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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. --Contributed by J. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. 1. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. E. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. Ontario. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. 2. It is held in this curve until dry. until it is bound as shown in Fig. Fig. with the hollow side away from you. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. distant. away. 2 -. 2. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. To throw a boomerang. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. Noble. 1. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. After the piece is thoroughly dried out.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. wide and 2 ft. as shown in Fig. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. The pieces are then dressed round. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw.Fig. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. as shown in Fig. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. 1. long will make six boomerangs. apart. A piece of plank 12 in. Toronto. grasp it and hold the same as a club. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply.

and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. forcing it down closely. which makes the building simpler and easier. thick. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. A wall. A very light. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. blocks . The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. the block will drop out. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. high and 4 or 5 in. or rather no bottom at all. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. but about 12 in. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. First. and it may be necessary to use a little water. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. one inside of the circle and the other outside. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. minus the top. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. and with a movable bottom. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. long. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. made of 6-in. dry snow will not pack easily. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. however. If the snow is of the right consistency. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. it is not essential to the support of the walls. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. 6 in.

D. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. 1. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. The piece of wood. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. A nail. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. --Contributed by Geo. wide.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. which can be made of wood. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. 3 -. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. which is about 1 ft. It also keeps them out. Fig. and the young architect can imitate them. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. Union. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. 3. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. long and 1 in. Ore. above the ground. a. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. There is no outward thrust. is 6 or 8 in. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. C. 2. 2. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. Fig. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. Fig. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. 1. Goodbrod. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. or an old safe dial will do.

as the weight always draws them back to place. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. Syracuse. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. says the Sphinx. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. S.When taking hot dishes from the stove. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. Merrill. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. the box locked . I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. --Contributed by R. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. one pair of special hinges. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. If ordinary butts are used. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. New York.

If they do not.and the performer steps out in view. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. All . and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. 2. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. smooth surface. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. Ga. 1. about 1-32 of an inch. If the measuring has been done properly. When the sieve is shaken. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. as shown in Fig. Fig. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. draw one-half of it. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. -Contributed by L. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. With the metal shears. allowing each coat time to dry. Augusta. one for each corner. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. as shown in Fig. Alberta Norrell. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. To make a design similar to the one shown. Place the piece in a vise. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. 3. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. on drawing paper. as shown. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. It remains to bend the flaps. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. proceed as follows: First.

smooth it off with pumice stone and water. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. long. C. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. Galbreath. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. To keep the metal from tarnishing. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. which is about 6 in. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. R. as shown at AA. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. A resistance. A piece of porcelain tube. in passing through the lamp. of No. H. --Contributed by R. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. The common cork. The current. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No.the edges should be left smooth. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. 25 German-silver wire. heats the strip of German-silver wire. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. used for insulation. Denver. After this has dried. When the current is turned off. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . B. 25 gauge German-silver wire. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. in diameter. In boring through rubber corks. and in the positions shown in the sketch. Colo. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. is fitted tightly in the third hole. causing it to expand. from the back end. If a touch of color is desired. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. if rolled under the shoe sole. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. should be in the line. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. about 6 in.

Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Kansas City. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Mo.bottom ring. Purchase two long book straps. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. with thin strips of wood. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. --Contributed by David Brown. leaving a space of 4 in. as shown in Fig. 3. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. between them as shown in Fig. . 1. Fig. 2. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked.

36 in. and a pocket battery. just the right weight for a woman to use. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. as . --Contributed by Katharine D. A. Fig. --Contributed by James M. The string is then tied. The folds are made over the string. Morse. having a gong 2-1/2 in. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. C. Y. long. in diameter. and one weighing 25 lb. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. 1. Fig. 4. 2. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Kane.. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. Doylestown. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. to form a handle. When the aeroplane tips. one weighing 15 lb. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. 1. 1. which is the right weight for family use. These are shown in Fig. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom.An ordinary electric bell. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. and tack smoothly. 3. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. Pa. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. N. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. are mounted on the outside of the box.. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. Syracuse. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. Fig. Two strips of brass. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes.

Frame Made of a Rod . Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. 1. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. 3/32 or 1/4 in. The saw. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. 2. N. two 1/8 -in. long. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. if once used. AA. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. in diameter. bent as shown in Fig. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. Y. four washers and four square nuts. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. Floral Park. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. Day. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. --Contributed by Louis J. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. and many fancy knick-knacks.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. machine screws. such as brackets. 2.

An Austrian Top [12] . File these edges. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. be covered the same as the back. 1 part sulphuric acid. allowing each time to dry. using a swab and an old stiff brush. as well as brass and copper. after breaking up. of course. as well as the depth of etching desired. Silver is the most desirable but. of water in which dissolve. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. Michigan. --Contributed by W. though almost any color may be obtained. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Drying will cause this to change to purple. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. 1 part nitric acid. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. it has the correct strength.may be made of either brass. Of the leathers. Scranton. If it colors the metal red. the most expensive. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. For etching. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. of water. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Detroit. The buckle is to be purchased. or silver. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid.. therefore. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. A. In the design shown. copper. Apply two coats. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. treat it with color. if copper or brass. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. Watch Fob For coloring silver. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Rub off the highlights. use them in place of the outside nuts. green and browns are the most popular. With carbon paper trace these on the metal.

F. A 1/16-in. 3/4 in. A handle. Tholl. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. in diameter. set the top in the 3/4 -in. allowing only 1-1/4 in. When the shank is covered. thick. wide and 3/4 in. 5-1/4 in. long. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. The handle is a piece of pine. is formed on one end. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. hole in this end for the top. Bore a 3/4-in. long. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. pass one end through the 1/16-in. .All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. hole. Parts of the Top To spin the top. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. --Contributed by J. starting at the bottom and winding upward. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. 1-1/4 in. Michigan. Ypsilanti.

Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. tarts or similar pastry. For black leathers. --A. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Houghton. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Mich. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Alberta Norrell. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. The baking surface. Northville. . Augusta. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. --Contributed by Miss L. having no sides. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. A. Ga.

the eyes forming bearings for the wire. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. two turns will remove the jar. When you desire to work by white light. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. the same as shown in the illustration. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Centralia. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. then solder cover and socket together. says Studio Light. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. glass fruit jar. Stringing Wires [13] A. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. Mo.

so it can be folded up. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. Janesville. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. Wis. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. and not tip over. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. square by 62 in. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. 16 Horizontal bars. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. as shown in the cross-section sketch. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. They are fastened. 4 Braces. . The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. square by 12 in. 1-1/4 in. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. 1-1/4 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. 4 Vertical pieces.for loading and development. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes.

The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. Rosenthal. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. -Contributed by Charles Stem. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. Phillipsburg. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. O. If the loop is tied at the proper place. After rounding the ends of the studs. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. C. The front can be covered . --Contributed by Dr. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. New York. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. and a loop made in the end. The whole. after filling the pail with water. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. H.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. Cincinnati. from scrap material. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction.

with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. The . sickly one. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. Wehr. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. FIG. By using the following method. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. either for contact printing or enlargements. if you try to tone them afterward. The results will be poor. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. the color will be an undesirable. 1 FIG. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. by all rules of the game. Md. principally mayonnaise dressing. Develop them into strong prints. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. you are. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. thoroughly fix. Baltimore. the mouth of which rests against a. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. and. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. In my own practice. --Contributed by Gilbert A. If the gate is raised slightly. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints.

.. Cal.. San Francisco... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper... Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. 5 by 15 in. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. Iodide of potassium . this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. With a little practice.. preferably the colored kind. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.. --Contributed by T. in size. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.. long to admit the angle support. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.. Water .. A good final washing completes the process... 1 and again as in Fig.... as it will appear clean much longer than the white. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. but...... as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away... 16 oz...... The blotting paper can . transfer it to a tray of water... etc. 20 gr....... Place the dry print. without previous wetting. when it starts to bleach... in this solution.. 2.... 2 oz. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder." Cyanide of potassium .. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. When the desired reduction has taken place. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished... A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. where it will continue to bleach.. Gray...... wide and 4 in. L. three times... The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes.... to make it 5 by 5 in... It will bleach slowly and evenly.

and a length of 5 in. Make a design similar to that shown.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Corners complete are shown in Fig. wide. --Contributed by J. the shaft 1 in. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No.J. wide below the . Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Oshkosh. --Contributed by L. the head of which is 2 in. Canada. Wisconsin. 3. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Wilson Aldred Toronto. 20 gauge. Monahan. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. having a width of 2-1/4 in. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use.

After this has dried. Apply with a small brush. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. freehand. Allow this to dry. 1 part sulphuric acid. deep. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. Trace the design on the metal. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. 3. 1 part nitric acid. then trace the other half in the usual way. With the metal shears. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work.FIG. after folding along the center line. For coloring olive green. then coloring. using carbon paper. The metal must be held firmly. using turpentine. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. Fig. With files. Pierce a hole with a small drill. as shown in Fig. Make one-half of the design. 4. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. being held perpendicular to the work. . Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. 1 Fig. After the sawing. 2. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. then put on a second coat. 1. which gives the outline of the design Fig. but use a swab on a stick. Do not put the hands in the solution. using a small metal saw.

Carl Cramer. Burnett. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Morse. on a chopping board. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. After the stain has dried. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. attach brass handles. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. M. as shown. --Contributed by H. --Contributed by M. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. thick. Syracuse. . The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. Cal. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. Conn. then stain it a mahogany color. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. it does the work rapidly. East Hartford. When this is cold. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. New York. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. Ii is an ordinary staple. Richmond. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. --Contributed by Katharine D.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood.

1/4 in. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. . square. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. as shown in Fig. and several 1/8-in. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. --Contributed by W. as shown at A. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. Florida. Fig. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work.. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. not over 1/4 in. thick. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. holes. thick and 4 in. indicating the depth of the slots. --Contributed by Mrs. A.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. saucers or pans. H. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. one shaft. L. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. also locate the drill holes. Cal. brass. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. in width at the shank. or tin. Kissimmee. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. some pieces of brass. two enameled. 53 steel pens. WARNECKE Procure some brass. Atwell. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. Richmond. about 3/16 in. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. 1. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. 4. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. machine screws. Jaquythe.

The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. 6. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. into the hole. 2. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. 2. with the face of the disk. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. 7. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. thick. hole is drilled to run off the water. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. There should be a space of 1/16 in. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. as shown in Fig. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. as shown. hole. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. 3. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. long by 3/4 in. These are connected to a 3/8-in. wide and bend as shown in Fig. 5.. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. as in Fig. with a 3/8-in. and pins inserted. in diameter and 1/32 in. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. a square shaft used. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. about 1/32 in. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. The shaft hole may also be filed square. A 3/4-in. can be procured. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. Bend as shown in Fig. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. machine screws and nuts. If the shaft is square. brass and bolted to the casing. Fig. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. long and 5/16 in. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. supply pipe. wide. thick. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. 3. machine screws. 1. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. lead should be run into the segments. each about 1 in. Fig. Fig. If metal dishes. hole in the center. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. using two nuts on each screw.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. with 1/8-in. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig.

Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. long. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Now you will have the box in two pieces. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. screws. Be sure to have the cover. from the top of the box. V. or more in diameter. high and 15 in. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. from the bottom end of the legs. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. Smith. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. The lower part.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. --Contributed by S. --Contributed by F. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. square and 30-1/2 in. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. make these seams come between the two back legs. Cooke. Canada. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. to make the bottom. La Salle. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. When assembling. deep over all. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. we will call the basket. With a string or tape measure. 8-1/2 in. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Hamilton. deep and 1-1/4 in. Stain the wood before putting in the . Fasten with 3/4-in. The four legs are each 3/4-in. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. three of which are in the basket. Ill. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. using four to each leg. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in.

and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. Sew on to the covered cardboards. sewing on the back side. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. The side. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. Mass. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. 1. -Contributed by Stanley H. as shown in the sketch. When making the display. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. you can. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. wide. Md. Boston. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. and gather it at that point. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes.lining. The folded part in the center is pasted together.2 Fig. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. wide and four strips 10 in. Baltimore.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Packard. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Cover them with the cretonne. If all the parts are well sandpapered. Fig. --also the lower edge when necessary. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. 2. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper.

Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. and. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Orlando Taylor. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. It is cleanly. 3. When through using the pad. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. with slight modifications. saving all the solid part. Fig. Y. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Cross Timbers. N. --Contributed by H. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Gloversville. Mo. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Crockett. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. L. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. It is not difficult to . --Contributed by B.

--Contributed by Edith E. it should be new and sharp. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. Bourne. Texas. S. -Contributed by C. After stirring. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. El Paso. remove the contents. If a file is used. and secure it in place with glue or paste. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. are shown in the diagram. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. across the face. or if desired. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Mass. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Lowell. Both of these methods are wasteful. After this is done. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. Lane. and scrape out the rough parts. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters.

air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Oak Park. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. A Postcard Rack [25]. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. After several hours' drying. Canton. The process works well and needs no watching.cooking utensil. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Wheeler. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. Greenleaf. Oregon. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Des Moines. Turl. Those having houses . circled over the funnel and disappeared. The insects came to the light. As these were single-faced disk records. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. F. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Ill. --Contributed by Marion P. Iowa. Ill. --Contributed by Geo. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. --Contributed by Loren Ward.

material. Only three pieces are required. but for cheapness 3/4 in. thick. the best material to use being matched boards. Dobbins. Both sides can be put together in this way. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. Rosenberg. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. and as they are simple in design. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond.. the height to the eaves being 6 ft.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. not even with the boards themselves. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. plane and pocket knife. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. --Contributed by Wm. Lay the floor next.. and both exactly alike. Glenbrook. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. 6 in. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. --Contributed by Thomas E. and the second one for the developing bench. The single boards can then be fixed. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. boards are preferable. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. 6 in. Worcester. Conn. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. Mass. the bottom being 3/8 in. one on each side of what will be the . will do as well. by 2 ft. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces.

9 by 11 in. 7. 6. and an arrangement of slats (Fig.. 11. Fig. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. brown wrapping paper. the closing side as at B. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. so that the water will drain off into the sink. 8. 10). The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. of the top of the door for the same reason. as shown in Figs. and to the outside board of the sides. so that it will fit inside the sink. is cut. In hinging the door. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. At the top of the doorway. 9). It is shown in detail in Fig. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. which is fixed on as shown . This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. nailing them to each other at the ridge. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. by screwing to the floor. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. and the top as at C in the same drawing. etc. 5.doorway. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. below which is fixed the sink. The developing bench is 18 in. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. and should be zinc lined. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. 6. The roof boards may next be put on. and act as a trap for the light.. 6 and 9. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. and in the middle an opening. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room.. 2 in section. 3 and 4. hinged to it. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. wide. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close.

Details of the Dark Rook .

potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . 15. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. 17. are fastened in the corners inside. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. and a 3/8-in. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. 14. Fig. though this is hardly advisable. as at I. preferably maple or ash. Fig. it is better than anything on the market. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. mixing flour and water. four coats at first is not too many. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. The house will be much strengthened if strips. Pennsylvania. as shown in Fig. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. after lining with brown paper. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. 6. 1. 18. In use. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. For beating up an egg in a glass.in Fig. but not the red glass and frame. which makes it possible to have white light. as at M. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. screwing them each way into the boards. if desired. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. 2. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. 16. --Contributed by W. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. A circular piece about 2 in. 16. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. as shown in the sections. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. and a tank stand on it. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. Erie. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. Fig. 13. these being shown in Fig. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. 19. or the room may be made with a flat roof. The handle should be at least 12 in. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. 13. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. as in Fig. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. or red light as at K. hole bored in the center for a handle. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. Fig. 20. Karl Hilbrich.

Kansas City. To operate. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Schweiger. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Eureka Springs. --Contributed by Wm. which. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . when put together properly is a puzzle. -Contributed by E.copper should be. Ark. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. D. L. Yonkers. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. --Contributed by L. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. for a handle. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. New York. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. long. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. G. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Smith. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. about 3/8 in. Mo. Mitchell.

3. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. 1. need them. for the moment. especially for filling-in purposes. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. which binds them together. Each cork is cut as in Fig. 3. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. the box will require a greater height in front. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. as shown in Fig. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. in order to thoroughly preserve it. as well as improve its appearance. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. as is usually the case. Having completed the bare box. The corks in use are shown in Fig. If the sill is inclined. the rustic work should be varnished. to make it set level. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. as shown in Fig. The design shown in Fig. holes should be drilled in the bottom. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. . After the box is trimmed. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. 2. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. A number of 1/2-in. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads.

it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. 2. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. Each long projection represents a leg. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. When the corn is gone cucumbers. But I have solved the difficulty. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. to hold the coil on the bottom plate.. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. drilled at right angles. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. it's easy. too dangerous. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. 4. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. F. cabbages. etc. 3. as shown in Fig. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. 1. being partly eaten into. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. can't use poison. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. and observe results. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. life in the summer time is a vexation. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. share the same fate. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. . Traps do no good. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig.

by trial. -. and made up and kept in large bottles. cut in 1/2-in. The solution can be used over and over again. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. If. cut some of it off and try again. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. Iowa. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. strips. the coil does not heat sufficiently. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. . of No. long. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. About 9-1/2 ft.

A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. Morse. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. --Contributed by James M. hot-water pot. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Stir and mix thoroughly. N. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Pa. as shown in the sketch. of gasoline. Doylestown. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. D. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. In cleaning silver. Syracuse. Kane.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. but with unsatisfactory results. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Fig 2. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. is a good size--in this compound. 1) removed. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. . Dallas. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. C. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. and a strip. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. of whiting and 1/2 oz. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. forks. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Y. Do not wash them. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. to cause the door to swing shut. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. --Contributed by Katharine D. coffee pot. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. Texas. of oleic acid with 1 gal. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. Knives. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. it falls to stop G.

They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Waverly. Fisher. of course. La. --Contributed by Theodore L. --Contributed by Oliver S. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. New Orleans. using the paper dry. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Ill. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Sprout. Pa. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. which is. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Harrisburg. but unfixed. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. later fixed and washed as usual. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. negatives. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. .

If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. To obviate this difficulty. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. The harmonograph. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. In this uncertainty lies the charm. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. metal. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. a harmonograph is a good prescription. 1. then . Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. No two hamonograms are exactly alike.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. Fig. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings.

Holes up to 3 in. as shown in the lower part of Fig. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. to prevent any side motion. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. Another weight of about 10 lb. or the lines will overlap and blur. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. Punch a hole. J. such as a shoe buttoner. with a nail set or punch. R. etc. 1. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. is attached as shown at H. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. 1. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. K. Chicago.. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. A length of 7 ft. 1-3/4 by 2 in. Arizona. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. of about 30 or 40 lb. ceiling. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. in diameter. A small weight. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. provides a means of support for the stylus. and unless the shorter pendulum is. A weight. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. A small table or platform. one-fifth. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. A pedestal. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. Gaffney. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. --Contributed by James T. makes respectively 3.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. Rosemont. as long as the other. The length of the short pendulum H. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. as shown in Fig. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. Ingham. exactly one-third.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. for instance. that is. is about right for a 10-ft. --Contributed by Wm. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. one-fourth. in the center of the circle to be cut. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . G. what is most important. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum.. which can be regulated. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction.

distributing them over the whole card. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. dividing them into quarters.J. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. 5. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. one for the sender and one for the receiver. 1. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. Cape May City. Morey. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. then 3 as in Fig.J. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. Fig. and proceed as before. The two key cards are made alike. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. -Contributed by W. 3. Chicago. Fig. 4. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. a correspondent of . N. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. The capacity of the vise. Cruger. then put 2 at the top. and 4 as in Fig.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. --Contributed by J. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. 2. 6. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side.H. of course.

30 gr. Cut through the center. respectively. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. 1/4 in. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. To assemble. drill 15 holes. Alberta Norrell. 1/2 oz. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. remove the prints. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. long. Augusta. 6 gauge wires shown. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. acetic acid and 4 oz. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. of ferricyanide of potash. wood-screws.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. citrate of iron and ammonia. After preparing the base and uprights. After securing the tint desired. from the top and bottom. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. --Contributed by L. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. If constructed of the former. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. sheet of well made asbestos paper. Asbestos board is to be preferred. of the uprights. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. deep. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Ga. Wind the successive turns of . the portion of the base under the coil. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. says Popular Electricity. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. 22 gauge German-silver wire. of water. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. of 18-per-cent No.

Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. cut and dressed 1/2 in. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . Ampere. Y. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size.. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. Labels of some kind are needed. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. as they are usually thrown away when empty. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. 16 gauge copper wire. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. but these are not necessary. Small knobs may be added if desired. then fasten the upright in place. --Contributed by Frederick E. N. etc. square. 14 gauge. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. rivets. which.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. screws. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. if one is not a smoker. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. Ward.

tinner's acid. sandpaper or steel wool. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. lead. of glycerine to 16 oz. Wis. brass.. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. E and F. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. the pure muriatic acid should be used.14 oz. Jaquythe. G. being careful about the heat. California." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. B. it must be ground or filed to a point. --Contributed by W. If the soldering copper is an old one. Larson. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. The material can be of any wood. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. Copper. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. C. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. especially if a large tub is used. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. particularly so when the iron has once been used. of water. and one made of poplar finished black. galvanized iron. Ark. The parts are put together with dowel pins. and labeled "Poison. then to the joint to be soldered. S. and rub the point of the copper on it. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. Richmond. . Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. tin. as shown in the sketch. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. --Contributed by A. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. --C. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. a piece of solder. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. D. or has become corroded. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. Kenosha. Heat it until hot (not red hot). zinc. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. Eureka Springs. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. A. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. In soldering galvanized iron. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. This is considerable annoyance.

in diameter. which gives two bound volumes each year. however. N. Troy. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. a ring may be made from any metal. -Contributed by H. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. This completes the die. B. nut. The covers of the magazines are removed. The punch A. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. 7/8 in. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. thick and 1-1/4 in. The dimensions shown in Fig. wide. 1. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Y. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. Place the band. and drill out the threads. with good results. Apart from this. Take a 3/4-in. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. C. 2. in diameter. Fig. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. I bind my magazines at home evenings. The disk will come out pan shaped. round iron. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. D. Hankin. Six issues make a well proportioned book. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . Fig. Brass rings can be plated when finished. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. W. such as copper. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. brass and silver. This will leave a clear hole.

Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. allowing about 2 in. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. then back through the notch on the right side. 5. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. . These sections are each removed in turn from the others. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. 1. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No.4. on all edges except the back. of the ends extending on each side. C. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. 1/8 in. Start with the front of the book. and a third piece. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. and then to string No. using . and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. as shown in Fig. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. The covering should be cut out 1 in. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. 1 in Fig. Five cuts. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. Coarse white thread. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. The covering can be of cloth. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. through the notch on the left side of the string No. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. deep. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. 2. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. The sections are then prepared for sewing. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. 2. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. After drawing the thread tightly. 1.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. is nailed across the top. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. which is fastened the same as the first. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. If started with the January or the July issue. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. is used for the sewing material. size 16 or larger. threaded double. Place the cardboard covers on the book. The string No. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. and place them against the strings in the frame. 1.

How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. and mark around each one. Tinplate. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. For the blade an old talking-machine . Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. round iron. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. on which to hook the blade. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Nebr. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. Place the cover on the book in the right position. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. at opposite sides to each other. Cal. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. College View. and. Encanto. --Contributed by Clyde E. Divine. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back.

Miss. Make the blade 12 in. and 1/4 in. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. as shown. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. in order to drill the holes in the ends. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. as it is sometimes called. and file in the teeth.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. C. and another piece (B) 6 in. thick. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise.. thick. B. Then on the board put . at the same end. with 10 teeth to the inch. Ohio. by 1 in. Moorhead. Summitville. fuse hole at D. -Contributed by Willard J. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. by 4-1/2 in. A. Hays. E.. long. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). On the upper side. hydraulic pipe. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. and 1/4 in. F. and a long thread plug. bore. with a steel sleeve. or double extra heavy. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in.

Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. of rubber-covered wire. high around this apparatus. as from batteries. Connect up as shown. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. If you are going to use a current of low tension. --Contributed by Chas. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. 4 jars. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. of wire to each coil. some sheet copper or brass for plates. A lid may be added if desired. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. H. the jars need not be very large. and some No. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. using about 8 in.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Philadelphia. about 5 ft. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Boyd. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch.

are important. B. For the brass trimmings use No. The illustration shows how to shape it. Put arm of switch on point No. B and C. 16-1/2 in.the way. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. 1 is connected to point No. 5 on switch. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. with the cushion about 15 in. 2. square by 14 ft. . 3 and No. on No. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. beginning at the rear. 4) of 3/4-in. by 1-1/4 in.. 2. oak boards. wide by 3/4 in. No. A 3/4-in. thick. 27 B. apart. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. long. direct to wire across jars. long. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. 7 in. by 1-1/4 in. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. by 6 in. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. Construct the auto front (Fig. by 5 in. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. In proportioning them the points A. The current then will flow through the motor. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. long. Use no screws on the running surface. as they "snatch" the ice. & S. First sandpaper all the wood. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. and four pieces 14 in... An iron washer. long by 22 in. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. For the front runners these measurements are: A. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. 1 on switch. by 5 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. B.. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. or source of current. C. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. At the front 24 or 26 in. A variation of 1/16 in. as they are not substantial enough. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. To wire the apparatus. Z. Equip block X with screw eyes. long. 4. wide and 2 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. and for the rear runners: A. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. two for each jar. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. and bolt through. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. however. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against.. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. The sled completed should be 15 ft. 4 in. above the ground. 2 is lower down than in No. 2. C. by 2 in. two pieces 14 in. wide and 3/4 in. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. by 2 in. 34 in. 2 in. 1. steel rod makes a good steering rod.. Use no nails. 2 and 3. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. On the door of the auto front put the . The stock required for them is oak. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. thick. The connection between point No. See Fig. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. 3 in. two pieces 34 in. The top disk in jar No. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. 30 in. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. wide. by 1 in. 1 and so on for No. Their size also depends on the voltage. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. then apply a coat of thin enamel. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. 11 in. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. making them clear those in the front runner.. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. gives full current and full speed. two pieces 30 in. and plane it on all edges. is used to reduce friction. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. 15-1/2 in. sheet brass 1 in. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. Fig. 3.

lunch. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. a number of boys may share in the ownership. fasten a cord through the loop. by 1/2 in. Fasten a horn. If the expense is greater than one can afford. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. may be stowed within. If desired. to improve the appearance. such as used on automobiles. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. long. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . If desired. such as burlap. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. The best way is to get some strong. brass plated. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. overshoes. Then get some upholstery buttons. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. parcels. which is somewhat moist. by 30 in.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. to the wheel. cheap material. cutting it out of sheet brass. a brake may be added to the sled. etc. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. or with these for $25. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates.

Lexington. . the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. --Contributed by Stewart H. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Ill. Leland.tree and bring.

A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. sheet metal. CD. some files. which. thick. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. outside diameter and 1/16 in. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. the cut will be central on the line. The straight-edge. Draw a circle on paper. E. FC. though more difficult. With no other tools than a hacksaw. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. so that the center of the blade. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. a compass. A small clearance space. the same diameter as the wheel. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. London. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. by drawing diameters. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. when flat against it. The Model Engineer. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. will be over the line FG. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. from F to G. Fig. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. First take the case of a small gearwheel.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. mild steel or iron. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. Fig. with twenty-four teeth. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . This guide should have a beveled edge. 1. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. The first tooth may now be cut. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. 4). made from 1/16-in. 2. 3. say 1 in. Fig.

2. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. or several pieces bound tightly together. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. each in the center. A bright. No shock will be perceptible. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. 1. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. either the pencils for arc lamps. transmitter. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. as shown in Fig. . ground it with a large piece of zinc. Then take one outlet wire. some wire and some carbons. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. as shown in Fig. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. hold in one hand. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. Focus the camera in the usual manner. electric lamp. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. If there is no faucet in the house. R. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. and the other outlet wire. 1. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. Make a hole in the other. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground.Four Photos on One Plate of them. B. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. as shown in Fig. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. B. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do.

36 wire around it. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. If desired. One like a loaf of bread. They have screw ends. of course. J. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. But in this experiment. one at the receiver can hear what is said. as shown. For a base use a pine board 10 in. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. Pa.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. and about that size. and again wind the wire around it. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Slattery. at each end for terminals. and will then burn the string C. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. --Contributed by Geo. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . or more of the latter has been used. Dry batteries are most convenient. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Emsworth. D D are binding posts for electric wires. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. as indicated by E E. a transmitter which induces no current is used. Ohio. serves admirably. Ashland. by 12 in. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. are also needed. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. B. Several battery cells. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Wrenn. Then set the whole core away to dry. under the gable. A is a wooden block. leaving about 10 in. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. by 1 in. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts.

as shown. Jr. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. until the hand points to zero on the scale. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. and switch. as shown. D. while C is open. At one side secure two receptacles. These should have hollow ends. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. Fig. B B. 14 wire. 12 or No. The oven is now ready to be connected. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. Ohio. B B. the terminal of the coil. C.wire. Turn on switch. and the lamps. The apparatus is now ready for operation. From the other set of binding-posts. 2. F. for the . Connect these three to switch. C. D. in parallel. First make a support.. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. in series with bindingpost. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. Place 16-cp. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. connecting lamp receptacles. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. and one single post switch. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. 1. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. Fig. run a No. Newark. E. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. The coil will commence to become warm. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter.

Fig. deep. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. Dussault. inside measurements. wide and 1-3/4 in. The box is 5-1/2 in. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. from the lower end.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. 4 in. After drilling. etc. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. until the scale is full. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. Fig. C. wind with plenty of No. a standard ammeter. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. 1. is then made and provided with a glass front. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. B. 7. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . This is slipped on the pivot. 2. drill through the entire case and valve. 5. 4 amperes. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. D. 3 amperes. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. 5. 6. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. as shown in the cut. If for 3-way. long. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. Fig. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. where A is the homemade ammeter. A wooden box. It is 1 in. This may be made of wood. although copper or steel will do. The pointer or hand.E. 14 wire. but if for a 4way. and D. 3. 10 turns to each layer. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. long. 36 magnet wire instead of No. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. To make one. thick. --Contributed by J. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities.. 1. drill a hole as shown at H. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. D. Fig. Mine is wound with two layers of No. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. is made of iron. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. Montreal. a variable resistance. E. to prevent it turning on the axle. 4. wide and 1/8 in.or 4-way valve or cock. is made of wire. drill in only to the opening already through. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. although brass is better. high. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. a battery. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. long and make a loop. remove the valve. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. The core. 14. 1/4 in. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. 1/2 in. At a point a little above the center.

When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. provided with a rubber stopper. F. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. B. To start the light. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. and the arc light. E. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. This stopper should be pierced. By connecting the motor. which is used for reducing the current. as shown. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. One wire runs to the switch. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. making two holes about 1/4 in. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. and the other connects with the water rheostat. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. A. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. and a metal rod. in diameter.performing electrical experiments. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. D. in thickness . turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. high.

add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Fig. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. where he is placed in an upright open . Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. If the interrupter does not work at first. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. 1. Having finished the interrupter. N. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. Fig. If all adjustments are correct. Carthage. as shown in C. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Turn on the current and press the button. B. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Harold L. To insert the lead plate.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. 1. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Y. As there shown. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. as shown in B. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. A piece of wood. 1. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. 2. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Fig. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. A. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. 2. Jones. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Fig. long.

