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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. grasp it and hold the same as a club. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. To throw a boomerang. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . --Contributed by J. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. 1. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. as shown in Fig. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. Noble. 1. 1. Ontario. E. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. 2. 2. Toronto. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. A piece of plank 12 in. It is held in this curve until dry. with the hollow side away from you. long will make six boomerangs. 2 -. until it is bound as shown in Fig. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. as shown in Fig. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. distant. apart. Fig.Fig. The pieces are then dressed round. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. away. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. wide and 2 ft.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft.

forcing it down closely. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. made of 6-in. but about 12 in. If the snow is of the right consistency.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. or rather no bottom at all. blocks . high and 4 or 5 in. the block will drop out. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. and with a movable bottom. and it may be necessary to use a little water. one inside of the circle and the other outside. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. long. dry snow will not pack easily. A very light. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. which makes the building simpler and easier. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. First. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. thick. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. however. minus the top. A wall. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. it is not essential to the support of the walls. 6 in. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter.

A nail. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. 2. There is no outward thrust. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. which is about 1 ft. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. 3 -. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. --Contributed by Geo. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . wide. above the ground. Fig. is 6 or 8 in. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. Goodbrod. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. which can be made of wood. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. 3. Fig. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. Ore. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. 1. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. The piece of wood. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. D. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. Fig. a. or an old safe dial will do. and the young architect can imitate them. C. Union. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. 1. long and 1 in. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. 2. It also keeps them out. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left.

allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. as the weight always draws them back to place. the box locked . The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. Merrill. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use.When taking hot dishes from the stove. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. If ordinary butts are used. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. says the Sphinx. S. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. --Contributed by R. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. New York. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. Syracuse. one pair of special hinges.

and the performer steps out in view. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. proceed as follows: First. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. allowing each coat time to dry. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. When the sieve is shaken. 1. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Fig. Augusta. Alberta Norrell. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. as shown in Fig. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. Place the piece in a vise. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. If they do not. Ga. as shown in Fig. -Contributed by L. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. 2. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. If the measuring has been done properly. as shown. smooth surface. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. on drawing paper. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. With the metal shears. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. 3. It remains to bend the flaps. All . the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. one for each corner. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. draw one-half of it. about 1-32 of an inch. To make a design similar to the one shown.

the edges should be left smooth. When the current is turned off. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. from the back end. as shown at AA. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. which is about 6 in. in passing through the lamp. about 6 in. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . 25 gauge German-silver wire. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. Denver. is fitted tightly in the third hole. A resistance. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. if rolled under the shoe sole. The current. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. To keep the metal from tarnishing. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. and in the positions shown in the sketch. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. should be in the line. heats the strip of German-silver wire. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. causing it to expand. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. in diameter. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. Colo. of No. In boring through rubber corks. 25 German-silver wire. used for insulation. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. C. R. A piece of porcelain tube. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. Galbreath. long. After this has dried. --Contributed by R. If a touch of color is desired. H. B. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. The common cork.

Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Mo. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely.bottom ring. 1. Purchase two long book straps. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. --Contributed by David Brown. leaving a space of 4 in. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. between them as shown in Fig. 2. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. with thin strips of wood. 3. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. as shown in Fig. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Kansas City. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. . Fig.

Fig. The string is then tied. N. Fig. A. Pa. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. 1. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. When the aeroplane tips. having a gong 2-1/2 in. as . A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. C. which is the right weight for family use. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. and one weighing 25 lb. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. to form a handle. one weighing 15 lb. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. These are shown in Fig. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig.An ordinary electric bell. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Katharine D. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. Fig.. 36 in. --Contributed by James M. just the right weight for a woman to use. 3. 1. long. Doylestown. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. 2. 1. The folds are made over the string. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. in diameter. are mounted on the outside of the box. Syracuse. Two strips of brass. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. and tack smoothly. Kane.. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. Morse. Y. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. and a pocket battery. 4.

Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. machine screws. Floral Park. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. long. Y. The saw. bent as shown in Fig. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. AA. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. four washers and four square nuts. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. and many fancy knick-knacks. Day. 2. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. N. 1. Frame Made of a Rod . bookracks and shelves can be made with one. two 1/8 -in. in diameter. such as brackets. 3/32 or 1/4 in. --Contributed by Louis J. 2. if once used. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch.

of course. Apply two coats. The buckle is to be purchased. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. or silver. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. If it colors the metal red. using a swab and an old stiff brush. as well as the depth of etching desired. as well as brass and copper. Drying will cause this to change to purple. Silver is the most desirable but. 1 part nitric acid. if copper or brass. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. treat it with color. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. therefore. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. For etching. after breaking up. --Contributed by W. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Watch Fob For coloring silver. use them in place of the outside nuts. of water in which dissolve. Detroit. copper. of water. 1 part sulphuric acid. An Austrian Top [12] .. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. it has the correct strength. be covered the same as the back. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. File these edges.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Michigan. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. allowing each time to dry. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. Rub off the highlights. though almost any color may be obtained. A. Scranton. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. green and browns are the most popular. the most expensive. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk.may be made of either brass. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. In the design shown. Of the leathers.

The handle is a piece of pine. A handle. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. 3/4 in. Tholl. allowing only 1-1/4 in.F. Parts of the Top To spin the top. Bore a 3/4-in. When the shank is covered. hole in this end for the top. 5-1/4 in. wide and 3/4 in. A 1/16-in. hole. pass one end through the 1/16-in. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. is formed on one end. in diameter. 1-1/4 in. --Contributed by J. set the top in the 3/4 -in. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. Michigan. Ypsilanti. long. starting at the bottom and winding upward. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. thick. long. .

the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. --A. Alberta Norrell. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. .Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. having no sides. Houghton. Augusta. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Northville. Mich. --Contributed by Miss L. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. tarts or similar pastry. Ga. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. For black leathers. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. A. The baking surface. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way.

A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. Centralia. Mo. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. glass fruit jar. the same as shown in the illustration. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. Stringing Wires [13] A. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. two turns will remove the jar. When you desire to work by white light. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. then solder cover and socket together. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. says Studio Light.

for loading and development. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. square by 12 in. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. They are fastened. as shown in the cross-section sketch. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. so it can be folded up. 1-1/4 in. Janesville. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. 16 Horizontal bars. square by 62 in. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. 4 Braces. 1-1/4 in. and not tip over. Wis. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. . and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. 4 Vertical pieces. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out.

and a loop made in the end. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. Cincinnati. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. Rosenthal. from scrap material. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. -Contributed by Charles Stem. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. after filling the pail with water. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. O. New York. After rounding the ends of the studs. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. H. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. If the loop is tied at the proper place. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. C. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. The front can be covered . The whole. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. --Contributed by Dr. Phillipsburg.

Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. Md. Develop them into strong prints. FIG. the color will be an undesirable. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. by all rules of the game. you are. Wehr. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. The results will be poor. By using the following method. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. sickly one. if you try to tone them afterward. The . In my own practice. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. principally mayonnaise dressing. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. 1 FIG. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. and. the mouth of which rests against a. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. If the gate is raised slightly. --Contributed by Gilbert A. thoroughly fix. either for contact printing or enlargements. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. Baltimore.

5 by 15 in. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. to make it 5 by 5 in.. in size. 2 oz.." Cyanide of potassium . as it will appear clean much longer than the white. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes..... It will bleach slowly and evenly. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper... where it will continue to bleach... Cal.. The blotting paper can .. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper... preferably the colored kind. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder...... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone..... Water .. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig..... but... Iodide of potassium . The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper... etc. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away... 20 gr. when it starts to bleach.. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax...... L. transfer it to a tray of water... --Contributed by T. 2.. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. When the desired reduction has taken place. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses... San Francisco. Place the dry print.... in this solution.... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. With a little practice. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. wide and 4 in... without previous wetting. Gray... 1 and again as in Fig. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.. 16 oz... A good final washing completes the process. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. long to admit the angle support.. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished... three times...bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.

--Contributed by J. wide below the . Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Wisconsin. the shaft 1 in. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Oshkosh. and a length of 5 in. having a width of 2-1/4 in. 3. 20 gauge. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Monahan. Canada. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Make a design similar to that shown. wide. Corners complete are shown in Fig. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. --Contributed by L. the head of which is 2 in.J.

using a small metal saw. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. Make one-half of the design. after folding along the center line. being held perpendicular to the work. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. 4. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. Fig. then put on a second coat. then coloring. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. which gives the outline of the design Fig. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. 1. freehand. Apply with a small brush. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. but use a swab on a stick. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. The metal must be held firmly. . 1 part nitric acid. After this has dried. as shown in Fig. 2. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. Trace the design on the metal. 3. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. Allow this to dry. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. using turpentine. then trace the other half in the usual way. 1 Fig. After the sawing. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. For coloring olive green. With files. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. 1 part sulphuric acid. Do not put the hands in the solution.FIG. deep. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. With the metal shears. using carbon paper. Pierce a hole with a small drill. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing.

as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. After the stain has dried. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. M. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. When this is cold. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. as shown. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. East Hartford.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Cal. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. --Contributed by H. Ii is an ordinary staple. thick. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. New York. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Syracuse. --Contributed by Katharine D. it does the work rapidly. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. on a chopping board. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. attach brass handles. Morse. --Contributed by M. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. . The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Conn. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. then stain it a mahogany color. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. Richmond. Carl Cramer. Burnett.

having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. Cal. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. square. 1/4 in. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. some pieces of brass.. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. Jaquythe. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. --Contributed by W. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. as shown at A. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. machine screws. thick. and several 1/8-in. two enameled. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. Kissimmee. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. Florida. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. also locate the drill holes. 1. holes. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. indicating the depth of the slots. WARNECKE Procure some brass. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. Richmond. 4. --Contributed by Mrs. L. . H. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. brass. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. A. Fig. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. 53 steel pens. one shaft. or tin. in width at the shank. not over 1/4 in. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. thick and 4 in. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. as shown in Fig. saucers or pans. Atwell. about 3/16 in.

lead should be run into the segments. with a 3/8-in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. about 1/32 in. as shown. a square shaft used. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. wide. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. hole. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. thick. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. with the face of the disk. long and 5/16 in. hole in the center. 1. machine screws and nuts. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. The shaft hole may also be filed square. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. Fig. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. 6. 7. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. 2. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. with 1/8-in. wide and bend as shown in Fig. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. A 3/4-in. brass and bolted to the casing. There should be a space of 1/16 in. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . Bend as shown in Fig. using two nuts on each screw. in diameter and 1/32 in. as in Fig. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. into the hole. supply pipe. Fig. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. Fig. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. and pins inserted. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. machine screws. 3. hole is drilled to run off the water. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. These are connected to a 3/8-in. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. long by 3/4 in. 2. thick. 3. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. and the ends filed round for the bearings. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. each about 1 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. 5. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. can be procured. If metal dishes. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. If the shaft is square..

Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. deep and 1-1/4 in. or more in diameter. deep over all. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. --Contributed by F. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. Stain the wood before putting in the . Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. long. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. from the top of the box. Cooke. When assembling. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. Hamilton. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. Be sure to have the cover. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. three of which are in the basket. V. high and 15 in. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Fasten with 3/4-in. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. With a string or tape measure. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. we will call the basket. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. from the bottom end of the legs. The four legs are each 3/4-in. Ill. --Contributed by S. square and 30-1/2 in. The lower part. to make the bottom. screws. Smith. make these seams come between the two back legs. 8-1/2 in. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Canada. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. using four to each leg. La Salle. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Now you will have the box in two pieces. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Fasten with 3/4-in brads.

Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. sewing on the back side. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. -Contributed by Stanley H. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Packard. 2. When making the display. 1.2 Fig. --also the lower edge when necessary. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Mass. Boston. wide. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Cover them with the cretonne. The side. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . The folded part in the center is pasted together.lining. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. wide and four strips 10 in. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. Baltimore. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. If all the parts are well sandpapered. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. Sew on to the covered cardboards. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. as shown in the sketch. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Md. you can. and gather it at that point. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Fig. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining.

--Contributed by B. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Y. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Orlando Taylor. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. It is cleanly. and. When through using the pad. Fig. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Gloversville. saving all the solid part. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Crockett. Cross Timbers. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. N. 3. L. with slight modifications. Mo. It is not difficult to . --Contributed by H. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot.

or if desired. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. --Contributed by Edith E. El Paso. Mass. After stirring. remove the contents. and secure it in place with glue or paste. Lowell. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . and scrape out the rough parts. If a file is used. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Lane. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Texas.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. it should be new and sharp. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. After this is done. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Bourne. across the face. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. -Contributed by C. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. S. are shown in the diagram. Both of these methods are wasteful.

and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper.cooking utensil. Iowa. Those having houses . The insects came to the light. circled over the funnel and disappeared. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. After several hours' drying. Ill. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Greenleaf. --Contributed by Loren Ward. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Oak Park. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Wheeler. --Contributed by Marion P. The process works well and needs no watching. A Postcard Rack [25]. Des Moines. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. F. Ill. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. --Contributed by Geo. Turl. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Canton. He captured several pounds in a few hours. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. As these were single-faced disk records. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Oregon.

and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also.. Conn. but for cheapness 3/4 in. Dobbins. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. and both exactly alike. --Contributed by Wm. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. plane and pocket knife. material. Lay the floor next. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. The single boards can then be fixed. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. boards are preferable. 6 in. the best material to use being matched boards. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. by 2 ft. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. one on each side of what will be the . and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. 6 in. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. will do as well.. not even with the boards themselves. --Contributed by Thomas E. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. and the second one for the developing bench. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. Both sides can be put together in this way. Only three pieces are required. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Rosenberg. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. Worcester. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. and as they are simple in design. the bottom being 3/8 in. Glenbrook. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. Mass. thick.

The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces.doorway. and in the middle an opening. nailing them to each other at the ridge. and act as a trap for the light. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. and the top as at C in the same drawing. wide. which is fixed on as shown . so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. and should be zinc lined. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. At the top of the doorway. In hinging the door. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. brown wrapping paper. hinged to it... 10). One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. 9 by 11 in. 3 and 4. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. 5. and to the outside board of the sides. below which is fixed the sink. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy.. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. so that the water will drain off into the sink. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. 8. of the top of the door for the same reason. 6 and 9. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. by screwing to the floor. 6. 9). The developing bench is 18 in. is cut. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. It is shown in detail in Fig. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. etc. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. 6. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. 11. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. as shown in Figs. The roof boards may next be put on. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. the closing side as at B. so that it will fit inside the sink. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. 7. 2 in section. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. Fig. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack.

Details of the Dark Rook .

but not the red glass and frame. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. A circular piece about 2 in. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. as in Fig. 16. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. 19. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. 13. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . as at I. if desired. 6. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. which makes it possible to have white light. Fig. are fastened in the corners inside. or red light as at K. 17. screwing them each way into the boards.in Fig. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. as shown in Fig. though this is hardly advisable. hole bored in the center for a handle. four coats at first is not too many. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. Fig. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. --Contributed by W. it is better than anything on the market. after lining with brown paper. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. preferably maple or ash. The house will be much strengthened if strips. mixing flour and water. Fig. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. these being shown in Fig. Erie. 18. 14. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. 13. Fig. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. 16. Karl Hilbrich. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. 15. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. Pennsylvania. The handle should be at least 12 in. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. and a 3/8-in. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. or the room may be made with a flat roof. 2. and a tank stand on it. In use. as shown in the sections. as at M. 1. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. 20. For beating up an egg in a glass. and filed or dressed to a point on the other.

which. long. --Contributed by L. D. Kansas City. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. Eureka Springs. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. -Contributed by E. about 3/8 in. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . Ark. Mo. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. G. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. New York. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. Smith. when put together properly is a puzzle. To operate. for a handle. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. --Contributed by Wm. L. Mitchell. Schweiger. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match.copper should be. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. as shown in the sketch. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Yonkers. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax.

Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. to make it set level. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. After the box is trimmed. holes should be drilled in the bottom. 3. Having completed the bare box. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. as is usually the case. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. as shown in Fig. 2. especially for filling-in purposes. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. which binds them together. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. The corks in use are shown in Fig. as well as improve its appearance. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. The design shown in Fig. the rustic work should be varnished. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. If the sill is inclined. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. as shown in Fig. . for the moment. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. in order to thoroughly preserve it. 3. need them. 1. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. Each cork is cut as in Fig. the box will require a greater height in front. A number of 1/2-in.

One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. can't use poison. cabbages. as shown in Fig. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily.. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. 1. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. F. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. being partly eaten into. But I have solved the difficulty. etc. Each long projection represents a leg. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. life in the summer time is a vexation. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. it's easy.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. share the same fate. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. When the corn is gone cucumbers. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. Traps do no good. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. 3. and observe results. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. drilled at right angles. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. too dangerous. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. 2. . 4. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig.

The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. cut some of it off and try again. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. The solution can be used over and over again. . tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. If.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. long. and made up and kept in large bottles. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. cut in 1/2-in. the coil does not heat sufficiently. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. Iowa. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. strips. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. of No. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. About 9-1/2 ft. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. -. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. by trial.

Do not wash them. Texas. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. of gasoline. Doylestown. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. forks. to cause the door to swing shut. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Syracuse. Knives. --Contributed by James M. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. 1) removed. Morse. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. coffee pot. N. of oleic acid with 1 gal. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. and a strip. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. of whiting and 1/2 oz. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Dallas. it falls to stop G. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Y. D. Pa. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. . Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. C. hot-water pot. --Contributed by Katharine D. but with unsatisfactory results. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. is a good size--in this compound. Kane. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Fig 2. Stir and mix thoroughly. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. In cleaning silver. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. as shown in the sketch.

A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Harrisburg. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . . Pa. Fisher. Sprout. New Orleans. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. La. which is. negatives. using the paper dry. --Contributed by Oliver S. --Contributed by Theodore L. later fixed and washed as usual. Waverly. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. Ill. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. but unfixed. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. of course. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film.

Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. metal. Fig. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. To obviate this difficulty. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. a harmonograph is a good prescription. 1. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. then . Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. In this uncertainty lies the charm.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. The harmonograph. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling.

The length of the short pendulum H. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. such as a shoe buttoner. as shown in Fig. Rosemont. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. Gaffney. in diameter. one-fourth. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. is about right for a 10-ft. --Contributed by Wm. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . as shown in the lower part of Fig. exactly one-third. Holes up to 3 in. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. or the lines will overlap and blur. and unless the shorter pendulum is.. 1. A pedestal. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. Ingham. is attached as shown at H. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. G. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. what is most important. Punch a hole. etc. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. --Contributed by James T. Arizona. provides a means of support for the stylus. in the center of the circle to be cut. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. ceiling. one-fifth. Chicago. 1. A small weight. Another weight of about 10 lb. R. A weight. A length of 7 ft. to prevent any side motion.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. K. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. that is. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. which can be regulated. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. 1-3/4 by 2 in.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. with a nail set or punch. A small table or platform. as long as the other. makes respectively 3. of about 30 or 40 lb. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. J.. for instance. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made.

Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. 3. of course. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. one for the sender and one for the receiver. dividing them into quarters. 4. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. The capacity of the vise.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. and 4 as in Fig. --Contributed by J. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. 1. Morey. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. The two key cards are made alike. Chicago. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. N. Fig. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. -Contributed by W. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. distributing them over the whole card.J. and proceed as before. then put 2 at the top. then 3 as in Fig. 2. Cruger. Fig. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife.H. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. 5. a correspondent of . Cape May City. 6. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made.J.

citrate of iron and ammonia. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. drill 15 holes. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. After preparing the base and uprights. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. sheet of well made asbestos paper. 6 gauge wires shown. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. of 18-per-cent No. If constructed of the former. long. the portion of the base under the coil. wood-screws. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. says Popular Electricity. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. Asbestos board is to be preferred. deep. of ferricyanide of potash. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. of water. 1/2 oz. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. respectively. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. from the top and bottom. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. remove the prints. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. 22 gauge German-silver wire. --Contributed by L. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. of the uprights. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. acetic acid and 4 oz. Wind the successive turns of . To assemble. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. Cut through the center. Ga. 1/4 in. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. Alberta Norrell. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. Augusta. 30 gr. After securing the tint desired.

. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. Ward. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. as they are usually thrown away when empty. which. --Contributed by Frederick E. square. Labels of some kind are needed. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. N. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. cut and dressed 1/2 in. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. Ampere. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. screws. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. 16 gauge copper wire. then fasten the upright in place. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. rivets. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . Y. Small knobs may be added if desired. but these are not necessary. 14 gauge. etc. The case may be made of 1/2-in. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. if one is not a smoker. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places.

A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. then to the joint to be soldered. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. --Contributed by W.. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. D. S. Ark. If the soldering copper is an old one.14 oz. lead. sandpaper or steel wool. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. A. particularly so when the iron has once been used. or has become corroded. C. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. Eureka Springs. E and F. of water. --C. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. B. G. The parts are put together with dowel pins. galvanized iron. Wis. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. zinc. brass. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. tinner's acid. it must be ground or filed to a point. This is considerable annoyance. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. and labeled "Poison. Jaquythe. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. and rub the point of the copper on it. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. Heat it until hot (not red hot). California. Kenosha. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. and one made of poplar finished black. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. a piece of solder. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. the pure muriatic acid should be used. Copper. Richmond. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. . In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. Larson. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. especially if a large tub is used. The material can be of any wood. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. In soldering galvanized iron. tin. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. of glycerine to 16 oz. --Contributed by A. as shown in the sketch. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. being careful about the heat. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again.

brass and silver. Hankin. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. This completes the die. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. Y. C. Six issues make a well proportioned book. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. Place the band. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. Brass rings can be plated when finished. The covers of the magazines are removed. round iron. The disk will come out pan shaped. with good results. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. in diameter. Apart from this. D. a ring may be made from any metal. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. N. Troy. in diameter. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. W. however. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. I bind my magazines at home evenings. B. 2. Fig. Take a 3/4-in. This will leave a clear hole. which gives two bound volumes each year. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. wide. -Contributed by H. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. 1. The dimensions shown in Fig. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. 7/8 in. Fig. such as copper. The punch A. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. and drill out the threads. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . nut. thick and 1-1/4 in.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion.

The covering can be of cloth. 2. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. 2. then back through the notch on the right side. size 16 or larger. Coarse white thread. which is fastened the same as the first. 1 in Fig. and a third piece. is used for the sewing material. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. The covering should be cut out 1 in. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. If started with the January or the July issue. Start with the front of the book. and then to string No. Five cuts. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. through the notch on the left side of the string No. of the ends extending on each side.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. allowing about 2 in. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. using . leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. 5. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. The sections are then prepared for sewing. 1. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. threaded double. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. and place them against the strings in the frame. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. Place the cardboard covers on the book. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. 1/8 in. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. . 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in.4. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. on all edges except the back. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. as shown in Fig. After drawing the thread tightly. 1. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. is nailed across the top. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. deep. The string No. C. 1.

on which to hook the blade. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Place the cover on the book in the right position. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Tinplate. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Nebr. and. Cal. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. --Contributed by Clyde E. Divine. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. round iron. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. For the blade an old talking-machine . Encanto. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. and mark around each one.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. at opposite sides to each other. College View.

long. C. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). as shown. and a long thread plug. with 10 teeth to the inch. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Moorhead. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. and file in the teeth. fuse hole at D. with a steel sleeve. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead.. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. by 4-1/2 in. E. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. F. and another piece (B) 6 in. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Make the blade 12 in. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. as it is sometimes called. Then on the board put . hydraulic pipe. Hays. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Summitville. at the same end. in order to drill the holes in the ends. and 1/4 in. A. B. thick. and 1/4 in. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. or double extra heavy. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it.. thick. by 1 in.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. -Contributed by Willard J. Miss. Ohio. bore. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. On the upper side.

Connect up as shown. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. If you are going to use a current of low tension. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. A lid may be added if desired. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Boyd. using about 8 in. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. as from batteries. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. the jars need not be very large. and some No. --Contributed by Chas. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. 4 jars. Philadelphia. of wire to each coil. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. some sheet copper or brass for plates. about 5 ft. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. of rubber-covered wire. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. H. high around this apparatus. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid.

Use no nails. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. In proportioning them the points A. To wire the apparatus. C. and bolt through. 1 on switch. by 1 in.. steel rod makes a good steering rod. The illustration shows how to shape it. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. At the front 24 or 26 in. long. two pieces 14 in. B. two for each jar. 34 in. long by 22 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. 4. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. Construct the auto front (Fig. 2 in. No. are important. Equip block X with screw eyes. and for the rear runners: A. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble.. 2. above the ground. wide. For the front runners these measurements are: A. 3 and No. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. is used to reduce friction. by 5 in. two pieces 30 in. on No. 1. by 2 in. thick. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. by 5 in. 4) of 3/4-in. Their size also depends on the voltage. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. gives full current and full speed. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. wide and 3/4 in. two pieces 34 in. as they are not substantial enough. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. wide and 2 in. 2. 2 and 3. and four pieces 14 in. B. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. 1 is connected to point No. direct to wire across jars. A 3/4-in. Put arm of switch on point No. by 1-1/4 in. beginning at the rear.the way. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. 3 in. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. The sled completed should be 15 ft. 1 and so on for No. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. & S. The current then will flow through the motor. making them clear those in the front runner. 4 in. sheet brass 1 in. thick. See Fig.. 27 B. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. wide by 3/4 in. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. An iron washer. with the cushion about 15 in. First sandpaper all the wood. long. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. then apply a coat of thin enamel. and plane it on all edges. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. Z. Fig. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. 3. The connection between point No. oak boards.. C.. 2. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. 2 is lower down than in No. 30 in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. by 6 in. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. by 1-1/4 in. 11 in. long. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. The stock required for them is oak. The top disk in jar No. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. square by 14 ft. as they "snatch" the ice. B and C. A variation of 1/16 in. 16-1/2 in. For the brass trimmings use No. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. Use no screws on the running surface. by 2 in. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. long. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. however. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. On the door of the auto front put the . or source of current. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. 15-1/2 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. 7 in. .. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. apart.. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. 5 on switch.

This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. overshoes. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. brass plated. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. such as burlap. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. Then get some upholstery buttons. cheap material. such as used on automobiles. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. cutting it out of sheet brass. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. If the expense is greater than one can afford. may be stowed within. long. which is somewhat moist. If desired. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. etc. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . by 1/2 in. fasten a cord through the loop. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. lunch. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. to improve the appearance. a number of boys may share in the ownership. If desired. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. Fasten a horn. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. or with these for $25. to the wheel. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. a brake may be added to the sled. The best way is to get some strong. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. by 30 in. parcels.

Ill. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. . the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. --Contributed by Stewart H.tree and bring. Lexington. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Leland.

made from 1/16-in. London. Fig. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. 4). Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. The first tooth may now be cut. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. This guide should have a beveled edge. some files. FC. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. thick. With no other tools than a hacksaw. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. from F to G.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. say 1 in. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. 2. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. A small clearance space. mild steel or iron. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. outside diameter and 1/16 in. with twenty-four teeth. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. the cut will be central on the line. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. Draw a circle on paper. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. 3. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. sheet metal. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. though more difficult. 1. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. First take the case of a small gearwheel. E. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. the same diameter as the wheel. a compass. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. by drawing diameters. when flat against it. will be over the line FG. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. which. The straight-edge. Fig. The Model Engineer. CD. so that the center of the blade. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . Fig. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file.

Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. ground it with a large piece of zinc. No shock will be perceptible. 1. Then take one outlet wire. as shown in Fig. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. transmitter. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. electric lamp. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. each in the center. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. some wire and some carbons. R. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. hold in one hand. B. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. B. A bright.Four Photos on One Plate of them. either the pencils for arc lamps. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. 1. Make a hole in the other. Focus the camera in the usual manner. and the other outlet wire. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. . or several pieces bound tightly together. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. as shown in Fig. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. If there is no faucet in the house. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. 2. as shown in Fig.

Wrenn. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. as shown. by 12 in. as indicated by E E. Then set the whole core away to dry. Ashland. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. J. one at the receiver can hear what is said. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. But in this experiment.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. A is a wooden block. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. a transmitter which induces no current is used. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Emsworth. of course. Several battery cells. and about that size. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. Ohio. D D are binding posts for electric wires. or more of the latter has been used. under the gable. They have screw ends. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. and again wind the wire around it. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. 36 wire around it. Dry batteries are most convenient. For a base use a pine board 10 in. serves admirably. One like a loaf of bread. by 1 in. and will then burn the string C. --Contributed by Geo. If desired. B. Slattery. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. at each end for terminals. leaving about 10 in. are also needed. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. Pa.

until the hand points to zero on the scale. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. for the . and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. 2. 1.wire. Fig. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. 12 or No. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. First make a support. Jr. in parallel. run a No. and one single post switch. as shown. D. At one side secure two receptacles. B B. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. The coil will commence to become warm. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. the terminal of the coil. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. Newark. Connect these three to switch. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. From the other set of binding-posts. and switch. while C is open. C. B B. and the lamps. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. E. These should have hollow ends. D. Fig.. Place 16-cp. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. F. C. as shown. The apparatus is now ready for operation. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. The oven is now ready to be connected. Ohio. connecting lamp receptacles. Turn on switch. in series with bindingpost. 14 wire.

1. drill a hole as shown at H. 1/2 in. Fig. To make one. Fig. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. wide and 1-3/4 in. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. a standard ammeter. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. from the lower end. 5.E. 2. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. 5. but if for a 4way. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. long. drill through the entire case and valve. The core. long. wind with plenty of No. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. thick. Mine is wound with two layers of No. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. Fig. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. At a point a little above the center. 36 magnet wire instead of No. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. After drilling. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. This may be made of wood. and D. C. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. although copper or steel will do. 4 amperes. is then made and provided with a glass front. to prevent it turning on the axle. a variable resistance. 1. D. The box is 5-1/2 in. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. 10 turns to each layer. A wooden box. If for 3-way. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. The pointer or hand. inside measurements. until the scale is full. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. is made of wire. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. remove the valve. long and make a loop.or 4-way valve or cock. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. where A is the homemade ammeter. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. It is 1 in. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. --Contributed by J. 14. 7. 6. 14 wire. B. 3. 3 amperes. etc.. 4 in. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. Dussault. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. although brass is better. a battery. wide and 1/8 in. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. as shown in the cut. D. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. E. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. 4. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. deep. 1/4 in. is made of iron.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. high. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. Fig. This is slipped on the pivot. Montreal. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. drill in only to the opening already through.

turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. This stopper should be pierced. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. B. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. F. as shown. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. A. and the arc light. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. One wire runs to the switch. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. and the other connects with the water rheostat. making two holes about 1/4 in. and a metal rod. E. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. in diameter. in thickness . then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. To start the light. high. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. which is used for reducing the current. D. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. By connecting the motor. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can.performing electrical experiments. provided with a rubber stopper. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained.

Fig. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. If the interrupter does not work at first. 1. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Y. Fig. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. If all adjustments are correct. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. as shown in C. 1. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. 2. B. Fig. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Fig. Having finished the interrupter. as shown in B. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Jones. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. 2. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Carthage. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. A piece of wood. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. N. where he is placed in an upright open . A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. long. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. As there shown. To insert the lead plate. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. A. 1. Turn on the current and press the button. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. --Contributed by Harold L. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig.

. dressed in brilliant. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. by 7 in. A. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. They need to give a fairly strong light. as the entire interior. to aid the illusion. and wave his arms up and down.coffin. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. until it is dark there. giving a limp. If everything is not black. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. should be miniature electric lamps. The glass should be the clearest possible. If it is desired to place the box lower down. and must be thoroughly cleansed. The skeleton is made of papier maché. and can be bought at Japanese stores. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. is constructed as shown in the drawings. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. Its edges should nowhere be visible. L and M. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. A white shroud is thrown over his body. The lights. the illusion will be spoiled. could expect from a skeleton. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. which can be run by three dry cells. within the limits of an ordinary room. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. from which the gong has been removed. All . Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. inside dimensions. especially L. with the exception of the glass. The model. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. by 7-1/2 in. loosejointed effect. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. high. should be colored a dull black. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. especially the joints and background near A. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. figures and lights. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. light-colored garments.

Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. square block. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. after which it assumes its normal color. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. Cal. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. placed about a foot apart.that is necessary is a two-point switch. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. If a gradual transformation is desired. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. as shown in the sketch. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. W. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. --Contributed by Geo. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. Two finishing nails were driven in. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. San Jose. Fry. fat spark. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on.

With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. F. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. In Fig. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. If a lighted match .Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. soldered in the top. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. The plates are separated 6 in. with two tubes. hydrogen gas is generated. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. as shown. into the receiver G. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. to make it airtight. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. In Fig. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. or a solution of sal soda. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. New York. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. A (see sketch). the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. This is a wide-mouth bottle. -Contributed by Dudley H. B and C. One of these plates is connected to metal top. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. 1. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. the remaining space will be filled with air. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. by small pieces of wood. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. and should be separated about 1/8 in. Cohen.

London. and the ends of the tube. N. long. A. C C. in diameter and 6 in.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. says the Model Engineer. 2 shows the end view. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. which is plugged up at both ends. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. is made by drilling a 1/8in. or by direct contact with another magnet. One row is drilled to come directly on top. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. B. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. is then coiled around the brass tube. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. A. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. copper pipe. 1/2 in. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. A 1/64-in. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. as is shown in the illustration. of No. then a suitable burner is necessary. 1. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. either by passing a current of electricity around it. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. A. A. 1-5/16 in. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. from the bottom. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. The distance between the nipple. A piece of 1/8-in. Fig. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. P. 36 insulated wire. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. which forms the vaporizing coil. should be only 5/16 of an inch. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. N. long. copper pipe. by means of the clips. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. Fig. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. A nipple. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . If desired.

It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. leaving the folded edge uncut. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. boards and all. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . A disk of thin sheet-iron. 1. 1/4 in. trim both ends and the front edge. but if the paper knife cannot be used. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. Turn the book over and paste the other side.lamp cord. taking care not to bend the iron. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. Fig. about 8 or 10 in. this makes a much nicer book. longer and 1/4 in. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. with a fine saw. Take two strips of stout cloth. larger all around than the book. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. Fig. smoothly. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. at the front and back for fly leaves. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. 3. duck or linen. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. cut to the size of the pages. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. Fig. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). should be cut to the diameter of the can. fold and cut it 1 in. 2). Cut four pieces of cardboard.

which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. deep. is perforated with a number of holes. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. as shown. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Va. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. or rather the top now. but its diameter is a little smaller. is soldered onto tank A. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. as shown in the sketch. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. the joint will be gas tight. Ont. is fitted in it and soldered. pasting them down (Fig. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. 18 in. . is made the same depth as B. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Another tank. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. E. in diameter and 30 in. Toronto. Parker. is turned on it. and a little can. This will cause some air to be enclosed. Bedford City. of tank A is cut a hole. B. --Contributed by James E. Another can. A. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. In the bottom. 4). from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. A gas cock.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. --Contributed by Joseph N. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. C. H. Noble. which will just slip inside the little can. D. without a head. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D.

square by 42 in. B. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. should be 3/8 in. The longitudinal corner spines. to prevent splitting. The wiring diagram. H is a square knot. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. by 1/2 in. long. Beverly. and about 26 in. D. shows how the connections are to be made. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. as shown at C. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. If the back armature. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. If the pushbutton A is closed. A. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. B. Fig. E. 1. thus adjusting the . tacks. which may be either spruce. long. exactly 12 in. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. Bott. J. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. D.. B. The diagonal struts. basswood or white pine. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. A A. -Contributed by H. C. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. N. The bridle knots. are shown in detail at H and J. when finished. Fig. The armature. should be 1/4 in. fastened in the bottom. and the four diagonal struts.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. should be cut a little too long. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. S. making the width. The small guards. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. with an electric-bell magnet. 2. which moves to either right or left. and sewed double to give extra strength. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better.

but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. --Contributed by Edw. D. If the kite is used in a light wind. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. for producing electricity direct from heat. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. Harbert. as shown. Closing either key will operate both sounders. thus shortening G and lengthening F. the batteries do not run down for a long time. Clay Center. Stoddard. shift toward F. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. however. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. A bowline knot should be tied at J. E. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. and if a strong wind is blowing. that refuse to slide easily. Chicago. to prevent slipping. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. and. can be made of a wooden . Kan.lengths of F and G. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. with gratifying results. --Contributed by A.

A and B. placed on top. which conducts the current into the cannon. The wood screw. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in.. 16 single-covered wire. Fasten a piece of wood. A. C. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. D. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. A. B. Chicago. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. by means of machine screws or. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil.frame. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. A. E. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. C. in position. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. spark. E. or parallel with the compass needle. When the cannon is loaded. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. and also holds the pieces of wood. with a pocket compass. Then. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. F. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. C. and the current may then be detected by means. with a number of nails. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. --Contributed by A. 14 or No. to the cannon. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current.

but no weights or strings. to receive the screw in the center. Big Rapids. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. 1. A and S. where there is a staple. B. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. requiring a strong magnet. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. press the button. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. --Contributed by Joseph B. square and 3/8 in. now at A' and S'. A. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm.the current is shut off. within the reach of the magnet. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Connect as shown in the illustration. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. To unlock the door. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. L. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Fig. To reverse. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. Marion. when in position at A'. In Fig. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Chicago. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. --Contributed by Henry Peck. Ohio. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. screw is bored in the block. in this position the door is locked. 1. Mich. H. A hole for a 1/2 in. To lock the door. Keil. Fig. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. . Bend the strips BB (Fig. with the long arm at L'. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. A and S. 1. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown.

long. J. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. hole. Mass. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. When the holes are finished and your lines set. about 18 in. --Contributed by C. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. if enameled white on the concave side. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. The standard and base. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. and C is a dumbbell. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. When ready for use. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. put in the handle. or for microscopic work. West Somerville. Thread the other end of the pipe. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. and if desired the handles may . A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. pipe with 1-2-in. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. and may be made at very slight expense. are enameled a jet black. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. gas-pipe. Rand.

--Contributed by C. D. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. Warren. 8 in.be covered with leather. Fig. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. M. across. high by 1 ft. Make a cylindrical core of wood.. 1. B. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. with a cover. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. across. E. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. Mass. which shall project at least 2 in. long and 8 in. This peculiar property is also found in ice. as shown at A in the sketch. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. 1. A. Fig. inside the pail. North Easton. while a new one will cost about 80 cents.

and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. Procure a bundle of small iron wire.. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. It is placed inside the kiln. in diameter. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. pipe 2-ft. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. When lighted. 3) with false top and bottom. After finishing the core. in diameter. as is shown in the sketch. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. C. to hold the clay mixture. say 1/4 in. 1330°. which is the hottest part. W. the firing should be gradual. 1390°-1410°. cutting the hole a little smaller. pipe. projecting from each end (Fig. but it will burn a great deal of gas. wider than the kiln. long over the lid hole as a chimney. and with especial caution the first time. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. 2 in. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. 1). and your kiln is ready for business. or make one yourself. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. and cut it 3-1/2 in. and varnish. thick.-G. L. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. C. hard porcelain. and 3/8 in. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. long. if you have the materials. the point of the blue flame. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. Line the pail. diameter. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. The 2 in. full length of iron core. thick. Whatever burner is used. if there is to be any glazing done. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. 25%. Set aside for a few days until well dried. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes.. Fit all the parts together snugly. 60%. as dictated by fancy and expense. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. sand. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. such . A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. E. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. Wind about 1/8 in. and on it set the paper wrapped core. bottom and sides. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back.mixture of clay.. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. make two wood ends. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. If the cover of the pail has no rim. and graphite. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. hotel china. 1). and 3/4 in. After removing all the paper. carefully centering it. Fig. C. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. of fine wire. strip of sheet iron. 15%. pack this space-top. but will be cheaper in operation. let this dry thoroughly. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. This done. 2. about 1 in. passing wire nails through and clinching them. layer of the clay mixture. Cover with paper and shellac as before.

place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. Chicago.. every alternate card being the same color. with a plane. 2. red and black. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. as in Fig. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. and so on. and discharges into the tube. diameter. R. C. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. 2). square them up. Next restore all the cards to one pack. the next black. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. square them up and place in a vise. 8 in. bind tightly with black silk. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. The funnel. leaving long terminals. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. C. D. Take the red cards. overlaps and rests on the body. . all cards facing the same way. and divide it into two piles. T. length of . we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. as in Fig. as shown in the sketch herewith. A. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. 1. about 1/16 in. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. Of course. procure a new deck. Washington. taking care to have the first card red. B. Then. Then take the black cards.53 in. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. around the coil. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. C. and plane off about 1/16 in. --Contributed by J. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. You can display either color called for. 2.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators.

should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. through the holes already drilled. and this is inexpensive to build. Long Branch. When the glass is put in the frame a space. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. C. 1 gill of litharge. B. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. To find the fall of snow. D. and then the frame is ready to assemble. A. The bottom glass should be a good fit. N. angle iron for the frame. The cement. All the horizontal pieces. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. The upright pieces. E. A. thus making all the holes coincide. 1. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. Drill all the horizontal pieces. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. It should be placed in an exposed location. stove bolts. the first thing to decide on is the size. B. B. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. of the frame. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. Let . but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. 1 gill of fine white sand.C. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. E. stove bolts. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. Fig. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. as the difficulties increase with the size. so that when they are assembled. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. to form a dovetail joint as shown. the same ends will come together again. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin..J. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. F. about 20 in.

A. having a swinging connection at C. D. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Aquarium Finished If desired. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. Fasten the lever. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. a centerpiece (A. and.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. on the door by means of a metal plate. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . if desired. Fig. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. B. to the door knob.

One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. but mark their position on the frame. PAUL S. B. 6 in. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. will open the door about 1/2 in. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. AA. Fig. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. and Fig. screwed to the door frame. --Contributed by Orton E. 1. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. several lengths of scantling 3 in. I referred this question to my husband. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. showing the paddle-wheel in position. 3 shows one of the paddles. Two short boards 1 in.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. Fig. to form the main supports of the frame. 2 is an end view. which is 15 in. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. D. hoping it may solve the same question for them. another. long. Fig. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. 2 ft. Fig. F. N. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. E. C. Y. 1. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. long. 26 in. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. approximately 1 ft. with a water pressure of 70 lb. thus doing away with the spring. to form the slanting part. to keep the frame from spreading. long. To make the frame. according to the slant given C. for the top. 1 . to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location.. another. Cut two pieces 30 in. 2 at GG. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. soldered to the end of the cylinder. as at E. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. A small piece of spring brass. 1 is the motor with one side removed. Buffalo. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. wide by 1 in. and another. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. Do not fasten these boards now. wide . Fig. long. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. White. Fig. They are shown in Fig. from the outside top of the frame. Cut two of them 4 ft. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet.

(It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. and drill a 1/8-in. 2) with a 5/8-in. then drill a 3/16-in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. from one end by means of a key. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). thick (HH. When it has cooled. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. to a full 1/2 in. iron 3 by 4 in. and a 1/4 -in. hole through its center. thick. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. Make this hole conical. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. by 1-1/2 in. pipe. with the wheel and shaft in place. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. Take the side pieces.along the edges under the zinc to form . Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Fig. These are the paddles. (I. after which drill a 5/8 in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes.burlap will do -. 1. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. 2) form a substantial base. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. Tack one side on. take down the crosspieces. Now block the wheel.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. that is. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Fig. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. hole through the exact center of the wheel. Next secure a 5/8-in. Fig. steel shaft 12 in. remove the cardboard. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. 2) and another 1 in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. in diameter. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. GG. 24 in. as shown in Fig. holes. iron. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. hole through them. 4. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. tapering from 3/16 in. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. and drill a 1-in. Fasten them in their proper position. hole to form the bearings. long to the wheel about 8 in. hole through their sides centrally. Drill 1/8-in.

had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. Focus the camera carefully. Do not stop down the lens. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. as this makes long exposure necessary. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. light and the plate. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. or what is called a process plate. Correct exposure depends. remove any white curtains there may be. If sheet-iron is used. ice-cream freezer. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it.a water-tight joint. but as it would have cost several times as much. Drill a hole through the zinc. but now I put them in the machine. drill press. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. on the lens. It is obvious that. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. Raise the window shade half way. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. of course. and the subject may move. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. Darken the rest of the window. and as near to it as possible. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. If the bearings are now oiled. place the outlet over a drain. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. sewing machine. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. as shown in the sketch at B. it would be more durable. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. start the motor. The best plate to use is a very slow one. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. shutting out all light from above and the sides. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. and leave them for an hour or so. . Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. says the Photographic Times. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. any window will do.

the core is drawn down out of sight. 2. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. an empty pill bottle may be used.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. B. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. or wood. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. by twisting. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. The core C. hard rubber. full of water. With a piece of black paper. or can be taken from an old magnet. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. The current required is very small. a core. and without fog. 2. C. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. with binding posts as shown. On completing . which is made of iron and cork. A. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. as shown in Fig. and a base. as a slight current will answer. or an empty developer tube. a glass tube. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. without detail in the face. The glass tube may be a test tube. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. until the core slowly rises. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. D.

is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. and make a pinhole in the center. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. and one not easy to explain. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. whale oil. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. water and 3 oz. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. according to his control of the current. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. This is a mysterious looking instrument. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. finest graphite. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. 1 pt. 1. white lead. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. The colors appear different to different people. is Benham's color top.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. and are changed by reversing the rotation. 1 lb.

This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. As this device is easily upset. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. A. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words.B. especially if the deck is a new one. nearly every time. when the action ceases. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . In prize games. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. Chicago. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. or three spot. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. deuce.. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. thus partly filling bottles A and C. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. fan-like.L. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. C. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. B. In making hydrogen. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. -Contributed by D. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. before cutting.

Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. (Fig. 4. Dak. Form a cone of heavy paper. long and 3 in. Fig. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. as shown in Fig. 1. Bently. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. W. Detail of Phonograph Horn . in diameter. --Contributed by F. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. J. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. Detroit.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. 12 in. . 9 in.. Jr. S. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. long. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. 3). Make a 10-sided stick. that will fit loosely in the tube A. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. S. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. in length and 3 in. Fig. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. Huron. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. --Contributed by C. 2. 10 in.. Make ten pieces about 1 ft.

for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. A second piece of silk thread. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. Fig. E. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. Cut out paper sections (Fig. but bends toward D. bend it at right angles throughout its length. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. Remove the form. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. with a pin driven in each end. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. about the size of a leadpencil. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. A piece of tin. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. push back the bolt. Fortunately. allowing 1 in. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . C. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. 6. A. Denver. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. --Contributed by Reader. long. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. on one side and the top. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. will cause an increased movement of C. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. making it three-ply thick. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. it is equally easy to block that trick.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. and walk in. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip.

B. are 7 ft. Jr. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached.. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. as shown. is connected each point to a battery. 4 ft. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. posts. Fremont Hilscher. while the lower switch. Minn.strip. are made 2 by 4 in. put together as shown in the sketch. The reverse switch. S. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. --Contributed by J. West St. Two wood-base switches. R. The 2 by 4-in. long. The feet. long.. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. and rest on a brick placed under each end. The upper switch. or left to right. B. W. S S. S. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. A. will last for several years. By this arrangement one. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. Paul.

H and K. The piston is made of a stove bolt. In Fig. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. Fig. with two washers. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. FF. 2 and 3. 2. and has two wood blocks. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. The hose E connects to the boiler. either an old sewing-machine wheel. and a cylindrical . The base is made of wood. The valve motion is shown in Figs. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. and the crank bearing C. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. Fig. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. 1. cut in half. The steam chest D. is an old bicycle pump. and in Fig. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. thick. or anything available. and valve crank S. E. the size of the hole in the bearing B. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. pulley wheel. the other parts being used for the bearing B. 3/8 in. which will be described later.every house. which is made of tin.

and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. and the desired result is obtained. 1. 3. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. First. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. as it is merely a trick of photography. Wis.piece of hard wood. Cal. C. is cut out of tin. This is wound with soft string. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. Eustice. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. San Jose. Fig. W. and saturated with thick oil. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. of Cuba. Schuh and A. G. and a very amusing trick. as shown in Fig. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. using the positive wire as a pen. Fig. The boiler. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. G. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. J. --Contributed by Geo. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. This engine was built by W. 4. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. . The valve crank S. can be an old oil can. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. Fry. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. or galvanized iron. powder can. to receive the connecting rod H. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. at that. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown.

and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. to cross in the center. as shown. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. Fig. 1 will be seen to rotate. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. B. B. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. Fig. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. and Fig. They may be of any size. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. 1 by covering up Figs. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. and place a bell on the four ends. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. Cut half circles out of each stave. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. diameter. as shown at AA. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. and pass ropes around . When turning. Fig. C. The smaller wheel.

A (a short spool. from the transmitter. such as clothes lines. procure a wooden spool. Mo. To make this lensless microscope. produces a higher magnifying power). which accounts for the sound. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. long. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. as shown in the illustration. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. W. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. From a piece of thin . This in turn will act on the transmitter. but not on all. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer.G. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry..Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. Louis. St. which allows the use of small sized ropes. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera.M. --Contributed by H.

which are pieces of hard wood. . e. otherwise the image will be blurred. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. E. Viewed through this microscope. and at the center. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. D.. B. or 64 times. the diameter will appear twice as large. is fastened at each end by pins. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. the diameter will appear three times as large. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. It is very important that the hole D should be very small.) But an object 3/4-in. 3. and look through the hole D.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. D. held at arm's length. by means of brads. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. in which hay has been soaking for several days. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. darting across the field in every direction. Fig. the object should be of a transparent nature. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. The lever. and so on. The pivot. C. fastened to a wooden base. The spring. An innocent-looking drop of water. 1. H. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. cut out a small disk.. if the distance is reduced to one-third. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. To use this microscope. C. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. place a small object on the transparent disk. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. bent as shown. i. if the distance is reduced to one-half. A. B. which costs little or nothing to make. can be made of brass and the armature. (The area would appear 64 times as large. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. as in all microscopes of any power. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. is made of iron. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. 2.

wood: C. wide. similar to the one used in the sounder. wide. thick. F. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. A. 16 in. KEY-A. 1. The back. nail soldered on A. B. in length and 16 in. 2. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. is cut from a board about 36 in. D. wide and about 20 in. brass: B. The binding posts. between the armature and the magnet. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. The door. wood. wide. brass: E. wide. brass or iron soldered to nail. AA. D. long. brass. which are made to receive a pivot. C. soft iron. or a single piece. or taken from a small one-point switch. can be made panel as shown. 16 in. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. connection of D to nail. FF. K. B. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in.SOUNDER-A. K. long by 16 in. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. binding posts: H spring The stop. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. fastened near the end. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. HH. coils wound with No. E. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. . should be about 22 in. The base of the key. Cut the top. long and 14-1/2 in. Each side. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. A switch. wood: F. 26 wire: E. Fig. C. DD. wide and set in between sides AA. Fig. and are connected to the contacts. D.

The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. with 3/4-in. 13-1/2 in. Garfield. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. as shown in the sketch. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. AA. material. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. E. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. When the electrical waves strike the needle. Ill. as shown. Make 12 cleats. brads.. 2 and made from 1/4-in. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. In operation. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. cut in them. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. long.

--Contributed by John Koehler. C. through which a piece of wire is passed. --Contributed by R. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. The cord is also fastened to a lever. the magnet. Y. filled with water. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . N. pulls down the armature. N. A. E. A (see sketch). and. when used with a motor. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. F. down into the water increases the surface in contact. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. Fairport. A. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. J. will give a greater speed. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. Pushing the wire. Ridgewood. Brown. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. and thus decreases the resistance. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. B. in order to increase the surface. When the pipe is used. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. A fairly stiff spring.

--Contributed by Perry A. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Borden. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. B. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. if desired. Of course. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Gachville. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other.for the secret contact. even those who read this description. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. N. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force.

in a semicircle 2 in. With about 9 ft. long and full 12-in. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. deep and 3/4 in. East Orange. --Contributed by H. Jr. Connect switch to post B. The top board is made 28-in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. wide. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in.whenever the bell rings. where the other end of wire is fastened. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. H.. Dobson. records. for 10in. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Dr. wide. The three shelves are cut 25-in. 1. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. C. Nails for stops are placed at DD. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Cal. as shown in Fig. Washington. thick and 12-in. apart. wide. 2. N. D. long and 5 in. and on both sides of the middle shelf. A. records and 5-5/8 in. for 6-in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. . and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. wide. J. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. Mangold. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. Compton. wide. From a piece of brass a switch. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. C. E. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. from the bottom.

as shown by the dotted lines. which in operation is bent. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. Va. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . When the cord is passed over pulley C. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. 1. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. closed. as shown in Fig. B. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. E. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. Roanoke. A. to which is fastened a cord.

long. holes (HH. Fig. deep. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. in diameter. D. but a larger one could be built in proportion. In the sides (Fig. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. excepting the crank and tubing. Put the rubber tube. E. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. in diameter. 3). or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. CC. 4 shows the wheel-holder. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. 1. If the wheels fit too tightly. against which the rubber tubing. 1 in. they will let the air through. deep and 1/2 in. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. Do not fasten the sides too . 1 in. Figs. it too loose. In these grooves place wheels. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. Cut two grooves. Fig. in diameter. B. The crankpin should fit tightly. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. Now put all these parts together. which should be about 1/2 in. square and 7/8 in. wide. Bore two 1/4 in. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. apart. through one of these holes. they will bind. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. E. as shown in the illustration. 3. to turn on pins of stout wire. in diameter. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. thick. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Fig. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. is compressed by wheels. wide. These wheels should be 3/4 in. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. 5) when they are placed. one in each end. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. thick (A. Notice the break (S) in the track. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. Figs.

