James R. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. the same thickness as the coins. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. 1. O. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. A. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. 2. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. If the collection consists of only a few coins. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. --Contributed by C. B. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. thick and 12 in. 1. Feet may be added to the base if desired.

When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Toronto. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. --Contributed by R. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. cut and grooved. It will hold 4 oz. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. Wis. The material required is a sheet of No. A lead pencil. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. Noble. melted and applied with a brush. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing.E. Neyer. One Cloud. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. thick. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. they become uninteresting. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. a hammer or mallet. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. A rivet punch is desirable. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. into which to place the screws .A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. Smith. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. Canada. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. and then glued together as indicated. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. --Contributed by August T. If desired. --Contributed by J. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used.J. Milwaukee. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. plus a 3/8-in. border all around. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. several large nails. Cal. though not absolutely necessary. for after the slides have been shown a few times. of developer.

Punch rivet holes in holder and band. and file it to a chisel edge. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. both outline and decoration. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. using 1/2-in.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Take the nail. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. never upon the metal directly. screws placed about 1 in. draw one part. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. like the one shown. Remove the screws. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. There are several ways of working up the design. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . If the design is to be of two-part symmetry.

being ball bearing. up from the lower end. square. square and 181/2 in. for the top. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. 3/4 in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. Do not bend it over or flatten it. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. long. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. Rivet the band to the holder.wall. for the lower rails. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. About 1/2 yd. of 11-in. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. 3. long. square and 11 in. in the other. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. using a 1/2in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. The pedal. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. l-1/8 in. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. . for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. as shown in Fig. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. each 1 in. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. two lengths. and two lengths. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. 1. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. 2. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. long. Provide four lengths for the legs.

Attalla. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. Quackenbush. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. having quite a length of threads. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. --Contributed by John Shahan. --Contributed by W. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. Ala. F. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. New York City. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners.

This novelty watch fob is made from felt. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. Assemble as shown in the sketch. and two holes in the other. making a lap of about 1 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. something that is carbonated. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. and the other 2-3/4 in. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. college or lodge colors. in depth.. one about 1 in. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. initial. D. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . from one end. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. long. long. from the end. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. using class. stitched on both edges for appearance. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Luther. wide and 4-1/4 in. Ironwood. Two pieces of felt. long. --Contributed by C. Mich. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. each 1-1/4 in. and 3/8 in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. The desired emblem. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. wide and 8-1/4 in. the end of the other piece is folded over.

Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. --Contributed by John H. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. 2. 1. or more in height. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. from the center and opposite each other. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. which can be procured from a plumber. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. in diameter and 2 in.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. and the cork will be driven out. about 2 in. Indianapolis. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. as shown at B. in the cover and the bottom. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . 1/4 in. if desired by the operator. as shown in the sketch. or a pasteboard box. Schatz. Fig. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Ind. This method allows a wide range of designs. Punch two holes A. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. A piece of lead.

O. metal. and the ends of the bands looped over them. Columbus. as shown in Fig. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. 4. The pieces of tin between the holes A. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. putting in the design. Fig. 1. or marble will serve. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. 3. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. are turned up as in Fig.Rolling Can Toy lead. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. it winds up the rubber band. 5. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. on both top and bottom. When the can is rolled away from you. A piece of thick glass. . but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. allowing the two ends to be free. --Contributed by Mack Wilson.

thicker than the pinion. A pencil may be used the first time over. After this has been done. Next place the leather on the glass. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. I secured a board 3/4 in. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. from each end. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. and. 3 in. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. The edges should be about 1/8 in.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. long and bored a 1/2-in. face up. If it is desired to "line" the inside. deep in its face. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. or more thick on each side. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. 1 in. mark over the design. hole through it. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. wide and 20 in. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. thick. New York City. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform.

1 piece for clamp. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. and fit it in place for the side vise. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 3 by 3 by 36. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 1 piece. Make the lower frame first. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. Cut the 2-in. 1 back board. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 2. N. Brooklyn. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. in diameter. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 1 by 12 by 77 in. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 1 piece for clamp. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 1 top board. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time.in the board into the bench top. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. Rice. thick top board. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 1 screw block. 1 top board. 1. New York. Fig. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. Syracuse. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. Y. pieces for the vise slides. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. M. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. lag screws as shown. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 2 crosspieces. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. --Contributed by A. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 2 end rails. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Now fit up the two clamps. 2 side rails. 4 guides. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig.

The bench is now complete. 1 claw hammer. 1 rip saw. 1 pocket level. 2 screwdrivers. 1 nail set. 1 pair dividers. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 pair pliers. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 1 set chisels. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. as well as the pattern maker. . 1 wood scraper. 1 jack plane or smoother. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 bench plane or jointer. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. in diameter. 1 cross cut saw. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. Only the long run. 1 countersink. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 set gimlets. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 24 in. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 brace and set of bits.. 24 in.screws. 1 2-ft. rule. The amateur workman. 3 and 6 in. 1 monkey wrench.. 1 compass saw. 1 marking gauge. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws.. it can be easily found when wanted. If each tool is kept in a certain place.

No. 2. Kane. but will not make . Fig.1. Fig. 1. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. The calf skin. 1 oilstone. Fig. after constant use. will sink into the handle as shown at D. becomes like A. the projecting point A.1 6-in. ---Contributed by James M. 2 and 00 sandpaper. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. will be easier to work. 3. try square. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. being softer. Fig. 1. Doylestown. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. Pa. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife.

A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. After the outlines are traced. then prepare the leather. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. cover it completely with water enamel and. White. . and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. The form can be made of a stick of wood. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. lay the design on the face. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. New York City. Having prepared the two sides. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. First draw the design on paper. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. If calf skin is to be used. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. will do just as well. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. -Contributed by Julia A. Turn the leather. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. If cow hide is preferred. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. the same method of treatment is used. but a V-shaped nut pick. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. Two pieces will be required of this size. and the length 6-5/8 in. which steam. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. when dry. water or heat will not affect. secure a piece of modeling calf. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather.as rigid a case as the cow skin. such as copper or brass.

Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. New York City. --Contributed by W. as shown in the sketch. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Herrman. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. . Cal. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. --Contributed by Chas. Portland. Jaquythe. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. A. --Contributed by Chester L. Richmond. C. Maine. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Cobb. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low.

the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. for instance.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. Cambridge. --Contributed by Wm. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. Roberts. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Wright. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. was marked out as shown. This was very difficult. B. Conn. A thick piece of tin. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller.. an inverted stewpan. --Contributed by Geo. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. . Middletown. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. Mass. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well.

taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. Illinois. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. but not running over. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. A beautifully bound book. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. The next morning there was no trace of oil. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. face down. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. If the article is highly polished. used as part of furniture. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. Herbert. which has been tried out several times with success. Bone. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. F. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. on a clear piece of glass. pulverized and applied. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. such as chair seats. of boiling water. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. Ind. --Contributed by Paul Keller. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. as shown.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. Indianapolis. When dry. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. . had oil from a lamp spilled over it. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. L. but only an odor which soon vanished. If any traces of the grease are left. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. and quite new.. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. well calcined and powdered. so some bones were quickly calcined. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. and the grease will disappear. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. --Contributed by C. apply powdered calcined magnesia. There was no quicklime to be had. Chicago.

. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. The pieces marked S are single. deep and 5 in. --Contributed by Geo. soft steel with the opening 6 in. high and are bolted to a block of wood. 2 in. New York..Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. long. This coaster is simple and easy to make. If properly adjusted. wide and 12 in. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. A. Tarrytown. Howe. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. says Scientific American. thick. 6 in. the pieces . set and thumbscrews.

which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Their size depends on the plate used. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. with a short bolt through each pair as shown.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. for sending to friends. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. If the letters are all cut the same height. The seat is a board. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. E. albums and the like. A sharp knife. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. to the underside of which is a block. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. no doubt. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. says Camera Craft. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. they will look remarkably uniform. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters.

and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. pasting the prints on some thin card. mount them on short pieces of corks. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. So made. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. The puzzle is to get . they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. for example. So arranged. using care to get it in the right position. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. In cutting out an 0. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. photographing them down to the desired size. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. and. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. after. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole.

snow or anything to hide it.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. of its top. G.J.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. Cape May Point. long that will just fit are set in. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . He smells the bait. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. hung on pivots. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. squeezes along past the center of the tube. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. N. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. Old-Time Magic . A hole 6 or 7 in. with the longest end outside. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. so they will lie horizontal. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves.-Contributed by I. says the American Thresherman. Bayley. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row.

Idaho. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Brooklyn. Szerlip. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Pocatello. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Rhode Island. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Pawtucket. --Contributed by L. E. --Contributed by L. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Y.faced up. N. then expose again. --Contributed by Charles Graham. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Parker. then spread the string. Press the hands together. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined.

then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. long. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. or a complete suit of armor. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. When the whole is quite dry. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. dark red. and if carefully made. The pieces. wide and 2 in. if any. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. in width. whether he requires a single sword only. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. near the point end. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. 1 Fig. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. full size. using a straightedge and a pencil. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. 2 Fig. narrower. in building up his work from the illustrations. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. The blade should be about 27 in. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands.Genuine antique swords and armor. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. The handle is next made. they will look very much like the genuine article. Glue the other side of the blade. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. 1. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. 4 on the blade. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. wipe the blade . 3 Fig.. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. When the glue is thoroughly dry. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. says the English Mechanic. thick. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. end of the blade.. or green oil paint.

the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. This sword is about 68 in. as it is . In making. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. in the widest part at the lower end. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. 2. 3. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. and 3 in. thick and 5 in. 1. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. follow the directions as for Fig. should be about 9 in. not for use only in cases of tableaux.. shows only two sides. about 1-1/2 in. 1. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. in diameter. 3. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. 2.with light strokes up and down several times. In making this scimitar. Fig. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. long. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. the other two are identical. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. allowing for a good hold with both hands. the other is flat or half-round. the illustration. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. the other is flat or halfround. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. preferably of contrasting colors. 1/8 in. of course. The length of the handle. In the finished piece. square and of any length desired. 1. Both edges of the blade are sharp. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. take two pieces of wood. 1. the length of the blade 28 in. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig.. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. 4. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side.

piping and jackets by hard water. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. It is made of a plank. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. and.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. On each edge of the board. N. Franklin. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. --Contributed by John Blake. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. in an attempt to remove it. Y. Morse. and if so. however. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. at the lower end. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. A cold . Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. long. --Contributed by Katharine D. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. as shown in the sketch. or an insecure fastening. as can the pitch bed or block. Syracuse. about 3/8 in. Doctors probed for the button without success. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. square. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. The thinness of the plank. each about 1 ft. A piece of mild steel. Mass. 2 in. Both can be made easily. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. as there was some at hand.