This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. by 7-1/2 in. L and M. should be colored a dull black. which can be run by three dry cells. If it is desired to place the box lower down. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. dressed in brilliant.. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. giving a limp. The lights. especially the joints and background near A. and must be thoroughly cleansed. The skeleton is made of papier maché. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. A white shroud is thrown over his body. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. The model. The glass should be the clearest possible. should be miniature electric lamps. If everything is not black. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. Its edges should nowhere be visible. to aid the illusion. the illusion will be spoiled. loosejointed effect. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. and can be bought at Japanese stores. They need to give a fairly strong light. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. inside dimensions. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. All . with the exception of the glass. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. light-colored garments. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. by 7 in. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. could expect from a skeleton. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. is constructed as shown in the drawings. as the entire interior. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. figures and lights. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. within the limits of an ordinary room. from which the gong has been removed. and wave his arms up and down. A. high. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. until it is dark there. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. especially L.coffin. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view.

Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. Fry. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. placed about a foot apart.that is necessary is a two-point switch. --Contributed by Geo. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. W. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. after which it assumes its normal color. If a gradual transformation is desired. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. square block. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. as shown in the sketch. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. fat spark. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Two finishing nails were driven in. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. Cal. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. San Jose.

by small pieces of wood. to make it airtight. soldered in the top. This is a wide-mouth bottle. In Fig. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. One of these plates is connected to metal top. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. and should be separated about 1/8 in. into the receiver G. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. or a solution of sal soda. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. 1. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. If a lighted match . This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. Cohen. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. -Contributed by Dudley H. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. New York. In Fig. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. A (see sketch). The plates are separated 6 in. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. with two tubes. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. as shown. the remaining space will be filled with air.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. hydrogen gas is generated. B and C. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. F. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D.

by means of the clips. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. 36 insulated wire. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. London. N. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. A. from the bottom. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. long. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. and the ends of the tube. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. says the Model Engineer. is made by drilling a 1/8in. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. 1. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. A. 1-5/16 in. as is shown in the illustration. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. of No. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. C C. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. Fig. The distance between the nipple. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. A 1/64-in. A nipple. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. either by passing a current of electricity around it. Fig. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. A. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. which forms the vaporizing coil. N. then a suitable burner is necessary. or by direct contact with another magnet. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. is then coiled around the brass tube. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. A. P. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. B. long.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. should be only 5/16 of an inch. which is plugged up at both ends. 2 shows the end view. 1/2 in. If desired. A piece of 1/8-in. copper pipe. copper pipe. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. One row is drilled to come directly on top. in diameter and 6 in.

After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. about 8 or 10 in. boards and all. 3. 1/4 in. A disk of thin sheet-iron. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper.lamp cord. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. 2). larger all around than the book. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Cut four pieces of cardboard. smoothly. with a fine saw. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. taking care not to bend the iron. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. duck or linen. should be cut to the diameter of the can. Fig. at the front and back for fly leaves. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. Fig. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). 1. trim both ends and the front edge. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. fold and cut it 1 in. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. Fig. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. but if the paper knife cannot be used. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. longer and 1/4 in. cut to the size of the pages. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. Take two strips of stout cloth. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. leaving the folded edge uncut. Turn the book over and paste the other side. this makes a much nicer book. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board.

H. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. C. and a little can. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. without a head. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. of tank A is cut a hole. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. or rather the top now. is perforated with a number of holes. Va. Bedford City. the joint will be gas tight. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. . in diameter and 30 in. A gas cock. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. A. In the bottom. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. Parker. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Another tank. --Contributed by James E. as shown in the sketch. but its diameter is a little smaller. B. is turned on it. --Contributed by Joseph N. 4). A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. Ont. as shown. D. Toronto. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. which will just slip inside the little can. E. This will cause some air to be enclosed. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. is soldered onto tank A. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. deep. pasting them down (Fig. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. is fitted in it and soldered. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. Another can. Noble. 18 in. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. is made the same depth as B.

and the edges should be carefully hemmed. when finished. J. E. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. and sewed double to give extra strength. C. The armature. A A. The wiring diagram. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. B. B. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. thus adjusting the . of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. exactly 12 in. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. If the back armature. to prevent splitting. by 1/2 in. square by 42 in. and the four diagonal struts. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. fastened in the bottom. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. D. 2. Fig. N. Bott. as shown at C. which moves to either right or left. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. which may be either spruce. should be cut a little too long. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. D. The small guards. long. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. -Contributed by H. H is a square knot.. with an electric-bell magnet. should be 3/8 in. long. basswood or white pine. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. tacks. shows how the connections are to be made. and about 26 in. 1. B. The longitudinal corner spines. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. The diagonal struts. should be 1/4 in. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. If the pushbutton A is closed. are shown in detail at H and J. S. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. The bridle knots. making the width. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. Fig. Beverly. A.

Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. as shown. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. E. and. --Contributed by A. Closing either key will operate both sounders. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. can be made of a wooden . to prevent slipping. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. thus shortening G and lengthening F. Harbert. Kan. If the kite is used in a light wind. shift toward F.lengths of F and G. the batteries do not run down for a long time. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. A bowline knot should be tied at J. Stoddard. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. and if a strong wind is blowing. however. for producing electricity direct from heat. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. that refuse to slide easily. D. Clay Center. --Contributed by Edw. Chicago. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. with gratifying results. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery.

A. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. Fasten a piece of wood. and also holds the pieces of wood. When the cannon is loaded. Then. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. to the cannon. 14 or No. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. C. E. B. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. --Contributed by A. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. which conducts the current into the cannon. The wood screw. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . A. with a number of nails. Chicago. E. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. F. A. A and B. D. by means of machine screws or. or parallel with the compass needle. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. in position. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. 16 single-covered wire. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. spark. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. C. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire.frame. placed on top. C. if there are no trunnions on the cannon.. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. and the current may then be detected by means. with a pocket compass. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries.

Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. now at A' and S'. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. press the button. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown.the current is shut off. . The fulcrum of the lever is at C. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. screw is bored in the block. H. --Contributed by Joseph B. within the reach of the magnet. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. 1. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Fig. --Contributed by Henry Peck. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. to receive the screw in the center. Chicago. Ohio. L. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. A and S. 1. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. square and 3/8 in. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. with the long arm at L'. but no weights or strings. B. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. In Fig. A. in this position the door is locked. 1. A hole for a 1/2 in. Marion. Bend the strips BB (Fig. where there is a staple. Fig. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. Connect as shown in the illustration. To reverse. A and S. Big Rapids. requiring a strong magnet. when in position at A'. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Mich. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. Keil. To unlock the door. To lock the door.

but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. about 18 in. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. and may be made at very slight expense. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. long. hole. When the holes are finished and your lines set. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. J. --Contributed by C. pipe with 1-2-in. or for microscopic work. When ready for use. and if desired the handles may . Mass. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. Thread the other end of the pipe. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. The standard and base. and C is a dumbbell. put in the handle. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. gas-pipe. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. if enameled white on the concave side. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. are enameled a jet black. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. Rand. West Somerville.

. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . A. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. M. long and 8 in. Fig. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. high by 1 ft. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. Warren. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. 1.be covered with leather. This peculiar property is also found in ice. North Easton. Mass. which shall project at least 2 in. with a cover. across. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Make a cylindrical core of wood. B. 1. D. --Contributed by C. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. 8 in. Fig. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. across. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. as shown at A in the sketch. E. inside the pail. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end.

Procure a bundle of small iron wire. or make one yourself. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. 1). hotel china. and 3/8 in. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. 60%. say 1/4 in. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. the point of the blue flame. wider than the kiln. C. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. thick. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. as is shown in the sketch. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. pack this space-top. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. long. of fine wire. and your kiln is ready for business. The 2 in. and 3/4 in.-G. let this dry thoroughly. E. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. Whatever burner is used. in diameter. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. It is placed inside the kiln. Fig. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. This done. Set aside for a few days until well dried. C. When lighted. thick. and on it set the paper wrapped core. about 1 in. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. as dictated by fancy and expense. if there is to be any glazing done. pipe. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. passing wire nails through and clinching them. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. such . hard porcelain. Cover with paper and shellac as before. full length of iron core. but it will burn a great deal of gas. C. After finishing the core. If the cover of the pail has no rim. After removing all the paper. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. sand. in diameter. but will be cheaper in operation. L. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. 25%. 3) with false top and bottom. and graphite. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. projecting from each end (Fig. 1). using a little at a time and packing it very tight. diameter. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. W. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. and with especial caution the first time. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. if you have the materials. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. 1330°. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. Line the pail. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. strip of sheet iron. layer of the clay mixture. 2. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in.. 15%. 2 in. carefully centering it. long over the lid hole as a chimney. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. the firing should be gradual. and cut it 3-1/2 in.. which is the hottest part. pipe 2-ft. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. and varnish.. 1390°-1410°. cutting the hole a little smaller. make two wood ends. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. to hold the clay mixture.mixture of clay. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. bottom and sides. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. Fit all the parts together snugly. Wind about 1/8 in. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway.

and plane off about 1/16 in. procure a new deck. overlaps and rests on the body. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. length of .Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. --Contributed by J.53 in. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. B. Washington. and divide it into two piles. . and so on. as in Fig. 2. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. with a plane. 2). Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. Next restore all the cards to one pack. 2. C. diameter. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. about 1/16 in. Of course. all cards facing the same way. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. C. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. T. A. every alternate card being the same color. the next black. leaving long terminals. taking care to have the first card red. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. Chicago. square them up and place in a vise. D. You can display either color called for. around the coil. and discharges into the tube. as in Fig. Then take the black cards. The funnel. as shown in the sketch herewith. red and black. 8 in. square them up.. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. Then. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. Take the red cards. C. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. R. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. 1. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. bind tightly with black silk.

If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. and then the frame is ready to assemble. so that when they are assembled. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. thus making all the holes coincide. All the horizontal pieces. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. To find the fall of snow. Let . A. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. angle iron for the frame. When the glass is put in the frame a space. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. B.J. E. to form a dovetail joint as shown. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium.C. 1. stove bolts. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. through the holes already drilled. The upright pieces. It should be placed in an exposed location. B. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. the same ends will come together again. A. D. F. The cement. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. B. Long Branch. C. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. 1 gill of litharge. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. N. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. and this is inexpensive to build. E. stove bolts. Drill all the horizontal pieces. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. as the difficulties increase with the size. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. The bottom glass should be a good fit. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. Fig. of the frame. about 20 in. the first thing to decide on is the size. 1 gill of fine white sand. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in..

If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. and. A. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. Fig. on the door by means of a metal plate. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. D. to the door knob. if desired. having a swinging connection at C. a centerpiece (A. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet .Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. Fasten the lever. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. B. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. Aquarium Finished If desired. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish.

A small piece of spring brass. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. to keep the frame from spreading. 26 in. 1 is the motor with one side removed. Cut two pieces 30 in. from the outside top of the frame. Two short boards 1 in. 2 ft. another. 2 at GG. Y. F. thus doing away with the spring. PAUL S. soldered to the end of the cylinder. --Contributed by Orton E. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. will open the door about 1/2 in. showing the paddle-wheel in position. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. wide . Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. They are shown in Fig. I referred this question to my husband. long. another. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. Cut two of them 4 ft. and another. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. Fig. E. screwed to the door frame. according to the slant given C. Do not fasten these boards now. approximately 1 ft. Buffalo. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. C. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. 3 shows one of the paddles. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. for the top. D.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. hoping it may solve the same question for them. and Fig. several lengths of scantling 3 in. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. AA. to form the main supports of the frame. Fig. but mark their position on the frame. To make the frame. which is 15 in. 2 is an end view. Fig. N. White. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. as at E. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. Fig. Fig. with a water pressure of 70 lb. long. 1. 1 . 1.. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. Fig. 6 in. long. to form the slanting part. B. long. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. wide by 1 in.

take down the crosspieces. iron 3 by 4 in. hole through them. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. hole through its center. by 1-1/2 in. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. then drill a 3/16-in. remove the cardboard. 24 in. Fig. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. as shown in Fig. 2) and another 1 in. from one end by means of a key. (I. Take the side pieces. with the wheel and shaft in place. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Make this hole conical. after which drill a 5/8 in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. pipe. Drill 1/8-in. long to the wheel about 8 in. hole through their sides centrally. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Fig. GG. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. These are the paddles. holes.along the edges under the zinc to form . deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. hole from the tops to the 1-in. When it has cooled. to a full 1/2 in. 1. 4. tapering from 3/16 in. and drill a 1-in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Fasten them in their proper position. steel shaft 12 in. and a 1/4 -in. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. and drill a 1/8-in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in.burlap will do -. that is. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. Tack one side on. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. hole to form the bearings. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. 2) with a 5/8-in. iron. Now block the wheel. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Next secure a 5/8-in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. thick (HH. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. hole through the exact center of the wheel. Fig.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. thick. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. in diameter. 2) form a substantial base.

The best plate to use is a very slow one. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. Drill a hole through the zinc. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments.a water-tight joint. shutting out all light from above and the sides. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. Raise the window shade half way. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. Do not stop down the lens. Correct exposure depends. drill press. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. but as it would have cost several times as much. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. sewing machine. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. but now I put them in the machine. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. .) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. Darken the rest of the window. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. and as near to it as possible. as this makes long exposure necessary. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. and the subject may move. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. ice-cream freezer. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. on the lens. start the motor. remove any white curtains there may be. of course. light and the plate. as shown in the sketch at B. If sheet-iron is used. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. It is obvious that. If the bearings are now oiled. and leave them for an hour or so. says the Photographic Times. any window will do. or what is called a process plate. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. place the outlet over a drain. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. it would be more durable. Focus the camera carefully. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft.

The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. the core is drawn down out of sight. an empty pill bottle may be used. B. 2. 2. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. The glass tube may be a test tube. until the core slowly rises. and without fog. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. C. a core. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. as a slight current will answer. A.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. as shown in Fig. With a piece of black paper. or can be taken from an old magnet. or wood. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. without detail in the face. D. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. and a base. On completing . is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. or an empty developer tube. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. with binding posts as shown. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. hard rubber. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. which is made of iron and cork. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. The current required is very small. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. The core C. a glass tube. full of water. by twisting. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong.

1 pt. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. finest graphite. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. and make a pinhole in the center. and are changed by reversing the rotation.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. The colors appear different to different people. 1. 1 lb. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. whale oil. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. according to his control of the current. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. white lead. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. is Benham's color top. water and 3 oz. and one not easy to explain. This is a mysterious looking instrument. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt.

fan-like. In prize games. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. thus partly filling bottles A and C. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. when the action ceases. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. In making hydrogen. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. before cutting. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. or three spot. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. deuce. Chicago. -Contributed by D. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. C. and asks an observer to withdraw a card.L. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more.B. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. nearly every time. B. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. A. As this device is easily upset.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end.. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. especially if the deck is a new one. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken.

9 in. in length and 3 in. 2. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim.. Form a cone of heavy paper. Fig. . 12 in.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Detail of Phonograph Horn . S. Fig. W. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. --Contributed by C. in diameter. Detroit. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Make a 10-sided stick. as shown in Fig. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. 4. long. Jr. J. S. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. 10 in. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. Huron. (Fig. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. long and 3 in.. Dak. 3). How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. 1. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. --Contributed by F. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Bently.

--Contributed by Reader. long. on one side and the top. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. about the size of a leadpencil. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. A. it is equally easy to block that trick. E. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. with a pin driven in each end. Fortunately. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. Fig. Remove the form. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. C. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. making it three-ply thick. Denver. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. Cut out paper sections (Fig.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. A second piece of silk thread. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. allowing 1 in. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. push back the bolt. A piece of tin. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. and walk in. will cause an increased movement of C. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. but bends toward D. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. bend it at right angles throughout its length. 6.

Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . is connected each point to a battery. West St. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. S. S S. The upper switch. The reverse switch. Jr. will last for several years.. B. long. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base.. A. put together as shown in the sketch. posts. while the lower switch. are made 2 by 4 in. Fremont Hilscher. W. B. By this arrangement one. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. Two wood-base switches. Paul. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. and rest on a brick placed under each end. S. R. The 2 by 4-in. as shown. --Contributed by J. long. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. are 7 ft. The feet. Minn. or left to right. The reverse lever when moved from right to left.strip. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. 4 ft. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire.

either an old sewing-machine wheel. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. Fig. or anything available. and the crank bearing C. The base is made of wood. Fig. The valve motion is shown in Figs. The steam chest D. and in Fig. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. 2.every house. pulley wheel. and a cylindrical . The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. is an old bicycle pump. and has two wood blocks. with two washers. The hose E connects to the boiler. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. 1. FF. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. the other parts being used for the bearing B. In Fig. cut in half. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. which is made of tin. and valve crank S. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. E. thick. the size of the hole in the bearing B. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. H and K. 2 and 3. 3/8 in. The piston is made of a stove bolt. which will be described later.

to receive the connecting rod H. or galvanized iron. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. The boiler. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. is cut out of tin. 3. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. Fig. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. of Cuba. Fry. --Contributed by Geo. 1. as it is merely a trick of photography. San Jose. as shown in Fig. Cal. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. at that. G. using the positive wire as a pen. C. powder can. Fig. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. G. . The valve crank S. can be an old oil can. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. and a very amusing trick. This engine was built by W. Eustice. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. Wis. and saturated with thick oil. and the desired result is obtained. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. J. This is wound with soft string. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. W. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E.piece of hard wood. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. First. Schuh and A. 4.

as shown at AA. 1 by covering up Figs. Fig. C. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. and place a bell on the four ends. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. The smaller wheel. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. to cross in the center. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. When turning. 1 will be seen to rotate. Fig. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. They may be of any size. B. Cut half circles out of each stave.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. B. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. and Fig. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. and pass ropes around . as shown. diameter. Fig. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood.

as shown in the illustration. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. From a piece of thin .Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. such as clothes lines. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. from the transmitter. --Contributed by H. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter.. W. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. Louis. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. This in turn will act on the transmitter. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. produces a higher magnifying power). procure a wooden spool. A (a short spool. Mo. St. which allows the use of small sized ropes. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. which accounts for the sound. long. To make this lensless microscope.G. but not on all.M. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope.

The pivot. otherwise the image will be blurred. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. is fastened at each end by pins. Fig.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. place a small object on the transparent disk. the diameter will appear three times as large.. fastened to a wooden base. if the distance is reduced to one-third. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. darting across the field in every direction. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. and look through the hole D. E. (The area would appear 64 times as large. is made of iron. D. and at the center. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. An innocent-looking drop of water. A. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. B. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. held at arm's length.) But an object 3/4-in. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. Viewed through this microscope. The lever. which costs little or nothing to make. in which hay has been soaking for several days. 2. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. bent as shown. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. the diameter will appear twice as large. i. H. e. which are pieces of hard wood. To use this microscope. and so on. can be made of brass and the armature. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. . by means of brads. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. or 64 times. B. the object should be of a transparent nature. C. as in all microscopes of any power. 1. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. D. if the distance is reduced to one-half. The spring. 3.. cut out a small disk. C. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in.

16 in. soft iron. connection of D to nail. C. wood. wide. Each side. 2. AA. coils wound with No. The door. DD. F. 26 wire: E. brass or iron soldered to nail. Fig. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. The back. 16 in. A. brass: B. long. B. which are made to receive a pivot. wide. D. thick. and are connected to the contacts. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. wide and set in between sides AA. B. 1. E. A switch. D. in length and 16 in. wide and about 20 in. HH. or a single piece. long and 14-1/2 in. The base of the key. brass: E. D. Fig. wide. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. K. Cut the top. binding posts: H spring The stop. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. brass. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. FF. C. nail soldered on A. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass.SOUNDER-A. fastened near the end. wood: F. K. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. KEY-A. or taken from a small one-point switch. The binding posts. should be about 22 in. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. can be made panel as shown. wood: C. long by 16 in. similar to the one used in the sounder. . between the armature and the magnet. is cut from a board about 36 in. wide. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood.

material. cut in them. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. brads. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. AA. long. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. Make 12 cleats. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. 13-1/2 in. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. E. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. as shown in the sketch. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. In operation.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig.. When the electrical waves strike the needle. with 3/4-in. Ill. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. Garfield. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. 2 and made from 1/4-in. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. as shown.

The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. filled with water. When the pipe is used. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. The cord is also fastened to a lever. and. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. down into the water increases the surface in contact. in order to increase the surface. through which a piece of wire is passed. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. E. C. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. will give a greater speed. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. Brown. Fairport. --Contributed by John Koehler. F. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. N. --Contributed by R. A (see sketch). made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. the magnet. N. when used with a motor. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. and thus decreases the resistance. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. J. Ridgewood. A. pulls down the armature. A. Pushing the wire. Y. B. A fairly stiff spring.

while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. B. --Contributed by Perry A. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. if desired. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door.for the secret contact. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. Borden. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Gachville. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. even those who read this description. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Of course. N. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force.

of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. 1. apart. wide. The three shelves are cut 25-in. --Contributed by Dr. as shown in Fig. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. deep and 3/4 in. Compton. in a semicircle 2 in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. From a piece of brass a switch. Connect switch to post B. E. wide. wide. Nails for stops are placed at DD. C. records. H. and on both sides of the middle shelf. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. Mangold. where the other end of wire is fastened. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. long and full 12-in. for 6-in. N. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. as shown in Fig.whenever the bell rings. . D. --Contributed by H. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. 2. for 10in. Cal. from the bottom. thick and 12-in. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. J. A. Washington. The top board is made 28-in. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. long and 5 in.. records and 5-5/8 in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. wide. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. East Orange. wide. Dobson. With about 9 ft. Jr. C. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes.

E. When the cord is passed over pulley C. as shown by the dotted lines. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. 1. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. closed. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. Va. A. which in operation is bent. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. to which is fastened a cord. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . B. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. Roanoke.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. as shown in Fig.

4 and 5 show all the parts needed. but a larger one could be built in proportion. Fig. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. they will bind. Put the rubber tube. 1. to turn on pins of stout wire. is compressed by wheels. Cut two grooves. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. square and 7/8 in. Now put all these parts together. wide. apart. they will let the air through. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. as shown in the illustration. 1 in. deep and 1/2 in. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. Figs. in diameter. E. long. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. D. CC. 5) when they are placed. Notice the break (S) in the track. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. against which the rubber tubing. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. holes (HH. 1 in. deep. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. it too loose. in diameter. excepting the crank and tubing. one in each end. which should be about 1/2 in. Bore two 1/4 in. Figs. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. Fig. 3. thick (A. If the wheels fit too tightly. These wheels should be 3/4 in. Do not fasten the sides too . 3). thick. In these grooves place wheels. Fig. The crankpin should fit tightly. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. E. through one of these holes. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. wide. In the sides (Fig. 4 shows the wheel-holder. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. B. in diameter. in diameter.

The top and bottom pieces marked AA. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. 1. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. Cut six pieces. Fig. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. Hubbard. the other wheel has reached the bottom. 15 in. Then turn the crank from left to right. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. from that mark the next hole. AA. as it gives steadiness to the motion. The animal does not fear to enter the box. from each end. 1. a platform should be added. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. 1. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Idana. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. is all the expense necessary. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. The three legs marked BBB. 1. Kan.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. A in Fig. --Contributed by Dan H. Fig. If the motion of the wheels is regular. of material. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. iron. Fig. and mark for a hole. 2. long. In the two cross bars 1 in. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. B. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. mark again. The screen which is shown in Fig. 2. and 3-1/2 in. To use the pump. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. AA. 1. though a small iron wheel is better. because he can . from the bottom and 2 in. costing 10 cents. tubing. from each end. as shown in Fig. the pump will give a steady stream. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. mark for hole and 3 in. from each end. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. beyond each of these two. 17-1/2 in. For ease in handling the pump. Take the center of the bar. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. stands 20 in. and are 30 in. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. Fig. Two feet of 1/4-in.

Next procure what is known as a wire connector. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. Philadelphia. The mercury will adhere. When through using the battery. If the battery has been used before. The truncated. Meyer. The battery is now ready for use. shuts him in. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. add slowly. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. acid 1 part). there is too much liquid in the jar. If it is wet. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts.see through it: when he enters. C. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. silvery appearance. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. and touches the bait the lid is released and. or small electric motors. stirring constantly. some of it should be poured out. Place the carbon in the jar. of the top. It is useful for running induction coils. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. --Contributed by H. giving it a bright. but if one casts his own zinc. sulphuric acid. If the solution touches the zinc. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. rub the zinc well. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. . until it is within 3 in. 2). Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. The battery is now complete. dropping. 14 copper wire. potassium bichromate. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. 4 oz. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. long having two thumb screws. To cause a flow of electricity. however. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. 1) must be prepared. When the bichromate has all dissolved. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. or. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. of water dissolve 4 oz. and the solution (Fig. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure.

Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. pressing the pedal closes the door. which opens the door.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. If. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. The price of the coil depends upon its size. the battery circuit. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. After putting in the coal. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. the jump-spark coil . i. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. however. with slight changes. e. while the coal door is being opened.Fig. Madison. Wis.. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal.

This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. and closer for longer distances. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. After winding. Now for the receiving apparatus. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. 7. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. in a straight line from top to bottom. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. which is made of light copper wire. This will make an excellent receiver. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. as shown in Fig. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit.described elsewhere in this book. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. coil. the full length of the coil. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. in a partial vacuum. This coil. made of No.7. being a 1-in. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. 6. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. W W. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. 6. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. while a 12-in. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. as shown in Fig. Change the coil described. 5. diameter. apart. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. . which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. W W. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". 7). along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. 7. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. Fig.

suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. Figs. where A is the headstock. which will be described later. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. These circles. may be easily made at very little expense. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. A. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). to the direction of the current. 1).The aerial line. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. only. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. . The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. but it could be run by foot power if desired. 90°. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. are analogous to the flow of induction. I run my lathe by power. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. at any point to any metal which is grounded. Run a wire from the other binding post.6 stranded. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. after all. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. 1 to 4. The writer does not claim to be the originator. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. being at right angles. in the air. being vertical. 90°. using an electric motor and countershaft. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. but simply illustrates the above to show that. as it matches the color well. B the bed and C the tailstock. A large cone pulley would then be required. and hence the aerial line. No. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. For an illustration. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. above the ground. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below.

is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. After pouring.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. The bearing is then ready to be poured. just touching the shaft. steel tubing about 1/8 in. Fig. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. Fig. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. B. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. and runs in babbitt bearings. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. 2 and 3. A. 6 Headstock Details D. one of which is shown in Fig. If the bearing has been properly made. thick. 5. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . pitch and 1/8 in. To make these bearings. Heat the babbitt well. 4. too. The headstock. which pass through a piece of wood. and Fig. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. 5. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. Fig. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. Fig. but not hot enough to burn it. deep. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. and it is well to have the shaft hot. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. 6. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. The bolts B (Fig. 4. tapered wooden pin. on the under side of the bed. which are let into holes FIG.

N. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. Ill. The tail stock (Fig. B. If not perfectly true. Newark. so I had to buy one. they may be turned up after assembling. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. of the walk . and a 1/2-in. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock.J. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. Take up about 5 ft. FIG. the alarm is easy to fix up. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. This prevents corrosion. lock nut. If one has a wooden walk.other machines. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. embedded in the wood. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. A. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. Oak Park.

Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. silver or other metal. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. add potassium cyanide again. Jackson. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. --Contributed by R. save when a weight is on the trap.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. Finally. Fig. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. 2). to remove all traces of grease. clean the articles thoroughly. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. hang the articles on the wires. so that they will not touch. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. before dipping them in the potash solution. Minneapolis. Do not touch the work with the hands again. To avoid touching it. Minn. (A. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. and the alarm is complete. leaving a clear solution. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. Then make the solution . of water. Connect up an electric bell. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. water. to roughen the surface slightly. S.

1. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. if one does not possess a buffing machine. which is held by catch B. a hand scratch brush is good. Make a somewhat larger block (E. Take quick. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. --Model Engineer. which is advised. as at F. an old electric bell or buzzer. Fig. 1 in. With an electric pressure of 3. copper. of clothesline rope and some No. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. Fig. hole in its center. A (Fig. long. must be about 1 in. use 2 volts for large articles. Having finished washing the precipitate.up to 2 qt. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. nickel and such metals. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. Then. with water. with water. Fig. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. To provide the keyhole. about 25 ft. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. a circuit is completed. 1 not only unlocks. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. thick by 3 in. Can be made of a 2-in. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. 10 in. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. and the larger part (F. square. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. 3. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. but opens the door. lead. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. 1). Screw the two blocks together. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. pewter. 1). will serve for the key. light strokes. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. such metals as iron. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. zinc. piece of broomstick. of water. Repeat six times. This solution. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. I. make a key and keyhole. from the lower end. 3) directly over the hole. On brass. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. German silver. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. The wooden block C. also. 3) strikes the bent wire L. A 1/4 in. If accumulators are used. which . slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. when the point of the key touches the tin. as shown in Fig. saw a piece of wood. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. If more solution is required. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. Fig. 18 wire. In rigging it to a sliding door.5 to 4 volts. with the pivot 2 in. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. Where Bunsen cells are used. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. and 4 volts for very small ones. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. When all this is set up. shaking. silver can be plated direct. B should be of the same wood. Before silver plating. The wooden catch. and then treated as copper. long. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz.

The interior must be a dead black. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. top. H. Thus. East Orange. spoons and jackknives. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. Next. 2. . he tosses it into the cave. Objects appear and disappear. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. with the lights turned low. a few simple tools. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. or cave. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. no painting inside is required. B. and plenty of candles. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. heighten the illusion. On either side of the box. Fig. 1. fly about in the box at the will of the operator.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. should be cut a hole. The box must be altered first. 3. is the cut through which the rope runs. Fig. 116 Prospect St. floor. Receiving the bowl again. he points with one finger to the box. Klipstein. Fig. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. some black paint. shows catch B. the requisites are a large soap box. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. with a switch as in Fig. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. in his shirt sleeves. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. H. which unlocks the door. 1. One thing changes to another and back again. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. so much the better. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). 2. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. 0. --Contributed by E. such as forks. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. cut in one side. and hands its contents round to the audience. Next. surrounding a perfectly black space. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. and a slit. the illumination in front must be arranged. and black art reigns supreme. One end is removed. Heavy metal objects. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. and finally lined inside with black cloth. To prepare such a magic cave.. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. Fig. sides and end. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. the box should be painted black both inside and out. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. some black cloth. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. to throw the light toward the audience. although a little more trouble. enlarged. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. H. New Jersey. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. one-third of the length from the remaining end. In front of you. between the parlor and the room back of it. half way from open end to closed end. He removes the bowl from the black box. The magician stands in front of this.

if. and if portieres are impossible. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. is on a table) so much the better. his confederate behind inserts his hand. one on each side of the box. in which are oranges and apples. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. and pours them from the bag into a dish. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. was identical with this. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. as presented by Hermann. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. you must have an assistant. The illusion. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. which are let down through the slit in the top. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. Consequently. had a big stage. into the eyes of him who looks. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain.Finally. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. a screen must be used. The audience room should have only low lights. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. the room where the cave is should be dark. only he. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. The exhibitor should be . But illusions suggest themselves. of course. which can be made to dance either by strings. of course. and several black drop curtains.

respectively. terminal c3 will show +. or binding posts. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. 1. 2. b3. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. at L. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. respectively.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers.. held down by another disk F (Fig. c2. is shown in the diagram. held down on disk F by two other terminals. 2). making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch).a boy who can talk. if you turn handle K to the right. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. e1 and e2. b2. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. by 4 in. 2. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. and c1 – electricity. square. with three brass strips. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. their one end just slips under the strips b1. respectively. c3. making contact with them as shown at y. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. d. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . and c4 + electricity. Finally. c1. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. 1. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. Fig. The action of the switch is shown in Fig.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. Then. b3. so arranged that. or b2. terminal c3 will show . A. c4. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. making contact with them. vice versa. by means of two wood screws. b2. held down on it by two terminals. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. and a common screw. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. when handle K is turned to one side. FIG. b1. f2. as shown in Fig. A represents a pine board 4 in. and c2 to the zinc. On the disk G are two brass strips. About the center piece H moves a disk.