1. as shown in Fig. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. tubing. 15 in. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. For ease in handling the pump. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. Idana. from the bottom and 2 in. Then turn the crank from left to right. though a small iron wheel is better. costing 10 cents. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. Fig. 2. long. a platform should be added. the other wheel has reached the bottom.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. is all the expense necessary. mark for hole and 3 in. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. 1. iron. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. as it gives steadiness to the motion. B. 17-1/2 in. and mark for a hole.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. 1. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. 1. Kan. Fig. --Contributed by Dan H. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. beyond each of these two. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. Hubbard. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. The animal does not fear to enter the box. from each end. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. because he can . from each end. from each end. Fig. and are 30 in. Cut six pieces. and 3-1/2 in. of material. from that mark the next hole. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. The three legs marked BBB. Two feet of 1/4-in. The screen which is shown in Fig. AA. Fig. A in Fig. In the two cross bars 1 in. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. AA. 2. To use the pump. stands 20 in. Take the center of the bar. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. 1. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. the pump will give a steady stream. If the motion of the wheels is regular. mark again.

it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. When through using the battery. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. however. but if one casts his own zinc. add slowly. 4 oz. stirring constantly. silvery appearance. The battery is now ready for use. If the battery has been used before. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. long having two thumb screws. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. giving it a bright. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. of the top. and the solution (Fig. 1) must be prepared. The mercury will adhere. there is too much liquid in the jar. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. acid 1 part). shuts him in. Meyer. of water dissolve 4 oz. When the bichromate has all dissolved. dropping. sulphuric acid. and touches the bait the lid is released and.see through it: when he enters. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. To cause a flow of electricity. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. until it is within 3 in. It is useful for running induction coils. --Contributed by H. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. The truncated. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. or. C. . Then pour the solution into the battery jar. Philadelphia. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. If the solution touches the zinc. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. The battery is now complete. rub the zinc well. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. Place the carbon in the jar. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. some of it should be poured out. If it is wet. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. 14 copper wire. or small electric motors. 2). Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. potassium bichromate.

the battery circuit. while the coal door is being opened. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. Wis. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. If. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house.. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. i. with slight changes. pressing the pedal closes the door. the jump-spark coil . which opens the door. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. The price of the coil depends upon its size. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. After putting in the coal. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. e. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. however.Fig. Madison.

It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. as shown in Fig. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. apart. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. W W. and closer for longer distances.described elsewhere in this book. This will make an excellent receiver. This coil. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. W W. 7). 6. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. Fig. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. as shown in Fig. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. while a 12-in. in a partial vacuum. After winding. 5. which is made of light copper wire. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. being a 1-in. 7. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. coil. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. 6. Change the coil described. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. in a straight line from top to bottom. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. 7. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. made of No. Now for the receiving apparatus. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. . by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. the full length of the coil. diameter. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal.7.

A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. after all. are analogous to the flow of induction.6 stranded. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. For an illustration. I run my lathe by power. may be easily made at very little expense. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. Run a wire from the other binding post. but simply illustrates the above to show that. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. 1). 90°. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. 1 to 4. using an electric motor and countershaft. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. only. as it matches the color well. A. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. Figs. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one.The aerial line. which will be described later. . above the ground. These circles. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. being vertical. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. 90°. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. in the air. and hence the aerial line. B the bed and C the tailstock. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. No. at any point to any metal which is grounded. The writer does not claim to be the originator. where A is the headstock. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. to the direction of the current. being at right angles. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. but it could be run by foot power if desired. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. A large cone pulley would then be required.

drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. Heat the babbitt well. Fig. 6 Headstock Details D. The headstock. deep. The bearing is then ready to be poured. steel tubing about 1/8 in. After pouring. If the bearing has been properly made. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. Fig. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. too. just touching the shaft. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. B. and Fig. 6. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. tapered wooden pin. 4. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. which are let into holes FIG. Fig. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. To make these bearings. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. The bolts B (Fig. which pass through a piece of wood. but not hot enough to burn it. 4. The shaft is made of 3/4-in.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. 5. one of which is shown in Fig. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. on the under side of the bed. A. and runs in babbitt bearings. 5. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. thick. pitch and 1/8 in. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. Fig. 2 and 3. and it is well to have the shaft hot.

so I had to buy one. If one has a wooden walk. B.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. the alarm is easy to fix up. of the walk . but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. N. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. Oak Park. embedded in the wood. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. A. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. The tail stock (Fig. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. FIG. Newark. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. This prevents corrosion. If not perfectly true. Ill. and a 1/2-in. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. lock nut. they may be turned up after assembling.other machines. Take up about 5 ft. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock.J. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator.

Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. add potassium cyanide again. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. (A. Finally. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. Minn. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. before dipping them in the potash solution. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Fig. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. hang the articles on the wires. to roughen the surface slightly. Minneapolis. clean the articles thoroughly. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Jackson. Connect up an electric bell. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. Do not touch the work with the hands again. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. 2). --Contributed by R. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. and the alarm is complete. leaving a clear solution. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. water.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. of water. silver or other metal. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Then make the solution . by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. to remove all traces of grease. S. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. so that they will not touch. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. To avoid touching it. save when a weight is on the trap.

3) strikes the bent wire L. silver can be plated direct. Make a somewhat larger block (E. must be about 1 in. German silver. as at F. but opens the door. long. B should be of the same wood. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. a circuit is completed. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. A 1/4 in. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. In rigging it to a sliding door. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. lead. --Model Engineer. Then. 3) directly over the hole. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. If more solution is required. The wooden catch. 1. make a key and keyhole. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. Screw the two blocks together. which is advised. Where Bunsen cells are used. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. piece of broomstick. Fig. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. which . Having finished washing the precipitate. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. of water. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. thick by 3 in. also.5 to 4 volts. nickel and such metals. 1 not only unlocks. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. A (Fig. with water. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. square. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. Repeat six times. Before silver plating. from the lower end. pewter. Fig. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. such metals as iron. light strokes. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. long. saw a piece of wood. shaking. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. an old electric bell or buzzer. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. will serve for the key. This is best done by filling the bottle with water.up to 2 qt. Fig. and the larger part (F. of clothesline rope and some No. a hand scratch brush is good. 10 in. To provide the keyhole. I. if one does not possess a buffing machine. Take quick. and then treated as copper. which is held by catch B. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. zinc. hole in its center. about 25 ft. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. 1). and 4 volts for very small ones. If accumulators are used. copper. with water. With an electric pressure of 3. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. use 2 volts for large articles. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. when the point of the key touches the tin. When all this is set up. 3. as shown in Fig. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. On brass. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. Fig. Can be made of a 2-in. 18 wire. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. with the pivot 2 in. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. 1 in. 1). This solution. The wooden block C.

to throw the light toward the audience. shows catch B. One thing changes to another and back again. Fig. 1. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. some black paint. and finally lined inside with black cloth. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. no painting inside is required. a few simple tools. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. Heavy metal objects. 3. and a slit. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. and plenty of candles. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. On either side of the box. Thus. The interior must be a dead black. top. The magician stands in front of this. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. floor. so much the better. He removes the bowl from the black box. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. Next. although a little more trouble. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. between the parlor and the room back of it. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. 2. the requisites are a large soap box. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. surrounding a perfectly black space. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. the illumination in front must be arranged. --Contributed by E. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. some black cloth. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. which unlocks the door. one-third of the length from the remaining end. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. with a switch as in Fig. and hands its contents round to the audience. the box should be painted black both inside and out.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. Next. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. such as forks. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. B. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. H. Fig. Fig. Objects appear and disappear. 0. One end is removed. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. H. half way from open end to closed end. The box must be altered first. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other.. 116 Prospect St. 1. . Holding his empty hand over this bowl. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. Receiving the bowl again. spoons and jackknives. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. in his shirt sleeves. with the lights turned low. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. cut in one side. To prepare such a magic cave. Klipstein. should be cut a hole. he points with one finger to the box. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. he tosses it into the cave. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. sides and end. enlarged. H. Fig. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. and black art reigns supreme. is the cut through which the rope runs. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. heighten the illusion. In front of you. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. East Orange. or cave. New Jersey. 2.

The illusion. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. in which are oranges and apples. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. Consequently. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen.Finally. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. you must have an assistant. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. had a big stage. into the eyes of him who looks. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. of course. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. and if portieres are impossible. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. which can be made to dance either by strings. of course. a screen must be used. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. The audience room should have only low lights. as presented by Hermann. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. and several black drop curtains. the room where the cave is should be dark. his confederate behind inserts his hand. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. which are let down through the slit in the top. The exhibitor should be . But illusions suggest themselves. if. one on each side of the box. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. and pours them from the bag into a dish. is on a table) so much the better. only he. was identical with this. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain.

if you turn handle K to the right. respectively. b2. f2. making contact with them as shown at y. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. is shown in the diagram. b1. 2. held down on disk F by two other terminals. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. A represents a pine board 4 in. vice versa. terminal c3 will show . and a common screw.a boy who can talk. square. b2. d. e1 and e2. Then. as shown in Fig. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in.. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. A. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. or binding posts. c4. by means of two wood screws. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. b3. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. and c4 + electricity. c2. c1. or b2. On the disk G are two brass strips. 1. when handle K is turned to one side. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). and c1 – electricity. 2. terminal c3 will show +. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. FIG. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . b3. making contact with them. About the center piece H moves a disk. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. respectively. respectively. Finally. at L. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. held down on it by two terminals. held down by another disk F (Fig. and c2 to the zinc. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. by 4 in. their one end just slips under the strips b1. with three brass strips. Fig. so arranged that. 1. c3. 2).is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig.

Joerin. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. and then hold the receiver to your ear. 4. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. . Ohio. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries.. and C and C1 are binding posts. when A is on No. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. Tuttle. and when on No. when on No. you have the current of one battery. 3. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). 1. jump spark coil. Jr. when on No. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . -Contributed by A.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. 5. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. When switch B is closed and A is on No. B is a onepoint switch. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. from three batteries. Newark. E. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. from four batteries. thus making the message audible in the receiver. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. --Contributed by Eugene F. from five batteries.

The device thus arranged. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. so one can see the time. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. A. P. per second for each second. as shown in the sketch. and supporting the small weight. A. Redmond. E. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. mark. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. rule. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. and placed on the windowsill of the car. which may be a button or other small object. Thus. New Orleans. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. La. When you do not have a graduate at hand. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second.. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. mark. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. B. is the device of H. of Burlington. Wis. traveled by the thread. Handy Electric Alarm .A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. per second. over the bent portion of the rule. A. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in.

. Instead. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. S. Pa. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. Crafton. When the alarm goes off. for a wetting is the inevitable result. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. --C. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. Then if a mishap comes. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. --Contributed by Gordon T. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. C. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. but may be closed at F any time desired. Lane. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. soldered to the alarm winder. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. which illuminates the face of the clock. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. B. wrapping the wire around the can several times. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone.which has a piece of metal. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. and with the same result. Then I sat down on the porch to wait.

The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. engines. as shown. binding posts. The first thing to make is a molding bench. small machinery parts. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. C. A. Two cleats.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . models and miniature objects. --Contributed by A. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. ornaments of various kinds. whence it is soon tracked into the house. It is possible to make molds without a bench. With the easily made devices about to be described. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. when it is being prepared. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. as shown in Fig. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. bearings. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. BE. 1. L. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. and many other interesting and useful articles. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. New York City. which may. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. AA. If there is no foundry Fig. but it is a mistake to try to do this. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. and duplicates of all these. battery zincs. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. 1 . The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. Macey. cannons.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay.

zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. The cloth bag. and the "drag. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. F. and a sieve. but this operation will be described more fully later on. The flask." or lower part.near at hand. which should be nailed in. previous to sawing. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. 2 . The rammer. An old teaspoon. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. Fig. CC. 1. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. is filled with coal dust. the "cope. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. Fig. which can be made of a knitted stocking. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. D. It is made of wood and is in two halves. white metal. and the lower pieces. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. is nailed to each end of the cope. by 8 in. makes a very good sieve. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. high. will be required.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. say 12 in. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. A slight shake of the bag Fig. G. is about the right mesh. DD. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. is made of wood." or upper half. The dowels. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. If desired the sieve may be homemade. try using sand from other sources.How to Make a Mold [96] . is shown more clearly in Fig. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. 1. If the box is not very strong. and saw it in half longitudinally. E. as shown. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. II . Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. J. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. A A. 2. H. CC. and this. a little larger than the outside of the flask. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. which can be either aluminum. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. as shown. A wedge-shaped piece. by 6 in.

as shown. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. as shown at D. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. and if water is added. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. Place another cover board on top." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. After ramming. and by grasping with both hands. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. and scatter about 1/16 in. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. or "drag. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask." in position. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. as shown at C. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. as described. turn the drag other side up. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. in order to remove the lumps. or "cope. and thus judge for himself. and then more sand is added until Fig. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. as it is much easier to learn by observation. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. the surface of the sand at . but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. It is then rammed again as before. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. where they can watch the molders at work. as shown at E. In finishing the ramming. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. The sand is then ready for molding. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it.

The pattern is then drawn from the mold. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes." or pouring-hole. wide and about 1/4 in. it shows that the sand is too wet. place the cope back on the drag. is next cut. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. Fig. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. in order to prevent overheating. This is done with a spoon. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. to give the air a chance to escape. thus holding the crucible securely. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. as shown at H. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. made out of steel rod. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. as shown at G. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. Place a brick or other flat. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. as shown in the sketch. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. . These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. After drawing the pattern. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right.E should be covered with coal-dust. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. deep. and then pour. in diameter. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. as shown at F. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. after being poured. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. III. as shown at J. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. thus making a dirty casting. as shown at H. The "sprue. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand.

the following device will be found most convenient. Although the effect in the illustration . Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. In my own case I used four batteries. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. Referring to the figure. may be used in either direction. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. Minneapolis. or from any adjacent pair of cells. but any reasonable number may be used. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. Morton. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. and the casting is then ready for finishing. and. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. --Contributed by Harold S. If a good furnace is available. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. battery zincs. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. babbitt. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. although somewhat expensive. white metal and other scrap available. 15% lead. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. used only for zinc. is very desirable. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none.

which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. Fig. connected by cords to the rudder. says a correspondent of the Sphinx.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. Make one of these pieces for each arm. Put a sharp needle point. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. --Contributed by Draughtsman. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. The bearings. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. B. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. as shown in the illustration. may be made of hardwood. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. which will be sufficient to hold it. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. A. Then replace the table. as shown at A. backward. To make it take a sheet-iron band. 3/4 in. B. Chicago. The brass rings also appear distorted. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. Then walk down among the audience. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . outward. By replacing the oars with paddles. 2. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. shaft made. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. If desired. and the oarsman is obliged to travel.

should be made of wood. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. W. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. as shown in Fig. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. Fig. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. but when in motion. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. A block of ice. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. The hubs. 1. C. In the same way. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. If babbitt is used. as shown in Fig. 3. 2 and 3. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. D. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. 1. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. or under pressure. It may seem strange that ice . This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. If galvanized iron is used. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed.melted babbitt. spoiling its appearance. 2. The covers. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. and a weight. being simply finely divided ice. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. E. 1. when it will again return to its original state. A. or the paint will come off. Snow.

on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . using a closed circuit or gravity battery. Crafton. by 1/2 in. brass. by 1/4. whenever there is any connection made at all. and assume the shape shown at B. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. but. which resembles ice in this respect.should flow like water. The rate of flow is often very slow. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. Pressing either push button. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. by 2 in. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. but by placing it between books. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. --Contributed by Gordon T. sometimes only one or two feet a day. B. by 5 in. square. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. or supporting it in some similar way. thus giving a high resistance contact. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. it will gradually change from the original shape A. as per sketch. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening.. Lane. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. P. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. as shown on page 65. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. Pa. in. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. no matter how slow the motion may be. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No.

as shown. vertical lever. alarm clock. cord. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. and five dry batteries. D. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. K . C. G. draft chain. --Contributed by A. B. H. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. the battery. the induction coil. F. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. Ward. G. draft.000 ft. The success depends upon a slow current.thumb screws. Indianapolis. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. weight. J. wooden supports. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. E. In the wiring diagram. as shown. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. A is the circuit breaker. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. and C. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. I. B. Wilkinsburg. The parts are: A. furnace. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. about the size used for automobiles. Pa. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. pulleys. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. horizontal lever.

on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . Artistic Window Boxes The top. where house plants are kept in the home. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. Kalamazoo. The frame (Fig. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. which will provide a fine place for the plants. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. 2 are dressed to the right angle. such as used for a storm window. as well as the bottom. 3. will fit nicely in them. material framed together as shown in Fig. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. Mich.

Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. in any system of lamps. can be connected up in series. in this connection. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. this must be done with very great caution. A certain number of these. The 1/2-cp. Canada. and the instrument will then be complete. W. multiples of series of three. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. However. Grant. Halifax. as if drawn upon for its total output. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted.. --Contributed by Wm. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. N. 1. where they are glad to have them taken away. which sells for 25 cents. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. i. a cork and a needle. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. Push the needle into the cork. in diameter. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. is something that will interest the average American boy. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. and a suitable source of power. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. as indicated by Fig. but maintain the voltage constant. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. 1 each complete with base. one can regulate the batteries as required. Thus. It must be remembered. 1 cp. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. so as to increase the current. This is more economical than dry cells. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. S.. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. since a battery is the most popular source of power. by connecting them in series. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. However. and will give the . after a rest. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. for some time very satisfactorily.. and cost 27 cents FIG. e. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp.

Fig. and for Christmas trees. to secure light by this method. and then lead No. according to the water pressure obtainable. lamps. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. lamp. Chicago. In conclusion. for display of show cases. 18 B & S. we simply turn on the water. If wound for 10 volts. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. where the water pressure is the greatest. and running the series in parallel. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. or 22 lights. FIG. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. if wound for 6 volts. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. double insulated wire wherever needed. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. lamps. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. making. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. and diffused light in a room. which is the same as that of one battery. However. and is wound for any voltage up to ten.proper voltage. So. 1-cp. generates the power for the lights. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. Thus. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. 11 series. 3. each. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. Thus. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. by the proper combination of these. although the first cost is greater. as in Fig. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. especially those of low internal resistance. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. These will give 3 cp. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. 2 shows the scheme.. .

AA. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. A indicates the ground. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Plymouth. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. and the sides. Ind. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. To reverse the motor. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Emig. switch. B. are cut just alike. or a tempting bone. Cal. CC. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. the letters indicate as follows: FF. After I connected up my induction coil. we were not bothered with them. --Contributed by F. A. simply change the switch. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. . How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. Parker. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. field of motor. DD. center points of switch. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. and C. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. a bait of meat. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. bars of pole-changing switch. --Contributed by Leonard E. as shown in the sketch. outside points of switch. brushes of motor. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. B. or from one pattern. Santa Clara. thus reversing the machine. BB.

To unlock the door. one cell being sufficient. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. merely push the button E. The experiment works best . Hutchinson. a hammer. The button can be hidden. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. A. a piece of string. Melchior. -Contributed by Claude B. When the circuit is broken a weight.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. Cal. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. 903 Vine St. Minn. San Jose. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. as it is the key to the lock.. Fry. which is in the door. If it is not. W. or would remain locked. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. thus locking the door. attached to the end of the armature B. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. and a table or bench.

C. the current flows with the small arrows. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. On another block of wood fasten two wires.. Crawford Curry. the stick falls away. . Brockville. forming a loop. in the ceiling and has a window weight. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. run through a pulley. the key turns. -. releasing the weight. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Madison. which pulls the draft open. as shown in Fig.Contributed by F. where it will remain suspended as shown. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. 3. 18 Gorham St. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. Wis. 2. Tie the ends of the string together. 1). and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. I. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. W. Canada. When the alarm rings in the early morning. Culebra. 4). Porto Rico. P. A. D. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. 3. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. attached at the other end. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Schmidt. Ontario. --Contributed by Geo.

grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. and . N. square and 1 in. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. J. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. running one direct to the receiver. Camden. J. and break the corners off to make them round. which fasten to the horn. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. 6 in. --Contributed by Wm. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. thence to a switch. Farley.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. First. Use a barrel to work on. made with his own hands. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. The cut shows the arrangement. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. or tree. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. and then to the receiver. or from a bed of flowers.. and the other to the battery. S. R. D. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. thick. get two pieces of plate glass. Jr. including the mouthpiece. Connect two wires to the transmitter.

Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. or it will not polish evenly. and is ready for polishing. while walking around the barrel. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. When polishing the speculum. using straight strokes 2 in.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. by the side of the lamp. spaces. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. In a dark room. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. as in Fig. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. When done the glass should be semitransparent. L. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. melt 1 lb. with 1/4-in. a round 4-in. and the under glass or tool convex. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. When dry. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. unless a longer focal length is wanted. of water. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. and spread on the glass. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. in length. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. Fasten. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. 2. Fig. the coarse grinding must be continued. 2. set the speculum against the wall. or less. so the light . then take 2 lb. then 8 minutes. also rotate the glass. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. wide around the convex glass or tool. Fig. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife.. twice the focal length away. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. wet till soft like paint. wetting it to the consistency of cream. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. with pitch. Use a binger to spread it on with. 1. Have ready six large dishes.. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. and a large lamp. A. and label. Then warm and press again with the speculum. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper.

Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. Then add 1 oz. Fig. face down.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. fill the dish with distilled water. then ammonia until bath is clear. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). if a hill in the center. Fig. Then add solution B.. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. 4 oz. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. Silver nitrate ……………………………. 2. from the lamp. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. cement a strip of board 8 in. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it.. The polishing and testing done. also how the rays R from a star . longer strokes. When dry. Place the speculum S. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. Solution D: Sugar loaf . a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. and pour the rest into the empty dish. with distilled water. that was set aside. 100 gr. deep...100 gr.. 4 oz. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center.…………………………….. Nitric acid . the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. must be procured. The knife should not be more than 6 in. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. or hills. Two glass or earthenware dishes. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. Place the speculum. If not. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. as in K. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency.. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz.………………………………. the speculum is ready to be silvered. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. 2. 840 gr. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. the speculum will show some dark rings. When the focus is found.. 25 gr.. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. Now add enough of the solution A.. With pitch. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. 39 gr.……………. Fig. long to the back of the speculum. touched with rouge.

it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. telescope can be made at home.. My telescope is 64 in. Make the tube I of sheet iron. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. two glass prisms. which proves to be easy of execution. About 20. slightly wider than the lens mount. stop down well after focusing. Thus an excellent 6-in. using strawboard and black paper. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. The flatter they are the less they will distort. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret.John E. is a satisfactory angle. . Then I made the one described. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. Place over lens. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. Mellish. deg. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. cover with paper and cloth. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. and proceed as for any picture. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. with an outlay of only a few dollars. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. long and cost me just $15. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass.

when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. . which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. Boody. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. or powdered alum. through the lens of the camera and on the board. D. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. as shown in Fig. The paper is exposed.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. then add a little sulphate of potash. instead of the contrary. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. 1. B. Zimmerman. unobstructed light strike the mirror. To unlock. add the plaster gradually to the water. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. push the button D. 2. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. A. says the Master Painter. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. Do not stir it. but will not preserve its hardening. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. Fig. The rays of the clear. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. complete the arrangement. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. -Contributed by A. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. and reflect through the negative. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. Ill. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard.

2. Then blow through the spool. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. use a string. 1). also provide them with a handle. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. To reverse. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. so that it can rotate about these points. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. as at A and B. 3. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. as shown in the sketch. as in Fig. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. 2. Fasten on the switch lever. Fig. throw . but will remain suspended without any visible support. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore.

Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. rinse in alcohol. Tex. San Antonio. D.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. wash in running water. the armature. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. -Contributed by Morris L. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. Go McVicker. A is the electricbell magnet. carbon sockets. --Contributed by R. Neb. B. Push one end of the tire into the hole. and rub dry with linen cloth. and E E. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. C C. . In the sketch. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Levy. carbons. Tex. although this is not necessary. L. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. as shown in the sketch. binding posts. San Marcos. North Bend. Take out. --Contributed by Geo. Thomas.

an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . 36 magnet wire. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. Brooklyn. Bell. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. wound evenly about this core. By means of two or more layers of No.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. --Contributed by Joseph B. 16 magnet wire. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. long or more. 14 or No. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy.

but if it is not convenient to do this work. wide. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. and the results are often unsatisfactory. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. in length. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. coil illustrates the general details of the work. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. a box like that shown in Fig. in diameter. 4. A 7/8-in. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. In shaping the condenser. long and 2-5/8 in. When cut and laid in one continuous length. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. then the strip of tin-foil. which is an important factor of the coil. hole is bored in the center of one end. This makes a condenser which may be folded. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. Beginning half an inch from one end. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. or 8 in. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. long and 5 in. at a time. and finally the fourth strip of paper. with room also for a small condenser. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. diameter. The following method of completing a 1-in. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. one piece of the paper is laid down. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. The condenser is next wrapped . about 6 in. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. No. 2 yd. 1. The primary is made of fine annealed No. which is desirable. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. making two layers. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. as shown in Fig. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. as the maker prefers. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine.which would be better to buy ready-made. After the core wires are bundled. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. the entire core may be purchased readymade. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box.

B. flange turned on one side. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. the letters indicate as follows: A. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. D. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. lines H. long to key. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell.. I.) The wiring diagram. V-shaped copper strip. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. switch. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. 4 in. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. one from bell. wide. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. forms the other pole or terminal. whole length. and one from battery. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. spark. Fig. G. open switch C. to the door. shelf for clock. copper lever with 1-in. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. bell. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. B. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. long and 12 in. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. and the other sheet.securely with bands of paper or tape. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. C. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. go. 3. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. The alarm key will turn and drop down. ready for assembling. which allows wiring at the back. by 12 in. round so that the inside . spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. shows how the connections are made. which is insulated from the first. F. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. A. E. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. battery .

You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. but add 5 or 6 oz. Short-circuit for three hours. from the bottom. instead of close to it. and the battery is ready for use. Use a glass or metal shade. of blue stone. The circuit should also have a high resistance. If desired for use immediately. London. and then rivet the seam. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus.diameter is 7 in.. This is for blowing. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. 2 in. That is what they are for. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. says the Model Engineer. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. of zinc sulphate. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. but with the circuit. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. do not shortcircuit. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. . Line the furnace. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. This makes it impractical for running fan motors.

Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. the second finger along the side. Ohio. and then. long. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. 1. but the thing would not move at all. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. as in the other movement. changes white phosphorus to yellow. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. for some it will turn one way. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. If too low. imparting to them a violet tinge. 2. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. This type of battery will give about 0. To operate the trick. Outside of the scientific side involved. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. below the bottom of the zinc. Try it and see. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. or think they can do the same let them try it. square and about 9 in. oxygen to ozone. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in.." which created much merriment. g.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. If any or your audience presume to dispute. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. porcelain and paper. Enlarge the hole slightly. herein I describe a much better trick. At least it is amusing. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. thus producing two different vibrations.9 of a volt. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. while for others it will not revolve at all. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. affects . and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. for others the opposite way. and therein is the trick.

It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. chemicals. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. a means for holding it vertical. says the Photographic Times. however. but this is less satisfactory. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. a short-focus lens. but not essential. insects. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. earth. and one of them is photomicrography.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. an old tripod screw. and. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. To the front board is attached a box. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. but small flowers. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. if possible. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in.

6 ft. in diameter. Ft Lifting Power. 8 ft. Mass. AB. CD. 65 4 lb. in Cu. 7-1/2 in. Divide one-quarter of the circle . Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. 113 7 lb. while it is not so with the quill. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. Madison. and a line. wide from which to cut a pattern.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 1. The following table will give the size. 7-1/2 in. long and 3 ft. 5 ft. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 5 in. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. Boston. 905 57 lb. or 3 ft. balloon. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 7 ft. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb. If the balloon is 10 ft. 179 11 lb. A line. which is 15 ft. 381 24 lb. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 9 ft. Fig. 12 ft.--Contributed by George C. Cap. 11 ft. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. or 31 ft. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 268 17 lb. 697 44 lb.