When this has been done. To put it in another way. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. 5 lb. To remedy this. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. tallow. using a small metal saw. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again.. design down. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. secure a piece of brass of about No. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised..chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. Trim up the edges and file them . a file to reduce the ends to shape. on the pitch. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. plaster of Paris. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. When the desired form has been obtained. 18 gauge. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. 5 lb. The metal will probably be warped somewhat.

in the center. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. 1) and the other 12 in. living together in what seems like one receptacle.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. A. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. The smaller is placed within the larger. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Before giving the description. and hang a bird swing. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. That is lifting 33. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. 1 ft. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. per second. 30 ft. in diameter (Fig. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. but not to stop it. using powdered pumice with lye.000 ft. . to keep it from floating. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. lb. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do.000 lb. over the smaller vessel. it may be well to know what horsepower means. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. 3. Cutter. in one minute or 550 lb. Clean the metal thoroughly. 1 ft. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. per minute. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. space between the vessels with water.smooth. lb. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. or 550 ft. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. Fill the 3-in. --Contributed by Harold H. in diameter (Fig. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. one 18 in. or fraction of a horsepower. make an unusual show window attraction. and still revolve. This in turn divided by 33.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. 2). Fig. in one second. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight.

Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. N. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. The effect is surprising. 2 Fig. or on a pedestal.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Szerlip. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes.18 in. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Mass. --Contributed. 1 Fig. Brooklyn. by L. F. --Contributed by J.3 Fig. Somerville. Diameter 12 in. Y. Diameter Fig. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Campbell.

covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. as a rule. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. then by drawing a straightedge over it. In riveting. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. Do not be content merely to bend them over. and then. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. unsatisfactory. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. which. using any of the common metal polishes. often render it useless after a few months service. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. and cut out the shape with the shears. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. is. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Polish both of these pieces. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration.copper of No. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. and the clay . This compound is impervious to water. away from the edge. with the pliers. Rivet the cup to the base. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. after which it is ready for use. with other defects. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. the same as removing writing from a slate. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. to keep the metal from tarnishing. keeping the center high. which may be of wood or tin. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth.

the device will work for an indefinite time. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. Mich. --Contributed by John T. Northville. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. Shettleston. DeLoof. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. . It is made of a glass tube. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. 1. in diameter and 5 in.can be pressed back and leveled. as shown in Fig. A. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. -Contributed by Thos. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. Mich. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. long. Grand Rapids. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. 2. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Dunlop. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. 3/4 in. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. Scotland. The siphon is made of glass tubes. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. --Contributed by A. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. Houghton. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes.

The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. London. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. in width and 2 in. stilettos and battle-axes. This sword is 4 ft. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. long. put up as ornaments.FIG. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. As the handle is to .2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. 1.1 FIG.

represent copper. The lower half of the handle is of wood. This sword is about 4 ft. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. This weapon is also about 1 ft. with wire or string' bound handle. sharp edges on both sides. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. sometimes called cuirass breakers. When the glue is thoroughly dry. then glued on the blade as shown. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. in width. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. Both handle and axe are of steel. The ball is made as described in Fig. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. glue and put it in place. 8. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. with both edges sharp. long. firmly glued on. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. 7. These must be cut from pieces of wood. very broad. in length. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. 4. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. This axe is made similar to the one . 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. 20 spike. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. 3 is shown a claymore. A German poniard is shown in Fig. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. in length. studded with brass or steel nails. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. Three large. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. A German stiletto. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. In Fig. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. In Fig. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. 9. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. 11 were used. narrower. is shown in Fig. long with a dark handle of wood. the same as used on the end of the handle. This stiletto has a wood handle. The handle is of wood. with both edges of the blade sharp. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. the upper part iron or steel. one about 1/2 in. The sword shown in Fig. In Fig. The crossbar and blade are steel. This weapon is about 1 ft. When the whole is quite dry. When dry. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. 5. Cut two strips of tinfoil. wood with a keyhole saw. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. which is about 2-1/2 ft. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. small rope and round-headed nails. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. the axe is of steel. paint it a dark brown or black. string. 6. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in.

Chicago. This will make a very good flexible belt. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand.described in Fig. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. . high. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. Old-Time Magic . 10. Davis. will pull where other belts slip. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. the ends are tied and cut off. such as braided fishline. When wrapped all the way around. W. so the contents cannot be seen. --Contributed by E. 2. together as shown in Fig. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord.

S. Calif. some of the liquid. filled with water. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. To make the flowers grow in an instant. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . Bridgeton. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. There will be no change in color. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. Macdonald. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails.J. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. The dotted lines in Fig. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. These wires are put in the jar. 2. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. N. in a few seconds' time. about one-third the way down from the top. an acid. or using small wedges of wood. As zinc is much lighter than iron. held in the right hand. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. four glass tumblers. 1 and put together as in Fig. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Before the performance. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Oakland. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. with the circle centrally located. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. --Contributed by A. apparently. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. causing the flowers to grow.

can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. practical and costs nothing. This outlines the desired opening. says a correspondent of Photo Era. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. Jaquythe. not only because of the fact just mentioned. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. A. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. and equally worthy of individual treatment. When many slides are to be masked. unless some special device is used. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. Cal. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. 2 for height. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . which are numbered for convenience in working. Richmond. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. If the size wanted is No. and kept ready for use at any time. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. 4 for width and No. --Contributed by W. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print.

Draw a design. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. too. This done. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. or a pair of old tongs. which is dangerous. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. The decoration. the paper is folded along the center line. When etched to the desired depth. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. The one shown is merely suggestive. possibly. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. paint the design. but they can be easily revived. using the carbon paper. may be changed. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. With a stick. Secure a sheet of No. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. about half and half. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. is about right for the No. and do not inhale the fumes. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. or. 16 gauge. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. the margin and the entire back of the metal. a little less acid than water. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. and the extreme length 7 in. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. not the water into the acid.

How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. Paint the table any color desired. A. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. 0 indicates the batteries. as in Fig. 5. about 1 in. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. as shown in the illustration. so that when it is pressed down. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. to the table. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. high. Fig. long. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. 2. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. 1. the bell will ring. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. Fig.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. about 2-1/2 in. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. about 3 ft. The connections are simple: I. Fig. 2. . through it. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. or more wide. with the wires underneath. about 8 in. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. Then get two posts. 3/8 in. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. C and D. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. Cut out a piece of tin. repeat as many times as is necessary. 3. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. Fig. Nail a board. J is another wire attached in the same way. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. It may be either nailed or screwed down. and about 2-1/2 ft. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. in diameter and 1/4 in. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. 24 parts water. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. as shown in Fig. thick. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. 2. wide and of the same length as the table. 4. When the button S is pressed. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. Fig. it will touch post F. and bore two holes. 5. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. attached to a post at each end. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. wide. as at H. long and 1 ft.

says the English Mechanic. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. 1. long.Imitation Arms and Armor . The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together.. thick. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. This weapon is about 22 in. The circle is marked out with a compass. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. but they are somewhat difficult to make. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. such as . Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. 2. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. is to appear as steel. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. handle and all. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. the wood peg inserted in one of them. After the glue is dry. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The entire weapon. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. long serves as the dowel. A wood peg about 2 in. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. The imitation articles are made of wood. These rings can be carved out.

etc. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth.ornamental scrolls. If such a tool is not at hand. covered with red velvet. The handle is of steel imitation. 2. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. as described in Fig. 3. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. Its length is about 3 ft. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. 8. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. also. studded with large brass or steel nails. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. as shown. long. is shown in Fig. The entire handle should be made of one piece. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. All of these axes are about the same length. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. . with a sharp carving tool. The axe is shown in steel. used at the end of the fifteenth century. as before mentioned. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. 5. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. The upper half of the handle is steel. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. the hammer and spike. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. or the amateur cannot use it well. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. 6. leaves. flowers. The handle is of wood. The spikes are cut out of wood. This weapon is about 22 in. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. The lower half of the handle is wood. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil.

3. 1. as in Fig. 7) calls for one out. 2. Fig. . A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. a three-base hit. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. A foul ball is indicated by Fig.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 6. and so on for nine innings. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Each person plays until three outs have been made. then the other plays. 5. calls for a home run. the knife resting on its back. as shown in Fig. Chicago. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. The knife falling on its side (Fig. 4).

of water for an hour or two. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make.-Contributed by J. hypo to 1 pt. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. one of them burning . F. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. Somerville. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. while the committee is tying him up. as shown in Fig. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. It may be found that the negative is not colored. Campbell. Mass. as shown in Fig. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. with the rope laced in the cloth. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. of the rope and holds it. Old-Time Magic . As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. 2. 1. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. 3. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. If it is spotted at all. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. This he does.

4 oz. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. Drill Gauge screw. bolt. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. 4 oz. Ky. Lebanon. of turpentine. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Louisville.. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. Thome. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. with which he is going to light the other candle. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. showing that there is nothing between them. and. Ky. --Contributed by L.Contributed by Andrew G. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. of sugar. invisible to them (the audience). etc. Evans. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. --Contributed by C. the other without a light. 3/4 in. B. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. He then walks over to the other candle. thus causing it to light. of water and 1 oz. shades the light for a few seconds. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. thick. Brown.brightly. New York City. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. of plumbago. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. The magician walks over to the burning candle. .

about 5 in. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. N. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. for the material. into a tube of several thicknesses.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. Do not add water to the acid. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. Y. steady current. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. which will give a strong. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. or blotting paper. Pulteney. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. Its current strength is about one volt. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. To make the porous cell. H. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. 5 in. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. but is not so good. In making up the solution. diameter. thick. Denniston. --Contributed by C. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. long.

A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. One hole was bored as well as possible. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. one drawing them together.station. long with a bearing at each end. steel. a positive adjustment was provided. As to thickness. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. carrying the hour circle at one end. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The . the other holding them apart. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts.) may be obtained. After much experimentation with bearings. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. steel. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. but somewhat lighter. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. To insure this. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. steel. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. while the other end is attached by two screws. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. Finally.

. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate." When this is done. All set screws. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. The pointer is directed to Alpha. is provided with this adjustment. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. are tightened. subtract 24. The aperture should be 1/4 in. It is. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. once carefully made. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. If the result is more than 24 hours. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. need not be changed. apart.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. excepting those on the declination axis. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. All these adjustments. To find a star in the heavens. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. and 15 min. Declination is read directly. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. Point it approximately to the north star. save the one in the pipe. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. To locate a known star on the map. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. Cassiopiae. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . and if it is not again directed to the same point. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. turn the pointer to the star. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. When properly set it will describe a great circle. 45 min. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg." Only a rough setting is necessary. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. Set the declination circle to its reading. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. Instead. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg.. The pole is 1 deg. Each shaft. in each direction from two points 180 deg.

which is the one examined. benzole. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. a great effect will be produced. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. cannon balls. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. of ether. Ohio. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. -Contributed by Ray E. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. La. then add 1 2-3 dr. taking care not to add too much. Plain City. The ball is found to be the genuine article.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. add a little more benzole. 3 or 4 in. long. is the real cannon ball. The dance will begin. as shown in the sketch. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. Strosnider. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. New Orleans. is folded several times.. In reality the first ball. If this will be too transparent. the others .

--Contributed by Herm Grabemann. Somerville. without taking up any great amount of space. etc. 2. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. Fig. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Wis. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Return the card to the pack. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. taps. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. Cal. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. small brooches. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card.. F. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. San Francisco. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. 1). Campbell. --Contributed by J. Mass. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. as shown in the illustration. In boxes having a sliding cover. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Milwaukee.

.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Hartford. round pieces 2-1/4 in. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. prints. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. thus giving ample store room for colors. as shown in the illustration. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. Beller. slides and extra brushes. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Connecticut. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. from the bottom of the box. This box has done good service. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse.

I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. 2). tacking the gauze well at the corners. with well packed horse manure. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. holes in the bottom of one. about threefourths full. -Contributed by C. O. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. West Lynn. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. or placed against a wall. costing 5 cents. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. 1). When the ends are turned under. Mass. Fill the upper tub. will answer the purpose. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. . Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. FIG. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. Darke. and pour water on it until it is well soaked.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end.

The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. cutting the cane between the holes. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. Eifel. Chicago. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. M. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. oil or other fluid. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. --Contributed by L. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. when they are raised from the pan. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. they should be knocked out. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. and each bundle contains . if this is not available. If the following directions are carried out. If plugs are found in any of the holes.

and. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. after having been pulled tight. it should be held by a plug. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. a square pointed wedge. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. 1. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. No plugs . and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. held there by inserting another plug. put about 3 or 4 in. In addition to the cane. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. as shown in Fig. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. as it must be removed again. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. then across and down. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes.

can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB.2+. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or .42 in. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. lat. During the weaving. R. is the base (5 in. 1.5 in. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. as shown in Fig. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. or the style. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. This will make three layers. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. --Contributed by M. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired.= 4. If handled with a little care. and the one we shall describe in this article. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. 1. in this case) times the .15 in. trim off the surplus rosin. the height of the line BC.3 in. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair.2 in. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. Patrick. 41°-30'. No weaving has been done up to this time. as for example. for 2°. Fig. From table No. called the gnomon. Fig. -Contributed by E. If you have a table of natural functions. All added to the lesser or 40°. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. After completing the second layer. Their difference is . When cool. the next smallest. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. is the horizontal dial. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. W. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. as it always equals the latitude of the place. Detroit. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. Even with this lubrication. The style or gnomon. but the most common.075 in. 5 in. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. and for lat. 3. 40°. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. 5. 4. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. it is 4. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. 1 lat. the height of which is taken from table No.075 in. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. as shown in Fig. Michigan. There are several different designs of sundials.15+. 41 °-30'. It consists of a flat circular table. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. using the same holes as for the first layer. 42° is 4. 1. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. 3. D. as the height of the line BC for lat. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. we have 4. and for 1° it would be . stretch the third one. After finishing this fourth layer of strands.

57 1.00 40° 4. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.82 5. if of metal. or if of stone.94 1.93 2. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.68 5-30 6-30 5.07 4. To layout the hour circle. Chords in inches for a 10 in. 2 for given latitudes.56 .11 3.18 28° 2.29 4-30 7-30 3.16 1.32 6.02 1.49 30 .55 5.81 4. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .55 46° 5. base.39 .59 2.82 3.40 1. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.49 3.33 42° 4.85 1.46 3.30 1. gives the 6 o'clock points.tangent of the degree of latitude.91 58° 8. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.14 5.19 1.44 44° 4.30 2.42 1.33 . Table NO.37 54° 6.50 26° 2. using the points A and C as centers.16 40 .66 48° 5.82 2.77 2. and perpendicular to the base or style.03 3. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. 2. an inch or two. and for this size dial (10 in.38 .37 5.41 38° 3.96 32° 3. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. or more.99 2.20 60° 8. and intersecting the semicircles.23 6.83 27° 2. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.42 45 . Fig. For latitudes not given.64 4 8 3. Its thickness. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. Draw two semi-circles. according to the size of the dial.88 36° 3.76 1.66 1. long.93 6.27 2.46 .87 1. 1. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.79 4. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. . Draw the line AD.63 56° 7. 2.57 3.06 2.85 35 .10 6.12 52° 6.66 latitude.40 34° 3. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. circle Sundial.55 30° 2.97 5 7 4.28 .55 4.89 50° 5. which will represent the base in length and thickness. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.87 4.42 . with a radius of 5 in.26 4.

The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.77 3. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.add those marked + subtract those Marked . making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. adding to each piece interest and value. Sept.52 Table No. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. London. As they are the genuine reproductions. Each weapon is cut from wood. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. 25. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.12 5. 900 Chicago. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. it will be faster.46 4. This correction can be added to the values in table No.50 55 .53 1.50 .98 4.10 4.means that the dial is faster than the sun. 2 and Dec.19 2. 3 Corrections in minutes to change..89 3. E.37 2. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. Sun time to local mean time.68 3. 3.60 4.08 1. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.01 1. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.57 1. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position.21 2. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.06 2. will enable one to set the dial. says the English Mechanic.46 5. Mitchell.49 5. --Contributed by J.71 2.34 5.82 3. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. Iowa. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .54 60 . June 15.93 6. April 16. after allowing for the declination. The + means that the clock is faster. An ordinary compass. then the watch is slower.from Sundial lime. each article can be labelled with the name.87 6. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.79 6.14 1.72 5. 3. and for the difference between standard and local time. Sioux City.30 2. and the . Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.63 1. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.49 3.24 5. if west.

If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. the length of which is about 5 ft. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. 3. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. 1. Partisan. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. When putting on the tinfoil. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft.. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. .

The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. This weapon is about 6 ft. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. the holes being about 1/4 in. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. . The extreme length is 9 ft. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. long. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. long with a round staff or handle. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. It is about 6 ft. press it well into the carved depressions. 5. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. A gisarm or glaive. The spear is steel. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century.which is square. used about the seventeenth century. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. in diameter. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. long. The edges are sharp. 6 ft. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. 8.. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. long with a round wooden handle. sharp on the outer edges. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. 7. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. about 4 in. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. which are a part of the axe. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. is shown in Fig. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown.

as shown in Fig. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. are put in place. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. Cut all the cords the same length. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Substances such as straw. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. Loudonville. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. This is important to secure neatness. Workman. The twisted cross cords should . 1. 2 and 3. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. B. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. the most durable being bamboo. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. apart. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. 5.-Contributed by R. the cross cords. They can be made of various materials. 4.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. In Figs. are less durable and will quickly show wear. or in holes punched in a leather strap. H. used for spacing and binding the whole together. Ohio.

of the bottom. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. M. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. New Orleans. The first design shown is for using bamboo. wide. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. To remedy this. A slit was cut in the bottom. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. shaped as shown at C. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing.be of such material. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. -Contributed by Geo. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. below the top to within 1/4 in. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. for a length extending from a point 2 in. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. This was turned over the top of the other can. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. bamboo or rolled paper. La. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. in which was placed a piece of glass. New York. Four V-shaped notches were cut. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. Harrer. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. as shown at B. Lockport. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. 3 in.

--Contributed by Chas. Shay. wide. is shown in the accompanying sketch. H. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. about 1/16 in. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. Pasadena. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. giving the appearance of hammered brass. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. turned over but not fastened. This should be done gradually. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. Newburgh. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. Schaffner. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. --Contributed by Joseph H. and two along the side for attaching the staff. This plank. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. do not throw away the gloves. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. Maywood. It would be well to polish the brass at first. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. After this is finished. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. Y. the brass is loosened from the block. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . N.tape from sticking to the carpet. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. Ill. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. --Contributed by W. Cal. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. Sanford. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat.

Cal. Oak Park. -Contributed by W. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Richmond. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. --E. in diameter. Ill. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Marshall. Unlike most clocks. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. A. Jaquythe. K. the pendulum swings . bent as shown. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration.

high. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. 7-1/2 in. Now place the board to be joined. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. wide. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. A. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. on the board B. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. such as this one. high. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. are secured in the base bar. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. away. bar. thick. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. wide that is perfectly flat. by 1-5/16 in. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. Metzech. about 12 in. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Fasten another board. high. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other.. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. C. --Contributed by V. says the Scientific American. bearing on the latter. about 6 in. Chicago. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. in diameter. B. and the other two 2-5/8 in. only have the opposite side up. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. The construction is very simple. Secure a board. In using this method. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. high and 1/4 in. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. Two uprights. to the first one with screws or glue. the center one being 2-3/4 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. 5/16 in. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. 3/4 in. long and at each side of this. . 6 in. is an electromagnet.

A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. long. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. 4. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. or more. from one end. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. 1. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. 2. square. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. 3. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. Phoenixville. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. as shown at A. --Contributed by Elmer A. The trigger. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. Fig. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. whose dimensions are given in Fig.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. by driving a pin through the wood. Fig. Pa. plates should be made 8 in. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. . square inside. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. Vanderslice. 1. is fastened in the hole A. wide and 1 in. wide and 5 in. 1. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig.

5 parts of black filler. -Contributed by J.A. Simonis. which allows 1/4 in. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. Fostoria. one-half the length of the side pieces. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. square. as shown in the illustration. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. by weight. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. if only two bands are put in the . This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. 2 parts of whiting. rubbing varnish and turpentine. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. Ohio.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin.

which may be either of ground or plain glass. --Contributed by Thos. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. Grand Rapids. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. No. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. Shaw. long.lower strings. In use. DeLoof. 8 in. and it may be made as a model or full sized. in the opposite end of the box. says the English Mechanic. as shown in Fig. place tracing paper on its surface. deep. and the picture can be drawn as described. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. A piece of metal. Michigan. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. preferably copper. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. wide and about 1 ft. G. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. If a plain glass is used. In constructing helmets. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. 1. A mirror. London. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. Dartmouth. -Contributed by Abner B. is set at an angle of 45 deg. Mass. II. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. keeps the strong light out when sketching. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. is necessary. A double convex lens. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. It must be kept moist and well . The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass.

pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. a few clay-modeling tools. as in bas-relief. 2. brown. as shown in Fig. the clay model oiled. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand.kneaded. Scraps of thin. This being done. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. on which to place the clay. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. joined closely together. take. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. and the deft use of the fingers. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . 1. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. All being ready. 3. 1. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. shown in Fig. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. After the clay model is finished. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. The clay. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. will be necessary. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. and left over night to soak. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. or some thin glue. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. with a keyhole saw. and over the crest on top. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. and continue until the clay is completely covered.