. from three batteries. thus making the message audible in the receiver. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. Jr. jump spark coil. --Contributed by Eugene F. when on No. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. 3. 5. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Joerin.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. when A is on No. When switch B is closed and A is on No. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. B is a onepoint switch. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. 1. Newark. you have the current of one battery. and when on No. Tuttle. and C and C1 are binding posts. Ohio. when on No. -Contributed by A. from five batteries. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. and then hold the receiver to your ear. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. from four batteries. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). 4. E. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in..

then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. traveled by the thread.. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. and supporting the small weight. New Orleans. The device thus arranged. Redmond. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. When you do not have a graduate at hand. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. is the device of H. B. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. Thus. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. Handy Electric Alarm . Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. Wis. E. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. A. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. mark. A. of Burlington. over the bent portion of the rule. P. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. which may be a button or other small object. per second. as shown in the sketch. A. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. mark. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. and placed on the windowsill of the car. per second for each second. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. so one can see the time. La. rule.

Then if a mishap comes. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. Crafton. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. soldered to the alarm winder. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. Instead. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways.which has a piece of metal. When the alarm goes off. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. but may be closed at F any time desired. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. B. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. C. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. and with the same result. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. Pa. which illuminates the face of the clock. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. . S. --C. wrapping the wire around the can several times. for a wetting is the inevitable result. Lane. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. --Contributed by Gordon T. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log.

C. cannons. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . It is possible to make molds without a bench. L. models and miniature objects. New York City. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. 1 . This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. 1. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. small machinery parts. ornaments of various kinds. Two cleats. as shown. but it is a mistake to try to do this. The first thing to make is a molding bench. and many other interesting and useful articles. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. If there is no foundry Fig. when it is being prepared. binding posts. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. AA. and duplicates of all these. Macey. battery zincs. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. --Contributed by A. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. A. BE. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. whence it is soon tracked into the house. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. bearings. With the easily made devices about to be described. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. which may.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. as shown in Fig. engines. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience.

2 . DD. F. and saw it in half longitudinally. A A. white metal. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. A wedge-shaped piece. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K." or lower part. J. a little larger than the outside of the flask. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. is shown more clearly in Fig. makes a very good sieve. The dowels. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. high. say 12 in. which can be either aluminum. and the lower pieces. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. Fig. 2.near at hand. try using sand from other sources. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. as shown. II . This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. Fig. by 6 in. The flask. is about the right mesh. by 8 in. as shown. and this. is filled with coal dust. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. which can be made of a knitted stocking. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. E. D. CC. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. H. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. previous to sawing. It is made of wood and is in two halves." or upper half. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. and the "drag. If the box is not very strong. The rammer. CC. will be required. is made of wood. but this operation will be described more fully later on. 1. G.How to Make a Mold [96] . If desired the sieve may be homemade. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. and a sieve. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. which should be nailed in. An old teaspoon. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. The cloth bag. 1. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. the "cope. is nailed to each end of the cope. A slight shake of the bag Fig.

the surface of the sand at . A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. After ramming. In finishing the ramming. and scatter about 1/16 in. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. It is then rammed again as before. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. and by grasping with both hands. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. or "drag. The sand is then ready for molding. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. in order to remove the lumps. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. as shown at C." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. as described.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. as shown at D. as shown. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. and thus judge for himself. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. and then more sand is added until Fig. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. turn the drag other side up." in position. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. or "cope. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. where they can watch the molders at work. as it is much easier to learn by observation. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. as shown at E. and if water is added. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. Place another cover board on top.

The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. as shown at H. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. wide and about 1/4 in. it shows that the sand is too wet. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. is next cut. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. Place a brick or other flat. as shown at J. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. as shown at H. After drawing the pattern. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. to give the air a chance to escape. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. thus making a dirty casting. thus holding the crucible securely. This is done with a spoon. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. as shown at F. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. The "sprue. and then pour. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in." or pouring-hole. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. in diameter. in order to prevent overheating.E should be covered with coal-dust. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. deep. Fig. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. III. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. as shown at G. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. as shown in the sketch. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. after being poured. place the cope back on the drag. . Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. made out of steel rod.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs.

5% zinc and 5% antimony. and.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. In my own case I used four batteries. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. --Contributed by Harold S. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. but any reasonable number may be used. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. Morton. and the casting is then ready for finishing. battery zincs. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. the following device will be found most convenient. Although the effect in the illustration . An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. 15% lead. although somewhat expensive. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. may be used in either direction. white metal and other scrap available. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. is very desirable. If a good furnace is available. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. Minneapolis. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. or from any adjacent pair of cells. Referring to the figure. used only for zinc. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. babbitt.

Then replace the table. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . If desired. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. shaft made. The brass rings also appear distorted. B. To make it take a sheet-iron band. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. 3/4 in. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. A. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. Put a sharp needle point. By replacing the oars with paddles. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. B. backward. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. Chicago. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. as shown in the illustration. The bearings. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. 2. Fig. which will be sufficient to hold it. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. may be made of hardwood. Make one of these pieces for each arm. Then walk down among the audience. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. connected by cords to the rudder. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. as shown at A. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. --Contributed by Draughtsman. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. outward. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight.

because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. Fig. If galvanized iron is used. In the same way. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. as shown in Fig. W. 1. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. A. or under pressure. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. should be made of wood. The hubs. If babbitt is used. 1. 3. The covers. or the paint will come off. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. being simply finely divided ice.melted babbitt. 1. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. 2. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. and a weight. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. E. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. but when in motion. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. D. 2 and 3. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. It may seem strange that ice . spoiling its appearance. Snow. when it will again return to its original state. A block of ice. as shown in Fig. C. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting.

Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. as per sketch. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line..should flow like water. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. Pa. sometimes only one or two feet a day. as shown on page 65. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. which resembles ice in this respect. P. by 2 in. The rate of flow is often very slow. but by placing it between books. whenever there is any connection made at all. by 1/2 in. or supporting it in some similar way. Crafton. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. but. it will gradually change from the original shape A. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. --Contributed by Gordon T. in. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. by 1/4. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. Lane. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. no matter how slow the motion may be. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. square. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. and assume the shape shown at B. Pressing either push button. thus giving a high resistance contact. brass. B. by 5 in.

Ward. pulleys. as shown. The parts are: A.000 ft. wooden supports. furnace. I. Pa. --Contributed by A. In the wiring diagram. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. C. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. B. about the size used for automobiles.thumb screws. cord. Indianapolis. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. alarm clock. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. B. J. F. D. weight. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. and C. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. H. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. the battery. and five dry batteries. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. vertical lever. E. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. draft chain. G. as shown. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. Wilkinsburg. A is the circuit breaker. G. draft. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. the induction coil. K . Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. horizontal lever. The success depends upon a slow current. a key or push-button for completing the circuit.

the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. 2 are dressed to the right angle. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. Mich. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. which will provide a fine place for the plants. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. Artistic Window Boxes The top. The frame (Fig. Kalamazoo. such as used for a storm window. as well as the bottom. 3. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. material framed together as shown in Fig. will fit nicely in them. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. where house plants are kept in the home.

that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. and will give the . S. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. in diameter. This is more economical than dry cells. but maintain the voltage constant. Canada. since a battery is the most popular source of power.. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. However. this must be done with very great caution. 1. and a suitable source of power. by connecting them in series. and cost 27 cents FIG. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. so as to increase the current. N. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. in any system of lamps. i. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high.. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. Halifax. Thus. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. after a rest. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. The 1/2-cp. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. Push the needle into the cork. as indicated by Fig. multiples of series of three. A certain number of these. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. 1 each complete with base. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. e. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. which sells for 25 cents. is something that will interest the average American boy. and the instrument will then be complete. 1 cp.. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. where they are glad to have them taken away. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. for some time very satisfactorily. Grant. a cork and a needle. in this connection. --Contributed by Wm. It must be remembered. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. can be connected up in series.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. as if drawn upon for its total output. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. W. one can regulate the batteries as required. However. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power.

Fig. if wound for 6 volts. or 22 lights. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. FIG. 11 series. Chicago. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. to secure light by this method. 2 shows the scheme. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. by the proper combination of these. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. which is the same as that of one battery. So. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. lamps. double insulated wire wherever needed. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. making. and for Christmas trees. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. These will give 3 cp. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. 1-cp. and diffused light in a room. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. especially those of low internal resistance. and then lead No. as in Fig. . For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. although the first cost is greater.. 18 B & S. each. lamp. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. generates the power for the lights. lamps. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. where the water pressure is the greatest. we simply turn on the water. Thus.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. If wound for 10 volts. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. 3. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. and running the series in parallel. However. for display of show cases.proper voltage. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. Thus. according to the water pressure obtainable. In conclusion.

B. --Contributed by Leonard E. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. BB. Emig. Cal. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. --Contributed by F. bars of pole-changing switch. brushes of motor. AA. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. Ind. A indicates the ground. we were not bothered with them. Santa Clara. After I connected up my induction coil. or a tempting bone. and the sides. as shown in the sketch. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. center points of switch. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. DD. To reverse the motor. are cut just alike. field of motor. the letters indicate as follows: FF. thus reversing the machine. or from one pattern. Parker. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. and C. CC. switch. B. outside points of switch. A. simply change the switch. a bait of meat. . To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Plymouth.

Melchior. Cal. and a table or bench. which is in the door. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet.. To unlock the door. attached to the end of the armature B. If it is not. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. or would remain locked. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. When the circuit is broken a weight. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. a hammer.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. Minn. as it is the key to the lock. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. -Contributed by Claude B. thus locking the door. Fry. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. W. a piece of string. The button can be hidden. one cell being sufficient. 903 Vine St. The experiment works best . A. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. San Jose. merely push the button E. Hutchinson.

3. attached at the other end. Ontario. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. which pulls the draft open. . --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Tie the ends of the string together. 3. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. the stick falls away. Crawford Curry. P. forming a loop. 18 Gorham St. run through a pulley. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. C. Wis. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. Brockville. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. 1). releasing the weight.Contributed by F. --Contributed by Geo. as shown in Fig. is attached to the draft B of the furnace.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. the key turns. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Culebra. -. 2. When the alarm rings in the early morning. I.. Porto Rico. W. On another block of wood fasten two wires. Madison. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. Canada. A. D. Schmidt. where it will remain suspended as shown. 4). the current flows with the small arrows. in the ceiling and has a window weight. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block.

Connect two wires to the transmitter. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. including the mouthpiece. J.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. Camden. D. 6 in. --Contributed by Wm. and break the corners off to make them round. R. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. and then to the receiver. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. Use a barrel to work on. The cut shows the arrangement. which fasten to the horn. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. square and 1 in. running one direct to the receiver. made with his own hands. Farley. get two pieces of plate glass. or tree. First. and the other to the battery. S. thick. thence to a switch. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. or from a bed of flowers. and . Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. J. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. Jr.. N. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret.

or it will not polish evenly. as in Fig. When polishing the speculum. or less. unless a longer focal length is wanted. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. and label. wetting it to the consistency of cream. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. then 8 minutes. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. a round 4-in. spaces. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. Then warm and press again with the speculum. and spread on the glass. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. while walking around the barrel. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. in length. wide around the convex glass or tool. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. also rotate the glass. Fig. 1. When dry. then take 2 lb. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. A.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. with 1/4-in. Fig. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft.. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. twice the focal length away. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. In a dark room. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. so the light . and is ready for polishing. wet till soft like paint. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. set the speculum against the wall. by the side of the lamp. with pitch. 2. melt 1 lb. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. and a large lamp. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. Have ready six large dishes. 2. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. of water. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. Use a binger to spread it on with. the coarse grinding must be continued. When done the glass should be semitransparent. using straight strokes 2 in. Fasten. and the under glass or tool convex. L.. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave.

39 gr. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. if a hill in the center. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube.. 4 oz. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. The polishing and testing done. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency.……………………………….……………………………. face down. as in K. 2. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. 100 gr. When the focus is found. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. Solution D: Sugar loaf . 840 gr. Place the speculum S. or hills. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes.…………….. Then add 1 oz. fill the dish with distilled water.. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. cement a strip of board 8 in. The knife should not be more than 6 in. Fig. When dry.. that was set aside. Fig. then ammonia until bath is clear. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. the speculum is ready to be silvered. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole.100 gr. Fig.. If not. longer strokes. Then add solution B. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). shorter strokes should be used in polishing. 25 gr.. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. the speculum will show some dark rings.. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. Nitric acid . and pour the rest into the empty dish. 4 oz. from the lamp. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. Silver nitrate ……………………………. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. Now add enough of the solution A. 2. must be procured. also how the rays R from a star . If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. touched with rouge..Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. with distilled water. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. deep. Two glass or earthenware dishes.. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. Place the speculum. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin.. With pitch. long to the back of the speculum.

The flatter they are the less they will distort.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. stop down well after focusing. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. My telescope is 64 in. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. Make the tube I of sheet iron. which proves to be easy of execution. slightly wider than the lens mount. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers.. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. two glass prisms. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. Mellish. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. is a satisfactory angle.John E. . About 20. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. with an outlay of only a few dollars. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. telescope can be made at home. Then I made the one described. cover with paper and cloth. Thus an excellent 6-in. using strawboard and black paper. and proceed as for any picture. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. long and cost me just $15. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. deg. Place over lens. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret.

D. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. A. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. push the button D. instead of the contrary. . Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. Do not stir it. 1. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. says the Master Painter. unobstructed light strike the mirror. Boody. then add a little sulphate of potash. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. as shown in Fig. The rays of the clear. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. Ill. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. and reflect through the negative. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. add the plaster gradually to the water. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. -Contributed by A. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. 2. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. To unlock. Fig. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. complete the arrangement. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. but will not preserve its hardening. through the lens of the camera and on the board. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. or powdered alum. B. The paper is exposed. Zimmerman.

as at A and B. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. throw . I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. To reverse. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. use a string. Fig. also provide them with a handle. but will remain suspended without any visible support. 2. 1). If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. Then blow through the spool. so that it can rotate about these points. 2. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. Fasten on the switch lever. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. as shown in the sketch. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. 3. as in Fig.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe.