When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. keeping the marked part on the outside. of the very best heavy body. and so on. on the curved line from B to C.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. This test will show if the bag is airtight. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. 70 thread. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. Procure 1 gal. making a double seam as shown in Fig. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. Repeat this operation four times. The pattern is now cut. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. 2. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. The cloth segments are sewed together. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. using a fine needle and No. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. The amounts necessary for a 10- . cutting all four quarters at the same time. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. 3. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. of beeswax and boil well together. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. 4. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig.

with the iron borings. a clean white rag. Vegetable oils should never be used. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. C. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. 1 lb. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. ft. About 15 lb. it is not fit to use. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. with 3/4in. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. The 3/4-in. if it is good it will dry off. but if any grease remains on the hand.Green Iron ammonium citrate . Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. of iron borings and 125 lb. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. 1 lb. by fixing. as shown in Fig. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. should not enter into the water over 8 in. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. of sulphuric acid. of iron. In the barrel. C. B. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. which may sound rather absurd. B. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. using a fine brush. 5 .The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. above the level of the water in barrel A. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. . A. When the clock has dried. to the bag. leaving the hand quite clean. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. All FIG. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. pipe. of gas in one hour. oil the spindle holes carefully. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. or dusting with a dry brush. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. of water will make 4 cu. After washing a part. 150 gr. capacity and connect them. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. or a fan. ]. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. with water 2 in. . All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. B. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. balloon are 125 lb. Water 1 oz. A.ft. Fill the other barrel. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. A. until no more dirt is seen. The outlet. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. 5. this should be repeated frequently..

Port Melbourne. says the Moving Picture World.. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. The positive pole. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. Dry in the dark. dry atmosphere will give best results. The miniature 16 cp. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. This aerial collector can be made in . but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. toning first if desired. Exposure. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. Printing is done in the sun. Dry the plates in the dark. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. fix in hypo. and a vigorous negative must be used. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. 20 to 30 minutes. or battery. A longer exposure will be necessary. . or carbon. or zinc. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. A cold. to avoid blackened skin. . leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in.000 ft. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. at the time of employment. The negative pole. and keep in the dark until used. keeping the fingers out of the solution.Water 1 oz. of any make. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta.

long. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. forming a cup of the pipe. This will complete the receiving station. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. 5 in. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. in diameter. making a ground with one wire. and as less current will flow the short way. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased.various ways. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. lay a needle. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. as described below. If the waves strike across the needle. holes . the resistance is less. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. both positive and negative. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. As the telephone offers a high resistance. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. when left exposed to the air. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. If the wave ceases. lead pipe. a positive and a negative. and have the other connected with another aerial line. will soon become dry and useless. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. The storage cell. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty.

The other plate is connected to the zinc. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. one to the positive. an oblong one and a triangular one. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. does not need to be watertight. by soldering the joint. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. on each end. of course. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. says the Pathfinder. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. or tube C. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. B. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. When mixing the acid and water. This support or block. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. except for about 1 in. Two binding-posts should be attached. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. or tube B. a round one. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. and the other to the negative.as possible. This. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. This box can be square. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. D. namely: a square hole.

and has plenty of good seating capacity. as it is not readily overturned. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. 2. 2. Chicago. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. all around the edge. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. about 20 in. 1. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. thick cut two pieces alike. This punt. long. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. were fitted by this one plug. back and under. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. leaving about 1/16 in. C. The third piece of brass. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. as shown in Fig. deep and 4 ft. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. wide. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. . --Contributed by Edwin Walker. wide.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. Ill. and match them together. 1. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. 3. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. Only galvanized nails should be used. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. A and B. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. is built 15 ft. as shown in Fig. in place on the wood. C. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig.

Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Wash. A piece of 1/4-in. In Fig. gas pipe. Tacoma. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. is cut 1 in. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. A. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. square (Fig 2). thick and 3-1/2 in. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. B.

but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . or "rotor. In designing. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C." has no connection with the outside circuit. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. which the writer has made. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. says the Model Engineer. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. without auxiliary phase. which can be developed in the usual manner.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. H. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. Wagner. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. if possible. lamp. may be of interest to some of our readers. The winding of the armature. and to consume. it had to be borne in mind that. no more current than a 16-cp.--Contributed by Charles H. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. no special materials could be obtained. with the exception of insulated wire.

were then drilled and 1/4-in. or "stator. also varnished before they were put in. C. bolts put in and tightened up. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. thick. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. They are not particularly accurate as it is. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. in diameter were drilled in the corners. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. while the beginnings . the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. as shown in Fig. to be filed out after they are placed together. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. 3. with the dotted line. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. Holes 5-32 in. wrought iron. and all sparking is avoided. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. 1. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. no steel being obtainable. 2. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. 5. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. After assembling a second time. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. A. 4. Unfortunately. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. as shown in Fig. and filled with rivets. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. being used.the field-magnet. B. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. about 2-1/2 lb. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. The stator is wound full with No. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. holes. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. this little machine is not self-starting.

Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. and would not easily get out of order. and the other by reduction in the camera. Jr. The lantern slide is a glass plate. N. The image should . and all wound in the same direction. 3-Contributed by C. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. and as the motor runs at constant speed. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. One is by contact. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. McKinney. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. having no commutator or brushes. as shown in Fig.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. J. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. No starting resistance is needed. The rotor is wound with No. as before stated. 1. a regulating resistance is not needed. If too late for alcohol to be of use.. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. it would be very simple to build. film to film. as a means of illustrating songs. In making slides by contact. Newark. This type of motor has drawbacks. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. and especially of colored ones. if applied immediately. 2. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. and as each layer of wire was wound. E.

Fig. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. over the mat. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. also. the formulas being found in each package of plates. 4. C. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. if possible. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. 5. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. and then a plain glass. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . Select a room with one window. as shown in Fig. about a minute. These can be purchased from any photo material store. B. 1. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. It is best. 3. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide.appear in. except that the binding is different. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. to use a plain fixing bath. a little extra work will be necessary. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. Draw lines with a pencil. If the exposure has been correct. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. 2. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. A. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. D. Being unbreakable. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. and development should be over in three or four minutes. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. as shown in Fig. they are much used by travelers.

Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. 2. If the star is in front of the left eye. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. long. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. long. while the dot will be in front of the other. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. Fig. wide and 50 in. from the end piece of the chair. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. long. 1. known as rods and cones. as shown at A. Corinth. Fig. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. from the ends. holes bored in the end pieces. A piece of canvas. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. is to be used for the seat. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. as shown at B. as shown in Fig. 1. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . in diameter and 40 in. from the center of this dot draw a star. Hastings. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. and two pieces 1-1/4 in.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. in diameter and 20 in. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. These longer pieces can be made square. 16 in. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. Vt. or other stout cloth.

A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. as well as to operate other household machines. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. per square inch. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. in thickness and 10 in. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. 1. 2. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. A disk 1 in. J. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. Cal. O'Gara. Auburn. as shown in Fig. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. as shown in Fig. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. . was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. made from an ordinary sash cord. A belt.-Contributed by P.

and the construction is complete. leaving it shaped like a bench. . and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. or inconvenient to measure. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. fairly accurate. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. says the Scientific American. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. will be the thickness of the object. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. it serves a very useful purpose. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. Bore a 1/4-in. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. divided by the number of threads to the inch. Cut out a piece from the block combination. square for a support. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. screwing it through the nut. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. A simple. Put the bolt in the hole. to the top of the bench. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. 3/4 in. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. long. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. wide. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. thick and 2-1/2 in. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. direction. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. then removing the object. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. with as fine a thread as possible. The part of a rotation of the bolt. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in.

beyond the end of the wood. material 12 ft. Santa Maria. which show up fine at night. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. bolt in each hole. piece of wood 12 ft. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. long. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Oal. Place a 3/4-in. Bore a 3/4-in. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. long is used for the center pole. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. The wheel should be open . globe that has been thrown away as useless. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe.

P. of the ends with boards. wide and 1/8 in. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. B. Fort Worth. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. long. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. and the lower part 61/2 in. pieces used for the spokes. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. at the bottom. A cross bar.Side and Top View or have spokes. The coil. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. C. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. thick is used for the armature. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in.-Contributed by A. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. The spool . from the top end. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. made of the same material. C. long. A. from the ends. H and J. to be operated by the magnet coil. which should be 1/4 in. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. square and 3 or 4 in. thick. long. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. is soldered. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. 1/2 in. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. O. in diameter. and on its lower end a socket. A piece of brass 2 in. Tex. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. thick. long. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. The boards may be nailed or bolted. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. L. at the top and 4 in. Graham.

000. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. F. Randolph. This is a very neat trick if performed right. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. and in numerous other like instances. do it without any apparent effort. --Contributed by Arthur D. or a water rheostat heretofore described. The armature.E. R. S. is drilled. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig.000 for irrigation work. and place it against a door or window casing. Mass.--A.is about 2-1/2 in. which may be had by using German silver wire. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. . and directly centering the holes H and J. 2. that holds the lower carbon. B. long. S. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. At the bottom end of the frame. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25.J. A soft piece of iron. then with a firm. D and E. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. When you slide the pencil along the casing. 1. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. This tie can be used on grain sacks. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. C. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. A. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. Bradlev. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. one without either rubber or metal end. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. by soldering. for insulating the brass ferrule. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. 2 the hat hanging on it.

The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. Fig. A. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. leaving the projections as shown. and then 1. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. D. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. About 70 turns of No. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. hole in the center. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. is connected to a flash lamp battery. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. S.500 turns of No. mixed with water to form a paste. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. The core of the coil. long and 1 in. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. in diameter and 2 in. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. The coil ends are made from cardboard. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. wide. for adjustment. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. in diameter. may be made from a 3/8-in. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. 1.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. Experiment with Heat [134] . in diameter and 1/16 in. with a 3/16-in. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. thick. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. S. for the secondary. 1. The vibrator. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. in diameter. for the primary. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. about 1/8 in. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. 2. The vibrator B. The switch. long. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. from the core and directly opposite. about 1 in. F. C. B. Fig. about 3/16 in. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. is constructed in the usual manner. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black.

The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. The hasp. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. A leather shield may be used for this purpose.Place a small piece of paper. thick on the inside. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. with which to operate the dial. which is cut with two holes. The tin is 4 in. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. in an ordinary water glass. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. The knob on the dial extends out too far. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. brass plate. and the same distance inside of the new board. lighted. 16 in. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. . between the boards. The three screws were then put in the hasp. 2 to fit the two holes. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. which seemed to be insufficient. 1. Fig. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. and then well clinched. as shown. The lock. which is only 3/8-in. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. was to be secured by only three brass screws. long and when placed over the board. wide. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. it laps down about 8 in. board. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. 1.

which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. When the rear part is illuminated. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. square and 8-1/2 in. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. any article placed therein will be reflected in. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. or in the larger size mentioned. If the box is made large enough. the glass. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. When making of wood. square and 10-1/2 in. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. not shiny. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. high for use in window displays. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . one in each division. black color. which completely divides the box into two parts. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. but when the front part is illuminated. clear glass as shown. and the back left dark.

as shown at A in the sketch. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. as shown in the sketch. wide will be about the right size. above the top of the tank. long and 1 ft. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. into the other. as it appears.. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. When there is no electric current available. When using as a window display. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. . For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. a tank 2 ft. alternately. and with the proper illumination one is changed.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

bore from each end. gauge for depth. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. Columbus. under sides together. lines gauged on each side of each. square and 40 in. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. This precipitate is then washed. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. but with a length of 12 in. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. from the ground. long. each. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. two pieces 1-1/8 in. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. 5 ft. 2 ft. and boring two holes with a 1-in. The pieces can then be taken out. and a solution of iron sulphate added. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. dried and mixed with linseed oil. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. or ferrous sulphate. with a length of 13 in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. then use a red-hot iron to finish. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. This hole must be continued . however. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. as shown. radius. long. wide. wide. A small platform. high.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. Shape the under sides first. is built on the front. If a planing mill is near. 6 in. square. The 13-in. and a door in front. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. hole. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. one for each side. and 6 ft. using a 3/4-in. thick and 3 in. 1 in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. Iron sulphate. hole bored the full length through the center. is the green vitriol. bit. O. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. Three windows are provided.

Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. When this is dry. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. square and drawing a diagonal on each. hole in each block. Saw the two blocks apart. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. If the parts are to be riveted. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. if shade is purchased. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. apply two coats of wax. Directions will be found on the filler cans. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. A better way. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. thick and 3 in.through the pieces forming the base. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. three or four may be attached as shown. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. When the filler has hardened. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. For art-glass the metal panels are . Electric globes--two. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach.

Construction of Shade .The Completed Lamp cut out. METAL SHADE . as brass. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. such as copper. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.

The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. the object and the background. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. as shown in the sketch. and Fig. 2 the front view of this stand. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. as in ordinary devices. The arms holding the glass. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. Figure 1 shows the side. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. one way and 1/2 in. the other. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch.

pointing north and south. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. wide and 11 in. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. as shown in the cut. thus forming a 1/4-in. Cut another circular piece 11 in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. Put the ring in place on the base. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. If the light becomes dim. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. in diameter. uncork and recork again. Before mounting the ring on the base. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. as it is very poisonous. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. outside diameter. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. in diameter for a base. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. as shown in the sketch. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. about 1-1/4 in. thick 5/8-in. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. wide and 6-5/16 in. and an inside diameter of 9 in. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. and swinging freely. long. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. channel in the circumference of the ring. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. An ordinary pocket compass. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle.

Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. Corresponding mirrors.088 . into these cylinders. 1 oz. and north of the Ohio river. are mounted on a base. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. black oxide of copper.289 . of the top. B. EE.420 . and mirrors. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. The results given should be multiplied by 1. Place on top the so- . in diameter and 8 in. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago.865 1. AA. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. above the half can. CC. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .182 .600 .715 . and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.500 . from the second to the third. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg.

When renewing. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. In Fig. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. then they will not rust fast. the wheel will revolve in one direction. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. of pulverized campor. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. slender bottle. says Metal Worker. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. alcohol. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. Put the solution in a long. 62 gr. 31 gr. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. Colo. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. little crystals forming in the liquid. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. always remove the oil with a siphon. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. which otherwise remains clear. University Park.

A paper-fastener box. Lloyd Enos. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. about 1-1/4 in. --Contributed by C. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. If zinc and carbon are used. Solder in the side of the box . which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. floating on a solution. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. Attach to the wires. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. This is used in place of the spoon.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. If two of them are floating on the same solution. on the under side of the cork. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. If zinc and copper are used. will allow the magnet to point north and south. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box.

long. can be made of oak. away. D.Contributed by J. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron.in. D. thick. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. long. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. . of wire on each end extending from the coil. Take a small piece of soft iron. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in.1-in. of No. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. To this standard solder the supporting wire. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. A circular piece of cardboard. E. B. as shown in Fig. brass tubing. E.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. wide and 2-1/2 in. If the hose is not a tight fit. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. Wind evenly about 2 oz. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. 14 wire will do. Thos. long that has about 1/4-in. The spring should be about 1 in. C. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine.not shorter than 18 in. 1/2. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. A. 3 in. glass tubing .in. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. wide and 6 in. is made from a piece of No. 1-1/4 in. to it. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. stained and varnished. H. C. D. Put ends. Rhamstine. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. The bottom of the box. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . The standard. The base. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. and then solder on the cover. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. one on each side of the board. C. A. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. piece of 1/4-in. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. or made with a little black paint. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. Use a board 1/2. G--No. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. B. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. hole. and on the other around the glass tube. 1. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. Bore holes for binding-posts. 10 wire about 10 in. F.

yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. Teasdale. 1. in diameter. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. is drawn nearer to the coil. 2. long. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Milwaukee.--Contributed by R. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. 3 in. About 1-1/2 lb. long. of No. long. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. making a support as shown in Fig. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. long are used for the legs. Y.of the coil. of mercury will be sufficient. 3-in. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. about 1 in. of 8-oz. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. The iron plunger. from the right hand. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. When the glass becomes soft. 3. long.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. Smith. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. J. long. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. Wis. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. two pieces 2 ft. as shown in Fig. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. E. four hinges. 5.--Contributed by Edward M. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. . D. Cuba. N. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. canvas.

Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. Fig. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. holding in the left hand. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. --Contributed by David A. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. 4. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. thus leaving a. Toronto. The tube now must be filled completely.. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. Can. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. 5.. Measure 8 in. Take 1/2 in. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. expelling all the air. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. 2. 3. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. Keys. small aperture in the long tube. This tube as described will be 8 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. 6. Break off the piece of glass. leaving 8 in. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . of vacuum at the top. long. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury.

3 in. long. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. thick. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. and the single projection 3/4 in. thick. 3. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. FIG. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. thick. 1 in. 9 in. wide and 3 in. as shown in Fig. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. but yellow pine is the best. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. cut in the shape shown in Fig. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. from the end of same. long. long. Fig. 3 in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. 1 in. wood screws. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. 1. with each projection 3-in. and 1/4 in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. 4. in diameter. Four blocks 1/4 in. wide and 5 ft. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. joint be accurately put together. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings.6 -. 6. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. The large pulley is about 14 in. material 2 in. wide and 5 ft. wide and 5 ft. 4 in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. thick. 2. as in Fig. 7. long. This forms a slot. wide and 12 in. thick. These are bent and nailed. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. 5. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background.

. says Photography. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. by 1-in.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by C. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. attach runners and use it on the ice. Water 1 oz. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. Kan. Manhattan. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. R. first removing the crank. above the runner level. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Welsh. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point.

Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. --Contributed by Wallace C. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. as shown in Fig. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Mass. Leominster. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. from an ordinary clamp skate. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. and very much cheaper. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. Newton. --Contributed by Edward M. of water. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. The print is washed. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. Treasdale. 1. also. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. as shown in Fig. . Printing is carried rather far. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. 3.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. 2. 1 oz.

say. extending the width of the box. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. square piece. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. Fig.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. Church. --Contributed by H. Place a 10-in. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. too. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. F. 1. high for rabbits. long. wide and 4 in. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. and to the bottom. hole. which represents the back side of the door. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. 1-1/2 ft. Va. and bend them as shown in the sketch. with about 1/8-in. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. The thread is broken off at the . Take two glass tubes. 1. from one end. causing the door to swing back and up. and 3 ft. 1 ft. as shown in the sketch. The swing door B. 2. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. Fig. high. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. A. about 10 in. Alexandria. fasten a 2-in. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. Then. wide. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft.

camera and wish to use some 4.. B. 10 in. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. in size. D. wide and 5 in. say 8 in. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. horses and dogs. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. inside of the opening. automobiles. Take two pieces of pasteboard. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. and exactly 5 by 7 in. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Fig. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. as shown in Fig. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. long. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. This opening. Fig. wide. C. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. shorter. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. plates. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. to be used as a driving pulley. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. A and B. black surfaced if possible. long.by 7-in. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. and go in the holder in the same way. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. says Camera Craft. Cut an opening in the other piece. Out two rectangular holes. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. wide. Jr. shorter at each end. Chicago. Paste a piece of strong black paper. but cut it 1/4 in. being 1/8 in. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. high and 12 in. 1 in. -Contributed by William M. from the edge on each side of these openings. trolley cars. 1.by 5-in. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. 2. in size. Crilly. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. 3.proper place to make a small hole. .

and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. in diameter. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. wide will be required.in. if it has previously been magnetized. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. into which the dog is harnessed. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. The needle will then point north and south.. A cell of this kind can easily be made. making a . A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. long and 6 in. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill.

making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. leaving about 1/2-in. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. of the top. only the joints. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. 1/4 lb. A is a block of l-in. F is a spool. B is a base of 1 in. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. beeswax melted together. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. fodder. when the paraffin is melted. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. zinc oxide. Pack the paste in. . All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. pine. Place the pan on the stove. 3/4 lb. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. pull out the wire as needed.watertight receptacle. 1 lb. says Electrician and Mechanic. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. long which are copper plated. with narrow flanges. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. of the plate at one end. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. Form a 1/2-in. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. in which P is the pan. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. in diameter and 6 in. and a notch between the base and the pan.in. one that will hold about 1 qt. for a connection. This makes the wire smooth. of rosin and 2 oz. fuel and packing purposes. plaster of paris. sal ammoniac. of water. File the rods to remove the copper plate. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. Do not paint any surface. short time. under the spool in the paraffin. filter. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated.

from vexation. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time.. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. let them try it. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. thus producing two different vibrations. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Toledo. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. square and about 9 in. Enlarge the hole slightly. by the Hindoos in India. long. and he finally. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. 2. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. and then. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. or think they can do the same. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. If any of your audience presume to dispute. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. as in the other movement. for some it will turn one way. and therein is the trick. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. but the thing would not move at all. g. Very few can make it turn both ways at will.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. while for others it will not revolve at all. and one friend tells me that they were . no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. for others the opposite way. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. Try it and see. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. At least it is amusing." which created much merriment. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. Ohio. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. grip the stick firmly in one hand. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick.

3. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. rotation was obtained.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. 6. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand.100 r. the rotation may be obtained. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. Speeds between 700 and 1. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. To operate. 2. and I think the results may be of interest. 4. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. no rotation resulted. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. If the pressure was upon an edge. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. and. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. m. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. gave the best results. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. 7. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. A square stick with notches on edge is best. by means of a center punch. Thus a circular or . secondly. 5. The experiments were as follows: 1. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. p. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way.

while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. A wire is tied around the can. G. C. or greasy. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News.. the upper portion is. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. it will be clockwise. A. at first. if the pressure is from the left. . unwetted by the liquid. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. so far as can be seen from the photographs. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). --Contributed by M. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. Ph. and the resultant "basket splash. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise.D. --Contributed by G. and the height of the fall about 6 in. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. Duluth. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out.. Minn. D. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. forming a handle for carrying. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. Sloan. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. is driven violently away.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. Washington." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. as shown. a piece of wire and a candle. Lloyd.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

1. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. in diameter. with a 1/16-in. Each wheel is 1/4 in. thick and 1 in. flange and a 1/4-in. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. as shown in Fig. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. long. axle. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. hole drilled in the center." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. about 2-5/8 in. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . as shown. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles.

holes 1 in. bottom side up. A trolley. and the locomotive is ready for running. 3/4 in. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig.brass. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. or main part of the frame. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. as shown in Fig. 1 from 1/4-in. Texas. is made from brass. as shown in Fig. The parts. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. with cardboard 3 in. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. 3. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. Fuller. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch.50. If the ends are to be soldered. 6. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. of No. wide and 16 in. These ends are fastened together. The current. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. Fig. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. 3. bent as shown. San Antonio. 4. The motor is now bolted. 2. which must be 110 volt alternating current. are shown in Fig. --Contributed by Maurice E. Fig. 5. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. long. wood. The first piece. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. put together complete. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. This will save buying a track. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. 2. is made from a piece of clock spring. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. each in its proper place. lamp in series with the coil.

O. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. 3. the length of a paper clip.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. but do not heat the center. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. Fig. then continue to tighten much more. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. and holes drilled in them. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. as shown in Fig. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. The quarter will not go all the way down. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. 1. Cincinnati. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. and as this end . as shown in Fig. Fig 1. 2. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned.

All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. When the trick is to be performed. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. or should the lathe head be raised. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. In the sketch. A pair of centers are fitted. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. or apparent security of the knot. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. has finished a cut for a tooth. When the cutter A. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. and adjusted . For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. 2 and 1 respectively. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief.

about 1-1/2 in. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. Bunker. --Contributed by Howard S.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. lady's belt bag.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. swing lathe. --Contributed by Samuel C. and a nut pick. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. book mark. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. 1. tea cosey.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Bott.) Make on paper the design wanted. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. Fig. (4. (1. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. draw center lines across the required space. When connecting to batteries. such as brass or marble. (3. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. In this manner gears 3 in. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. if but two parts. above the surface. Y.) Place the paper design on the leather and. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. long. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. (2. dividing it into as many parts as desired. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. 2. trace the outline. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). lady's card case. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in.to run true. twisted around itself and soldered. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. Second row: -Two book marks. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. or one-half of the design. Brooklyn. holding it in place with the left hand. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. N. An ordinary machine will do. blotter back. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. (5. The frame holding the mandrel. watch fob ready for fastenings. coin purse. note book. at the same time striking light. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. (6. Fold over along these center lines. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. tea cosey. gentleman's card case or bill book. if four parts are to be alike.

Secure . and an ordinary bottle.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. some heavy rubber hose.

Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. Thrust a pin. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. and bore a hole through the center. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. from Key West. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water.. A. where it condenses. and push it through a cork. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. into which fit a small piece of tube. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. B. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. D. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. The electrodes are made . If the needle is not horizontal. Florida. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. a distance of 900 miles. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington.C. C.

--Contributed by Edwin L. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. D. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. Connect as shown in the illustration. To make a glide. free from knots. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. If 20-ft. 2. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. 2 in. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. take the glider to the top of a hill. Powell. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. Four long beams 3/4 in. slacken speed and settle. 16 piano wire. The operator can then land safely and . You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. which is tacked to the front edge. as shown in Fig. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. 12 uprights 1/2 in. long. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. and also to keep it steady in its flight. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. long. wide and 3 ft. long. wide and 4 ft. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. wide and 3 ft. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. thick. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. both laterally and longitudinally. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. lumber cannot be procured. 2 arm sticks 1 in. use 10-ft. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires.in. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. thick. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. C. lengths and splice them. as shown in Fig. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. 1. 3. thick. 1. All wiring is done with No. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. long for the body of the operator. as shown in Fig. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. using a high resistance receiver. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. by 3/4 in.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. long. wide and 4 ft. apart and extend 1 ft. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. several strips 1/2 in. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. thick. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. 1. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. square and 8 ft long. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. or flying-machine. long. wide and 4 ft long. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. thick. 1-1/4 in. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. wide and 20 ft. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. Washington. 1/2. 3/4 in. 1-1/2 in. 2. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame.

The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Great care should be . Glides are always made against the wind. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Of course. but this must be found by experience. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. and the balancing is done by moving the legs.gently on his feet. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.

Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. 1. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. M. Olson. Bellingham. a creature of Greek mythology. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. which causes the dip in the line. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a.exercised in making landings. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. as shown in Fig. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. When heated a little. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. half man and half horse. 2. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. --Contributed by L. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from.

wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. While at the drug store get 3 ft. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. square. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. about the size of stove pipe wire. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. outside the box. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. in diameter. will complete the material list. at the other. long. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. of small rubber tubing. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. a piece of brass or steel wire. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. about the size of door screen wire. The light from the . To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. long and about 3/8 in. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. making it 2-1/2 in. 14 in. this will cost about 15 cents.

A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. Dayton. . while others will fail time after time. as shown in the sketch. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. as shown in Fig. Hunting. This is very simple when you know how. 1. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. as shown in Fig. M. If done properly the card will flyaway. O.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. 2. --Photo by M.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair.