A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. and the ear guards in two pieces. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. This contrivance should be made of wood. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. or. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. then another coating of glue. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. as shown: in the design. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. a crest on top. In Fig. Before taking it off the model. They are all covered with tinfoil. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. which should be no difficult matter. 7. a few lines running down. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. the piecing could not be detected. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. will make it look neat. should be modeled and made in one piece. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. Indiana. and so on. the skullcap. The whole helmet. owing to the clay being oiled. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 5. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable.as possible. Indianapolis. square in shape. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. When perfectly dry. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. 1. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. 9. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. In Fig. When dry. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. with the exception of the vizor. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. When the helmet is off the model. as seen in the other part of the sketch. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. The center of the ear guards are perforated. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. --Contributed by Paul Keller. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . The band is decorated with brass studs. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. one for each side.

and. 12 in. 4. 3. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. 1. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. 1. which can be bought from a local druggist. Fig. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. long. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. Fig. 1. long. 1 in. Fig. E and F. This will allow the plate. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. for connections. German-silver wire is better. as it stands a higher temperature. Fig. one oblong piece of wood. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. 4. high. with slits cut for the wires. 4 lb. Fig. are allowed to project about 1 in. 4. Fig. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . thick sheet asbestos. is shown in Fig. above the collar. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. AA. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. 1. Fig. JJ. 1. thick. of the top. as shown in Fig. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. each 4-1/2 in. of fire clay. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. A round collar of galvanized iron. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. if this cannot be obtained. 3 in. of No. GG. Fig. as shown in Fig. to receive screws for holding it to the base. about 1/4 in. screws. one glass tube. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. Fig. The plate. one small switch. AA. two ordinary binding posts. is then packed down inside the collar. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. If a neat appearance is desired. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. Fig. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. FF. The reverse side of the base. 4. until it is within 1 in. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. or. The two holes. 1. This will make an open space between the plates. 2. and two large 3in. Fig. and C. The holes B and C are about 3 in. as shown in Fig. 4. the fuse block. long. should extend about 1/4 in. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. AA. in diameter and 9 in. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. 2. The mineral wool. 2. the holes leading to the switch. one fuse block. 4. Fig. Fig.same size. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. about 1 lb. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. 4. 22 gauge resistance wire. when they are placed in opposite positions. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. about 80 ft. wide and 15 in. also the switch B and the fuse block C. if the measurements are correct. If asbestos is used. of mineral wool.

While the clay is damp. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. using care not to get it too wet. II. as the turns of the wires. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. --Contributed by R. KK. When the tile is in place. more wire should be added. Cover over about 1 in. 4. A. A file can be used to remove any rough places. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. H. 2. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. Catherines. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. As these connections cannot be soldered. The clay. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. Cnonyn. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. If it is not thoroughly dry. Can. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. then. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. Cal. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. will slip and come in contact with each other. This completes the stove. and pressed into it. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. When this is done. If this is the case. deep. It should not be left heated in this condition. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. when heated. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. it leaves a gate for the metal. steam will form when the current is applied.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. causing a short circuit. so that the circuit will not become broken. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. --Contributed by W. apart. allowing a space between each turn. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. Jaquythe. when cool. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. Cut a 1/2-in. Fig. Richmond. Fig. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. Next. above the rim. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. This point marks the proper length to cut it. St. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. It should not be set on end. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts.

If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. the pie will be damaged. Ky. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. but 12 by 24 in. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Thorne. the air can enter from both top and bottom. and the frame set near a window. says the Photographic Times. and the prints will dry rapidly. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. --Contributed by Andrew G. Louisville. square material in any size. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. is large enough. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. constructed of 3/4-in. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. Then clip a little off the . thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. as shown. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher.

1. each 1/2 in. 1. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. high. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. An offset is bent in the center. Iowa. Two supports. 2-1/2 in. thick and 3 in. for the crank. in diameter and about 4 in. long. high. wide and 3 in. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. Fig. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. Le Mars. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. wide. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. Fig. The connections are made as shown in Fig. each 1 in. 4 in. 1. -Contributed by S. 14 in. long. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. 22 gauge magnet wire. 3. high. 1 and 3. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. 2. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. The upright B. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. A 1/8-in. The board can be raised to place . 1/2 in. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. The connecting rod E. Figs. as shown. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. slip on two cardboard washers. at GG. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. W. long. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. As the shaft revolves. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. which are fastened to the base. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. open out. wide and 7 in. Fig. Herron. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. allowing each end to project for connections. in diameter. The driving arm D. causing a break in the current. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly.Paper Funnel point. thick. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. long. which gives the shaft a half turn. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. thereby saving time and washing. thick and 3 in. 1/2 in. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. 1.

Stecher. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. 3 in. as shown in the sketch. . One or more pots may be used. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. in height. --Contributed by William F. bottom side up. In designing the roost. Place the pot. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. Dorchester. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. Mass. on a board. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. making a framework suitable for a roost. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood.

Fig. windows. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. in diameter. The bottom part of the sketch. F. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. grills and gratings for doors. shelves. when combined. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. paraffin and paint or varnish.. F. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails.. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. without any corresponding benefit. ordinary glue. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. 1.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. Wind the . Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. adopt the method described. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. will produce the pattern desired. odd corners. and give it time to dry. as shown in Fig. 1. The materials required are rope or. etc. preferably. if it is other than straight lines. that it is heated. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time.

These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. -Contributed by Geo. cut and glue them together. M. six designs are shown. Harrer. 2. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Fig. Y.Fig. Lockport. N.

etc. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support.. 1. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. chips of iron rust. but no farther.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. As the . This piece of horse armor. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. London. will be retained by the cotton... and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. says the English Mechanic. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. and the sides do not cover the jaws. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. when it will be observed that any organic matter. which was used in front of a horse's head. etc. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in.

The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. This will make the model light and easy to move around. the same as in Fig. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. the rougher the better. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. then another coat of glue. which can be made in any size. This being done. 2. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. The armor is now removed from the model. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. This triangularshaped support. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. 8. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. as shown in the sketch. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. In Fig. 6 and 7. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. and the clay model oiled. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. 4. and therefore it is not described. All being ready. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. but for . A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. which is separate. 2. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. with the exception of the thumb shield. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. This can be made in one piece.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. as the surface will hold the clay. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. except the thumb and fingers. and will require less clay. An arrangement is shown in Fig. but the back is not necessary. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the.

Redondo Beach. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. 9. --Contributed by Ralph L. but 3-1/2 in. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. If it does not hold a charge. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. wide and 1/2 in. each about 1/4 in. the top of the rod. are glued to it. Y. Buxton. cut into the shape shown in Fig. --Contributed by John G. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. two for the jaws and one a wedge. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. running down the plate. are better shown in Fig. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. the foils will not move. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. will be about right. . La Rue. 1/2 in. 2. The two pieces of foil. long. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. the two pieces of foil will draw together. in depth. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. When locating the place for the screw eyes. Calif. N. and the instrument is ready for use. A piece of board. two in each jaw. Goshen. fastened to the rod.

enameled or otherwise decorated. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. pine board. --Contributed by Mrs. from the smaller end. Texas. At a point 6 in. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. as indicated in the . the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. as this will cut under the water without splashing. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. When a fish is hooked. The can may be bronzed. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. long. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. hole bored through it. as shown in the illustration. Corsicana. 2-1/2 in. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. silvered. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. is made of a 1/4-in. A. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. Bryan. M. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. about 15 in.

thick. Basswood or butternut. or even pine. A good size is 5 in. Polish the metal. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. wide by 6 in. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. long over all. If soft wood. as shown. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. 22 is plenty heavy enough. will do as well as the more expensive woods. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece.Match Holder accompanying sketch. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Having completed the drawing." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. put a coat or two of wax and polish . The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. When it has dried over night. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. Any kind of wood will do. using a piece of carbon paper. such as basswood or pine was used. then with a nail. 3/8 or 1/4 in. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. take a piece of thin wood. punch the holes. using powdered pumice and lye. and trace upon it the design and outline. Next prepare the metal holder.

allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. 1/2 in. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. 2 in. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. long. If one has some insight in carving. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. each 1 in. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. It is useful for photographers. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. Instead of the usual two short ropes. A. thick. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. long. are used for the cores of the magnets. of pure olive oil. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. Cal. the whole being finished in linseed oil. can be made on the same standards. Richmond. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. wide and 5 in. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. --Contributed by W. . hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. Two wire nails. is used for the base of this instrument. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. Jaquythe. If carving is contemplated.

3. when the key is pushed down. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. . The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. at A. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. about No. --Contributed by W. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. cut in the shape of the letter T. says the English Mechanic. cloth or baize to represent the legs. H. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. leaving about 1/4 in. similar to that used in electric bells. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. London. then covered with red. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. All of the parts for the armor have been described. About 1 in. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. in the shape shown in the sketch. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. A piece of tin. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. as shown by the dotted lines. as shown in Fig. Lynas. A rubber band. the paper covering put on. acts as a spring to keep the key open. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. 25 gauge. 1. except that for the legs. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils.

1 and drill a 1/4in. Cut them to a length or 40 in. holes. in the other end. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. says Camera Craft. apart. for the sake of lightness. 1 in. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. Instead of using brass headed nails. By moving the position of the bolt from. So set up.. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. A 1/4-in. Silver paper will do very well. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. hole in the center. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. apart. or ordinary plaster laths will do. and eight small holes. long. not too tight. 3 in. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. about 1 in. drill six 1/4-in. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. completes the equipment.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. In one end of the piece. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. can be made in a few minutes' time. flat headed carriage bolt. The two pieces are bolted together. 2. at each end. These can be purchased at a stationery store. one to another . Secure two strips of wood. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. Fig. make the same series of eight small holes and. Take the piece shown in Fig.

Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. In this sketch. C over D and B. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. long. Then take B and lay it over A. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. 4. 2. doubled and run through the web of A. but instead of reversing . of the ends remain unwoven. Fig. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. 2. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. and lay it over the one to the right. 1.of the larger holes in the strip. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. the one marked A. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. Start with one end. for instance. A round fob is made in a similar way. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. lay Cover B and the one under D. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. A is the first string and B is the second. Then draw all four ends up snugly. then B over C and the end stuck under A. in Fig. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. 2. as in portraiture and the like. as shown in Fig. taking the same start as for the square fob. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. and the one beneath C. D over A and C.

Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. 5. as B. as at A in Fig. long. over the one to its right. 1-1/2 in. Rupp. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. Other designs can be made in the same manner. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. the design of which is shown herewith. always lap one string. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. Ohio. 3. is left out at the center before starting on one side. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. as in making the square fob. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. --Contributed by John P. A loop. Monroeville. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. is to be made of leather. The round fob is shown in Fig. especially if silk strings are used. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down .

The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. using the reverse side. beeswax or paraffin. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. such as a nut pick. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. Houghton. filling them with wax. pressing it against the wood. it can be easily renewed. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. A. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. -Contributed by A. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. When the supply of wax is exhausted. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. Northville. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. . door facing or door panel. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Any smooth piece of steel. Mich.

J. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Y. Select the print you wish to mount. New York. remaining above the surface of the board. thick. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. and after wetting. says Photographic Times. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. --Contributed by O. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. Enough plaster should. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. it is best to leave a plain white margin. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. long. but any kind that will not stick may be used. although tin ones can be used with good success. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. E and F. and about 12 in. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. Petersburg. those on matte paper will work best. N. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. Fold together on lines C. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Ill. apart and driven in only part way. if blueprints are used. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Thompson.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. leaving about 1/4 in. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. place it face down in the dish. . This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. The tacks should be about 1 in. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. D. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors.

filling the same about onehalf full. roses. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. One of the . bell flowers. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. as shown in the right of the sketch. without mixing the solutions. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. etc. Lower into the test tube a wire. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized.. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. will be rendered perfectly white. violets.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. as shown at the left in the sketch. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water.

most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. 2. long and made of wood. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. A rod that will fit the brass tube. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. When soldering these parts together. The sound box. The first point should be ground blunt. in diameter and 1 in. The diaphragm. The tin horn can be easily made. long. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. 1. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. and at the larger end. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. as shown in the sketch. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. but which will not wobble loose. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. --Contributed by L. should be soldered to the box. L. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. about 1/8s in. is about 2-1/2 in.. thick. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. Millstown. Shabino. South Dakota. turned a little tapering. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. not too tightly. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. shading. made of heavy tin. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. as shown. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. 3. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . or delicate tints of the egg. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. to keep the core from coming off in turning. Fig. 1-7/8 in.

while playing in the yard close to a grain house. says the Iowa Homestead. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. Ill.Contributed by E. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. Gold. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. and. Chicago. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. wondering what it was. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. Jr. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Victor. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. E. Colo. and weighted it with a heavy stone. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. put a board on top. mice in the bottom. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass.

A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Pereira. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. N. Can.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Buffalo. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. . --Contributed by Lyndwode. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. Y. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Ottawa.

each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Jaquythe. Cal. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. --Contributed by W. Mich. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. as shown. cut round. --Contributed by Thos. Richmond. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . by means of a flatheaded tack. De Loof. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. and at one end of the stick fasten. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. as it can be made quickly in any size. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. through which several holes have been punched. Put a small nail 2 in. A. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. This cart has no axle. longer than the length of the can. Grand Rapids. a piece of tin. above the end of the dasher. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through.

board. Doylestown. long. 2 in. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. wide and 1/8 in. I reversed a door gong. 1-1/2 in. Notches 1/8 in. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. 2. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. La. 1. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. apart. 2. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. The candles. wide and as long as the box. 2. wide. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. 1/4 in. deep and 3 in. The base may be made of a 1/2-in.1. wide and 3 ft. thick. --Contributed by James M. of course. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. as shown. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. Fig. Pa. A wedge-shaped piece of . were below the level of the bullseye. 1 ft. New Orleans. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. The baseboard and top are separable. Kane. screwed it on the inside of a store box. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. cut in the center of the rounding edge.

and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. the reason being that if both were solid. can be picked up without any trouble. The block can also be used as a paperweight. Wood. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. etc. take two pieces of hard wood. Ia. A. Mass. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. 3. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. West Union. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. the shelf could not be put on the window. the blade is put back into the groove . stone or wood. After the glue has dried. as shown in Fig. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. to prevent its scratching the desk top. This device is very convenient for invalids. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. wide into each side of the casing. it can be removed without marring the casing. After completing the handle. 1. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. wide rubber bands or felt.Book Back Holders metal. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. dressing one surface of each piece.. by cutting away the ends. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. --Contributed by G. scissors. Needles. will. Worcester. When not in use. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. Cover the block with rubber. For the handle. when placed as in Fig.

Jacobs. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. long. Pa. Mass. -Contributed by W. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. as shown in Fig. Each one is made of a hardwood block. If desired. square and 4 in. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. as shown in Fig. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. is shown in the accompanying sketch. 1. . Malden. Hutchins. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. 1 in. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. thus carrying the car up the incline. S. Cleveland. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. A. 2. --Contributed by H.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Erie. Ohio. A notch is cut in one side. --Contributed by Maud McKee.

will be needed. and an awl and hammer..The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. Prepare a design for the front. N. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. This will insure having all parts alike. 6 by 9-1/2 in. The letters can be put on afterward. One sheet of metal. Cape May Point. a board on which to work it.J. . A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. If one such as is shown is to be used.

or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. paste the paper design right on the metal. The stick may be placed by the side of. only the marginal line is to be pierced. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. Remove the metal. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. applied by means of a brush. 1 part. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. 1/4 part. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. On the back. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin.Fasten the metal to the board. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. as shown. which is desirable. . together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. 3/4 part. but weird and distant. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. says Master Painter. 2 parts white vitriol. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. So impressive are the results. or. flat brush. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. One coat will do. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. turpentine. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. a violin. behind or through the center of a table leg." In all appearance. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. that can be worked in your own parlor. The music will not sound natural. in the waste metal. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. varnish. mandolin or guitar. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. to right angles. If any polishing is required. if desired. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. placed on a table. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand.

each 6 in. long and measuring 26 in. London. 3. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. thick by 1/2 in. is bent square so as to form two uprights. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. . wide. round-head machine screws. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. each 28 in. The longest piece. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. says Work. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. without them. Two pairs of feet. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. With proper tools this is easy. long and spread about 8 in. across the top. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. are shaped as shown in Fig. long. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. square bar iron. 2. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. and is easy to construct. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. it might be difficult. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. apart.

This method is pursued until the glass is complete. Place the corner piece of glass. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. While the piece of lead D. special flux purchased for this purpose. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. or. cut a long piece of lead. 7. using rosin as a flux. D. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. 5. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. better still. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. lead. and the base border. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. C. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. B. the latter being tapped to . and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. 4. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. on it as shown. After the joints are soldered. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. The glass. The brads are then removed. Fig. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. After the glass is cut. is held by the brads. as shown in Fig. The design is formed in the lead. 6. 5. Fig. A. in the grooves of the borders.

Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. --Contributed by W. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. square and of the length given in the drawing. as shown in Fig. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. rocker bolt. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. one on each side and central with the hole. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. A and B. then flatten its end on the under side. long. Secure a post.the base of the clip. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. rounded at the top as shown. bolt. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. in diameter and 1/4 in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. Fasten the plates to the block B. Two styles of hand holds are shown. This ring can be made of 1-in. Jr. in diameter and about 9 in. not less than 4 in. This . Make three washers 3-in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. J. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. long. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. long. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. and two wood blocks. thick and drill 3/4-in. The center pin is 3/4-in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. 8. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. Bore a 5/8-in. wood screws in each washer. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. plates. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. H. Bore a 3/4-in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. Camden. holes through their centers.. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. N. bolt. then drill a 3/4-in. Dreier. and round the corners of one end for a ring. plank about 12 ft. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in.

horse and rings. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. 4 pieces. apart for a distance of 3 ft. shanks. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 1. square by 9-1/2 ft. screws. If trees are convenient. maple. long. long. by 3 ft. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. 4 pieces. 3 in. by 6-1/2 ft. 1 by 7 in. and some one can swing an axe. bolts and rope. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. 3/4 by 3 in. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. can make a first class gymnasium. from one edge. 16 screws. the money outlay will be almost nothing. bit. La. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. New Orleans. long. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. 7 in. boards along the side of each from end to end. 4 in. by 2 ft. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. 2 by 4 in. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. 1/2 in. 4 filler pieces. Draw a line on the four 7-in. hickory. 9 in. 4 in. chestnut or ash. 1-1/4in. 50 ft. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. The four 7-in. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. long. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood.will make an excellent cover for a pot. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 2-1/2 in. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. To substitute small. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. straight-grained hickory. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. long. long. because it will not stand the weather. square by 5 ft. in diameter and 7 in. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. long and 1 piece. of 1/4-in. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in.

apart. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. at each end. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result.. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. Bore a 9/16-in. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground.. deep and remove all loose dirt. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire.bored. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. apart. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. from the end. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. each 3 ft. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. so the 1/2-in. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. piece of wood. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. 2. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. boards coincide. 8 in.

not much to look at in daytime. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. And all he used was a black thread. apart. . and then passes in a curve across the base. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. W. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. He stretched the thread between two buildings. but most deceptive at dusk. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. When the interest of the crowd. not even the tumbler. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. it is taken to the edge of the foot. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. and materially heightened the illusion. about 100 ft. it follows the edge for about 1 in. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. disappearing only to reappear again." which skimmed along the distant horizon. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. was at its height. the effect is very striking. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. which at once gathered. passing through a screweye at either end. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. If the tumbler is rotated. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. in an endless belt.. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. just visible against the dark evening sky. and ascends the stem.

2 by 4 in. New Orleans. long. 2 by 3 in. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 4 knee braces. 2 in. 2 by 4 in. long. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 1.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. long and 1 doz. 2 base pieces. preferably cedar. 4 bolts. by 2 ft. 4 in. The cork will come out easily. long. by 7 ft. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 4 in. so the point will be on top. wide and 1 in. by 3 ft. and turned in a spiral D. long. long. 8 bolts. long. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. A wire about No. 7 in. La. square and 51/2 ft. 8 in. by 10 ft. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 8 in. long. large spikes. 2 by 4 in. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. 2 cross braces. To make the apparatus. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. deep. Fig. from either side of the center. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. Chisel out two notches 4 in. 6 in. 2 side braces. square and 6 ft. 4 wood screws. long. 8 in. Bevel the ends of . beginning at a point 9 in. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C.

Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. . and countersinking the heads. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. but even unpainted they are very durable. --Contributed by W. ( To be Continued. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. Jaquythe. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. leave it undressed. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. except the bars. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. Richmond. The wood so treated will last for years. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. as shown in the diagram. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. screws. Cal. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. using four of the 7-in bolts.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. so the bolts in both will not meet. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. from the bottom of the base up along the posts.the knee braces. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. These will allow the ladle to be turned. save the bars. After the trenches are dug. leaving the strainer always in position. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. A. equipped with a strainer. etc. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. of 7 ft.. A large sized ladle. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. additional long. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. Two endpieces must be made. jellies. which face each other. If using mill-cut lumber. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled.

This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. A. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. . thus holding the pail as shown. it is necessary to place a stick. drill press or planer. which seems impossible. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. partly a barrier for jumps. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. Oil. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. In order to accomplish this experiment. of sufficient 1ength. milling machine. or various cutting compounds of oil. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. If a little turpentine is added to the oil.

These are well nailed in place. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. bolt. in the ground. to fasten the knee braces at the top. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. 4-1/2 in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. Procure from a saw mill. long. These are placed 18 in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. by 3 ft. The round part of this log must be planed. 4 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. stud cut rounding on one edge. by 3 ft. Hand holds must be provided next. is a good length. 4 in. 1 cross brace.. long. long. square by 5-1/2 ft. 2 by 4 in. by 3 ft. and free from knots. The material required is as follows: Two posts. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. projections and splinters. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. long. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. To construct. 2 adjusting pieces. apart in a central position on the horse. wood yard or from the woods. bolts. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . 4 knee braces. 2 by 4 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. but 5 ft. bolts. bolts. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. two 1/2-in. 2 bases.. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. 4 in. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. 3 in. 2 by 4 in. long. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. piece of 2 by 4-in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. from each end. square by 5 ft. ten 1/2-in. apart. long. 7 in. long. 1 in. in diameter--the larger the better. beginning 1-1/2 in. long.

Richmond.horse top. such as a dent. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Jaquythe. it is caused by an overloaded shell. no one is responsible but himself. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard.--Contributed by W. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. it is caused by some obstruction. etc. but nevertheless. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. A. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Also. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Such a hand sled can be made in a . Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. then bending to the shape desired. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. over and around. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. Cal. pipe and fittings. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. snow. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. water.

W. 2. . Noble. Boston. is much better than a wood sled. These. 1/4 or 3/16 in. at E and F. Toronto. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Paris. in width and 1/32 in. will give the length. France. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. Ontario. Mass. then run a string over each part. --Contributed by Arthur E. --Contributed by James E. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Joerin. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. are all the tools necessary. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. thick. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. --Contributed by J. The end elevation. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. which. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. 1. when complete. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. Vener. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. when straightened out. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany.

After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. nor that which is partly oxidized. 3. It is best to use soft water. 4. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. are nailed. . The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. AA and BB. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The method shown in Figs. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe.

3. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. Broad lines can be made. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 1). 8 and 9. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. 2. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. or unequal widths as in Fig. . How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. as shown in Fig. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. as shown in Fig. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. The materials used are: backbone. Percy Ashley in Rudder. class ice-yacht. or various rulings may be made. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. 4. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 2.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. but if it is made much longer. Both the lower . out from the collar. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center.Fig. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The headstock is made of two tees. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. a tee and a forging. bent and drilled as shown. long. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. about 30 in. A good and substantial homemade lathe. a larger size of pipe should be used. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. pins to keep them from turning. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. pipe. It can be made longer or shorter. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. 1. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The point should extend about 11/2 in.

as shown in Fig. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. --Contributed by M. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. a corresponding line made on this. Fruitvale. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. Musgrove.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. 2. UpDeGraff. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Held. W. To do this. else taper turning will result. Laporte. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. and will answer for a great variety of work. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. 3/4 or 1 in. Boissevain. a straight line should be scratched Fig. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. thick as desired. M. as shown in Fig. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. --Contributed by W. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. 2. Man. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. Indiana. 1. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. --Contributed by W. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. or a key can be used as well. 2. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. Cal. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. . but also their insulating properties. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. It is about 1 in. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical.

J. as shown. In use.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. Smith. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. --Contributed by E. Ft. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . To obviate this. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. The handle is of pine about 18 in. long. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. Cline. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. Ark. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates.

centering is just one operation too many. take . Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Colo. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. and when once in true up to its size. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. This prevents the drill from wobbling. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. which should be backed out of contact. New Orleans. White. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. Denver. After being entered. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. the drill does not need the tool. La. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. if this method is followed: First. on starting the lathe. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. face off the end of the piece.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. --Contributed by Walter W. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution.

and can be varied to suit the performer. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. shorter t h a n the wand. a bout 1/2 in. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. The glass tube B. After the wand is removed. a long piece of glass tubing. shown at C. after being shown empty. as shown in D. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. In doing this. says the Sphinx. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. vanishing wand. and this given to someone to hold. is put into the paper tube A. all the better. by applying caustic soda or . It can be used in a great number of tricks. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. the cap is placed over the paper tube. The handkerchief rod. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. unknown to the spectators.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler.

Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. This dimension and those for the frets . 2 Sides. preferably hard maple. 3/16. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. across the front and back to strengthen them. cut to any shape desired. as shown by K. thick. As the cement softens. End. 1 Neck. 1 End. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. with the back side rounding. 1 Bottom. Glue the neck to the box. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. long. and glue it to the neck at F. square and 1-7/8 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. can be made by the home mechanic. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. Glue strips of soft wood. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. and if care is taken in selecting the material.potash around the edges of the letters. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 1/4 in. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. 1. The brace at D is 1 in. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. With care and patience. The sides. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. Cut a piece of hard wood. by 14 by 17 in.

Norwalk. or backbone. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. thick and about 1 ft. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. H. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. Carbondale. toward each end. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. 3/16 in. but it is not. E. Six holes. O. When it is completed you will have a canoe. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. --Contributed by Chas. Stoddard.should be made accurately. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. Frary. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. in diameter. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. A board 1 in. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. 1) on which to stretch the paper. and beveled . long is used for a keel. -Contributed by J. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe.Pa. wide and 11-1/2 ft.

and so. . Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. The ribs. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. Fig. 3. Fig. the loose strips of ash (b. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. buy some split cane or rattan. and are not fastened. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. as shown in Fig. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. apart. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. as shown in Fig. as they are apt to do. B. or similar material. 3/8 in. 13 in. twigs 5 or 6 ft. as before described. Fig. 3. In drying. probably. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. Fig. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. 4. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. The cross-boards (B. in thickness and should be cut. when made of green elm. Fig. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. Fig. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C.. long are required. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. two twigs may be used to make one rib. or other place. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. such as is used for making chairbottoms. These are better. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. Fig. 4). Osiers probably make the best ribs. For the gunwales (a. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. which are easily made of long. but twigs of some other trees. Fig. Shape these as shown by A. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. such as hazel or birch. b. Green wood is preferable. thick. and notched at the end to receive them (B. thick. C. procure at a carriage factory. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. but before doing this. a. by means of a string or wire. b. slender switches of osier willow. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. will answer nearly as well. 3). two strips of wood (b. are next put in. and. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. b. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. wide by 26 in. 2. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. 1 and 2. long. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. in such cases. Any tough. 2). 2). It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. 3). the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. 1. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. with long stout screws. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame.) in notches. C. Fig. some tight strips of ash. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight.

Being made in long rolls. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. but with less turpentine. The paper is then trimmed. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. preferably iron. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. It should be smooth on the surface. after wetting it. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. If the paper be 1 yd. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. It should be drawn tight along the edges. 5). where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. Then take some of the split rattan and. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. wide. B. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. When the paper is dry. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. and steady in the water. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. You may put in . tacking it to the bottom-board. however. apply a second coat of the same varnish. but neither stiff nor very thick. and as soon as that has soaked in. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. and light oars. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. if it has been properly constructed of good material. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. If not. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. and very tough. When thoroughly dry. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. Fig. of very strong wrapping-paper. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. and held in place by means of small clamps.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight.

1. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. Fig. 2. to fit it easily. fore and aft. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. 5. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. they will support very heavy weights. and make a movable seat (A. Fig. 1 and the end in . The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. Fig. 5). allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. and if driven as shown in the cut. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. We procured a box and made a frame. Drive the lower nail first. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig.

A good way to handle this work. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. and the glass. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. Pittsburg. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. 5. being softer where the flame has been applied. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. This way has its drawbacks. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. 3. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. This is an easy . and the result is.Fig. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. Close the other end with the same operation. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. this makes the tube airtight. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. Pa. 4.

way to make a thermometer tube. 23 gauge. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. Seventh. fourth. rivet punch. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. Sixth. also trace the decorative design. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. file. The candle holders may have two. -Contributed by A. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. fifth. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. four. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. above the metal. flat and round-nosed pliers. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. very rapid progress can be made. Oswald. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. Give the metal a circular motion. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. then reverse. with a piece of carbon paper. second. After the bulb is formed. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. above the work and striking it with the hammer. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. or six arms. extra metal all around. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. three. third. metal shears. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. thin screw. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. stamp the background of the design promiscuously.

The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. Metal polish of any kind will do. Small copper rivets are used. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. and holder.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. Having pierced the bracket. drip cup.

sugar 1 part. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. smooth it down and then remove as before. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. A saw. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. The boom. Heat 6-1/2 oz. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. and in a week . When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. when it will be ready for use. J. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. is a broomstick. Mother let me have a sheet. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. using a steel pen. hammer. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. Soak 1 oz. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. alcohol 2 parts. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. and water 24 parts. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. and brace and bit were the tools used. Fifty. all the rest I found. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. Shiloh. of glycerine to about 200 deg. except they had wheels instead of runners. Twenty cents was all I spent. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. deep. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. they were like an ice boat with a sail. The gaff. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. N. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. glycerine 4 parts. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. F. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. and add the gelatine. and it will be ready for future use. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. winding the ends where they came together with wire. the stick at the bottom of the sail. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. on a water bath. I steer with the front wheel. if it has not absorbed too much ink. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. and other things as they were needed. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. thus it was utilized. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad.

A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. a projecting lens .

. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. A table. wide. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. above the center. high. This ring is made up from two rings. or a lens of 12-in. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. DD. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. and the work carefully done. Fig. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. describe a 9-in. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. at a distance of 24 ft. E. and 14 in. A and B. If a small saw is used. as desired. 1. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. and. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. focus enlarging a 3-in. and the lens slide. well seasoned pine. thick. at a point 1 in. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. G. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. 8 in. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. or glue. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. 1/2 to 3/4 in. H. The board is centered both ways.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. provided the material is of metal. The slide support. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. wide and 15 in. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. slide to about 6 ft. long. are . about 2 ft. wire brads. and a projecting lens 2 in. but if such a box is not found. 3.

E. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. B. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. of safe. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. and when the right position is found for each. To reach the water. apply two coats of shellac varnish. should the glass happen to upset.constructed to slip easily on the table. Paul. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. Minn. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. Small strips of tin. A sheet . All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. light burning oil. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. The arrangement is quite safe as. JJ. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. the strips II serving as guides. but not long enough. St.-Contributed by G. placed on the water. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. P. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. the water at once extinguishes the flame. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides.

4. I ordered a canvas bag. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. Crawford. by 12 ft. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. N. to cover the mattresses. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 2. Y. 3.. 9 in. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. If one of these clips is not at hand. form a piece of wire in the same shape. 3 in. Fig. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart.H. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. then the corners on one end are doubled over. Fig. --Contributed by J. Schenectady. 12 ft.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. from a tent company. 3. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. 1.

for amperes and the other post. and insert two binding-posts. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. wide. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. through which the indicator works. V. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. D. insulating them from the case with cardboard. 2. Fold two strips of light cardboard. An arc is cut in the paper. A rubber band. long and 3/16 in. Attach a piece of steel rod. 1/2 in. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. --Contributed by Edward M. open on the edges. Do not use too strong a rubber. --Contributed by Walter W. to the coil of small wire for volts. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. holes in the edge. apart. 1. A Film Washing Trough [331] . using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. 2. 3/4 in. Pa. Fasten the wire with gummed label. To calibrate the instrument. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. 3 to swing freely on the tack. thick. Fig. as shown in Fig. in the center coil. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. 2. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. C. first mark the binding-post A. 1/2 in. Warren. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. long. Colo. so as to form two oblong boxes. 1. White. 3/4 in. Fig. Teasdale. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. to keep it from unwinding. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial.each edge. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. Denver. drill two 3/16 in.

large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. --Contributed by M. with the large hole up. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Wood Burning [331] . Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Hunting. O. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. as shown.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Place this can on one end of the trough. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. M. Cut a 1/4-in. Dayton. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch.

a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. mouth downward. then into this bottle place.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays.

thick. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. 3/4 in. Place the small bottle in as before. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. N. If the small bottle used is opaque.Y. long. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. Auburn. provided the bottle is wide. --Contributed by Fred W. This will make a very pretty ornament. 1. Whitehouse. --Contributed by John Shahan. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. If the cork is adjusted properly. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. wide and 4 in. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. 2. as shown in the sketch. but not very thick. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . Ala. many puzzling effects may be obtained.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Upper Troy.

were constructed of 1-in. Fig. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. Fig. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. The wire L was put . was keyed to shaft C. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. 1. On a 1000-ft. K. thick. which gave considerable power for its size. I. was 1/4in. The shaft C. 2 ft. B. thick and 3 in. 1. in diameter and 1 in. W. Its smaller parts. --Contributed by D. to the shaft. If a transmitter is used. G. iron rod. long.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. sugar pine on account of its softness. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. 1. 4. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. 1. A staple. pulley. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. Milter. wide. Fig. Fig. thick. 1. 2. line. The bearing blocks were 3 in. even in a light breeze. such as blades and pulleys. The 21/2-in. by the method shown in Fig. or ordinary telephone transmitters. Fig. which was nailed to the face plate. pulley F. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. which was 6 in. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. which extended to the ground. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. high without the upper half. 3. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. Both bearings were made in this manner. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. 1 in.

This fan was made of 1/4-in. Fig. 1) 4 in. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. 6. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. long and 1/2 in. was 2 ft. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. long. in the center of the board P. 6. The other lid. hole for the shaft G was in the center. 1. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. G. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. wide and 1 in. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. 2. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Fig. Fig. 1. To make the key. hole was bored for it. 25 ft. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. providing one has a few old materials on hand. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. across the thin edge of a board. If you have no bell. This board was 12 in. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. 3 in. There a 1/4-in. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. long and 3 in. Two washers were placed on shaft C. and was cut the shape shown. in diameter. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. washers were placed under pulley F. as. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. cut out another piece of tin (X. Fig. Fig. Cut a piece of tin 2 in.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. 0. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. a 1/2-in. for instance. R. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. with brass headed furniture tacks. strips. top down also. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. through the latter. when the windmill needed oiling. with all parts in place. long. H. square to the board P at the top of the tower. To lessen the friction here. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. 1. pine 18 by 12 in. apart in the tower. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. Fig. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. was tacked. long and bend it as shown at A. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. This completes the receiver or sounder. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. The power was put to various uses. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. 1. long and bend it as . 5. Fig. The bed plate D. so that the 1/4-in. The smaller one.

How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. When tired of this instrument. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. -Contributed by John R. after the manner of bicycle wheels. consisting of four pieces of board nailed .shown. at the front. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. causing a buzzing sound. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Thus a center drive is made. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Before tacking it to the board. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. as indicated. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. although it can be made with but two. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. Going back to Fig. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. 2. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. fitted with paddles as at M. like many another device boys make. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Now. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. McConnell. By adjusting the coils. The rear barrels are. as shown at Water. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. using cleats to hold the board frame. and. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. leaving the other wire as it is. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. 1.

The speed is slow at first. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. can be built. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. feet on the pedals. 3. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. which will give any amount of pleasure. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. There is no danger. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. If the journals thus made are well oiled. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. or even a little houseboat. there will not be much friction.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. To propel it. as shown in Fig. 1. copper piping and brass tubing for base. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. thin sheet brass for the cylinder.

make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. then the glass disc and then the other ring. A. 1. or it may be put to other uses if desired. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. If magnifying glass cannot be had. Fig. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. Turn a small circle of wood. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. C. 2. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. Shape small blocks of boxwood. B. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. 2. Fig. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. Place one brass ring in cylinder. Fig. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard.of pleasure for a little work. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. Then melt out the rosin or lead. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. and so creating a false circuit. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. 1. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. 1. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. If it is desired to make the light very complete. 2. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Fig. D.

The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. To operate this. some glue will secure them. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. while lying in bed. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. --Contributed by C.. G. 4-1/2 in. Ogden. To get the cylinder into its carriage. which stops bell ringing. Chatland. H. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock.india rubber tubing. Swissvale. 3/8 in. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . key of alarm clock. T. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. bell. copper tubing. switch. To throw on light throw levers to the left. and pulled tight. Brinkerhoff. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. 4 in. In placing clock on shelf. brass rod. after setting alarm. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. --Contributed by Geo. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. C. contact post. set alarm key as shown in diagram. Utah. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. Throw lever off from the right to center. S. D. B. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. if too small. dry batteries. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. wire from light to switch. or 1/4in. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. shelf. 5-1/4 by 10 in. after two turns have been made on the key. wide and 1/16 in. The parts indicated are as follows: A. wire from bell to switch. such as is used for cycle valves. C. When alarm goes off. J. F. X. brass strip. bracket. Pa. long. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. long. by having the switch on the baseboard. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. near the bed. I. wire from batteries to switch. thick. E.

1. 2. A small lamp of about 5 cp. 2. wide. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. about 6 in. will do the heating. letting it extend 3/4 in. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. Fig. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. place stick and all in a pail of sand. from one end. as . about 3-1/2 in. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. 1/4 in. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. A flannel bag. Lanesboro. as at A. as at B. gives the heater a more finished appearance. as at A. 1. Having finished this. --Contributed by Chas. This is to form the fuse hole. All that is required is a tin covering. 4 in. Minn. as in Fig. Make the spindle as in Fig. S. Pull out the nail and stick. 3. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. Make a shoulder. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. beyond the end of the spindle. Chapman. long. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. making it as true and smooth as possible. in diameter. for instance. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. in diameter. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. Fig. which can be made of an old can. Fig. being careful not to get the sand in it. a bed warmer.

wide and 6 ft. Joerin. 6 in. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. long. spring and arrows. 1. thick. The illustration shows how this is done. wide and 3/8 in. The material must be 1-1/2 in. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. but if this wood cannot be procured. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. wide and 3 ft. good straight-grained pine will do. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . thick. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. deep. 5/8 in. this is to keep the edges from splitting. or hickory. 3/8 in. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. ash. 1 in. will be sufficient to make the trigger. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. --Contributed by Arthur E. long. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. thick. A piece of tin. 11/2 in. A piece of oak. long.

place the arrow in the groove. from the opposite end. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. 2. 4. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. thick. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. and one for the trigger 12 in. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. wide at each end. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. The bow is not fastened in the stock. having the latter swing quite freely. which is 1/4 in. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. To shoot the crossbow. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. --Contributed by O. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. or through the necessity of. A spring. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. E. 6. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. 9. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. 7. 3. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. Trownes. The trigger. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. Wilmette. from the end of the stock. Fig. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Ill. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The stick for the bow. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. it lifts the spring up. To throw the arrow. 8. Fig. Such a temporary safe light may be . The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. better still. Fig. in diameter. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. When the trigger is pulled.

The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. By chopping the trunk almost through. from the ground. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. This lamp is safe. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. apart. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. says Photo Era. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. make the frame of the wigwam. The cut should be about 5 ft. from the ground. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Remove one end. C. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. The hinged cover E. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. since the flame of the candle is above A. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. making lighting and trimming convenient. or only as a camp on a short excursion. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. the bark lean-to is a . while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. respectively. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. and nail it in position as shown at A. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. and replace as shown at B. it is the easiest camp to make. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. Remove the bottom of the box. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. is used as a door. Moreover.

. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. spruce. make the best kind of a camp bed. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. and split the tops with an ax. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. nails are necessary to hold it in place. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. wide. long and 2 or 3 ft. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. For a permanent camp. In the early summer. are a convenient size for camp construction. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. and when the camp is pitched. thick. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. 3 ft. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. A piece of elm or hickory. piled 2 or 3 ft. will dry flat. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. Where bark is used. makes a good pair of tongs. deep and covered with blankets. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. long and 1-1/2 in. wide and 6 ft. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. a 2-in. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. 6 ft. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. long. and cedar. For a foot in the middle of the stick. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. Sheets of bark. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. selecting a site for a camp. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. Tongs are very useful in camp. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time.

hinges. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. . or even a rough lock for the camp larder. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. and affording accommodation for several persons.

wide. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge.. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. Fig. deep and 4 in. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. about 4 in. A. Kane. --Contributed by James M. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. I drove a small cork. 1. the interior can. B. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. to another .Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. changing the water both morning and night. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. Pa. and provide a cover or door. B. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Doylestown. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth.

for instance. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. which project inside and outside of the tube. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. for instance. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. 2. to pass through an increasing resistance. Fig. C. fused into one side. E. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. 3. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. until. The current is thus compelled. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. if necessary. a liquid. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg.glass tube. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. 4 and 5). The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. 2. This makes . The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. The diagram. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. limit. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. such as ether.

or even 1/16 in. thick. is composed of wrought sheet iron. assemble and rivet them solidly. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. Then the field can be finished to these marks. tap. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. between centers. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. or pattern. as shown in Fig. Michigan. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. 4-1/2 in. 3. After the template is marked out. mark off a space. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. thicker. drill the four rivet holes. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. When the frame is finished so far. Fig. Alpena.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. in diameter. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. The bearing studs are now made. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. making it 1/16 in. thick. bent at right angles as shown. A. as shown in the left-hand sketch. brass or iron. on a lathe. 2. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. by turning the lathe with the hand. and for the outside of the frame. in diameter. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. A 5/8in. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. to allow for finishing. therefore. These holes are for the bearing studs. 1. brass. set at 1/8 in. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. they will make a frame 3/4 in. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. which may be of any thickness so that. which will make it uniform in size. hole is . but merely discolored. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. Fig. two holes. Before removing the field from the lathe. clamp the template. cannot be used so often. larger than the dimensions given. After cleaning them with the solution. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. If the thickness is sufficient. when several pieces are placed together. 3-3/8 in. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. screws. 3-3/8 in.

solder them to the supports. or otherwise finished. file them out to make the proper adjustment. Fig. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. 4. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . and drilled to receive the armature shaft. brass rod is inserted. The shaft of the armature. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. soldered into place. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. and build up the solder well. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. When the bearings are located. into which a piece of 5/8-in. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. is turned up from machine steel.

and held with a setscrew. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. and then they are soaked in warm water. 8. as shown in Fig. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. When annealed. threaded. thick. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. After the pieces are cut out. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. 3/4 in. The sides are also faced off and finished. thick and 1/4 in. brass rod. or segments. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. 7. 6. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. Armature-Ring Core. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. When this is accomplished. deep and 7/16 in. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. 1/8 in. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. Rivet them together. 3/4 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. 3. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. thick. The pins are made of brass. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. as shown m Fig. then drill a 1/8-in. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. as shown in Fig. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. 9. 3. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. 6. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. thick are cut like the pattern. by 1-1/2 in. inside diameter. After they . Procure 12 strips of mica. as shown in Fig. wide. to allow for finishing to size. hole and tap it for a pin. as shown in Fig. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. holes through them for rivets.. wide. Find the centers of each segment at one end. Make the core 3/4 in. washers. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. sheet fiber. 5. 1-1/8 in. thick. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. being formed for the ends. in diameter and fit in a brass spider.

which will take 50 ft. being required. thick. by bending the end around one of the projections. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. or side. until the 12 slots are filled. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. 5. and wind on four layers. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. Fig. Run one end of the field wire. about 100 ft. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in.have dried. 1. The source of current is connected to the terminals. of No. 1. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. The two ends are joined at B. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. sheet fiber. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. To connect the wires. they are glued to the core insulation. shown at A. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. After one coil. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. of the wire. of the end to protrude. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. This winding is for a series motor. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. When the glue is set. 6 in. long. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. wide and 1 in. yet it shows a series of . 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. shown at B. are soldered together. In starting to wind. after the motor is on the stand. The field is wound with No. All connections should be securely soldered. the two ends of the wire. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. Fig. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. sheet fiber. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. 8 in. The winding is started at A. and bring the end of the wire out at B. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig.

They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. which serves as the ground wire. as in the case of a spiral. still more simply. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. A 1/2-in. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . or. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. and one. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. Nine wires run from the timer. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. one from each of the eight contacts. is fastened to the metallic body.

the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing.The Wind Vane. of the dial. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. Covering these is a thin. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. Without this attachment. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. board. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. long. 6 in. circle. 45 deg. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. thus giving 16 different directions. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. It should be . The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial.

The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. thus making a universal joint. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. will answer the purpose just as well. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. Place the leather on some level. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. Cut 3-in. N. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. To make it. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. will be enough for the two sides." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. Before tacking the fourth side. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper.about 6 ft. according to who is going to use it. long to give the best results. making it heavy or light. is most satisfactory. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. if not too high. . Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. Blackmer. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. high. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. Y. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. Buffalo. and about 6 in. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. or. also a piece of new carpet. -Contributed by James L. and securely nail on the top of the box. 14 by 18 in. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. however. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. though a special knife. will be sufficient. Fill the box with any handy ballast. To work these outlines. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. called a chip carving knife. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies.

Paste the silk plush to the inner side. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. An ordinary sewing-machine . fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. A good leather paste will be required. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown.

1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch.will do if a good stout needle is used. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Y. of water. Morse. square and tying a piece of . B. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. --Contributed by Katharine D. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. N. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. of common salt and 10 lb. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. temporary lameness. can be thrown away when no longer needed. and tie them together securely at the bottom. rather than the smooth side. and fasten the feathers inside of it. away from it. as in cases of a sprained ankle. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. or a hip that has been wrenched. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. If a fire breaks out. a needle and some feathers. Syracuse. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal.

1/8 in. cut to the length of the spool. A. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. This not only keeps the rats out. -Contributed by Ben Grebin.string to each corner. There is a 1-in. Albany. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. One end is removed entirely. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. The strings should be about 15 in. Y. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. made up of four layers of No. commonly called tintype tin. and tacked it to the boards. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. The diaphragm C. which is the essential part of the instrument. . Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. E. is cut on the wood. but not sharp. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. The end is filed to an edge. setting traps. letting it go at arm's length. N. N. Ashland. wound on the head end. long. Gordon Dempsey. F. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. laying poisoned meat and meal. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. deep. --Contributed by John A. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. etc. wide and 1/16 in. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. --Contributed by J. long. Paterson. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast.. Hellwig. high. and a coil of wire. The body of the receiver. G. board all around the bottom on the inside. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. thus helping the rats to enter.J. Wis. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. the corners being wired. A small wooden or fiber end. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. as shown. B. The coil is 1 in. and the receiver is ready for use.

begin with the smallest scrolls. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. to . dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. better still. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. Take a piece of string or. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. The vase is to have three supports. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. A single line will be sufficient. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. gold. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. To clean small articles. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. wide. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. and bend each strip in shape. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. a piece of small wire.

as shown in the sketch. using a duller point of the tool. wide when stitching up the purse. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. through which to slip the fly AGH. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. 3-1/4 in. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. from E to F. About 1 in. and does not require coloring. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. Press or model down the leather all around the design. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. thus raising it. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in.. . sharp pencil. from C to D. 4-1/4 in. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. Work down the outside line of the design. After taking off the pattern. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. 6-3/8 in. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. Fold the leather on the line EF. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. from the lines EF on the piece. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. Trace also the line around the purse. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used.. 3-1/2 in. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF.which the supports are fastened with rivets.

thick. and tack the other piece slightly. and which will be very interesting. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. This also should be slightly beveled. It is neat and efficient. It can be made without the use of a lathe. and cut it out as shown in Fig. 1. 1/2 in.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. Make the lug 1/4 in. and cut out a wheel. and. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. long. 2. Fit this to the two . with the largest side down. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. When it is finished. the "open" side. deep. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. deep. then nail it. with a compass saw. Now take another piece of wood. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. following the dotted lines. b. by 12 ft. and a model for speed and power. being cast in wooden molds. as shown in Fig. Cut off six pieces 12 in. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. First. with the open side down. as well as useful. 3. and the projections B. with pins or small nails. all the way around. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. leaving the lug a. square. Then nail the wheel down firmly. then place the square piece out of which Fig. around the wheel. 1 was cut.

After it is finished. place it between two of the 12-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. deep. holes through it. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. and lay it away to dry. square pieces of wood. as shown by the . and boring a 3/8-in.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. hole entirely through at the same place.pieces just finished. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. then bolt it together. one of which should have a 3/8-in. Now take another of the 12-in. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. bolts. in the center of it. Now put mold No. 4. and clean all the shavings out of it. hole 1/4 in. slightly beveled. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and bore six 1/4-in. hole bored through its center. Take the mold apart. square pieces of wood. 1.

holes at d. one in the lug. and bore three 1/4-in. and two 1/4-in. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. After it is fitted in.2. over the defective part. from the one end. put the top of the brace through this hole. in diameter must now be obtained. Pour metal into mold No. This is for a shaft. one in the projections. and 3/8-in. long. holes. Now take mold No. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. long. and connect to the boiler. and drill them in the same manner. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. wide and 16 in. Put this together in mold No. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. so that it will turn easily. Fig. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. drill in it.2. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. the other right-handed. place the entire machine in a vise. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. and pouring metal in to fill it up. and lay it away to dry. This is mold No. 1.1. Then bolt the castings together. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. This will cast a paddle-wheel. screw down. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. instead of the right-handed piece. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. fasten a 3/8-in. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. as shown in illustration.black dots in Fig.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. B. and drill it entirely through.1. Using the Brace . as shown by the black dots in Fig. 6. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. true it up with a square. only the one is left-handed. Commencing 1-1/2 in. A piece of mild steel 5 in. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. and pour babbitt metal into it. 6. 4. b. and the exhaust hole in projection b. Now cut out one of the 12-in. lay it on a level place. place it under the drill. see that the bolts are all tight. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. where the casting did not fill out. 5. Let it stand for half an hour. d. take an ordinary brace. This is the same as Fig. until it is full. and the other in the base. and run in babbitt metal again.

Your turbine engine is now ready for work. and the other 8 ft. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. with a boss and a set screw. Then take a knife or a chisel. long. and. and if instructions have been carefully followed.. while it is running at full speed. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. turn the wheel to the shape desired. will do good service. piece and at right angles to it. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. Plan of Ice Boat . Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. one 6 ft. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. At each end of the 6ft. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam.

plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. The spar should be 9 ft. 3. as the runners were fastened. in the top before the skate is put on. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. which may come in handy in heavy winds. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. at the butt and 1 in. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. should be of hardwood. projecting as in Fig. at the top. long. bolt the 8-ft. so much the better will be your boat. boards to make the platform. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . and about 8 in. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. at the end. in diameter. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. Run the seam on a machine. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. plank nail 8-in. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. piece and at right angles to it. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2