When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. although this is not necessary. -Contributed by Morris L. San Antonio. In the sketch. San Marcos. carbons. and E E. . A is the electricbell magnet. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Neb. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. Tex. L. carbon sockets. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Tex. and rub dry with linen cloth. rinse in alcohol. as shown in the sketch. D. Go McVicker. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. the armature. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. wash in running water. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. --Contributed by R. Take out. Push one end of the tire into the hole. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. binding posts. Levy. Thomas. North Bend. C C. B. --Contributed by Geo.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other.

and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Brooklyn. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. 16 magnet wire. Bell. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. 36 magnet wire. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. 14 or No. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. long or more. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. By means of two or more layers of No. wound evenly about this core. --Contributed by Joseph B.

large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. making two layers. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. long and 5 in. 1.which would be better to buy ready-made. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. about 6 in. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. then the strip of tin-foil. the entire core may be purchased readymade. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. This makes a condenser which may be folded. as the maker prefers. and finally the fourth strip of paper. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. wide. 4. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. in diameter. coil illustrates the general details of the work. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. In shaping the condenser. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. but if it is not convenient to do this work. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. The condenser is next wrapped . Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. The primary is made of fine annealed No. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. When cut and laid in one continuous length. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. which is desirable. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. long and 2-5/8 in. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. a box like that shown in Fig. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. in length. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. 2 yd. which is an important factor of the coil. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. A 7/8-in. After the core wires are bundled. or 8 in. one piece of the paper is laid down. Beginning half an inch from one end. with room also for a small condenser. hole is bored in the center of one end. and the results are often unsatisfactory. as shown in Fig. diameter. No. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. The following method of completing a 1-in. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. at a time.

forms the other pole or terminal. spark. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. ready for assembling. G. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. Fig. lines H. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. E. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. which allows wiring at the back. 3. C. B. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. bell. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. round so that the inside . the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. switch.) The wiring diagram. copper lever with 1-in. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. which is insulated from the first. 4 in. B. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. F. and the other sheet.securely with bands of paper or tape. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. the letters indicate as follows: A. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. one from bell. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. The alarm key will turn and drop down. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. go. battery . to the door. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. D. flange turned on one side. and one from battery. V-shaped copper strip.. shows how the connections are made. long to key. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. shelf for clock. whole length. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. open switch C. A. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. I. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. wide. by 12 in. long and 12 in.

induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. This is for blowing.. instead of close to it. and the battery is ready for use. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. but with the circuit. Short-circuit for three hours. says the Model Engineer. of zinc sulphate. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. do not shortcircuit. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. Use a glass or metal shade. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade.diameter is 7 in. If desired for use immediately. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. . To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. The circuit should also have a high resistance. That is what they are for. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. of blue stone. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. and then rivet the seam. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. London. from the bottom. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. but add 5 or 6 oz. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. 2 in. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. Line the furnace. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results.

and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. affects . as in the other movement. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. thus producing two different vibrations. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and therein is the trick. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. the second finger along the side. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Try it and see.." which created much merriment. To operate the trick. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. square and about 9 in. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. g. long. while for others it will not revolve at all. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. changes white phosphorus to yellow. At least it is amusing. 1. This type of battery will give about 0.9 of a volt. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Enlarge the hole slightly. 2. and then. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. oxygen to ozone. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. for others the opposite way. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. If too low. herein I describe a much better trick. but the thing would not move at all.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. or think they can do the same let them try it. imparting to them a violet tinge. porcelain and paper. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. below the bottom of the zinc. Outside of the scientific side involved. If any or your audience presume to dispute. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. Ohio. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. for some it will turn one way. and many other things in order to make the arm operate.

On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. if possible. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. but not essential. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand .a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. a means for holding it vertical. earth. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. chemicals. insects. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. and one of them is photomicrography. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. but this is less satisfactory. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. a short-focus lens. and. but small flowers. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. an old tripod screw. To the front board is attached a box. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. however. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. says the Photographic Times. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier.

5 in. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 5 ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. Mass. while it is not so with the quill. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. Cap. 697 44 lb. 7 ft. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 65 4 lb. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. A line. in diameter. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. CD. 7-1/2 in. Boston. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 9 ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. balloon. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. Madison. 6 ft. long and 3 ft. 7-1/2 in. 8 ft. 113 7 lb. If the balloon is 10 ft. AB. which is 15 ft.--Contributed by George C. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. Fig.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 268 17 lb. 1. or 31 ft. 12 ft. Divide one-quarter of the circle . or 3 ft. The following table will give the size. Ft Lifting Power. 905 57 lb. 179 11 lb. 381 24 lb. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. wide from which to cut a pattern. in Cu. and a line. 11 ft. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter.

until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. and so on. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. on the curved line from B to C. using a fine needle and No. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. Repeat this operation four times. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. The cloth segments are sewed together. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. of the very best heavy body. making a double seam as shown in Fig. of beeswax and boil well together. This test will show if the bag is airtight.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. cutting all four quarters at the same time. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. The amounts necessary for a 10- . The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. The pattern is now cut. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. 4. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. 2. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. keeping the marked part on the outside. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. 3. 70 thread. Procure 1 gal. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig.

B. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. leaving the hand quite clean. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. above the level of the water in barrel A. until no more dirt is seen. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. oil the spindle holes carefully. balloon are 125 lb. 5. or a fan. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. A. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. of iron. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. Fill the other barrel. should not enter into the water over 8 in. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. this should be repeated frequently. to the bag. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. using a fine brush. . wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. of sulphuric acid. A. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. The 3/4-in. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. capacity and connect them. or dusting with a dry brush. B. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. Vegetable oils should never be used. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. with the iron borings. as shown in Fig. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. When the clock has dried. 1 lb. About 15 lb.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. ]. a clean white rag. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. In the barrel. 5 . All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. B. with 3/4in. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. pipe extending down into the cooling tank.ft. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. ft. 1 lb. All FIG. it is not fit to use. C. The outlet. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. C. but if any grease remains on the hand.Green Iron ammonium citrate . which may sound rather absurd. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. by fixing. of water will make 4 cu.. Water 1 oz. if it is good it will dry off. pipe. of iron borings and 125 lb. with water 2 in. 150 gr. of gas in one hour. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. . A. After washing a part. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb.

or zinc.Water 1 oz. and keep in the dark until used.000 ft. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. or carbon. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Port Melbourne. at the time of employment. keeping the fingers out of the solution. says the Moving Picture World. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. The negative pole. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Dry the plates in the dark. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz.. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Exposure. to avoid blackened skin. This aerial collector can be made in . of any make. 20 to 30 minutes. . A longer exposure will be necessary. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. dry atmosphere will give best results. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. toning first if desired. The positive pole. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. fix in hypo. and a vigorous negative must be used. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. A cold. or battery. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. . Bathe the plates 5 minutes. Printing is done in the sun. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. Dry in the dark. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. The miniature 16 cp.

I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. a positive and a negative. as described below. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. lead pipe. 5 in. both positive and negative. forming a cup of the pipe. If the wave ceases. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. long. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. making a ground with one wire. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. will soon become dry and useless. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. when left exposed to the air. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. in diameter. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. and have the other connected with another aerial line. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. the resistance is less. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. and as less current will flow the short way. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. This will complete the receiving station. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. holes . If the waves strike across the needle. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. The storage cell.various ways. lay a needle. As the telephone offers a high resistance.

The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. This. This support or block. or tube B. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. Two binding-posts should be attached. B. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. a round one. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. When mixing the acid and water. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. except for about 1 in. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. namely: a square hole. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. The other plate is connected to the zinc. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. This box can be square. of course. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. D. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency.as possible. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. and the other to the negative. or tube C. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. says the Pathfinder. on each end. does not need to be watertight. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. an oblong one and a triangular one. by soldering the joint. one to the positive. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed.

2. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. and has plenty of good seating capacity. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. Chicago. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. wide. Only galvanized nails should be used. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. deep and 4 ft. long. 1. 1. as it is not readily overturned. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. C. about 20 in. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. Ill. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. The third piece of brass. in place on the wood. and match them together. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. This punt. . The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. A and B. as shown in Fig. C. is built 15 ft. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. 3. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. thick cut two pieces alike. as shown in Fig. back and under. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. leaving about 1/16 in. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. 2. wide. all around the edge. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. were fitted by this one plug.

with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. A piece of 1/4-in. is cut 1 in. Tacoma. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. thick and 3-1/2 in. square (Fig 2).Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Wash. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. B. gas pipe. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. In Fig. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . A. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. long and fitted with a thumbscrew.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb.

it had to be borne in mind that. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. H. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. no special materials could be obtained. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night.--Contributed by Charles H. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. with the exception of insulated wire. without auxiliary phase. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. or "rotor. The winding of the armature." has no connection with the outside circuit. and to consume.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. Wagner. which can be developed in the usual manner. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. may be of interest to some of our readers. which the writer has made. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . no more current than a 16-cp. In designing. says the Model Engineer. lamp. if possible.

about 2-1/2 lb. as shown in Fig. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. were then drilled and 1/4-in. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. After assembling a second time. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. this little machine is not self-starting. holes. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. Holes 5-32 in." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. 1. or "stator. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. being used. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. and all sparking is avoided. wrought iron. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. 5. bolts put in and tightened up. Unfortunately. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. They are not particularly accurate as it is. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire.the field-magnet. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. as shown in Fig. thick. in diameter were drilled in the corners. while the beginnings . it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. no steel being obtainable. 3. and filled with rivets. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. A. 4. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. B. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. also varnished before they were put in. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. to be filed out after they are placed together. The stator is wound full with No. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. C. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. 2. with the dotted line. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron.

When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. as shown in Fig. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. No starting resistance is needed. Jr. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. and as each layer of wire was wound. 2. In making slides by contact. The rotor is wound with No. This type of motor has drawbacks. The lantern slide is a glass plate. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. and all wound in the same direction. it would be very simple to build. J. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. film to film. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. and especially of colored ones. E. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. 3-Contributed by C. Newark.. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. If too late for alcohol to be of use. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. as before stated. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. McKinney. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. The image should . Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. One is by contact. and would not easily get out of order. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. if applied immediately. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. and the other by reduction in the camera. as a means of illustrating songs. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. a regulating resistance is not needed. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. 1. N. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. having no commutator or brushes. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. and as the motor runs at constant speed.

a little extra work will be necessary. the formulas being found in each package of plates. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. over the mat. 4. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. also. A. to use a plain fixing bath. as shown in Fig.appear in. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. Fig. except that the binding is different. and then a plain glass. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. and development should be over in three or four minutes. 3. Being unbreakable. as shown in Fig. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. D. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. Draw lines with a pencil. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. C. they are much used by travelers. 1. B. Select a room with one window. If the exposure has been correct. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. These can be purchased from any photo material store. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. It is best. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. about a minute. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. 2. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. if possible. 5.

as shown at A. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. in diameter and 40 in. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. 16 in.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . as shown at B. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. long. Corinth. long. as shown in Fig. holes bored in the end pieces. 1. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. known as rods and cones. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. If the star is in front of the left eye. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. A piece of canvas. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. from the end piece of the chair. while the dot will be in front of the other. Fig. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. wide and 50 in. Fig. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. Hastings. from the ends. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. long. or other stout cloth. Vt. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. is to be used for the seat. These longer pieces can be made square. from the center of this dot draw a star. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. in diameter and 20 in. 2. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. 1. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in.

as shown in Fig. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. in thickness and 10 in. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. . Auburn. Cal. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. as shown in Fig. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. as well as to operate other household machines. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. per square inch. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. A belt. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. O'Gara. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. made from an ordinary sash cord. 1. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. J. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. 2. A disk 1 in.-Contributed by P. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine.

3/4 in. wide. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. Put the bolt in the hole. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. Cut out a piece from the block combination. direction. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. The part of a rotation of the bolt. fairly accurate. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. with as fine a thread as possible. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. or inconvenient to measure. screwing it through the nut. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. leaving it shaped like a bench. then removing the object. thick and 2-1/2 in. says the Scientific American. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. square for a support. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. it serves a very useful purpose. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. will be the thickness of the object. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. A simple. divided by the number of threads to the inch. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. Bore a 1/4-in. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. and the construction is complete. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. . long. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. to the top of the bench. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. and counting the threads in an inch of its length.

Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. long. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. material 12 ft. globe that has been thrown away as useless. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Oal. piece of wood 12 ft. Bore a 3/4-in. bolt in each hole.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Place a 3/4-in. which show up fine at night. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. beyond the end of the wood. Santa Maria. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. The wheel should be open . When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. long is used for the center pole.

Side and Top View or have spokes. which should be 1/4 in. 1/2 in. The spool . B. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. O. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. thick is used for the armature. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. is soldered. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. long. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. of the ends with boards. L. long.-Contributed by A. A piece of brass 2 in. and on its lower end a socket. at the bottom. A. A cross bar. square and 3 or 4 in. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. H and J. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. from the top end. in diameter. long. at the top and 4 in. wide and 1/8 in. C. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. made of the same material. C. thick. to be operated by the magnet coil. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. and the lower part 61/2 in. Graham. The coil. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. Tex. wide and 1/8 in. long. thick. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. The boards may be nailed or bolted. P. Fort Worth. from the ends. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. pieces used for the spokes.

Bradlev. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post.000 for irrigation work. S. Mass. is drilled. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in.--A. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. Randolph. The armature. and directly centering the holes H and J. and in numerous other like instances. or a water rheostat heretofore described. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. then with a firm.E. A. At the bottom end of the frame. A soft piece of iron. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. for insulating the brass ferrule. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. long. by soldering. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. R. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. that holds the lower carbon. which may be had by using German silver wire. This tie can be used on grain sacks. When you slide the pencil along the casing. and place it against a door or window casing. one without either rubber or metal end. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. This is a very neat trick if performed right. --Contributed by Arthur D. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. D and E. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. S. 1.is about 2-1/2 in. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. 2 the hat hanging on it. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. B. F. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. 2.J. do it without any apparent effort.000. C. .

The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. for the primary. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. wide. may be made from a 3/8-in. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. is constructed in the usual manner. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. long. D. F. in diameter. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. Experiment with Heat [134] . Fig. about 1 in. where it can be pressed without attracting attention.500 turns of No. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. long and 1 in. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. A. S. C. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. The switch. B. and then 1. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. 1. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. The vibrator B. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. S. in diameter. in diameter and 2 in. The vibrator. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. in diameter and 1/16 in. hole in the center. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. The core of the coil. with a 3/16-in. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. Fig. about 3/16 in. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. 1. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. mixed with water to form a paste. from the core and directly opposite. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. thick. The coil ends are made from cardboard. leaving the projections as shown. 2. for adjustment. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. is connected to a flash lamp battery. about 1/8 in. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. About 70 turns of No. for the secondary.

the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. and the same distance inside of the new board. 2 to fit the two holes. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. as shown in the sketch. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. 1. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. it laps down about 8 in. brass plate. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. lighted. The knob on the dial extends out too far. Fig. as shown. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. in an ordinary water glass. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. wide. 16 in. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. The hasp.Place a small piece of paper. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. between the boards. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. The lock. long and when placed over the board. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. thick on the inside. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. board. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. was to be secured by only three brass screws. The tin is 4 in. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. which is only 3/8-in. which seemed to be insufficient. which is cut with two holes. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. with which to operate the dial. . and then well clinched. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. The three screws were then put in the hasp. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. 1.

high for use in window displays. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. which completely divides the box into two parts. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. or in the larger size mentioned. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. and the back left dark. square and 8-1/2 in. When the rear part is illuminated. the glass. square and 10-1/2 in. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. If the box is made large enough. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. not shiny. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . black color. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. any article placed therein will be reflected in. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. one in each division. but when the front part is illuminated. clear glass as shown. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. When making of wood. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear.

The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. and with the proper illumination one is changed. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. as shown at A in the sketch. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. as shown in the sketch. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. . or a piece of this width put on the bottom. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. When there is no electric current available. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. as it appears. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. Instead of changing the current operated by hand.. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. long and 1 ft. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. a tank 2 ft. above the top of the tank. into the other. alternately. When using as a window display. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. wide will be about the right size.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. wide. 1 in. bore from each end. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. 2 ft. one for each side. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. hole bored the full length through the center. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. high. with a length of 13 in. A small platform. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. then use a red-hot iron to finish. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. wide. The 13-in. Iron sulphate. and 6 ft. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. from the ground. This hole must be continued . This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. bit. lines gauged on each side of each. O. long. 6 in. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. If a planing mill is near. under sides together. as shown. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. and a solution of iron sulphate added. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. This precipitate is then washed. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. square and 40 in. using a 3/4-in. two pieces 1-1/8 in. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. but with a length of 12 in. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. dried and mixed with linseed oil. square. Columbus. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. hole. and a door in front. long. and boring two holes with a 1-in. each. thick and 3 in. 5 ft. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. Shape the under sides first. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. radius. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. Three windows are provided. is the green vitriol. is built on the front. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. or ferrous sulphate. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. however. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. gauge for depth. The pieces can then be taken out.

Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. apply two coats of wax. When this is dry. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. three or four may be attached as shown. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. if shade is purchased. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. thick and 3 in. square and drawing a diagonal on each. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. A better way. Directions will be found on the filler cans. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. When the filler has hardened. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain.through the pieces forming the base. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. hole in each block. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. For art-glass the metal panels are . Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. If the parts are to be riveted. Saw the two blocks apart. Electric globes--two. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap.

METAL SHADE . such as copper. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.The Completed Lamp cut out. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. as brass.Construction of Shade . and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.

A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. 2 the front view of this stand. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. as shown in the sketch. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. the object and the background. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. as in ordinary devices. one way and 1/2 in. Figure 1 shows the side. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. and Fig. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The arms holding the glass. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . the other. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch.

Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. and an inside diameter of 9 in. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. Put the ring in place on the base. channel in the circumference of the ring. Cut another circular piece 11 in. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. outside diameter. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. as shown in the sketch. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. and swinging freely. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. long. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. in diameter. as shown in the cut. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . wide and 11 in. Before mounting the ring on the base. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. wide and 6-5/16 in. pointing north and south. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. If the light becomes dim. thick 5/8-in. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. An ordinary pocket compass. about 1-1/4 in. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. uncork and recork again. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. thus forming a 1/4-in. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. as it is very poisonous. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. in diameter for a base. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring.

Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. are mounted on a base. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago.420 . high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. above the half can.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. Corresponding mirrors. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. AA. into these cylinders. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.088 . but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. in diameter and 8 in.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi.182 . black oxide of copper. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.715 . and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. Place on top the so- . of the top. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere.500 . and mirrors.289 . An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. CC. EE. 1 oz.600 . Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg.865 1. from the second to the third. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. B. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. and north of the Ohio river. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. The results given should be multiplied by 1.

Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. the wheel will revolve in one direction. of pulverized campor. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. says Metal Worker. 31 gr. which otherwise remains clear. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. Put the solution in a long. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. slender bottle. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. always remove the oil with a siphon. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. When renewing. University Park. In Fig. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . Colo. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. 62 gr.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. little crystals forming in the liquid. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. alcohol. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. then they will not rust fast.

A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. --Contributed by C. If zinc and carbon are used. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. A paper-fastener box. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. This is used in place of the spoon. If zinc and copper are used. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. floating on a solution. Attach to the wires. Lloyd Enos. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. about 1-1/4 in.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. on the under side of the cork. will allow the magnet to point north and south. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. Solder in the side of the box . If two of them are floating on the same solution.

Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends.in. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. D.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. A circular piece of cardboard. The bottom of the box. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . F. G--No. C. B. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. Take a small piece of soft iron. long. D. of wire on each end extending from the coil. 1/2. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. Rhamstine. as shown in Fig. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. away. wide and 6 in. to it. 1. long that has about 1/4-in. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. H. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. Bore holes for binding-posts. The standard. and on the other around the glass tube. 14 wire will do. long.in. glass tubing . The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. can be made of oak. . Thos. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. If the hose is not a tight fit. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. C. The base. A. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. The spring should be about 1 in. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. 10 wire about 10 in. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. Wind evenly about 2 oz. wide and 2-1/2 in. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. 3 in. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. and then solder on the cover.Contributed by J. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. piece of 1/4-in. is made from a piece of No. E. 1-1/4 in. D. of No. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. brass tubing.1-in. hole. C. or made with a little black paint. E.not shorter than 18 in. Use a board 1/2. one on each side of the board. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. Put ends. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. A. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. B. thick. stained and varnished. To this standard solder the supporting wire. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine.

Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. D. 3-in. is drawn nearer to the coil. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. Teasdale. Wis. 5. from the right hand. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. in diameter. long. The iron plunger. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. long. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. long. N. About 1-1/2 lb. . two pieces 2-1/2 ft. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. long. When the glass becomes soft. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. 3. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. of mercury will be sufficient. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. of No. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. of 8-oz. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. Smith. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. canvas. long. about 1 in. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. Cuba. two pieces 2 ft. E.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. 2. Y. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. 3 in. J. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. four hinges. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. Milwaukee.--Contributed by R. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. long are used for the legs. making a support as shown in Fig.of the coil. 1. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig.--Contributed by Edward M. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in.

of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. expelling all the air. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. long. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. Can. Keys.. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. Toronto. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. Measure 8 in. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. 3. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread.. thus leaving a. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. leaving 8 in. Fig. 2. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. small aperture in the long tube. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. of vacuum at the top. 5. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. 6. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. --Contributed by David A. holding in the left hand. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. 4. Break off the piece of glass. The tube now must be filled completely. This tube as described will be 8 in. Take 1/2 in.

How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. 4 in. 3 in. 3 in. wide and 12 in. FIG. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet.6 -. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. This forms a slot. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. 2. thick. 1. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. 9 in. Fig. thick. 3. long. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. 5. wide and 5 ft. wide and 5 ft. as in Fig. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. 1 in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. and 1/4 in. long. with each projection 3-in. wood screws. long. The large pulley is about 14 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. 6. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. A crosspiece 3/4-in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. cut in the shape shown in Fig. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. long. but yellow pine is the best. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. as shown in Fig. in diameter. 7. joint be accurately put together. 4. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. Four blocks 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. thick. from the end of same. thick. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. These are bent and nailed. 1 in. thick. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. wide and 3 in. material 2 in. wide and 5 ft.

which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. first removing the crank. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. above the runner level. Manhattan. by 1-in. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. . --Contributed by C. Welsh. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. R. Water 1 oz. says Photography. Kan. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. attach runners and use it on the ice. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in.

How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. from an ordinary clamp skate. . Newton. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. Leominster. 3. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Treasdale. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. and very much cheaper. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. The print is washed. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. also. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Printing is carried rather far. 1 oz. 2. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. as shown in Fig. of water. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Mass. --Contributed by Edward M. as shown in Fig. 1.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. --Contributed by Wallace C.

Then. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. Fig. and bend them as shown in the sketch. say. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. high for rabbits. and to the bottom. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. --Contributed by H. F. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. from one end. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. 1 ft. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. as shown in the sketch. 1. which represents the back side of the door.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. fasten a 2-in. Fig. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. wide. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. and 3 ft. extending the width of the box. about 10 in. 1-1/2 ft. The swing door B. Take two glass tubes. The thread is broken off at the . square piece. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. 2. 1. A. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. Alexandria. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. Church. hole. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. high. Va. long. with about 1/8-in. Place a 10-in. wide and 4 in. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. too. causing the door to swing back and up. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out.

plates. Out two rectangular holes. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. Paste a piece of strong black paper. 2.by 5-in. as shown in Fig. . Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. trolley cars. A and B. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. 1 in. and go in the holder in the same way. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. and exactly 5 by 7 in. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. 1. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. long. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle.. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in.by 7-in. automobiles. wide. Cut an opening in the other piece. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. 3. shorter at each end. horses and dogs. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. B. black surfaced if possible. say 8 in. high and 12 in. Fig. Chicago. from the edge on each side of these openings. long. wide. Jr. being 1/8 in. Take two pieces of pasteboard.proper place to make a small hole. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. to be used as a driving pulley. C. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. inside of the opening. in size. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. Fig. but cut it 1/4 in. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. -Contributed by William M. shorter. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. Crilly. camera and wish to use some 4. wide and 5 in. says Camera Craft. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. D. in size. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. 10 in. This opening. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate.

A cell of this kind can easily be made.in. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. into which the dog is harnessed.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. in diameter. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. The needle will then point north and south. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. making a . if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. if it has previously been magnetized. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about.. wide will be required. long and 6 in.

says Electrician and Mechanic. Pack the paste in. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. of water. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. A is a block of l-in. pull out the wire as needed. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. in diameter and 6 in. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. under the spool in the paraffin. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. File the rods to remove the copper plate.watertight receptacle. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. Form a 1/2-in. plaster of paris. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H.in. This makes the wire smooth. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. fodder. B is a base of 1 in. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. 1 lb. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. Do not paint any surface. when the paraffin is melted. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. leaving about 1/2-in. of the plate at one end. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. short time. zinc oxide. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. F is a spool. of rosin and 2 oz. in which P is the pan. of the top. and a notch between the base and the pan. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. Place the pan on the stove. . chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. sal ammoniac. beeswax melted together. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. pine. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. for a connection. filter. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. only the joints. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. 3/4 lb. one that will hold about 1 qt. with narrow flanges. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. fuel and packing purposes. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. long which are copper plated. 1/4 lb.

for others the opposite way. while for others it will not revolve at all. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. for some it will turn one way. At least it is amusing. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. but the thing would not move at all. let them try it. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Enlarge the hole slightly. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and therein is the trick. grip the stick firmly in one hand. as in the other movement. by the Hindoos in India. and then. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. 2. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. and he finally. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Very few can make it turn both ways at will." which created much merriment. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. g.. thus producing two different vibrations. long. or think they can do the same. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Ohio. from vexation. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. and one friend tells me that they were . square and about 9 in. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Try it and see. If any of your audience presume to dispute. Toledo. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body.

A square stick with notches on edge is best. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. 6. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. 4. and I think the results may be of interest. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands.100 r. gave the best results. the rotation may be obtained. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. 2. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. rotation was obtained. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. Speeds between 700 and 1. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. 7. and. If the pressure was upon an edge. 5. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. m. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. by means of a center punch. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. secondly. The experiments were as follows: 1. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. p. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. no rotation resulted. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. Thus a circular or . To operate. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. 3. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results.

Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. at first. --Contributed by M. and the resultant "basket splash. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. if the pressure is from the left. D. A wire is tied around the can. --Contributed by G.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. Sloan. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. or greasy. as shown. Lloyd. Duluth. it will be clockwise. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. forming a handle for carrying. a piece of wire and a candle. A. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. the liquid is forced away from the sphere." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. G... . so far as can be seen from the photographs. Washington. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. the upper portion is. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. Ph. Minn. is driven violently away. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. unwetted by the liquid. and not to friction of the pin in the hole.D. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. C. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. and the height of the fall about 6 in. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. flange and a 1/4-in. long. in diameter. as shown. about 2-5/8 in. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. thick and 1 in. hole drilled in the center.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Each wheel is 1/4 in. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. axle. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. as shown in Fig. with a 1/16-in. 1. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles.

with cardboard 3 in. These ends are fastened together. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 6. is made from a piece of clock spring. The first piece.brass. A trolley. 3. 5. The parts. Fuller. or main part of the frame. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. is made from brass. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. which must be 110 volt alternating current. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. The other two pieces are 1/2-in.50. are shown in Fig. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. Fig. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. wood. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. long. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. 2. 3. The current. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. as shown in Fig. The motor is now bolted. 3/4 in. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. bottom side up. of No. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. wide and 16 in. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. --Contributed by Maurice E. put together complete. 1 from 1/4-in. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. Texas. and the locomotive is ready for running. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. each in its proper place. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . 2. lamp in series with the coil. holes 1 in. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. This will save buying a track. Fig. If the ends are to be soldered. bent as shown. 4. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. San Antonio. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration.

2. Fig. O. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. 1. Cincinnati. but do not heat the center. Fig 1. The quarter will not go all the way down. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. the length of a paper clip. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. as shown in Fig. When cold treat the other end in the same way. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. as shown in Fig.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. and as this end . 3. and holes drilled in them. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. then continue to tighten much more. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a.

or apparent security of the knot. When the cutter A. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. When the trick is to be performed. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. has finished a cut for a tooth. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. or should the lathe head be raised. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. A pair of centers are fitted. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. 2 and 1 respectively. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. In the sketch. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. and adjusted . at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel.

draw center lines across the required space. such as brass or marble. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. (5. An ordinary machine will do. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . blotter back. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. (6.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. if but two parts. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. In this manner gears 3 in. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. 2.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. tea cosey. Fig. holding it in place with the left hand.to run true. (1. tea cosey. trace the outline. N. coin purse. swing lathe. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. 1. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. book mark. at the same time striking light. watch fob ready for fastenings. note book. or one-half of the design. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. Fold over along these center lines. (4. --Contributed by Howard S. (3. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. (2. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. Bunker. Second row: -Two book marks. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. and a nut pick. above the surface. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. gentleman's card case or bill book. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. about 1-1/2 in.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. if four parts are to be alike. dividing it into as many parts as desired. Bott.) Make on paper the design wanted. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). The frame holding the mandrel. twisted around itself and soldered. Brooklyn. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. Y. lady's card case. long. --Contributed by Samuel C. lady's belt bag. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. When connecting to batteries.) Place the paper design on the leather and.

Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle. some heavy rubber hose.

through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. and bore a hole through the center. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. and push it through a cork. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington.C. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. Florida. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. D. a distance of 900 miles. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle.. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. B. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. C. where it condenses. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. The electrodes are made . from Key West. A. into which fit a small piece of tube. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. Thrust a pin. If the needle is not horizontal.

and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable.in. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. If 20-ft. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. by 3/4 in. 1-1/2 in. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. 3. use 10-ft. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. 1. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. several strips 1/2 in. 2 arm sticks 1 in.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. which is tacked to the front edge. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. long. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. free from knots. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. 1. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. using a high resistance receiver. All wiring is done with No. 3/4 in. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. as shown in Fig. or flying-machine. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. 1-1/4 in. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. Powell. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. 2 in. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. apart and extend 1 ft. 2. C. as shown in Fig. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. take the glider to the top of a hill. as shown in Fig. wide and 3 ft. long. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. wide and 4 ft. 2. 16 piano wire. The operator can then land safely and . thick. thick. 1. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. thick. To make a glide. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. 12 uprights 1/2 in. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. thick. Washington. lengths and splice them. and also to keep it steady in its flight. wide and 3 ft. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. wide and 20 ft. wide and 4 ft long. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. Connect as shown in the illustration. slacken speed and settle. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. D. long for the body of the operator. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. square and 8 ft long. wide and 4 ft. long. thick. long. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. --Contributed by Edwin L. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. 1/2. lumber cannot be procured. both laterally and longitudinally. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. Four long beams 3/4 in. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. long. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane.

Great care should be .gently on his feet. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Glides are always made against the wind. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Of course. but this must be found by experience. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes.

Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. 1. --Contributed by L. as shown in Fig. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. which causes the dip in the line. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. Bellingham. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop.exercised in making landings. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. When heated a little. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. M. a creature of Greek mythology. Olson. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. 2. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. half man and half horse. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur.

At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. outside the box. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. in diameter. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. 14 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. long. will complete the material list. making it 2-1/2 in. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. about the size of door screen wire. of small rubber tubing. long and about 3/8 in. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. this will cost about 15 cents. about the size of stove pipe wire. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. at the other. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. a piece of brass or steel wire. square. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. While at the drug store get 3 ft. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. The light from the . When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered.

M. . A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. as shown in Fig. 1. as shown in the sketch. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. while others will fail time after time. Hunting. O. 2. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. --Photo by M. Dayton. If done properly the card will flyaway. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. as shown in Fig. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. This is very simple when you know how. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair.