When the desired shape has been obtained. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. If a certain color is to be more prominent. as before. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. closing both hands quickly. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. hold the lump over the flame. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. as described. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. This game is played by five persons. one between the thumb and finger of each hand.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. place the other two. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . Cool in water and dry. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand." or the Chinese students' favorite game. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. then put it on the hatpin head. as shown.

distribute electric charges . and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. passing through neutralizing brushes. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. or more in width. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. these sectors. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass.

The plates are trued up. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. long. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. and of a uniform thickness. 3. in diameter. Fig. 1 in. and 4 in. from about 1/4-in. as shown in Fig. 3. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. in diameter. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. 1-1/2 in. in diameter. long and the standards 3 in. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. the side pieces being 24 in. GG. and this should be done before cutting the circle. wide. material 7 in. and the outer end 11/2 in. to which insulating handles . and pins inserted and soldered. The collectors are made. at the other. EE. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. or teeth. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. The fork part is 6 in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. 2. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. are made from 7/8-in. wide at one end. C C. long. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. long and the shank 4 in. The drive wheels. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. as shown in Fig. in diameter. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. are made from solid. in diameter and 15 in. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. free from wrinkles. RR. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. Two pieces of 1-in. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. D. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. in diameter. The plates. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. These pins. The two pieces. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. 1. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. after they are mounted. brass tubing and the discharging rods. turned wood pieces. 3/4 in. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. 4. Fig. in diameter. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. Two solid glass rods.

Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. Colorado City. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. 12 ft. wide and 22 ft. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. and the work was done by themselves.. long. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. --Contributed by C. one having a 2-in. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. in diameter. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. Lloyd Enos. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays .are attached. which are bent as shown. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. ball and the other one 3/4 in. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Colo. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. KK. D. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete.

Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. and bore a hole 1/2 in. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. The key will drop from the string. bit. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. string together. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. as at A. using a 1-in. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. yet such a thing can be done. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. pens . deep.is a good one.

they make attractive little pieces to have about. Draw one-half the design free hand. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. then the other side. above the work and striking it with the hammer.. flat and round-nosed pliers.. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. Inside this oblong. They are easily made. inside the first on all. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. When the stamping is completed. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. Use . The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. sharp division between background and design. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. unless it would be the metal shears. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. two spikes. 8. very rapid progress can be made. also trace the decorative design. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. above the metal. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. about 3/4-in. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. 5. etc. and the third one 1/4 in. 7. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. stamp the background promiscuously. using a nail filed to chisel edge. file.and pencils. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. 2. slim screw. etc. 9. This is to make a clean. extra metal on each of the four sides. 23 gauge. or cigar ashes. inside the second on all. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. 4. Having determined the size of the tray. The second oblong was 3/4 in. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Proceed as follows: 1. Raise the ends. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. 3. 6.

third fingers. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. 8. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. 9. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. and fourth fingers. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. second fingers. 10. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. 6. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. and the effect will be most pleasing. The eyes. 7. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. In the first numbering. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. first fingers.

600. or the product of 8 times 9. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. or numbers above 10. etc. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. but being simple it saves time and trouble. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. 25 times 25. renumber your fingers. or 80. thumbs.. if we wish. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. etc. above 15 times 15 it is 200.. 11. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. 400. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. Two times one are two. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. Put your thumbs together. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. above 20 times 20. which would be 16. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. At a glance you see four tens or 40. which tens are added. there are no fingers above. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. 2 times 2 equals 4. or the product of 6 times 6.. the product of 12 times 12.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. or 60. as high as you want to go. etc. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. Let us multiply 12 by 12. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. viz. In the second numbering. Still. 12. . Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. and the six lower fingers as six tens. which would be 70. first fingers.

the inversion takes place against his will. in the case of a nearsighted person. thirties. beginning the thumbs with 16. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. etc. when he removes his spectacles. adding 400 instead of 100. which is the half-way point between the two fives. twenties. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. 7. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. It takes place also. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. and so on. any two figures between 45 and 55. about a vertical axis. at the will of the observer. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. whether the one described in second or third numbering. forties. . not rotation. the lump sum to add. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. thumbs. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. the revolution seems to reverse. Take For example 18 times 18. lastly. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. For example. 8. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. the value which the upper fingers have. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. 3. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. Proceed as in the second lumbering. For figures ending in 6. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. The inversion and reversion did not take place. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. and.. further. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. 2. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. first finger 17. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. 75 and 85. And the lump sum to add. being 80). In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. or from above or from below. as one might suppose. first fingers 22. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. the value of the upper fingers being 20. however. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. 21. or what.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers.

as . The ports were not easy to make. sometimes the point towards him. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. when he knows which direction is right.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. A flat slide valve was used. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. and putting a cork on the point. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. tee. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. the other appearance asserts itself. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. Looking at it in semidarkness. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina.

long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. deep. The steam chest is round. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. across the head. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. such as is shown in the illustration. pipe 10 in. Kutscher.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. If nothing better is at hand. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. pipe. Fasten the block solidly. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. While this engine does not give much power. if continued too long without proper treatment. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. H. apart. -Contributed by W. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. Ill. Springfield.. Beating copper tends to harden it and. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. saw off a section of a broom handle. secure a piece of No. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. about 2 in. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. it is easily built. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. The tools are simple and can be made easily. across and 1/2 in. inexpensive. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. bottom side up. . Next take a block of wood. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. and make in one end a hollow. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. The eccentric is constructed of washers. in diameter. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. as in a vise. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl.

the other to the left. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. as it softens the metal. To overcome this hardness. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. O. Camden. This process is called annealing. especially when the object is near to the observer. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. C. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side.will cause the metal to break. Vinegar. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. and. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. S. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. To produce color effects on copper. --Contributed by W. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. Hay. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper.

On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. although they pass through the screen. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. diameter. orange. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. from the stereograph. as for instance red and green. But they seem black. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. In order to make them appear before the card. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. the further from the card will the composite image appear. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. the left eye sees through a blue screen. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. and without any picture. however. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. The red portions of the picture are not seen. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. that for the right. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. in the proper choice of colors. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. because of the rays coming from them. only the orange rays may pass through. not two mounted side by side. with the stereograph. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. It is just as though they were not there. would serve the same purpose. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. So with the stereograph. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. The further apart the pictures are. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. it." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. disappears fully. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. they must be a very trifle apart. and lies to the right on the picture. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. while both eyes together see a white background.stereoscope. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. the one for the left eye being blue. . because.

wide and 1 in. Place a NO. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. long and a hole drilled in each end. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. 1/4 in. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. San Francisco. 12 gauge wire. in diameter. wireless. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. or the middle of the bottle. Two types of make-and-break connection are used.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. A No.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. etc. The weight of the air in round . one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. Cal. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. in the shape of a crank. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. This should only be bored about half way through the block. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. thick. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke.

high. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. high. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. 34 ft. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. or. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. The 4 in. wide and 40 in. a glass tube 1/8 in. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. square. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. a bottle 1 in. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. or a column of mercury (density 13. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. the contrary. long. thick.6) 1 in. long. In general. if accurately constructed. pine 3 in. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. . if you choose. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury.. inside diameter and 2 in. Before fastening the scale. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. square. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. but before attempting to put in the mercury. 30 in. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. the instrument. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. wide and 4 in. Only redistilled mercury should be used. long. But if a standard barometer is not available. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. and a slow fall. internal diameter and about 34 in. high.numbers is 15 lb. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. will calibrate itself.

The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. 1. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. which is slipped quickly over the end. Procure a metal can cover. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. and place them as shown in Fig. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. thick. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. 3. Number the pieces 1. 6 and 7. wide and 10 in. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. Mark out seven 1-in. the size of the outside of the bottle. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. 5. 2. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. long. a cover from a baking powder can will do.

Move 7-Jump No. 1. Move 6-Move No. 3 over No. N. 7's place. 3 into No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Move 14-Jump No. using checkers for men. 2's place. Move 5-Jump No. 5's place. 2. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 6 into No. in diameter. Move 4-Jump No. 7. each 10 ft.Position of the Men move only one at a time. Move 15-Move No. Make 22 sections. Move ll-Jump No. Move 12-Jump No. 2's place. 6 in. 6 over No. L. This can be done on a checker board. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. Move 10-Move No. 1 into No. 7 over No. Move 13-Move No. To make such a tent. 7 over No. 1 to No. 3. 5 over No. which is the very best material for the purpose. Cape May Point. Woolson. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 2. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. Move 8-Jump No. 6. 2 over No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. Move 2-Jump No. procure unbleached tent duck.-Contributed by W. long and 2 ft. 5 over No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. as shown in Fig. 2 . Move 9-Jump No. 3. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. l over No. 2 over No. 5's place.J. 1. 3. 3 to the center. 6 to No. Move 3-Move No. shaped like Fig. 6. 5.

use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. in diameter. wide by 12 in. 5) stuck in the ground. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. diameter. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. round galvanized iron. 5. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. wide at the bottom. --Contributed by G. from the top. long. fill with canvas edging. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Fig. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. 2 in. Emsworth.. to a smooth board of soft wood. As shown in the sketch. 6-in. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. leaving the rest for an opening. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. high. In raising the tent. long and 4 in. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. Have the tent pole 3 in. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Use blocks. will do. 3 in. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. 9 by 12 in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. 2. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. These are ventilators. Punch holes in the brass in . as in Fig. wide at the bottom. After transferring the design to the brass.in. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. Fig. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. added. 6.J. Tress. Nail a thin sheet of brass. about 9 in. Pa. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. made in two sections. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft.

The pattern is traced as before. It will not. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. cut out the brass on the outside lines. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. When all the holes are punched. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. around the outside of the pattern. but before punching the holes. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. Chicago. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder.the spaces around the outlined figures. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. . If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. apart. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. excepting the 1/4-in. When the edges are brought together by bending. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. bend into shape. Corr.

Sometimes the cream will accumulate. partially filled with cream.however. pipe is used for the hub.. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. between which is placed the fruit jar. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. Stevens. or center on which the frame swings. G. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. E. pipe. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. or. If a wheel is selected. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. Mayger. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. --Contributed by Geo. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. Que. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. allowing 2 ft. A cast-iron ring. or less. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. Oregon. --Contributed by H. Badger. better still. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. A 6-in. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. These pipes are . so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. Dunham. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard.

The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] .The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. pipe. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. An extra wheel 18 in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. pipe clamps. bent to the desired circle. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe.

the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. The performer. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. and dropped on the table. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. 3. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. and the guide withdrawn. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. which was placed in an upright position. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. 1. as shown in Fig. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. while doing this. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes.

the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. --Contributed by H. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. F.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. White. D. 1. Harkins. Colo. The box can be made of selected oak or . Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. and second. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. first. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Mo. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Louis. in a half circle. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. in diameter on another piece of tin. Denver. -Contributed by C. St. 2. it requires no expensive condensing lens.

A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. If a camera lens is used. AA. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. 5-1/2 in. The door covering this hole in the back. but not tight. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. from each end. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. 2. wide and 6-1/2 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. 1. fit into the runners. long. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. Two or three holes about 1 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. long and should be placed vertically. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. wide by 5 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. 3-1/2 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box.mahogany. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. high and 11 in. An open space 4 in. and. high and must . wide. from each end of the outside of the box. wide and 6-1/2 in. and 2 in. This will be 3/4 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. long. focal length. as shown in Fig. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. wide and 5 in.

and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year.. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 1. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. calling that knuckle January. and extending the whole height of the lantern. This process is rather a difficult one. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. --Contributed by Chas. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture." etc. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. calling this February. Bradley. C.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. as it requires an airtight case. provided it is airtight. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. then the second knuckle will be March. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. April. Ohio. the article may be propped up . The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. and so on. June and November. West Toledo. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September.

For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. H. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. in. and set aside for half a day. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. or suspended by a string. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. The top of a table will do. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. Y. Crawford. Pour in a little turpentine. In both Fig. 1. running small motors and lighting small lamps. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. 1 and 2. In each place two electrodes. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. and the lead 24 sq. fruit jars are required. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. 2. N. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. . in. taking care to have all the edges closed. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. giving it an occasional stir. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. Schenectady. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade.with small sticks. the lid or cover closed. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. but waxed. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. one of lead and one of aluminum. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes.

A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. which you warm with your hands. This trick is very simple. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. as you have held it all the time. You have an understanding with some one in the company. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. He. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. you remove the glass. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. Cleveland. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. he throws the other. O. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. After a few seconds' time. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick.. as well as others. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug.

A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. put it under the glass.take the handiest one. but by being careful at shores. in diameter in the center. J. if any snags are encountered. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Pull the ends quickly. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. . Crocker. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. Colo. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out.-Contributed by E. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Victor. but in making one. on a table. near a partition or curtain. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Be sure that this is the right one.

Fig. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. clear pine. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. long. wide. 8 in. wide and 12 ft.. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. 11 yd. is 14 ft. 1/4 in. ducking. of 1-1/2-yd. Both ends are mortised. are as follows: 1 keelson. by 2 in. Paint. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. of 1-yd. wide unbleached muslin. 3 in. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. wide 12-oz. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. from each end to 1 in. screws and cleats. by 16 ft. 9 ft. 1 in. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. by 16 ft. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. for the stern piece. thick and 3/4 in. and the other 12 in. apart. 1/8 in. from the stern. 1 piece. 1. selected pine. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . and is removed after the ribs are in place. 1 in.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 1 mast. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. long. 3 in. The keelson. at the ends. 3 and 4. 14 rib bands. 7 ft. drilled and fastened with screws. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. 2 and braced with an iron band. 4 outwales. by 8 in. 50 ft. square by 16 ft. for the bow. by 15 ft. 2 gunwales. one 6 in. wide and 12 ft. long. for center deck braces. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. 2 in. by 2 in. as illustrated in the engraving. of rope. by 12 in. the smaller is placed 3 ft. and. 1 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. Two forms are made as shown in Figs.. long. from the bow and the large one. for cockpit frame. 8 yd. by 10 ft. 1 piece. 1 in. and fastened with screws.

The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. 4 in. 5. wide and 3 ft. a piece 1/4 in. Before making the deck. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. This block. is cut to fit under the top boards. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. wide. Figs. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. long. long is well soaked in water. The deck is not so hard to do. 1 in. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. in diameter through the block. They are 1 in. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. corner braces. The block is fastened to the keelson. 6. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. apart. thick. long. These are put in 6 in. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. gunwales and keelson. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. from the bow. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. wood screws. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. thick and 1/2 in. A 6-in. thick and 12 in.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. is a cube having sides 6 in. The 11-yd. 7 and 8. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. also. screws. and fastened to them with bolts. wide and 14 in. . A seam should be made along the center piece. Fig. 9. long. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. 3-1/2 ft. 6 in. A block of pine. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. 1/4 in. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. thick. 1 in. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. 6 and 7. Fig. The trimming is wood. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. A piece of oak. length of canvas is cut in the center. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. Braces. thick 1-1/2 in. doubled. wide. wide and 24 in.

is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. 12. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. at the other. A strip 1 in. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. wide at one end and 12 in. in diameter and 10 ft. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. long. each 1 in. is 6 in. The mast has two side and one front stay.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. Tronnes. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. Ill. long. Fig. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. thick by 2 in. 10 with a movable handle. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. apart in the muslin. E. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. . Wilmette. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. are used for the boom and gaff. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. 11. The keel. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. wide. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The house will accommodate 20 families. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. --Contributed by O. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. The sail is a triangle.

long. wide and 2 ft. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. 2 in. flat headed screws. as shown in Fig. 1. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. thick. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. long and five 1/2-in. five 1/2-in. flat-headed screws. Fig. E. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. long. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. about 5/16 in. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. 5. Take this and fold it over . Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. --Contributed by O. flat on one side. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. 2-1/2 in. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. with the ends and the other side rounding. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. wide and 30 in. and the other 18 in. 2. thick. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. one 11-1/2 in. square. and 3 ft. thick. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. Cut the maple. Tronnes. Ill. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. 4. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. 1 yd. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. 2-1/2 in. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. Wilmette. long. Bevel both sides of the pieces. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner.into two 14-in. wide. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. wide. 3.

C. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. and make a turn in each end of the wires. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. and take care that the pieces are all square. and the four outside edges. D. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. A. as well as the edges around the opening. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. long. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. The bag is then turned inside out. A. long. of each end unwound for connections. Figs. thick and 3 in. Wind three layers of about No. 3 in. long. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. but can be governed by circumstances. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. The front. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. After the glue. 2 and 3. 6-1/2 in. Glue a three cornered piece. thick. pieces 2-5/8 in. thick. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. this square box is well sandpapered. long. square. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. long. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. Louis. wide and 2-1/2 in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. 3/8 in. long. F. C. 3-1/4 in. about 3/8 in. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. About 1/2 in. then centered. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. soaked with water and blown up. The sides are 3-1/4 in. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. 5 from 1/16-in. leaving a small opening at one corner. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. long. wide and 4-1/2 in. If carefully and neatly made. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. St. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. square. wide . the mechanical parts can be put together.once. are rounded. When the glue is set. the top and bottom. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. 1. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. B. 1-1/4 in. Another piece. Bliss. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. Cut another piece of board. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. is set. wide and 3 ft. wide and 2-3/4 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. Mo. wide and 6-3/4 in. --Contributed by W. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. long. forming an eye for a screw. Fig. E. wide and 5 in.

A pointer 12 in. that has the end turned with a shoulder. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. The stronger the current. hole is fastened to the pointer. These wires should be about 1 in. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. When the current flows through the coil. Richmond Hill. and as the part Fig. Chapman. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. bored in the back. 1/16 in. --Contributed by George Heimroth. The base is a board 5 in. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. 4. board. W. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. 1/4 in.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. Fig. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. 5-1/2 in. the part carrying the pointer moves away. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. long. long. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. The resistance is now adjusted to show . The instrument is now ready for calibrating. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. in diameter. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. thick.and 2-5/8 in. 4. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. R. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. Like poles repel each other. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. long. wide and 2-1/2 in. from one end. Fig. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. so it will just clear the tin. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured.R. Austwick Hall. The end of the polar axis B. C. 4 is not movable. 5. L. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. I. F. showing a greater defection of the pointer. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. the same size as the first. and the farther apart they will be forced. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. and fasten in place. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. Place the tin. wide and 9 in. Yorkshire. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown.A. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. from the spindle.S. Another strip of tin. G.

and vice . M. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. shows mean siderial. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. 10 min. A. thus: 9 hr. 10 min. 1881. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. at 9 hr. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. say Venus at the date of observation. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. The following formula will show how this may be found. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. 30 min.

Conn. owing to the low internal resistance.f.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery.m. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. New Haven. --Contributed by Robert W. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. if one of these cannot be had. . The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Hall. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. or. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e.

The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. arsenic to every 20 lb. 3/8 in. cover up with the same. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. Wet paper will answer. The boring bar. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. of alum and 4 oz. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. put the fish among the ashes. inside diameter and about 5 in. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . Then. thick. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. leaves or bark. long. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. fresh grass. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. Fig. 1. and heap the glowing coals on top. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. 1-3/4 in. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. especially for cooking fish.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. When the follower is screwed down. as shown in the accompanying picture.

fastened with a pin. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. thick. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. about 1/2 in. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. when they were turned in. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. pipe. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. pipe. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. and threaded on both ends. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . Two pieces of 3/4 -in. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew.

A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. 2. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. Fig. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. 30 in. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. however. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. Clermont. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. It . and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. A 1-in. This plate also supports the rocker arms. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. a jump spark would be much better. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. but never one which required so little material. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. The rough frame. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. thick and 3 in. long. bent in the shape of a U. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. Iowa. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. Fig. was then finished on an emery wheel. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. and which gave such satisfactory results.valve stems. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. as the one illustrated herewith. the float is too high. then it should be ground to a fit. 3. Fig. If the valve keeps dripping. 4. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. labor and time. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. wide. 5. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. square iron. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in.

so that there will be plenty of "wobble. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . extending above. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. in diameter and 15 in. in fact.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. being held in position by spikes as shown. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. rope is not too heavy. set 3 ft. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. with no trees or buildings in the way. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. long. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. A malleable iron bolt. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. square and 2 ft. A 3/4 -in. so it must be strong enough. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. hole bored in the post. butting against short stakes. completes the merry-go-round. This makes an easy adjustment. square. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. 12 ft. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. --Contributed by C. long. 3/4 in. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. strong clear material only should be employed. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. and. from the center. timber. long. no matter what your age or size may be. As there is no bracing." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. Nieman. The crosspiece is 2 in. in the ground with 8 ft. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. It looks like a toy. If it is to be used for adults. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. Use a heavy washer at the head. for the "motive power" to grasp. and a little junk. The seats are regular swing boards. The illustration largely explains itself. square and 5 ft. long is the pivot. from all over the neighborhood. W. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting." little and big. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. strengthened by a piece 4 in. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in.

After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. as shown in Fig. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. 2. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. The bow is now bent. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. light and strong. then it is securely fastened. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. To wind the string upon the reel. Both have large reels full of . The backbone is flat. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. 1. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. a wreck. A reel is next made. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. 1/4 by 3/32 in. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. and 18 in. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. and sent to earth. square. Having placed the backbone in position. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. one for the backbone and one for the bow. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. long. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel.2 emery. if nothing better is at hand. 4. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. These ends are placed about 14 in. away. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down.the fingers.

If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. The handle end is held down with a staple. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. often several hundred yards of it. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. the balance. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. Bunker. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. Y. First. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. C. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. Mass. If the second kite is close enough. or glass-covered string.-Contributed by S. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. Newburyport. N. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. he pays out a large amount of string. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. common packing thread. Brooklyn. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Moody.string. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . --Contributed' by Harry S.

If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Vt. must be attached to a 3-ft. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. then draw the string up tight. --Contributed by Earl R. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. such as mill men use.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. then a dust protector. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. make the pad as shown in the illustration. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. square (Fig. lengths (Fig. cutting the circular piece into quarters. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. each the size of half the table top. Hastings. length of 2-in. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Corinth. If the table is round. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig.

The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless.9-1/4 in. Oakland. from E to F. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. .Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. 2-1/4 in. Calif.-Contributed by H. Use a smooth. 16-1/4 in. E. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Wharton.. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. and E to G. which spoils the leather effect. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. Moisten the . 6-1/4 in.. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. G to H.. 17-1/2 in. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. trace the design carefully on the leather. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. hard pencil. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. from C to D.

leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. get something with which to make a lining. G-J. and E-G. To complete the bag. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. if not more than 1 in. and corresponding lines on the other side. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. I made this motor . Now cut narrow thongs. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. Cut it the same size as the bag. H-B. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. with the rounded sides of the tools. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. is taken off at a time. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. place both together and with a leather punch. wide. Trace the openings for the handles. about 1/8 in. apart. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. also lines A-G. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. and lace through the holes. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire.

Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts.M. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. 1. each being a half circle. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. 24 gauge magnet wire. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. of No.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. 2. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. B. 2-1/4 in. --Contributed by J. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. 1. in length. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. Shannon. Pasadena. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. Calif. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. . iron. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. D. long. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. as shown in Fig. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft.

or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. high. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. pasted in alternately. balloon should be about 8 ft. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. from the bottom end. near the center. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. are the best kind to make. and the gores cut from these. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . The gores for a 6-ft. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. 1.

attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. Fig. Staunton. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. The boat soon attains considerable speed. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. 3. E. as shown in Fig. saturating it thoroughly. leaving the solution on over night. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. --Contributed by R. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. leaving a long wake behind. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. 5. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. 2. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. after which the paint will adhere permanently. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. As the boat is driven forward by this force. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. coming through the small pipe A. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. In starting the balloon on its flight. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. in diameter. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. The steam. 4. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . lap on the edges. 1. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. B. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. so it will hang as shown in Fig. After washing. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. somewhat larger in size. as shown in Fig. If the gores have been put together right. These are to hold the wick ball. In removing grease from wood. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. A. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon.widest point. using about 1/2-in.

long. long and each provided with a handle. 1. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. if you have several copies of the photograph. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. Second. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. There are three ways of doing this: First. wide by 6 in. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. The blocks are about 6 in. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. apart on these lines. as is shown in Fig. In using either of the two methods described. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. high and 8 in. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. Third. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. in bowling form.

Rinse the plate in cold water. Hellwig. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Albany. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig.Fig. thick. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. N. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. --Contributed by John A. being careful not to dent the metal. Y. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Fig. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. not pointed down at the road at an angle. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. 2.

it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. through which passes the set screw S. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. thick. A. wide and 8 in. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. With this device. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. Break off the frame. 5 in. wide and of any desired height. Va. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. A. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument.upon any particular object. S. Richmond. These corner irons are also screwed to. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. and not produce the right sound. in diameter. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. A circular piece of wood. Corner irons. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. CC. 1 Fig. Paine. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. --Contributed by R. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. are screwed to the circular piece. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . long for the base. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. is fastened to a common camera tripod. In Fig. 2 the front view. and Fig. B. which is 4 in. 6 in. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. and. with a set screw. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish.

The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. R. La Salle. . as only the can is visible. thus producing sound waves. I made a wheel 26 in. Lake Preston. -1. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. in diameter of some 1-in. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. D. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. This will make a very compact electric horn. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. pine boards.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. Kidder. This horn. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. S. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. Ill. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw.

--Contributed by James R. B. 1. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Ghent. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. the same thickness as the coins. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. --Contributed by C. If there is a large collection of coins.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Kane. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Fig. O. Doylestown. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Purdy. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. The frame is made of a heavy card. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. 2. Feet may be added to the base if desired. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. thick and 12 in. 1. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. A. If the collection consists of only a few coins. square. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset.

though not absolutely necessary.J. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. The material required is a sheet of No. It will hold 4 oz. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. cut and grooved. and then glued together as indicated. One Cloud. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. they become uninteresting. a hammer or mallet. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. --Contributed by J. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. plus a 3/8-in.E. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. several large nails. Neyer. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. Toronto. --Contributed by August T. Wis. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. Canada. A rivet punch is desirable. of developer. into which to place the screws . Cal. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Milwaukee. Smith. border all around. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. If desired. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. A lead pencil. Noble. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. thick. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. --Contributed by R. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. for after the slides have been shown a few times. melted and applied with a brush.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much.

If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. and file it to a chisel edge. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. both outline and decoration. There are several ways of working up the design. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. like the one shown. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. draw one part. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. screws placed about 1 in. Take the nail. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. using 1/2-in. never upon the metal directly. Remove the screws. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface.

long. l-1/8 in.wall. for the lower rails. Do not bend it over or flatten it. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. long. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. and two lengths. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. 3/4 in. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. About 1/2 yd. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. 3. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. square and 181/2 in. each 1 in. for the top. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. up from the lower end. long. 1. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. using a 1/2in. square. of 11-in. two lengths. The pedal. Provide four lengths for the legs. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. being ball bearing. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. Rivet the band to the holder. square and 11 in. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. 2. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. as shown in Fig. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. . in the other. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig.

New York City. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. Ala. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. having quite a length of threads. --Contributed by John Shahan. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. Attalla. Quackenbush. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. --Contributed by W. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. F.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection.

college or lodge colors. and two holes in the other. long. wide and 4-1/4 in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. Mich. Purchase a 1/2-in. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. Assemble as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by C. from the end. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. something that is carbonated. using class. making a lap of about 1 in. The desired emblem. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. from one end. Luther. and 3/8 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. D.. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. long. one about 1 in. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. initial. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . in depth. Two pieces of felt. long. Ironwood. wide and 8-1/4 in. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. and the other 2-3/4 in. the end of the other piece is folded over. each 1-1/4 in.

Fig. and the cork will be driven out. 2. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. A piece of lead. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. or more in height. from the center and opposite each other. as shown at B. Ind. is cut in the shape shown in Fig.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. about 2 in. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. --Contributed by John H. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. in the cover and the bottom. in diameter and 2 in. 1/4 in. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. This method allows a wide range of designs. Punch two holes A. if desired by the operator. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. which can be procured from a plumber. Schatz. Indianapolis. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. or a pasteboard box. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. 1. as shown in the sketch.

Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. and the ends of the bands looped over them. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. allowing the two ends to be free. are turned up as in Fig. putting in the design. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. 1. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. metal. When the can is rolled away from you. Fig. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. 4. . There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. it winds up the rubber band. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. Columbus. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in.Rolling Can Toy lead. on both top and bottom. A piece of thick glass. as shown in Fig. 5. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. 3. or marble will serve. The pieces of tin between the holes A. O. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it.

Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. wide and 20 in. face up. thick. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. long and bored a 1/2-in. If it is desired to "line" the inside. thicker than the pinion. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. hole through it. from each end. or more thick on each side. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. After this has been done. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. 3 in. and. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . The edges should be about 1/8 in. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. I secured a board 3/4 in. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. 1 in. New York City. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. mark over the design. A pencil may be used the first time over. Next place the leather on the glass. deep in its face.

much of the hard labor will be saved. 1 piece for clamp. N. Rice. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. Y. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 1 top board. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 1. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. Cut the 2-in. 1 back board. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. M. --Contributed by A. lag screws as shown. 2. 3 by 3 by 6 in. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. thick top board. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 1 by 9 by 80 in. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 4 guides. 1 screw block. 1 piece for clamp. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 2 end rails. 2 by 2 by 18 in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 2 crosspieces. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 1 piece. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. in diameter. pieces for the vise slides. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 3 by 3 by 36. 1 by 12 by 77 in. 1 top board. 3 by 3 by 20 in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 2 by 12 by 77 in.in the board into the bench top. New York. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. Syracuse. and fit it in place for the side vise. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 2 side rails. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. Fig. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. Now fit up the two clamps. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. Make the lower frame first. Brooklyn. countersinking the heads of the vise end. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length.

. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 marking gauge. 1 pair dividers. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. rule. 1 pocket level. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 2-ft. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 set gimlets. 1 set chisels. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 pair pliers. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. The bench is now complete.. They can be purchased at a hardware store. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. it can be easily found when wanted. as well as the pattern maker. 1 cross cut saw. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 2 screwdrivers. 1 monkey wrench. 1 wood scraper. 1 bench plane or jointer. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop.. 24 in. 1 brace and set of bits. Only the long run. The amateur workman. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 3 and 6 in. 1 claw hammer. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 nail set.screws. 1 rip saw. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 1 compass saw.. 24 in. in diameter. 1 countersink. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work.

How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. Fig. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. the projecting point A. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. will sink into the handle as shown at D. The calf skin. Fig. 2 and 00 sandpaper. after constant use. Fig. No. ---Contributed by James M. try square. 1.1 6-in. but will not make . 1. Fig. 3.1. being softer. Doylestown. 2. becomes like A. Kane. 1 oilstone. will be easier to work. Pa.

as rigid a case as the cow skin. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. The form can be made of a stick of wood. White. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. then prepare the leather. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. cover it completely with water enamel and. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. which steam. water or heat will not affect. secure a piece of modeling calf. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. First draw the design on paper. If calf skin is to be used. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. After the outlines are traced. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. Having prepared the two sides. lay the design on the face. If cow hide is preferred. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. New York City. Turn the leather. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. Two pieces will be required of this size. and the length 6-5/8 in. . when dry. -Contributed by Julia A. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. such as copper or brass. will do just as well. the same method of treatment is used. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. but a V-shaped nut pick.

Cobb. Herrman. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Cal. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. --Contributed by Chester L. and an adjustable friction-held loop. C. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Maine. Jaquythe. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. as shown in the sketch. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. . --Contributed by Chas. --Contributed by W. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Richmond. Portland. A. New York City. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line.

or anyone that can shape tin and solder. Conn. A thick piece of tin. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller.. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. Mass. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Roberts. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. was marked out as shown. an inverted stewpan. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. This was very difficult. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. --Contributed by Geo. Cambridge. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. B. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. for instance. Wright. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. --Contributed by Wm. Middletown.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. .

Chicago. . then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. on a clear piece of glass. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. well calcined and powdered. Ind. Bone. which has been tried out several times with success. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. as shown. A beautifully bound book. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. apply powdered calcined magnesia. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. of boiling water. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. so some bones were quickly calcined. face down. When dry. L. If any traces of the grease are left. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. and the grease will disappear. used as part of furniture. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. and quite new. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Paul Keller. --Contributed by C. If the article is highly polished. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. There was no quicklime to be had. F. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. but only an odor which soon vanished. Illinois. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. pulverized and applied. The next morning there was no trace of oil.. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. such as chair seats.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. but not running over. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. Indianapolis. Herbert.

wide and 12 in. deep and 5 in. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. A. long. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. New York. This coaster is simple and easy to make.. Tarrytown. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. thick. soft steel with the opening 6 in. If properly adjusted. says Scientific American. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. high and are bolted to a block of wood. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. --Contributed by Geo. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in.. the pieces . It is constructed of a good quality of pine. 6 in. The pieces marked S are single. Howe. set and thumbscrews. 2 in.

Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. they will look remarkably uniform. If the letters are all cut the same height. Their size depends on the plate used. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. A sharp knife. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. The seat is a board. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. no doubt. for sending to friends. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. says Camera Craft. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. to the underside of which is a block. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. albums and the like. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. E. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes .

and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. The puzzle is to get . A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. So made. mount them on short pieces of corks. for example. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. pasting the prints on some thin card. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. after. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. and. photographing them down to the desired size. using care to get it in the right position. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. In cutting out an 0. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. So arranged. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind.

Old-Time Magic . By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. squeezes along past the center of the tube. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. He smells the bait.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. long that will just fit are set in. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . Cape May Point. Bayley. N. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. so they will lie horizontal. with the longest end outside. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. of its top.-Contributed by I. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. snow or anything to hide it. A hole 6 or 7 in.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made.J. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. hung on pivots. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. says the American Thresherman. G.

then spread the string. Pawtucket. Brooklyn. Pocatello. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. --Contributed by L. Idaho. then expose again. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . E. Szerlip.faced up. Y. --Contributed by Charles Graham. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Press the hands together. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. N. Rhode Island. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Parker. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. --Contributed by L. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury.

Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. or green oil paint. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. wide and 2 in. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. says the English Mechanic. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. using a straightedge and a pencil.Genuine antique swords and armor. if any. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. wipe the blade . 1 Fig. 1. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. whether he requires a single sword only. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. in width. 4 on the blade. narrower. The pieces. and if carefully made. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. long. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. or a complete suit of armor. dark red. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. end of the blade.. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. in building up his work from the illustrations. thick. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. near the point end.. full size. The handle is next made. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. The blade should be about 27 in. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. 2 Fig. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. they will look very much like the genuine article. When the whole is quite dry. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. Glue the other side of the blade. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. When the glue is thoroughly dry. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. 3 Fig. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper.

the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. In the finished piece. 1/8 in. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. Both edges of the blade are sharp. the other two are identical. In making this scimitar. preferably of contrasting colors. the other is flat or halfround. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. 1. 2. 2. This sword is about 68 in. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. The length of the handle. thick and 5 in. Fig. in the widest part at the lower end.with light strokes up and down several times. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration.. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. 1. and 3 in. take two pieces of wood. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. should be about 9 in. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. the other is flat or half-round. as it is . about 1-1/2 in. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. allowing for a good hold with both hands. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. follow the directions as for Fig. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. of course. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. not for use only in cases of tableaux. In making. shows only two sides. long. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. in diameter. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. 1. 4. 3. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle.. 1. the illustration. the length of the blade 28 in. square and of any length desired. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. 3.

Franklin. A cold . 2 in. at the lower end. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. square. long. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. each about 1 ft. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. --Contributed by John Blake. as there was some at hand. as shown in the sketch. in an attempt to remove it. and if so. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. as can the pitch bed or block. and. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. On each edge of the board. Morse. however. Mass. Doctors probed for the button without success. Y. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. --Contributed by Katharine D. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. N. about 3/8 in. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. It is made of a plank. Both can be made easily. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. or an insecure fastening. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. piping and jackets by hard water. A piece of mild steel. The thinness of the plank. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. Syracuse.

a file to reduce the ends to shape. secure a piece of brass of about No. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. To remedy this. To put it in another way. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. 5 lb. on the pitch. Trim up the edges and file them . Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. When the desired form has been obtained. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. 18 gauge. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. tallow. 5 lb. design down. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised.. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. using a small metal saw.. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. plaster of Paris. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. When this has been done.

in diameter (Fig. or fraction of a horsepower. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. 1 ft. Before giving the description. in one second. 1 ft. Cutter. space between the vessels with water. 30 ft. make an unusual show window attraction. living together in what seems like one receptacle. 1) and the other 12 in. Fill the 3-in. using powdered pumice with lye. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. but not to stop it. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. A. or 550 ft. per second. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. per minute. Clean the metal thoroughly. one 18 in. This in turn divided by 33. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. in diameter (Fig. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Fig.000 ft. which divided by 1/6 gives 180.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. --Contributed by Harold H. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. That is lifting 33. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. lb. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. in one minute or 550 lb. to keep it from floating.000 lb. over the smaller vessel. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute.smooth. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. 3. The smaller is placed within the larger. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. in the center. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. lb. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. 2). . and hang a bird swing. and still revolve.

or on a pedestal. --Contributed. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Campbell. Y.18 in. F. Szerlip. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . The effect is surprising. Diameter 12 in. 1 Fig. by L. Diameter Fig. Brooklyn. N. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. --Contributed by J. 2 Fig. Mass. Somerville.3 Fig.

Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. which. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. with the pliers. keeping the center high. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. Polish both of these pieces. unsatisfactory. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. as a rule. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Rivet the cup to the base. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. with other defects. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. after which it is ready for use. then by drawing a straightedge over it. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. This compound is impervious to water. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. is. which may be of wood or tin. away from the edge. and the clay . In riveting. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. and cut out the shape with the shears.copper of No. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. Do not be content merely to bend them over. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. often render it useless after a few months service. the same as removing writing from a slate. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. and then. to keep the metal from tarnishing. using any of the common metal polishes. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed.

the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. Mich. Grand Rapids. Houghton. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. A. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The siphon is made of glass tubes. --Contributed by A. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. It is made of a glass tube. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. -Contributed by Thos.can be pressed back and leveled. Mich. --Contributed by John T. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. as shown in Fig. long. in diameter and 5 in. Scotland. 2. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. Dunlop. 1. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. 3/4 in. Northville. the device will work for an indefinite time. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. Shettleston. . The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. DeLoof.

1 FIG.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. This sword is 4 ft. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall.FIG. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. in width and 2 in. 1. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. long. put up as ornaments. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. stilettos and battle-axes. London. As the handle is to . thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in.

string. sharp edges on both sides. When the whole is quite dry. 20 spike. narrower. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. with both edges sharp. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. in width. in length. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. The ball is made as described in Fig. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. These must be cut from pieces of wood. This axe is made similar to the one . studded with brass or steel nails. 6. with both edges of the blade sharp. in length. Three large. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. 8. very broad. When the glue is thoroughly dry. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. This sword is about 4 ft. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. sometimes called cuirass breakers. 7. 9. The sword shown in Fig. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. In Fig. long. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. The handle is of wood.represent copper. the axe is of steel. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. The lower half of the handle is of wood. 5. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. the same as used on the end of the handle. with wire or string' bound handle. The crossbar and blade are steel. A German stiletto. firmly glued on. 4. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. the upper part iron or steel. wood with a keyhole saw. then glued on the blade as shown. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. which is about 2-1/2 ft. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. In Fig. Cut two strips of tinfoil. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. Both handle and axe are of steel. long with a dark handle of wood. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. When dry. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. 3 is shown a claymore. This weapon is about 1 ft. is shown in Fig. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. paint it a dark brown or black. This weapon is also about 1 ft. small rope and round-headed nails. 11 were used. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. This stiletto has a wood handle. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. one about 1/2 in. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. In Fig. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. glue and put it in place. A German poniard is shown in Fig. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge.

Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. W.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. the ends are tied and cut off. 10. Chicago. high. Old-Time Magic . such as braided fishline. 2. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. will pull where other belts slip. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. When wrapped all the way around. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. so the contents cannot be seen. together as shown in Fig. Davis. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. This will make a very good flexible belt. . --Contributed by E. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil.described in Fig.

the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . As zinc is much lighter than iron. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. held in the right hand. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. with the circle centrally located. Before the performance. Calif. in a few seconds' time. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. about one-third the way down from the top. There will be no change in color. --Contributed by A. Bridgeton. some of the liquid. N. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. S. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. 1 and put together as in Fig. filled with water. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. causing the flowers to grow. The dotted lines in Fig. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Macdonald. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. These wires are put in the jar.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. or using small wedges of wood. To make the flowers grow in an instant.J. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. an acid. 2. four glass tumblers. Oakland. apparently. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary.

4 for width and No.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. If the size wanted is No. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. When many slides are to be masked. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. which are numbered for convenience in working. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. practical and costs nothing. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. says a correspondent of Photo Era. Cal. This outlines the desired opening. --Contributed by W. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. and equally worthy of individual treatment. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. Jaquythe. not only because of the fact just mentioned. Richmond. unless some special device is used. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. 2 for height. A. and kept ready for use at any time. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record.

paint the design. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. The one shown is merely suggestive. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. a little less acid than water. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. or a pair of old tongs. and do not inhale the fumes. the margin and the entire back of the metal. but they can be easily revived. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. 16 gauge.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. is about right for the No. which is dangerous. When etched to the desired depth. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . may be changed. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. too. Secure a sheet of No. using the carbon paper. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. the paper is folded along the center line. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. possibly. The decoration. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. This done. With a stick. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. not the water into the acid. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. about half and half. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. and the extreme length 7 in. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. Draw a design. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. or. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background.

with the wires underneath. and about 2-1/2 ft. as shown in the illustration. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. Fig. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. Fig. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. J is another wire attached in the same way. 2. the bell will ring. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. 3/8 in. 3. wide. long. 5. Fig. Paint the table any color desired. so that when it is pressed down. Nail a board. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. through it. as in Fig. attached to a post at each end. When the button S is pressed. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. 24 parts water. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. repeat as many times as is necessary. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. A. to the table. C and D. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. as shown in Fig. Cut out a piece of tin. 2. in diameter and 1/4 in. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. or more wide. about 2-1/2 in. Fig. and bore two holes. wide and of the same length as the table. 2. long and 1 ft. Then get two posts. about 8 in. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. it will touch post F. thick. . Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. 4.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. high. as at H. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. about 1 in. It may be either nailed or screwed down. The connections are simple: I. Fig. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. 5. 0 indicates the batteries. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. 1. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. about 3 ft. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end.

These rings can be carved out. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. After the glue is dry. handle and all. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. says the English Mechanic. A wood peg about 2 in. but they are somewhat difficult to make. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The imitation articles are made of wood. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. 2.Imitation Arms and Armor . 1. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. long.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. is to appear as steel. thick.. The entire weapon. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. the wood peg inserted in one of them. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. such as . The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. long serves as the dowel. This weapon is about 22 in. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. The circle is marked out with a compass.

can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. 5. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. long. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. If such a tool is not at hand. The handle is of steel imitation. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. the hammer and spike. 2. This weapon is about 22 in. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. studded with large brass or steel nails. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. also. leaves. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The spikes are cut out of wood. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. The lower half of the handle is wood. as before mentioned. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. covered with red velvet. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. All of these axes are about the same length. 3. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 6. The upper half of the handle is steel. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. is shown in Fig. . The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The handle is of wood. The axe is shown in steel. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. as described in Fig. used at the end of the fifteenth century. etc. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. flowers. as shown. 8. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. or the amateur cannot use it well. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued.ornamental scrolls. with a sharp carving tool. Its length is about 3 ft. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. The entire handle should be made of one piece.

as shown in Fig. 3. The knife falling on its side (Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. calls for a home run. Fig. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. 7) calls for one out. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. Each person plays until three outs have been made. 4). 6. 2. Chicago. a three-base hit. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 5. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. 1. as in Fig. then the other plays. . and so on for nine innings. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. the knife resting on its back. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown.

Campbell. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. while the committee is tying him up. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. F. Somerville. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. 3. as shown in Fig. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. Mass. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. of the rope and holds it. 2. as shown in Fig. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. This he does.-Contributed by J. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. It may be found that the negative is not colored. one of them burning . If it is spotted at all. hypo to 1 pt. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. of water for an hour or two. 1. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. with the rope laced in the cloth. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. Old-Time Magic .

shades the light for a few seconds. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. --Contributed by C. Ky.Contributed by Andrew G. Thome. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. and. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. thick. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. invisible to them (the audience). B. . The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. Evans. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. of sugar.. of water and 1 oz. 4 oz. bolt. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. of turpentine. 4 oz. Ky. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. Brown. Lebanon.brightly. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. He then walks over to the other candle. etc. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. Drill Gauge screw. New York City. showing that there is nothing between them. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. thus causing it to light. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. --Contributed by L. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. the other without a light. of plumbago. with which he is going to light the other candle. Louisville. The magician walks over to the burning candle. 3/4 in.

into a tube of several thicknesses. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. N. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. To make the porous cell. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. which will give a strong. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. Y. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. but is not so good. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. Its current strength is about one volt. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. Denniston. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. or blotting paper. for the material. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Pulteney. steady current. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. long. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. In making up the solution. --Contributed by C. H. diameter. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. 5 in. about 5 in. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. Do not add water to the acid. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. thick.

A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The . so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. while the other end is attached by two screws. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. One hole was bored as well as possible. Finally. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. steel. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. To insure this. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. but somewhat lighter. As to thickness. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved.) may be obtained. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped.station. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. steel. long with a bearing at each end. one drawing them together. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. the other holding them apart. a positive adjustment was provided. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. carrying the hour circle at one end. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. steel. After much experimentation with bearings.

the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . is provided with this adjustment. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness.. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. need not be changed." Only a rough setting is necessary. when the pointer should again cut at the same place." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. save the one in the pipe. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. once carefully made. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. To locate a known star on the map. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. apart. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. The aperture should be 1/4 in. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. Each shaft. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. Point it approximately to the north star. subtract 24. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. turn the pointer to the star. To find a star in the heavens. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. When properly set it will describe a great circle. Cassiopiae. All these adjustments." When this is done. Instead. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. excepting those on the declination axis. are tightened.. and 15 min. 45 min. Declination is read directly. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. Set the declination circle to its reading. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. If the result is more than 24 hours. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. The pointer is directed to Alpha. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. It is. and if it is not again directed to the same point. All set screws. The pole is 1 deg.

and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. long. La. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. The dance will begin. In reality the first ball. a great effect will be produced. The ball is found to be the genuine article. of ether. cannon balls. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr.. which is the one examined. as shown in the sketch. Strosnider. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. add a little more benzole. If this will be too transparent. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. taking care not to add too much. the others . If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. is the real cannon ball. -Contributed by Ray E. Ohio. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. benzole. is folded several times. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. Plain City. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. 3 or 4 in. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. New Orleans. then add 1 2-3 dr. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination.

which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. In boxes having a sliding cover. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. etc. --Contributed by J. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Milwaukee. as shown in the illustration. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. without taking up any great amount of space.. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. Return the card to the pack. taps. Cal. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. San Francisco. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. Fig. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. Mass. F. Campbell. 1). Wis. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Somerville. small brooches. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. 2.

Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. This box has done good service. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. thus giving ample store room for colors. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. Hartford. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. prints. round pieces 2-1/4 in. Beller. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. from the bottom of the box.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. . This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. Connecticut. as shown in the illustration. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. slides and extra brushes.

costing 5 cents. .I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. -Contributed by C. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. with well packed horse manure. Darke. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. West Lynn. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. Mass. about threefourths full. holes in the bottom of one. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. or placed against a wall. FIG. When the ends are turned under. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. Fill the upper tub. will answer the purpose. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. 1). O. 2). tacking the gauze well at the corners.

If plugs are found in any of the holes. if this is not available. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. If the following directions are carried out. Eifel. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. and each bundle contains . How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. cutting the cane between the holes. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. they should be knocked out. --Contributed by L. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. M. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. when they are raised from the pan. oil or other fluid. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. Chicago. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position.

In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. In addition to the cane. 1. as shown in Fig. No plugs . the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. a square pointed wedge. after having been pulled tight. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. put about 3 or 4 in. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. as it must be removed again. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. then across and down. and. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. held there by inserting another plug. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. it should be held by a plug.

placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. W. --Contributed by M. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. or the style.075 in. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. the height of the line BC. 5 in. 1 lat. 40°. Detroit. If you have a table of natural functions. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. in this case) times the . 5. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. as shown in Fig. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. for 2°. It consists of a flat circular table. is the horizontal dial.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. stretch the third one.2 in. This will make three layers. as it always equals the latitude of the place. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. 1. -Contributed by E. The style or gnomon. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. All added to the lesser or 40°. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. 41 °-30'. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. the height of which is taken from table No. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . and the one we shall describe in this article.2+. There are several different designs of sundials.15+. 4. the next smallest. it is 4. Michigan.15 in. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer.42 in. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. If handled with a little care. 1. Fig. When cool. called the gnomon. Their difference is .075 in. After completing the second layer. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. and for 1° it would be .5 in. using the same holes as for the first layer. lat.3 in. 3. 1. we have 4. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. Fig. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. 3. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. as for example. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. 42° is 4. as shown in Fig. as the height of the line BC for lat. is the base (5 in. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. 41°-30'.= 4. Even with this lubrication. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. but the most common. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. and for lat. From table No. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. R. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. No weaving has been done up to this time. During the weaving. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. trim off the surplus rosin. Patrick. D.

with a radius of 5 in. Its thickness. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.76 1.42 .27 2.40 34° 3.57 3.68 5-30 6-30 5.00 40° 4. long. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. and perpendicular to the base or style. Chords in inches for a 10 in.46 3.63 56° 7. base.03 3.83 27° 2.06 2. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.66 latitude. 1.49 30 .82 5.59 2. gives the 6 o'clock points.56 .30 2. Table NO. and for this size dial (10 in.18 28° 2.82 3.88 36° 3. 2. an inch or two. .85 35 . according to the size of the dial.79 4.42 45 . draw two parallel lines AB and CD.82 2.77 2. and intersecting the semicircles. circle Sundial.87 1.12 52° 6.85 1.99 2.44 44° 4.87 4.66 48° 5.97 5 7 4.55 30° 2.55 5. For latitudes not given.93 6.16 40 . Draw two semi-circles.28 . Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .30 1. 2 for given latitudes.42 1. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. 2. or more.50 26° 2.23 6. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.46 .66 1.49 3. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.02 1.39 . Fig.16 1. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. or if of stone.81 4.89 50° 5.11 3.57 1.32 6.14 5.94 1.33 .96 32° 3.93 2.37 5.20 60° 8. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.64 4 8 3.26 4. which will represent the base in length and thickness.10 6.55 4. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.29 4-30 7-30 3.38 . The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. To layout the hour circle.07 4. if of metal.37 54° 6. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.33 42° 4.91 58° 8. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.tangent of the degree of latitude.40 1.55 46° 5. using the points A and C as centers.41 38° 3. Draw the line AD.19 1. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.

if west. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. --Contributed by J. 3. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. Each weapon is cut from wood.50 55 . Iowa. each article can be labelled with the name. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. 3.50 . Sept.53 1.19 2. 25. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. 900 Chicago.82 3. April 16.93 6. it will be faster. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. Sun time to local mean time. and the . 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. 2 and Dec. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .14 1.30 2.68 3. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. June 15. says the English Mechanic.24 5. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.89 3.77 3. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.10 4. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.54 60 .49 3.52 Table No.60 4.37 2..01 1. adding to each piece interest and value.means that the dial is faster than the sun. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. An ordinary compass.87 6.21 2.add those marked + subtract those Marked . after allowing for the declination. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. As they are the genuine reproductions. E. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. This correction can be added to the values in table No. Sioux City.12 5.08 1.57 1. London.46 5.63 1. Mitchell.98 4.79 6. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. The + means that the clock is faster.from Sundial lime. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.71 2.34 5. will enable one to set the dial. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. then the watch is slower.49 5.06 2. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. and for the difference between standard and local time.72 5. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.46 4.

This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. When putting on the tinfoil. Partisan. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. . brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 3. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. the length of which is about 5 ft. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon.. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. 1.

long. 5. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. press it well into the carved depressions. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. about 4 in. used about the seventeenth century. is shown in Fig. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. . long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. It is about 6 ft. A gisarm or glaive. The edges are sharp. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. 8. This weapon is about 6 ft. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. long with a round staff or handle. The spear is steel.which is square. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. 7. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. 6 ft. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. the holes being about 1/4 in. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. long with a round wooden handle. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The extreme length is 9 ft. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. sharp on the outer edges. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. in diameter. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. which are a part of the axe. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel.. long. The length of this bar is about 5 in.

a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. as shown in Fig.-Contributed by R. This is important to secure neatness. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. Substances such as straw. are less durable and will quickly show wear. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. Workman. 4. The twisted cross cords should . The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. In Figs. or in holes punched in a leather strap. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. B. used for spacing and binding the whole together. 1. H. apart. Cut all the cords the same length. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. the most durable being bamboo. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. 5. 2 and 3. are put in place. Ohio. the cross cords. They can be made of various materials. Loudonville. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends.

for a length extending from a point 2 in. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. The first design shown is for using bamboo. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. A slit was cut in the bottom. La. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. To remedy this. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. Lockport. of the bottom. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. shaped as shown at C.be of such material. in which was placed a piece of glass. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. New Orleans. New York. This was turned over the top of the other can. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. wide. 3 in. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. -Contributed by Geo. bamboo or rolled paper. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . as shown at B. Harrer. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. Four V-shaped notches were cut. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. below the top to within 1/4 in. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. M.

The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. about 1/16 in. This plank. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. Schaffner. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. This should be done gradually. --Contributed by Chas. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges.tape from sticking to the carpet. N. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. wide. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. --Contributed by Joseph H. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. turned over but not fastened. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. Newburgh. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. --Contributed by W. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. Y. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Maywood. H. Cal. It would be well to polish the brass at first. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. Pasadena. Shay. Sanford. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. giving the appearance of hammered brass. Ill. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . the brass is loosened from the block. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. and two along the side for attaching the staff. do not throw away the gloves. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. After this is finished.

--E. Ill. K. Marshall. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Oak Park. -Contributed by W. the pendulum swings . Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Jaquythe. in diameter. bent as shown. Unlike most clocks. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Richmond. A. Cal. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in.

A. C. only have the opposite side up. thick. by 1-5/16 in. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. on the board B. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Metzech. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. high. --Contributed by V. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. . Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. 6 in. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. high and 1/4 in. away. 3/4 in. to the first one with screws or glue. bar. In using this method. and the other two 2-5/8 in. high. 5/16 in. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. the center one being 2-3/4 in. Secure a board. in diameter. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. long and at each side of this. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. The construction is very simple. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. Two uprights. high. B. Chicago. wide that is perfectly flat. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. wide. bearing on the latter. about 12 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. Fasten another board. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. about 6 in. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. says the Scientific American. such as this one. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. Now place the board to be joined. are secured in the base bar. 7-1/2 in.. is an electromagnet. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl.

attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. 2. 1. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Fig. Fig. is fastened in the hole A. wide and 5 in. --Contributed by Elmer A. as shown at A. square. from one end. The trigger. wide and 1 in. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. 4. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. or more. square inside. whose dimensions are given in Fig. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. Pa. 1. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. 3. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. long. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. . by driving a pin through the wood. Phoenixville. Vanderslice. 1. plates should be made 8 in.

5 parts of black filler. if only two bands are put in the . 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. one-half the length of the side pieces. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. as shown in the illustration. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. Ohio. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. 2 parts of whiting. rubbing varnish and turpentine. Fostoria. Simonis. square. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take.A. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. by weight. which allows 1/4 in. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. -Contributed by J.

says the English Mechanic. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. Michigan. in the opposite end of the box. and it may be made as a model or full sized. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. London. long. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. Grand Rapids. is set at an angle of 45 deg. wide and about 1 ft. If a plain glass is used. and the picture can be drawn as described. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. In use. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. A piece of metal. Mass. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K.lower strings. as shown in Fig. keeps the strong light out when sketching. 1. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. is necessary. II. which may be either of ground or plain glass. --Contributed by Thos. G. A mirror. In constructing helmets. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. place tracing paper on its surface. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. deep. A double convex lens. preferably copper. DeLoof. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. Dartmouth. Shaw. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. No. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. It must be kept moist and well . The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. -Contributed by Abner B. 8 in. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base.

4 is the side outline of the helmet. 2. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. and continue until the clay is completely covered. This being done. a few clay-modeling tools. on which to place the clay. brown. shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. 3. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich.kneaded. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. and the deft use of the fingers. After the clay model is finished. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. 1. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. with a keyhole saw. take. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. joined closely together. will be necessary. and left over night to soak. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. and over the crest on top. The clay. as in bas-relief. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. 1. All being ready. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. Scraps of thin. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. the clay model oiled. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. or some thin glue. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling.

Before taking it off the model. and the ear guards in two pieces. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. This contrivance should be made of wood. 9. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. The whole helmet. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. In Fig. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. as shown: in the design. 1. --Contributed by Paul Keller. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. Indiana. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. as seen in the other part of the sketch. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. Indianapolis. a few lines running down. will make it look neat. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. When dry. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. one for each side. They are all covered with tinfoil. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. 5. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. The band is decorated with brass studs. square in shape. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. should be modeled and made in one piece. which should be no difficult matter. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. a crest on top. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. the skullcap. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. or. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. When the helmet is off the model. with the exception of the vizor. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. then another coating of glue.as possible. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. 7. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. the piecing could not be detected. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . In Fig. The center of the ear guards are perforated. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. owing to the clay being oiled. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. and so on. When perfectly dry.

The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. 2. and. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. 1. and C. long. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. AA. as shown in Fig. 22 gauge resistance wire. for connections. one glass tube. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. The two holes. long. one fuse block. to receive screws for holding it to the base. about 80 ft. Fig. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. about 1 lb. This will make an open space between the plates. JJ. 2. FF. 3. 1. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. with slits cut for the wires. Fig. high. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. E and F. The holes B and C are about 3 in. The reverse side of the base. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. 1. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces.same size. 4. if the measurements are correct. 1 in. Fig. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . 4. screws. two ordinary binding posts. Fig. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. Fig. above the collar. or. 4. of fire clay. 2. until it is within 1 in. one oblong piece of wood. is then packed down inside the collar. Fig. German-silver wire is better. should extend about 1/4 in. if this cannot be obtained. and two large 3in. also the switch B and the fuse block C. wide and 15 in. AA. This will allow the plate. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. If asbestos is used. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. one small switch. 1. when they are placed in opposite positions. A round collar of galvanized iron. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. long. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. Fig. AA. Fig. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. 4 lb. are allowed to project about 1 in. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. in diameter and 9 in. 4. thick sheet asbestos. as shown in Fig. the fuse block. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. as shown in Fig. the holes leading to the switch. Fig. of mineral wool. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. Fig. of No. 1. is shown in Fig. of the top. 4. 4. GG. If a neat appearance is desired. The mineral wool. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. Fig. Fig. 4. each 4-1/2 in. 1. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. as it stands a higher temperature. about 1/4 in. The plate. 12 in. Fig. 3 in. thick. which can be bought from a local druggist.

The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. and pressed into it. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. The clay. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. If this is the case. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. apart. 4. Next. causing a short circuit. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. H. will slip and come in contact with each other. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. Cut a 1/2-in. using care not to get it too wet. It should not be set on end. As these connections cannot be soldered. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. When this is done. Jaquythe. --Contributed by R. allowing a space between each turn. II. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. This completes the stove. more wire should be added. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. Can. Cnonyn. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. While the clay is damp. Fig. so that the circuit will not become broken. when heated. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. it leaves a gate for the metal. A. --Contributed by W. Catherines. then. Cover over about 1 in. When the tile is in place. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. KK. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. It should not be left heated in this condition. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. 2. when cool. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. steam will form when the current is applied. A file can be used to remove any rough places. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. as the turns of the wires. Fig. above the rim. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. Richmond. St. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. Cal. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. If it is not thoroughly dry. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. deep. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. This point marks the proper length to cut it. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends.

the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. and the frame set near a window. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. as shown. and the prints will dry rapidly. square material in any size. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. Ky. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. Then clip a little off the . but 12 by 24 in. constructed of 3/4-in. is large enough." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. --Contributed by Andrew G. says the Photographic Times. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. Louisville. the air can enter from both top and bottom.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. the pie will be damaged. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. Thorne. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them.

wide and 3 in. The connections are made as shown in Fig. 1/2 in. which gives the shaft a half turn. The board can be raised to place . which are fastened to the base. Le Mars. 1 and 3. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. thick and 3 in. causing a break in the current. high. Herron. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. A 1/8-in. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. Fig. 1. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. in diameter. open out. thick. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. Fig. 1. The driving arm D. long. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. Iowa. Fig. The upright B. wide. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. 3. 1/2 in. 1. An offset is bent in the center. high. as shown. long. at GG. wide and 7 in. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. long. for the crank. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. thick and 3 in. 4 in. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. slip on two cardboard washers. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. 2-1/2 in. long. high. As the shaft revolves. -Contributed by S. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. allowing each end to project for connections. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. 2. 22 gauge magnet wire. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. Two supports. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. each 1/2 in. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. in diameter and about 4 in. The connecting rod E. W. each 1 in. thereby saving time and washing. 14 in. 1. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. Figs. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron.Paper Funnel point.

Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. . The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. In designing the roost. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. Stecher. as shown in the sketch. Mass. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. on a board. Dorchester. 3 in.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. making a framework suitable for a roost. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. One or more pots may be used. Place the pot. in height. bottom side up. --Contributed by William F. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used.

common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. 1.. The materials required are rope or. if it is other than straight lines. adopt the method described.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. in diameter. that it is heated. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. will produce the pattern desired. 1. etc. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. and give it time to dry. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. The bottom part of the sketch. shelves.. Fig. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. without any corresponding benefit. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. ordinary glue. Wind the . windows. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. grills and gratings for doors. when combined. F. odd corners. paraffin and paint or varnish. as shown in Fig. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. F. preferably.

I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. 2. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . Fig. Harrer.Fig. cut and glue them together. N. Lockport. -Contributed by Geo. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. six designs are shown. Y. M.

chips of iron rust. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made.. etc. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. when it will be observed that any organic matter. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. but no farther. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. which was used in front of a horse's head. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. and the sides do not cover the jaws. will be retained by the cotton. 1. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in.. This piece of horse armor. London.. says the English Mechanic. etc. As the .

brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. This triangularshaped support. the rougher the better. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. and the clay model oiled. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. 2. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. This will make the model light and easy to move around. 8. as the surface will hold the clay. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. The armor is now removed from the model. An arrangement is shown in Fig.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. which can be made in any size. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. In Fig. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. but the back is not necessary. which is separate. the same as in Fig. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. and therefore it is not described. and will require less clay. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. 4. 6 and 7. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. This can be made in one piece. except the thumb and fingers. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. This being done. with the exception of the thumb shield. All being ready. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. 2. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. then another coat of glue. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. but for .

A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. but 3-1/2 in. and the instrument is ready for use. running down the plate. The two pieces of foil. two for the jaws and one a wedge. will be about right. N. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. La Rue. long. Fasten a polished brass ball to. the two pieces of foil will draw together. are glued to it. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. each about 1/4 in. fastened to the rod. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. the top of the rod. are better shown in Fig. 1/2 in. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. A piece of board.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. Y. 2. Calif. Buxton. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. Redondo Beach. in depth. 9. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. Goshen. --Contributed by Ralph L. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. . Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. cut into the shape shown in Fig. the foils will not move. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. wide and 1/2 in. If it does not hold a charge. two in each jaw. --Contributed by John G. When locating the place for the screw eyes.

as shown in the illustration. is made of a 1/4-in.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. Texas. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. silvered. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. When a fish is hooked. hole bored through it. as indicated in the . thus making it ornamental as well as useful. The can may be bronzed. M. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. --Contributed by Mrs. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. A. long. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. pine board. about 15 in. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. enameled or otherwise decorated. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. At a point 6 in. as this will cut under the water without splashing. Corsicana. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. Bryan. 2-1/2 in. from the smaller end.

using powdered pumice and lye. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true.Match Holder accompanying sketch. take a piece of thin wood. or even pine. using a piece of carbon paper. Next prepare the metal holder. then with a nail. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. A good size is 5 in. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Polish the metal. as shown. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. 22 is plenty heavy enough. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. punch the holes. Having completed the drawing. If soft wood. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. long over all. 3/8 or 1/4 in. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. Basswood or butternut. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. and trace upon it the design and outline. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. thick. When it has dried over night. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. such as basswood or pine was used. wide by 6 in. will do as well as the more expensive woods. Any kind of wood will do. put a coat or two of wax and polish .

Two wire nails. Instead of the usual two short ropes. wide and 5 in. Richmond. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. 1/2 in. long. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. the whole being finished in linseed oil. thick. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. Cal. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. is used for the base of this instrument. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. If one has some insight in carving.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. Jaquythe. A. If carving is contemplated. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. It is useful for photographers. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. 2 in. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. are used for the cores of the magnets. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. can be made on the same standards. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. . Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. of pure olive oil. long. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. --Contributed by W. each 1 in. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered.

1. then covered with red. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. cloth or baize to represent the legs. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. cut in the shape of the letter T. as shown in Fig. Lynas. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. London. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. except that for the legs. 25 gauge. A piece of tin. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. about No. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. in the shape shown in the sketch. acts as a spring to keep the key open. the paper covering put on. --Contributed by W. 3. About 1 in. at A. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. as shown by the dotted lines. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. A rubber band. H. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. . similar to that used in electric bells. leaving about 1/4 in. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. when the key is pushed down. says the English Mechanic. All of the parts for the armor have been described. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs.

says Camera Craft. one to another .Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. for the sake of lightness. hole in the center. in the other end. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. apart. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. Secure two strips of wood. or ordinary plaster laths will do. Take the piece shown in Fig. completes the equipment. can be made in a few minutes' time. make the same series of eight small holes and. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. not too tight. about 1 in. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. In one end of the piece. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. Cut them to a length or 40 in. apart. Fig. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. holes. and eight small holes. These can be purchased at a stationery store. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. long. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. Instead of using brass headed nails. 2. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. By moving the position of the bolt from. A 1/4-in.. Silver paper will do very well. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. at each end. drill six 1/4-in. 3 in. 1 in. The two pieces are bolted together. So set up. 1 and drill a 1/4in. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. flat headed carriage bolt.

Then draw all four ends up snugly. D over A and C. and lay it over the one to the right. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. 1. In this sketch. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. C over D and B. long. 4. but instead of reversing . leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. for instance. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. taking the same start as for the square fob. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. as in portraiture and the like. A round fob is made in a similar way. Start with one end. of the ends remain unwoven. 2. the one marked A. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. Then take B and lay it over A. in Fig. 2. lay Cover B and the one under D. then B over C and the end stuck under A. A is the first string and B is the second. as shown in Fig. doubled and run through the web of A. Fig. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes.of the larger holes in the strip. and the one beneath C. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. 2. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel.

The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. 5. especially if silk strings are used. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. Other designs can be made in the same manner. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . always lap one string. long. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. Rupp. as in making the square fob. over the one to its right. 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by John P. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. is to be made of leather.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. A loop. is left out at the center before starting on one side. 3. the design of which is shown herewith. Monroeville. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. as B. as at A in Fig. The round fob is shown in Fig. Ohio. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel.

The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. -Contributed by A. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. door facing or door panel. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. . filling them with wax. pressing it against the wood. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. it can be easily renewed. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. When the supply of wax is exhausted. such as a nut pick. beeswax or paraffin. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. Mich. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. Any smooth piece of steel. Houghton. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. Northville. A. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. using the reverse side. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin.

place it face down in the dish. says Photographic Times. . The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. and about 12 in. apart and driven in only part way. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. but any kind that will not stick may be used. E and F. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. New York. Thompson. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. The tacks should be about 1 in. J. Petersburg. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. although tin ones can be used with good success. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. D. long. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. Select the print you wish to mount. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. those on matte paper will work best. N. Enough plaster should. leaving about 1/4 in. and after wetting. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Ill. Y. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. if blueprints are used. Fold together on lines C. it is best to leave a plain white margin. thick. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. remaining above the surface of the board. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. --Contributed by O.

When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. will be rendered perfectly white..Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. without mixing the solutions. etc. as shown at the left in the sketch. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. violets. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. Lower into the test tube a wire. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. as shown in the right of the sketch. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. bell flowers. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. One of the . lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. roses. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. filling the same about onehalf full. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution.

thick. Shabino. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. to keep the core from coming off in turning. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler.. as shown in the sketch. A rod that will fit the brass tube. and at the larger end. turned a little tapering. 1-7/8 in. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. Millstown. not too tightly. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The diaphragm. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. L. long and made of wood. long. South Dakota. When soldering these parts together. 1. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. or delicate tints of the egg. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. 2. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. is about 2-1/2 in. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . in diameter and 1 in. as shown. The first point should be ground blunt. but which will not wobble loose. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. made of heavy tin. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. --Contributed by L.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. 3. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. about 1/8s in. The tin horn can be easily made. should be soldered to the box. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. The sound box. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. shading. Fig. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens.

Ill. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. says the Iowa Homestead. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. Gold. Chicago. Victor.Contributed by E. mice in the bottom. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. E. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. Colo. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Jr. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. put a board on top. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. wondering what it was. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. and. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. and weighted it with a heavy stone. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four.

Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. Y. Buffalo. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. Ottawa. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. N. Can. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Pereira. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. --Contributed by Lyndwode. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. .

Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. above the end of the dasher. Richmond. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Grand Rapids. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. --Contributed by Thos. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. This cart has no axle. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. as it can be made quickly in any size. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Jaquythe. Cal. as shown. a piece of tin. cut round. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . --Contributed by W. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. Put a small nail 2 in. De Loof. through which several holes have been punched.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. and at one end of the stick fasten. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. by means of a flatheaded tack. A. Mich. longer than the length of the can.

The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. 1. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. as shown. 1/4 in. 2.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. long. --Contributed by James M. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. Pa. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements.1. wide and as long as the box. of course. 2. cut in the center of the rounding edge. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. were below the level of the bullseye. screwed it on the inside of a store box. I reversed a door gong. thick. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. Notches 1/8 in. board. La. 2. Fig. The candles. deep and 3 in. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. New Orleans. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. Doylestown. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. apart. The baseboard and top are separable. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Kane. 2 in. wide. 1 ft. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. wide and 3 ft. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. 1-1/2 in. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. A wedge-shaped piece of . wide and 1/8 in.

to prevent its scratching the desk top. by cutting away the ends. the shelf could not be put on the window. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. Worcester. Cover the block with rubber. the reason being that if both were solid. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. Ia. This device is very convenient for invalids.Book Back Holders metal. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. --Contributed by G.. After the glue has dried. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. wide into each side of the casing. The block can also be used as a paperweight. West Union. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. take two pieces of hard wood. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. wide rubber bands or felt. it can be removed without marring the casing. After completing the handle. When not in use. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. etc. stone or wood. Mass. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. will. 1. Wood. A. can be picked up without any trouble. 3. scissors. when placed as in Fig. dressing one surface of each piece. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. as shown in Fig. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. For the handle. the blade is put back into the groove . The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. Needles.

Pa. Malden. 1. --Contributed by Maud McKee. long. Cleveland. 1 in. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them.and sharpened to a cutting edge. If desired. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. 2. is shown in the accompanying sketch. as shown in Fig. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. thus carrying the car up the incline. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. . Ohio. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Jacobs. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. square and 4 in. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. as shown in Fig. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. A. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Erie. -Contributed by W. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. S. Mass. --Contributed by H. A notch is cut in one side. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Hutchins.

One sheet of metal. and an awl and hammer. If one such as is shown is to be used. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. a board on which to work it. Prepare a design for the front. The letters can be put on afterward. 6 by 9-1/2 in. N.. will be needed. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. Cape May Point. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. . and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming.J. This will insure having all parts alike. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first.

varnish. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. turpentine. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. or. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over.Fasten the metal to the board. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. paste the paper design right on the metal. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. and add sugar of lead as a dryer." In all appearance. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. The music will not sound natural. to right angles. as shown. in the waste metal. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. a violin. behind or through the center of a table leg. says Master Painter. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. So impressive are the results. placed on a table. 3/4 part. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. One coat will do. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. if desired. applied by means of a brush. which is desirable. The stick may be placed by the side of. 1/4 part. 2 parts white vitriol. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. only the marginal line is to be pierced. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. mandolin or guitar. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. Remove the metal. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. On the back. that can be worked in your own parlor. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. 1 part. flat brush. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. If any polishing is required. but weird and distant. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. .

The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. With proper tools this is easy. each 6 in. is bent square so as to form two uprights. are shaped as shown in Fig. wide. Two pairs of feet. 2. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. it might be difficult. apart. each 28 in. says Work. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. across the top. square bar iron.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. long and measuring 26 in. without them. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. long and spread about 8 in. The longest piece. thick by 1/2 in. . after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. London. and is easy to construct. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. long. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. round-head machine screws. 3.

A. on it as shown. the latter being tapped to . Fig. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. 5. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. The glass. 7. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. is held by the brads. The brads are then removed. lead.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. B. using rosin as a flux. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. After the glass is cut. D. Fig. The design is formed in the lead. 5. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. Place the corner piece of glass. 4. cut a long piece of lead. in the grooves of the borders. C. as shown in Fig. 6. better still. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. and the base border. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. While the piece of lead D. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. special flux purchased for this purpose. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. or. After the joints are soldered. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border.

and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. rocker bolt. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. N. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. not less than 4 in. as shown in Fig. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in.. in diameter and about 9 in. then drill a 3/4-in. This . It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. J. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. rounded at the top as shown. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in.the base of the clip. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Bore a 3/4-in. then flatten its end on the under side. The center pin is 3/4-in. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. Jr. bolt. H. Two styles of hand holds are shown. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. thick and drill 3/4-in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. square and of the length given in the drawing. wood screws in each washer. Secure a post. Make three washers 3-in. long. and round the corners of one end for a ring. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. one on each side and central with the hole. plank about 12 ft. 8. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. This ring can be made of 1-in. plates. in diameter and 1/4 in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. and two wood blocks. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. --Contributed by W. Bore a 5/8-in. Dreier. bolt. A and B. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Fasten the plates to the block B. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. holes through their centers. long. Camden. long. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours.

If trees are convenient. horse and rings. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. Draw a line on the four 7-in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. chestnut or ash. 3/4 by 3 in. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. because it will not stand the weather. 9 in. shanks. 3 in. 4 in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. long. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. New Orleans. long. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. 4 in. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. 2 by 4 in. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. 1. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. square by 5 ft. square by 9-1/2 ft. from one edge. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. long. by 3 ft. can make a first class gymnasium. maple. 50 ft. and some one can swing an axe. 4 filler pieces. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. screws. 1-1/4in. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 7 in. apart for a distance of 3 ft. boards along the side of each from end to end. long. La. by 6-1/2 ft. in diameter and 7 in. by 2 ft. 4 pieces. 4 pieces. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. bit. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. 16 screws. 1 by 7 in. hickory. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. bolts and rope. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. of 1/4-in. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. To substitute small. 1/2 in. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. The four 7-in. long. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. 2-1/2 in. long and 1 piece. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work.will make an excellent cover for a pot. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. long. straight-grained hickory.

The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. deep and remove all loose dirt. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. apart. each 3 ft. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar.. apart. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . at each end. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. 8 in. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. boards coincide.. Bore a 9/16-in. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. 2.bored. piece of wood. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. from the end. so the 1/2-in. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. and once tightened the bar will be rigid.

which at once gathered. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. but most deceptive at dusk. and materially heightened the illusion. it follows the edge for about 1 in. not even the tumbler. the effect is very striking. passing through a screweye at either end. . He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. When the interest of the crowd. disappearing only to reappear again. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. it is taken to the edge of the foot. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. not much to look at in daytime. If the tumbler is rotated. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction.. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. He stretched the thread between two buildings. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim." which skimmed along the distant horizon. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. about 100 ft. was at its height. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. just visible against the dark evening sky. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. And all he used was a black thread. apart. in an endless belt. W. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. and then passes in a curve across the base. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. and ascends the stem.

1. Chisel out two notches 4 in. from either side of the center. long. wide and 1 in. deep. 2 by 4 in. 4 bolts. large spikes. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. so the point will be on top. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 8 in. long. 8 in. 2 by 3 in. by 2 ft. square and 6 ft. by 7 ft. Fig. A wire about No. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. by 3 ft. long. 4 in. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 2 base pieces. New Orleans. The cork will come out easily. long. La. 2 in. To make the apparatus. square and 51/2 ft. 4 wood screws. by 10 ft. 4 in. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 6 in. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. long and 1 doz. and turned in a spiral D. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 2 cross braces. 2 by 4 in. preferably cedar. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. 2 by 4 in. 8 bolts. long. 8 in. 4 knee braces. long. 7 in. long. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. beginning at a point 9 in. Bevel the ends of . 2 side braces. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B.

shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. additional long. If using mill-cut lumber. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. Two endpieces must be made. --Contributed by W. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. jellies. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. but even unpainted they are very durable. except the bars. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. save the bars. The wood so treated will last for years. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. These will allow the ladle to be turned. which face each other.. A large sized ladle. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. and countersinking the heads. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. as shown in the diagram. A. screws. leaving the strainer always in position. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. After the trenches are dug. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. Richmond. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. Jaquythe. ( To be Continued. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. using four of the 7-in bolts.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. of 7 ft. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. Cal. so the bolts in both will not meet.the knee braces. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. . and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. leave it undressed. etc. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. equipped with a strainer. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt.

. Oil. drill press or planer. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. of sufficient 1ength. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. In order to accomplish this experiment. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. it is necessary to place a stick. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. which seems impossible. or various cutting compounds of oil. A. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. milling machine. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. partly a barrier for jumps. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. thus holding the pail as shown.

Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. bolts. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. piece of 2 by 4-in. 1 in. 1 cross brace. beginning 1-1/2 in. stud cut rounding on one edge. by 3 ft. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. by 3 ft. To construct. long. These are placed 18 in. wood yard or from the woods. is a good length. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. from each end. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. but 5 ft. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. Procure from a saw mill. in the ground. square by 5 ft. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. Hand holds must be provided next. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. bolts. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. 2 adjusting pieces. long. These are well nailed in place. 2 bases.. two 1/2-in. by 3 ft. long. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. 2 by 4 in. projections and splinters. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 7 in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. 3 in. The round part of this log must be planed. 4 in. long. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. to fasten the knee braces at the top. 4 knee braces. bolt. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in.. ten 1/2-in. long. square by 5-1/2 ft. 4-1/2 in. 4 in. bolts. long. 4 in. apart in a central position on the horse. 2 by 4 in. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. apart. in diameter--the larger the better. The material required is as follows: Two posts.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. long. long. and free from knots. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. 2 by 4 in.

no one is responsible but himself. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. Richmond. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. Cal. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. it is caused by some obstruction. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder.--Contributed by W. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. Such a hand sled can be made in a . snow. then bending to the shape desired. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. water. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Also. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Jaquythe.horse top. etc. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. A. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. pipe and fittings. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. over and around. but nevertheless. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. such as a dent. it is caused by an overloaded shell.

The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. 1. which. --Contributed by J. will give the length. Mass. when straightened out. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. are all the tools necessary. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. then run a string over each part. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. when complete. Boston. Toronto. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. . W. Joerin. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. 1/4 or 3/16 in. in width and 1/32 in. The end elevation.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. is much better than a wood sled. Ontario. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. --Contributed by Arthur E. France. Paris. Noble. thick. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Vener. These. 2. --Contributed by James E. at E and F. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig.

A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. nor that which is partly oxidized.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. AA and BB. 4. It is best to use soft water. The method shown in Figs. . and the latter will take on a bright luster. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. 3. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. are nailed. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks.

as shown in Fig. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. as shown in Fig. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. 2. The materials used are: backbone. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. 4. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 1). or unequal widths as in Fig. 8 and 9. 2. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. or various rulings may be made. class ice-yacht. . The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. 3. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. Percy Ashley in Rudder. Broad lines can be made.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

out from the collar.Fig. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. It can be made longer or shorter. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. 1-Details of Lathe sort. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. 1. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. but if it is made much longer. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. bent and drilled as shown. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. pipe. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The point should extend about 11/2 in. long. Both the lower . The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. a larger size of pipe should be used. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. about 30 in. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The headstock is made of two tees. a tee and a forging. pins to keep them from turning. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe.

To do this. and will answer for a great variety of work. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Boissevain. Cal. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Musgrove. Fruitvale. Man. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. as shown in Fig. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. Laporte. 2. --Contributed by W. Held. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. as shown in Fig. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. 2. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. . W. --Contributed by M. Indiana. 3/4 or 1 in. thick as desired. or a key can be used as well. 2. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. but also their insulating properties. a corresponding line made on this. else taper turning will result. M. 1. UpDeGraff.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. a straight line should be scratched Fig. --Contributed by W. It is about 1 in.

The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. In use. long. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. Ft. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . J. To obviate this. Ark.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. Cline. as shown. --Contributed by E. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. The handle is of pine about 18 in. Smith. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back.

Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. if this method is followed: First. La. Denver. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. New Orleans. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. centering is just one operation too many. on starting the lathe. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. the drill does not need the tool. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. After being entered.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. face off the end of the piece. White. This prevents the drill from wobbling. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. take . and when once in true up to its size. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Colo. which should be backed out of contact. --Contributed by Walter W. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring.

so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. shown at C. After the wand is removed. is put into the paper tube A. all the better. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. by applying caustic soda or . a bout 1/2 in. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. The handkerchief rod. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. a long piece of glass tubing. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. The glass tube B. and can be varied to suit the performer. the cap is placed over the paper tube. and this given to someone to hold. In doing this. It can be used in a great number of tricks. after being shown empty. as shown in D. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. says the Sphinx. vanishing wand. unknown to the spectators. shorter t h a n the wand. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip.

3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. cut to any shape desired. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. Glue strips of soft wood. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. 1 Bottom. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. and glue it to the neck at F.potash around the edges of the letters. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. As the cement softens. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. Cut a piece of hard wood. by 14 by 17 in. The sides. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. This dimension and those for the frets . End. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. square and 1-7/8 in. 1. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. across the front and back to strengthen them. and if care is taken in selecting the material. long. can be made by the home mechanic. 3/16. With care and patience. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. 1 End. 1 Neck. Glue the neck to the box. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. with the back side rounding. The brace at D is 1 in. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. thick. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. 1/4 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. as shown by K. 2 Sides. preferably hard maple.

Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. E. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. but it is not. and beveled . This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. toward each end. Norwalk. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place.Pa. Six holes. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. H. long is used for a keel. 1) on which to stretch the paper. thick and about 1 ft. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. or backbone. Carbondale. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length.should be made accurately. -Contributed by J. Stoddard. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. O. When it is completed you will have a canoe. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. 3/16 in. in diameter. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Frary. --Contributed by Chas. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. A board 1 in.

as before described. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. 2). long are required. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. as shown in Fig. C. buy some split cane or rattan. These are better. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. and notched at the end to receive them (B. Osiers probably make the best ribs. B. Fig. in such cases. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. Fig.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. as they are apt to do. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. twigs 5 or 6 ft. Fig. 3). probably. The ribs. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. or similar material. in thickness and should be cut. b. a. two strips of wood (b. Fig. thick. and are not fastened. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. Fig. apart. C. as shown in Fig. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. such as hazel or birch. 2. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. . Fig. Fig. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. Green wood is preferable. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. with long stout screws. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. are next put in. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. 3. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. such as is used for making chairbottoms. Shape these as shown by A. and. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. or other place. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. 3. 13 in. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. but twigs of some other trees. In drying. Any tough. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board.. when made of green elm. slender switches of osier willow. b. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. two twigs may be used to make one rib. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. 2). thick. 4). but before doing this. and so. long. 1 and 2. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. wide by 26 in. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. Fig. Fig. 3/8 in. The cross-boards (B. which are easily made of long. b. 3). will answer nearly as well. 1. some tight strips of ash. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. 4. by means of a string or wire. procure at a carriage factory. the loose strips of ash (b. For the gunwales (a.) in notches.

Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. When the paper is dry. and light oars. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. preferably iron. 5). b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. of very strong wrapping-paper. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. apply a second coat of the same varnish. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. If not. tacking it to the bottom-board. Fig. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. but neither stiff nor very thick. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. If the paper be 1 yd. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. It should be drawn tight along the edges. Then take some of the split rattan and. B. When thoroughly dry. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. if it has been properly constructed of good material. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. but with less turpentine. Being made in long rolls. and very tough. The paper is then trimmed. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. however. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. and as soon as that has soaked in. after wetting it. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. It should be smooth on the surface. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. You may put in . and steady in the water. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. wide. and held in place by means of small clamps. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides.

The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. and if driven as shown in the cut. Fig. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. 5. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. Fig.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. fore and aft. and make a movable seat (A. to fit it easily. 5). and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. they will support very heavy weights. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. 1. Drive the lower nail first. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. We procured a box and made a frame. Fig. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. 1 and the end in .) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. 2.

as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. This is an easy . more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. this makes the tube airtight. 5. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. 3. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. being softer where the flame has been applied. Pittsburg. A good way to handle this work. 4. Pa. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. and the glass. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. Close the other end with the same operation. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. This way has its drawbacks. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. and the result is.Fig. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg.

The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. After the bulb is formed. -Contributed by A. metal shears. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. 23 gauge. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. above the metal.way to make a thermometer tube. third. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. file. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. then reverse. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. also trace the decorative design. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. fifth. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. rivet punch. Oswald. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. fourth. very rapid progress can be made. thin screw. three. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. extra metal all around. with a piece of carbon paper. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. second. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Seventh. or six arms. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. Give the metal a circular motion. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. four. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. The candle holders may have two. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. flat and round-nosed pliers. Sixth.

Small copper rivets are used. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. Having pierced the bracket. drip cup. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Metal polish of any kind will do. and holder. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration.

This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. I steer with the front wheel. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. deep. and water 24 parts. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. using a steel pen. Soak 1 oz. and add the gelatine. winding the ends where they came together with wire. Fifty. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. thus it was utilized. and it will be ready for future use. and other things as they were needed. except they had wheels instead of runners. is a broomstick. The boom. when it will be ready for use. Twenty cents was all I spent. glycerine 4 parts. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. Mother let me have a sheet. J. sugar 1 part. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. Heat 6-1/2 oz. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. F. they were like an ice boat with a sail. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. smooth it down and then remove as before. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. and in a week . of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. alcohol 2 parts. on a water bath. Shiloh. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. all the rest I found. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. and brace and bit were the tools used. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. The gaff. the stick at the bottom of the sail. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. A saw. of glycerine to about 200 deg. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. hammer. N. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. if it has not absorbed too much ink.

Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. a projecting lens .Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.

Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. about 2 ft. describe a 9-in. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. at a distance of 24 ft. 3. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. long. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. H. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. wide. at a point 1 in. or a lens of 12-in. A and B. and the work carefully done.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. 1. as desired. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. wire brads. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. This ring is made up from two rings. are . E. Fig. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. or glue. slide to about 6 ft. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. well seasoned pine. but if such a box is not found. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. The board is centered both ways. and the lens slide. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws.. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. high. G. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. The slide support. A table. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. 1/2 to 3/4 in. If a small saw is used. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. focus enlarging a 3-in. and 14 in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. provided the material is of metal. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. and a projecting lens 2 in. wide and 15 in. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. DD. and. 8 in. above the center. thick. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light.

All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. St. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. of safe. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. To reach the water. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. and when the right position is found for each.-Contributed by G. apply two coats of shellac varnish. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. A sheet . Paul. The arrangement is quite safe as. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. Small strips of tin. the water at once extinguishes the flame. the strips II serving as guides. P. should the glass happen to upset. placed on the water. JJ.constructed to slip easily on the table. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. light burning oil. but not long enough. E. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. B. Minn. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil.

Y. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 2. I ordered a canvas bag. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. from a tent company. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. N. Fig. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. Schenectady. Fig. to cover the mattresses.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 3. 4. 9 in.H. by 12 ft.. 1. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. If one of these clips is not at hand. 3. then the corners on one end are doubled over. 3 in. --Contributed by J. Crawford. form a piece of wire in the same shape. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . 12 ft.

3/4 in. first mark the binding-post A. long. Warren. to the coil of small wire for volts. as shown in Fig. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. insulating them from the case with cardboard. 3/4 in. wide. for amperes and the other post. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. and insert two binding-posts. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. 1/2 in. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. To calibrate the instrument. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. Do not use too strong a rubber. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. Teasdale. Fold two strips of light cardboard. --Contributed by Walter W. thick. A Film Washing Trough [331] . Fig. so as to form two oblong boxes. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. open on the edges. 1. in the center coil. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. holes in the edge. D. 1/2 in. long and 3/16 in. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. 1.each edge. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. Colo. 2. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. A rubber band. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. C. Denver. An arc is cut in the paper. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. 3 to swing freely on the tack. through which the indicator works. --Contributed by Edward M. Fasten the wire with gummed label. Attach a piece of steel rod. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. 2. Fig. apart. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. 2. Pa. to keep it from unwinding. V. White. drill two 3/16 in.

Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Cut a 1/4-in. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Hunting. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Wood Burning [331] . as shown. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Dayton. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. M. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. O. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Place this can on one end of the trough. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. --Contributed by M. with the large hole up. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width.

a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. then into this bottle place. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. mouth downward.

Upper Troy. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. --Contributed by John Shahan. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. wide and 4 in. If the small bottle used is opaque. Ala. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. as shown in the sketch. but not very thick. long. provided the bottle is wide. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. many puzzling effects may be obtained. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. 3/4 in. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. 1. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. thick. This will make a very pretty ornament. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. Auburn. N. --Contributed by Fred W.Y. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . If the cork is adjusted properly. Whitehouse. Place the small bottle in as before. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. 2. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in.

even in a light breeze. which was nailed to the face plate. 1. or ordinary telephone transmitters. thick. sugar pine on account of its softness. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. iron rod. 3. Both bearings were made in this manner. G. I. by the method shown in Fig. pulley. On a 1000-ft. W. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. Fig. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. thick. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. Fig. --Contributed by D. If a transmitter is used. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. 4. 1 in. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. in diameter and 1 in. thick and 3 in. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. which was 6 in. wide. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. were constructed of 1-in. which extended to the ground. 1. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. The shaft C. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. K. high without the upper half. 2 ft. which gave considerable power for its size. 1. Fig. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. was 1/4in. The wire L was put . B. 1. was keyed to shaft C. Fig. pulley F. 2. The bearing blocks were 3 in. such as blades and pulleys. Milter. line.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. long. The 21/2-in. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. to the shaft. A staple. 1. Its smaller parts. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. Fig. as shown in Fig.

was 2 ft. strips. Fig. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. so that the 1/4-in. was tacked. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. 5. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. 1) 4 in. G. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. with all parts in place. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. The smaller one. long and 3 in. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. when the windmill needed oiling. long. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. The bed plate D. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. To lessen the friction here. The power was put to various uses. through the latter. in diameter. with brass headed furniture tacks. 25 ft. The other lid. To make the key. 1. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. Fig. This board was 12 in. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. 1. This completes the receiver or sounder. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. pine 18 by 12 in. and was cut the shape shown. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. Fig. 6. apart in the tower. long and bend it as . wide and 1 in. a 1/2-in. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. in the center of the board P. cut out another piece of tin (X. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. 1. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. long. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. There a 1/4-in. long and bend it as shown at A. R. 0. 6. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. 3 in. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. hole was bored for it. If you have no bell. for instance. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. as. H. Fig. providing one has a few old materials on hand. square to the board P at the top of the tower. top down also. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. across the thin edge of a board. Two washers were placed on shaft C. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. 1. This fan was made of 1/4-in. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Fig. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. washers were placed under pulley F. long and 1/2 in. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. Fig. Fig. 2. hole for the shaft G was in the center. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil.

When tired of this instrument. at the front. 1. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. like many another device boys make. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Before tacking it to the board. fitted with paddles as at M. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. although it can be made with but two. By adjusting the coils. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. The rear barrels are. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. causing a buzzing sound. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. using cleats to hold the board frame. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Going back to Fig. as shown at Water. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish.shown. leaving the other wire as it is. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. as indicated. McConnell. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. 2. -Contributed by John R. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Thus a center drive is made. Now. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. and.

The speed is slow at first. There is no danger. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. there will not be much friction. seat yourself on the bicycle seat.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. copper piping and brass tubing for base. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. which will give any amount of pleasure. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. 3. 1. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. as shown in Fig. can be built. To propel it. If the journals thus made are well oiled. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. or even a little houseboat. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. feet on the pedals.

On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. Shape small blocks of boxwood. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. 2. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. 1. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. Then melt out the rosin or lead.of pleasure for a little work. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. 1. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. or it may be put to other uses if desired. B. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. Fig. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. 1. If it is desired to make the light very complete. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. and so creating a false circuit. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. then the glass disc and then the other ring. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. Place one brass ring in cylinder. 2. Turn a small circle of wood. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . Fig. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. If magnifying glass cannot be had. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. C. D. 2. Fig. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. A. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. Fig. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder.

Brinkerhoff. by having the switch on the baseboard. near the bed. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. brass rod. S. dry batteries. C. To throw on light throw levers to the left. while lying in bed. some glue will secure them. 4-1/2 in. D. wire from batteries to switch. B. H. or 1/4in. copper tubing. To operate this. wire from light to switch. and pulled tight. contact post. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. Swissvale. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. J. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. 5-1/4 by 10 in. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. bell. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. wide and 1/16 in. Throw lever off from the right to center. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . --Contributed by Geo. When alarm goes off. brass strip. wire from bell to switch. Utah. F. I. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. G. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. C. switch.. E. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. 4 in. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. X. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. after setting alarm. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . --Contributed by C. such as is used for cycle valves. shelf. To get the cylinder into its carriage. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. Ogden. T. long. 3/8 in. set alarm key as shown in diagram. if too small. Chatland. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. after two turns have been made on the key. key of alarm clock. The parts indicated are as follows: A. thick. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock.india rubber tubing. bracket. In placing clock on shelf. which stops bell ringing. Pa. long.

making it as true and smooth as possible. 1. about 3-1/2 in. 1/4 in.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. which can be made of an old can. as at B. 4 in. as at A. in diameter. letting it extend 3/4 in. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. Lanesboro. gives the heater a more finished appearance. Pull out the nail and stick. Chapman. being careful not to get the sand in it. about 6 in. Make a shoulder. A flannel bag. in diameter. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. A small lamp of about 5 cp. This is to form the fuse hole. --Contributed by Chas. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. Fig. will do the heating. S. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. for instance. Minn. 2. Make the spindle as in Fig. Fig. 1. wide. from one end. Fig. place stick and all in a pail of sand. long. beyond the end of the spindle. as in Fig. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. Having finished this. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. a bed warmer. 2. as . and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. All that is required is a tin covering. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. 3. as at A. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of.

or hickory. 1 in. good straight-grained pine will do. wide and 3/8 in. will be sufficient to make the trigger. A piece of oak. thick. --Contributed by Arthur E. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. The illustration shows how this is done. long. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. 1. but if this wood cannot be procured. long. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling .well as making it more pleasant to the touch. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. 11/2 in. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. 5/8 in. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. this is to keep the edges from splitting. A piece of tin. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. spring and arrows. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. long. thick. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. wide and 6 ft. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. 6 in. The material must be 1-1/2 in. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. deep. thick. ash. Joerin. wide and 3 ft. 3/8 in.

wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. Ill. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. it lifts the spring up. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. Fig. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. Trownes. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. 9. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. place the arrow in the groove. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. and one for the trigger 12 in. 7. 2. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. To shoot the crossbow. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. or through the necessity of. as shown in Fig. When the trigger is pulled. A spring. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. as shown in Fig. The stick for the bow. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. 6. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. in diameter. Such a temporary safe light may be . having the latter swing quite freely. 3. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. To throw the arrow. wide at each end. from the end of the stock. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. Fig. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. from the opposite end. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. better still. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. thick. --Contributed by O. E. Fig. Wilmette. The trigger. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. 4. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. The bow is not fastened in the stock. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. 8. which is 1/4 in.

while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. Remove the bottom of the box. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. and replace as shown at B. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. respectively. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. This lamp is safe. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. The hinged cover E. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. from the ground. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. and nail it in position as shown at A. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. apart. it is the easiest camp to make. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. from the ground. making lighting and trimming convenient. says Photo Era. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. is used as a door. The cut should be about 5 ft. Moreover.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. or only as a camp on a short excursion. the bark lean-to is a . a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. make the frame of the wigwam. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. By chopping the trunk almost through. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. since the flame of the candle is above A. C. Remove one end. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided.

and cedar. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. Tongs are very useful in camp. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. Sheets of bark. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. deep and covered with blankets. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. will dry flat. a 2-in. 6 ft. nails are necessary to hold it in place. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. wide. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. selecting a site for a camp. make the best kind of a camp bed. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. thick. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. . The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. makes a good pair of tongs. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. A piece of elm or hickory. piled 2 or 3 ft. 3 ft. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. long. long and 2 or 3 ft. and split the tops with an ax. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. In the early summer. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. For a permanent camp. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. are a convenient size for camp construction. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. and when the camp is pitched. Where bark is used. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. long and 1-1/2 in. For a foot in the middle of the stick. spruce. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. wide and 6 ft. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed.

A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. and affording accommodation for several persons. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. hinges.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. . Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard.

about 4 in. 1. --Contributed by James M. Pa. Kane. B. the interior can. Fig. Doylestown. deep and 4 in. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. A. to another . B. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. I drove a small cork. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. changing the water both morning and night.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described.. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. and provide a cover or door. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. wide. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge.

E. if necessary. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. Fig. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. which project inside and outside of the tube. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. 2. 3. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. 4 and 5). shows how the connections to the supply current are made. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. fused into one side. The diagram. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. The current is thus compelled. limit. a liquid. This makes . care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. until. C. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. 2.glass tube. for instance. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. for instance. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. to pass through an increasing resistance. such as ether.

as shown in the left-hand sketch. The bearing studs are now made. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. in diameter. thick. brass or iron. bent at right angles as shown. therefore. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. mark off a space. drill the four rivet holes. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. If the thickness is sufficient. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. A. in diameter. or pattern. larger than the dimensions given. 2. 1. When the frame is finished so far. hole is . Then the field can be finished to these marks. or even 1/16 in. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. making it 1/16 in. Before removing the field from the lathe. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. to allow for finishing. After cleaning them with the solution. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. between centers. clamp the template. brass. as shown in Fig. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. assemble and rivet them solidly. Fig. After the template is marked out. 3-3/8 in. set at 1/8 in. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. when several pieces are placed together.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. These holes are for the bearing studs. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. which will make it uniform in size. but merely discolored. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. tap. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. 3-3/8 in. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. thicker. two holes. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. on a lathe. 4-1/2 in. which may be of any thickness so that. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. cannot be used so often. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. Fig. Alpena. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. is composed of wrought sheet iron. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. A 5/8in. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. 3. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. by turning the lathe with the hand. thick. screws. they will make a frame 3/4 in. and for the outside of the frame. Michigan.

Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. Fig. 4. is turned up from machine steel. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. or otherwise finished. The shaft of the armature. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. soldered into place. solder them to the supports. and build up the solder well.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. brass rod is inserted. When the bearings are located. file them out to make the proper adjustment. into which a piece of 5/8-in. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field.

in diameter and fit in a brass spider. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. The pins are made of brass. threaded. as shown in Fig. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. Rivet them together. 6. 3/4 in. 5. by 1-1/2 in. thick and 1/4 in. 1/8 in. holes through them for rivets. then drill a 1/8-in. After they . The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. hole and tap it for a pin. inside diameter. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. 3. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. 3. and held with a setscrew. then allowing it to cool in the ashes.. Armature-Ring Core. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. as shown in Fig. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. washers. as shown in Fig. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. 7. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. 3/4 in. sheet fiber. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. as shown m Fig. thick. as shown in Fig. When this is accomplished. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. thick are cut like the pattern. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. wide. being formed for the ends. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. wide. Make the core 3/4 in. 8. thick. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. 6. Procure 12 strips of mica. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. as shown in Fig. After the pieces are cut out. The sides are also faced off and finished. When annealed. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. or segments. 1-1/8 in. Find the centers of each segment at one end. brass rod. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. 9. thick. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. deep and 7/16 in. to allow for finishing to size. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. and then they are soaked in warm water.

Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. of the end to protrude. Fig. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. or side. the two ends of the wire. they are glued to the core insulation. shown at A. The field is wound with No. The two ends are joined at B. which will take 50 ft. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. The winding is started at A. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. and wind on four layers. yet it shows a series of . When the glue is set. until the 12 slots are filled. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. In starting to wind. All connections should be securely soldered. The source of current is connected to the terminals. Run one end of the field wire. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. 8 in. sheet fiber. by bending the end around one of the projections. 5. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. This winding is for a series motor. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. To connect the wires. Fig.have dried. After one coil. long. of the wire. sheet fiber. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. being required. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. wide and 1 in. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. after the motor is on the stand. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. 6 in. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. 1. of No. 1. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. about 100 ft. and bring the end of the wire out at B. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. are soldered together. thick. shown at B.

The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. still more simply. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. A 1/2-in. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. or. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. is fastened to the metallic body. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. which serves as the ground wire. and one. one from each of the eight contacts. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. as in the case of a spiral. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. Nine wires run from the timer. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires.

The pointer end of the needle is painted black. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. long. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. circle. 45 deg. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. Covering these is a thin. Without this attachment.The Wind Vane. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. thus giving 16 different directions. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. board. It should be . The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. 6 in. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. of the dial.

will answer the purpose just as well. though a special knife. will be enough for the two sides. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. Cut 3-in. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. -Contributed by James L. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. Fill the box with any handy ballast. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. Y. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. high. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. or. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. called a chip carving knife. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. . The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. Before tacking the fourth side. Place the leather on some level. if not too high. thus making a universal joint. according to who is going to use it. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. making it heavy or light. however. and securely nail on the top of the box. Blackmer. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. To work these outlines. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. 14 by 18 in. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. long to give the best results. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find.about 6 ft. will be sufficient. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. also a piece of new carpet. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. is most satisfactory. N. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. Buffalo. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. and about 6 in. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. To make it.

fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Paste the silk plush to the inner side.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. An ordinary sewing-machine . Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. A good leather paste will be required.

Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. N. Y. away from it. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. rather than the smooth side. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. B. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. can be thrown away when no longer needed. Morse. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. and tie them together securely at the bottom. square and tying a piece of . Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting.will do if a good stout needle is used. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. Syracuse. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. a needle and some feathers. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. If a fire breaks out. temporary lameness. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. of water. or a hip that has been wrenched. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. as in cases of a sprained ankle. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. --Contributed by Katharine D. of common salt and 10 lb. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames.

The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. made up of four layers of No. high. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. G. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. cut to the length of the spool. is cut on the wood. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. which is the essential part of the instrument. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. N. --Contributed by John A. F. This not only keeps the rats out. thus helping the rats to enter. One end is removed entirely. and tacked it to the boards. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. the corners being wired. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. Wis. long. A. . This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. deep. wound on the head end. Hellwig. A small wooden or fiber end. and a coil of wire. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. Ashland. B. N. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. laying poisoned meat and meal. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. wide and 1/16 in. --Contributed by J. Gordon Dempsey. The diaphragm C. setting traps. commonly called tintype tin.. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. and the receiver is ready for use. letting it go at arm's length. as shown. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. but not sharp. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. board all around the bottom on the inside. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind.string to each corner. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. The end is filed to an edge. 1/8 in. E. Paterson. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. The strings should be about 15 in.J. Y. long. There is a 1-in. Albany. etc. The body of the receiver. The coil is 1 in. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in.

care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. better still. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. gold. and bend each strip in shape. Take a piece of string or. The vase is to have three supports. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. to . The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. a piece of small wire. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. A single line will be sufficient. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. To clean small articles. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. begin with the smallest scrolls. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. wide. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase.

Work down the outside line of the design. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. . 3-1/4 in. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. from E to F. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. Trace also the line around the purse. wide when stitching up the purse. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. Press or model down the leather all around the design. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. from the lines EF on the piece. as shown in the sketch. through which to slip the fly AGH.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. 6-3/8 in. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. using a duller point of the tool. Fold the leather on the line EF. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. 3-1/2 in. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. 4-1/4 in.which the supports are fastened with rivets.. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. from C to D. and does not require coloring. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily.. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. After taking off the pattern. sharp pencil. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. About 1 in. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. thus raising it.

and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. b. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. with pins or small nails. with a compass saw. and a model for speed and power. by 12 ft.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. as well as useful. First. long. and. leaving the lug a. Make the lug 1/4 in. square. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. and cut it out as shown in Fig. deep. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. 1. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. as shown in Fig. Fit this to the two . around the wheel. When it is finished. with the open side down. with the largest side down. It can be made without the use of a lathe. being cast in wooden molds. and the projections B. It is neat and efficient. deep. 1/2 in. and which will be very interesting. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. following the dotted lines. then nail it.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. 2. then place the square piece out of which Fig. thick. This also should be slightly beveled. the "open" side. and cut out a wheel. Then nail the wheel down firmly. Now take another piece of wood. 1 was cut. 3. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. and tack the other piece slightly. all the way around. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. Cut off six pieces 12 in.

with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. hole 1/4 in. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. Now take another of the 12-in. and bore six 1/4-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. square pieces of wood. slightly beveled. one of which should have a 3/8-in. and boring a 3/8-in. hole bored through its center. Now put mold No. square pieces of wood. hole entirely through at the same place. and lay it away to dry. and cut it out as shown in Fig. place it between two of the 12-in. deep. in the center of it. as shown by the .pieces just finished. bolts. 4. and clean all the shavings out of it. After it is finished. then bolt it together. 1. Take the mold apart.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. holes through it.

and lay it away to dry. After it is fitted in. and pouring metal in to fill it up. lay it on a level place. Now take mold No. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. see that the bolts are all tight. so that it will turn easily. A piece of mild steel 5 in. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. and bore three 1/4-in. Commencing 1-1/2 in. Then bolt the castings together. and run in babbitt metal again. Put this together in mold No. the other right-handed.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. over the defective part. instead of the right-handed piece. drill in it. Let it stand for half an hour. Pour metal into mold No. d. 4. in diameter must now be obtained. This will cast a paddle-wheel. one in the lug. and pour babbitt metal into it. 5. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. one in the projections. b. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. 1. as shown by the black dots in Fig. place it under the drill.2. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. and the other in the base. and the exhaust hole in projection b. wide and 16 in.2. B. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. place the entire machine in a vise. from the one end. and two 1/4-in. and 3/8-in.1. put the top of the brace through this hole. long. as shown in illustration. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. 6. and drill it entirely through. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. until it is full. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. holes. and drill them in the same manner.black dots in Fig. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. screw down. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. Fig. where the casting did not fill out. long.1. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. holes at d. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. This is mold No. This is the same as Fig. and connect to the boiler. This is for a shaft. fasten a 3/8-in. 6. Now cut out one of the 12-in. only the one is left-handed. true it up with a square. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. take an ordinary brace. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. Using the Brace .

will do good service. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. and. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. with a boss and a set screw. while it is running at full speed. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. turn the wheel to the shape desired. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. long. one 6 ft. At each end of the 6ft. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Then take a knife or a chisel. Plan of Ice Boat . Your turbine engine is now ready for work. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. and the other 8 ft.. piece and at right angles to it.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal.

Run the seam on a machine. Over the middle of the 6-ft. This fits in the square hole. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. plank. as the runners were fastened. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. tapering to 1-1/2 in. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. in diameter. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. distant. in diameter in the center. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. where they often did considerable damage. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. at the butt and 1 in. long. 2 by 3 in. 8 a reef point knot. Make your runners as long as possible. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. in front of the rudder block. long and 2-1/2 in. at the end. leaving 1 ft. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. piece and at right angles to it. 1. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. Fig. 3. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. and about 8 in. should be of hardwood. so much the better will be your boat. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the c