The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. When the desired shape has been obtained. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. This game is played by five persons. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. as before. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. as described. If a certain color is to be more prominent. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve." or the Chinese students' favorite game. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. place the other two. as shown. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. then put it on the hatpin head. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. hold the lump over the flame. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. closing both hands quickly. Cool in water and dry.

using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. these sectors. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. distribute electric charges . After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. or more in width. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. passing through neutralizing brushes. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in.

and pins inserted and soldered. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. D. The fork part is 6 in. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. are made from 7/8-in. long. The plates. and this should be done before cutting the circle. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. in diameter. at the other. wide at one end. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. The two pieces. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. 3. Fig. in diameter. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. long and the standards 3 in. in diameter. The collectors are made. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. long and the shank 4 in. in diameter. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. 1. in diameter and 15 in. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. material 7 in. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. 1-1/2 in. These pins. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. EE. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. turned wood pieces. The drive wheels. and 4 in. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. C C. as shown in Fig. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. to which insulating handles . in diameter. are made from solid. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. long. Fig. from about 1/4-in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. 2. The plates are trued up. wide. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. Two solid glass rods. 3. GG. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. in diameter. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. brass tubing and the discharging rods. the side pieces being 24 in. 4. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. 1 in. free from wrinkles.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. after they are mounted. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. RR. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. Two pieces of 1-in. and of a uniform thickness. as shown in Fig. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. or teeth. 3/4 in. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. and the outer end 11/2 in.

The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. in diameter. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft.. long. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. Lloyd Enos. and the work was done by themselves. wide and 22 ft. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. KK. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. Colorado City. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. Colo. which are bent as shown. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete.are attached. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. ball and the other one 3/4 in. one having a 2-in. --Contributed by C. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. 12 ft. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. D. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water.

Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. and bore a hole 1/2 in. deep. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. string together. using a 1-in. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. as at A. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. They can be used to keep pins and needles. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. The key will drop from the string. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch.is a good one. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. yet such a thing can be done. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. pens . fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. bit.

adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. above the work and striking it with the hammer. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. two spikes. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. also trace the decorative design. they make attractive little pieces to have about. file. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. Draw one-half the design free hand. sharp division between background and design. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. 2.. 3. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house.and pencils. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. inside the second on all.. Having determined the size of the tray. 7. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. about 3/4-in. This is to make a clean. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. When the stamping is completed. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. very rapid progress can be made. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. 8. 9. 6. extra metal on each of the four sides. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. Raise the ends. 5. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. 4. above the metal. and the third one 1/4 in. flat and round-nosed pliers. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. etc. stamp the background promiscuously. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. using a nail filed to chisel edge. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. then the other side. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. They are easily made. 23 gauge. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. unless it would be the metal shears. etc. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. or cigar ashes. Inside this oblong. slim screw. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. Use . Proceed as follows: 1. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. inside the first on all. The second oblong was 3/4 in.

and the effect will be most pleasing. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. 6. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. first fingers.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. In the first numbering. third fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. 9. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. 7. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. The eyes. 10. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. and fourth fingers. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. 8. second fingers. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations.

there are no fingers above. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. or the product of 6 times 6. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. At a glance you see four tens or 40. 2 times 2 equals 4. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. 11. 25 times 25. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. which would be 70. Let us multiply 12 by 12. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. Put your thumbs together. 12. if we wish. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. the product of 12 times 12. or 80. etc. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44.. . or the product of 8 times 9. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. viz. but being simple it saves time and trouble. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. etc. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. first fingers.. thumbs. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. or numbers above 10. 400. In the second numbering. which would be 16. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. or 60. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. above 20 times 20. etc. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100.. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. as high as you want to go. renumber your fingers. Still. and the six lower fingers as six tens. above 15 times 15 it is 200. Two times one are two. which tens are added. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. 600.

the upper fingers representing a value of 20. and. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. or what. 2. 21. forties. being 80). And the lump sum to add. twenties. . In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. the value which the upper fingers have. the value of the upper fingers being 20. Take For example 18 times 18. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. in the case of a nearsighted person. at the will of the observer. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. beginning the thumbs with 16. Proceed as in the second lumbering. 3. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. For example. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. the lump sum to add. lastly. first finger 17. the inversion takes place against his will. For figures ending in 6. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. etc. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. adding 400 instead of 100. further. whether the one described in second or third numbering. about a vertical axis. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. which is the half-way point between the two fives.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers.. 75 and 85. thumbs. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. It takes place also. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. the revolution seems to reverse. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. as one might suppose. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. first fingers 22. or from above or from below. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. when he removes his spectacles. 7. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. 8. and so on. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. however. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. not rotation. thirties. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. The inversion and reversion did not take place. any two figures between 45 and 55.

but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. tee. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. and putting a cork on the point. when he knows which direction is right. The ports were not easy to make. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. holding it firmly in a horizontal position.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. A flat slide valve was used. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. Looking at it in semidarkness. as . Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. sometimes the point towards him. the other appearance asserts itself. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee.

Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. if continued too long without proper treatment. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Kutscher. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. about 2 in. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. secure a piece of No. Springfield. in diameter. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. across the head. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. .. as in a vise. saw off a section of a broom handle. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. Beating copper tends to harden it and. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. pipe 10 in. apart. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. pipe. bottom side up. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. The eccentric is constructed of washers.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. The tools are simple and can be made easily. If nothing better is at hand. Next take a block of wood. deep. While this engine does not give much power. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. across and 1/2 in. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. Ill. Fasten the block solidly. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. and make in one end a hollow. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. inexpensive. H. -Contributed by W. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. it is easily built. The steam chest is round. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. such as is shown in the illustration.

cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. especially when the object is near to the observer. O. To overcome this hardness. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. To produce color effects on copper. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. This process is called annealing. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. as it softens the metal. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. C. and. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. the other to the left. Hay. Vinegar. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. S. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good.will cause the metal to break. Camden. --Contributed by W. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish.

disappears fully. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. orange. it. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine.stereoscope. diameter. But they seem black. because. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. from the stereograph. the left eye sees through a blue screen. although they pass through the screen. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. So with the stereograph. and lies to the right on the picture. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. that for the right. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. In order to make them appear before the card. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. would serve the same purpose. It is just as though they were not there. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. . they must be a very trifle apart. however. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. and without any picture. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. in the proper choice of colors. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. as for instance red and green. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. the one for the left eye being blue. because of the rays coming from them. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. not two mounted side by side. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. only the orange rays may pass through. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. with the stereograph. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. The further apart the pictures are. The red portions of the picture are not seen. the further from the card will the composite image appear. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. while both eyes together see a white background.

The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. or the middle of the bottle. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. The weight of the air in round . etc. wide and 1 in. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. wireless. in diameter. long and a hole drilled in each end. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. 12 gauge wire. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. A small round bottle about 1/2 in.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. 1/4 in. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. This should only be bored about half way through the block. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Cal. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. in the shape of a crank. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. A No. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. Place a NO. thick. San Francisco. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles.

to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. pine 3 in. The 4 in. and a slow fall. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. if accurately constructed. . long. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. In general. if you choose. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. the instrument. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. but before attempting to put in the mercury. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. 30 in. long. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. Only redistilled mercury should be used. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. 34 ft. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. wide and 40 in. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. will calibrate itself. Before fastening the scale. high. a glass tube 1/8 in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. high..numbers is 15 lb. But if a standard barometer is not available. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. thick. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. or a column of mercury (density 13. internal diameter and about 34 in. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. wide and 4 in. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. a bottle 1 in. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. square. long. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made.6) 1 in. inside diameter and 2 in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. high. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. square. the contrary. or. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax.

The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. which is slipped quickly over the end. and place them as shown in Fig. 5. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. wide and 10 in. long. 6 and 7. the size of the outside of the bottle. thick. 2. Mark out seven 1-in. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. 1. 3. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. Number the pieces 1. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. a cover from a baking powder can will do. Procure a metal can cover.

3 to the center. 3 into No.J. 2's place. 7 over No. 3. Move 5-Jump No. 7's place. Move 9-Jump No. 5's place. N. Move 2-Jump No. as shown in Fig. 2. using checkers for men. Move 3-Move No. 1. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 2. 6 into No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. Move 8-Jump No. 6. 7. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. procure unbleached tent duck. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. long and 2 ft. Cape May Point. 3. Move 10-Move No. 3 over No. 6. 6 in. in diameter. 6 to No. shaped like Fig. 5's place. Make 22 sections. 2 over No. 2 . Move ll-Jump No. Move 6-Move No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 1 into No. 3. 5 over No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 5 over No. Woolson. 1 to No. To make such a tent. L. which is the very best material for the purpose. 1. each 10 ft. Move 4-Jump No. 2's place. Move 7-Jump No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 5. 6 over No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 7 over No. Move 14-Jump No.-Contributed by W. Move 12-Jump No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Move 13-Move No. l over No. 2 over No. Move 15-Move No. This can be done on a checker board. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places.

6. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. wide by 12 in. from the top. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. Use blocks. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. fill with canvas edging. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. wide at the bottom. 5. As shown in the sketch. about 9 in. 9 by 12 in. After transferring the design to the brass. added. Have the tent pole 3 in. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. 3 in. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. in diameter. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced.. to a smooth board of soft wood. 2. Emsworth. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. 5) stuck in the ground. will do. Tress. In raising the tent. leaving the rest for an opening.J. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. wide at the bottom. high. Punch holes in the brass in . making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. as in Fig. diameter. --Contributed by G. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. These are ventilators. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. 2 in. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. long. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. Fig. Fig. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. Nail a thin sheet of brass. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. long and 4 in. round galvanized iron. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. 6-in. made in two sections.in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. Pa.

It will not.the spaces around the outlined figures. When all the holes are punched. The pattern is traced as before. excepting the 1/4-in. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. cut out the brass on the outside lines. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. Chicago. Corr. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. bend into shape. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. apart. around the outside of the pattern. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. When the edges are brought together by bending. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. but before punching the holes. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. . fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty.

E. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle.however. pipe is used for the hub. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. better still. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. If a wheel is selected. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. --Contributed by Geo. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. Oregon. partially filled with cream. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. or center on which the frame swings. Dunham.. These pipes are . so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. G. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. allowing 2 ft. Badger. or. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. pipe. Que. Mayger. --Contributed by H. or less. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. A 6-in. A cast-iron ring. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. Stevens. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. between which is placed the fruit jar.

The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. pipe. bent to the desired circle. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. An extra wheel 18 in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. pipe clamps.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in.

2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. as shown in Fig. The performer. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. which was placed in an upright position. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. while doing this. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. and the guide withdrawn. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. 1. 3. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. and dropped on the table.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification.

Louis. The box can be made of selected oak or . D. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. in a half circle. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Colo. 1. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. --Contributed by H. first. it requires no expensive condensing lens. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Harkins. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. Denver. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. -Contributed by C. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. in diameter on another piece of tin. 2. F. and second. Mo. St. White. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig.

1. AA. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. represented by the dotted line in Fig. wide by 5 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. and. The door covering this hole in the back. fit into the runners. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. high and must . A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. and 2 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. but not tight. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. long. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. long. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. focal length. wide and 6-1/2 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. 3-1/2 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. This will be 3/4 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. An open space 4 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. from each end of the outside of the box. If a camera lens is used. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. 2. high and 11 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in.mahogany. from each end. wide and 5 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. as shown in Fig. long and should be placed vertically. wide. 5-1/2 in. Two or three holes about 1 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat.

Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. April. June and November.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. Bradley. the article may be propped up . as it requires an airtight case. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. --Contributed by Chas. calling this February. calling that knuckle January. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. and so on. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September.." etc. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. C. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. Ohio. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. This process is rather a difficult one. 1. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. and extending the whole height of the lantern. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. provided it is airtight. then the second knuckle will be March. West Toledo. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia.

one of lead and one of aluminum. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. giving it an occasional stir. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. and set aside for half a day. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them.with small sticks. N. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. Schenectady. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. 1. 1 and 2. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. the lid or cover closed. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. In both Fig. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. or suspended by a string. and the lead 24 sq. but waxed. --Contributed by J. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. 2. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. Pour in a little turpentine. In each place two electrodes. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. Crawford. taking care to have all the edges closed. Y. H. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. in. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. running small motors and lighting small lamps. . The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. fruit jars are required. The top of a table will do. in.

you remove the glass. You have an understanding with some one in the company.. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. Cleveland. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. he throws the other. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. as you have held it all the time. O. as well as others. After a few seconds' time. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. which you warm with your hands. This trick is very simple. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. He. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug.

but in making one. but by being careful at shores. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. . The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents.take the handiest one. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Be sure that this is the right one. if any snags are encountered. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. on a table. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. put it under the glass. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. J. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle.-Contributed by E. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Colo. near a partition or curtain. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Pull the ends quickly. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. Victor. in diameter in the center. Crocker. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use.

2 and braced with an iron band. 1. from the bow and the large one. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. wide and 12 ft.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 7 ft. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. 1 mast. selected pine. 8 in. 1 in. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces.. for the bow. 1 in. square by 16 ft. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 1 in. 1 piece. apart. 50 ft. The keelson. 2 gunwales. wide 12-oz. long. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. at the ends. of rope. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together.. 1/8 in. by 8 in. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. from the stern. of 1-1/2-yd. and fastened with screws. by 15 ft. 14 rib bands. one 6 in. by 2 in. by 10 ft. by 16 ft. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. Paint. for the stern piece. 1 in. wide and 12 ft. 4 outwales. are as follows: 1 keelson. and. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 8 yd. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. 3 and 4. Fig. drilled and fastened with screws. for cockpit frame. wide. long. and the other 12 in. for center deck braces. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. and is removed after the ribs are in place. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. long. from each end to 1 in. 1/4 in. thick and 3/4 in. 1 piece. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. by 2 in. 3 in. 2 in. 3 in. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 9 ft. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. by 12 in. 11 yd. the smaller is placed 3 ft. clear pine. long. by 16 ft. Both ends are mortised. ducking. is 14 ft. wide unbleached muslin. as illustrated in the engraving. screws and cleats. of 1-yd.

a piece 1/4 in. screws. length of canvas is cut in the center. A 6-in. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. 3-1/2 ft. thick and 12 in. 5. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. The 11-yd. wide. The trimming is wood.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. The block is fastened to the keelson. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. 4 in. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. 6. 1 in. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. long. 1 in. thick. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. A piece of oak. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. also. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. and fastened to them with bolts. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. . They are 1 in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. gunwales and keelson. This block. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. wood screws. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. long is well soaked in water. These are put in 6 in. 6 and 7. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. doubled. thick. 6 in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. wide and 14 in. apart. 7 and 8. Figs. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. Braces. 9. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. in diameter through the block. corner braces. is a cube having sides 6 in. wide and 24 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. long. Fig. thick 1-1/2 in. from the bow. thick and 1/2 in. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. A block of pine. 1/4 in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. wide and 3 ft. long. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. Before making the deck. is cut to fit under the top boards. The deck is not so hard to do. wide. Fig. A seam should be made along the center piece. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws.

long that will fit the holes in the hinge. Ill. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. long. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. is 6 in. The house will accommodate 20 families. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. at the other. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. Fig. The keel. long. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. 12. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. each 1 in. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. E. in diameter and 10 ft. Tronnes. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. A strip 1 in. wide. apart in the muslin. are used for the boom and gaff. 10 with a movable handle. Wilmette.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. The sail is a triangle. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. thick by 2 in. wide at one end and 12 in. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. . The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. 11. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. The mast has two side and one front stay. --Contributed by O.

One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. 2. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. thick. 3. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. about 5/16 in. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. flat on one side. Ill. 1. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. as shown in Fig. 4. long. wide. 2-1/2 in. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. E. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. 1 yd. long. long. flat-headed screws. and 3 ft. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. 5. Cut the maple. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. long and five 1/2-in. thick. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. five 1/2-in. flat headed screws.into two 14-in. and the other 18 in. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. wide and 2 ft. thick. wide.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. 2-1/2 in. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. one 11-1/2 in. Take this and fold it over . How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. Fig. with the ends and the other side rounding. --Contributed by O. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. Wilmette. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. 2 in. Bevel both sides of the pieces. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. wide and 30 in. Tronnes. square.

wide and 3 ft. When the glue is set. and make a turn in each end of the wires. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. The sides are 3-1/4 in. and the four outside edges. 5 from 1/16-in. --Contributed by W. wide . and glue to this board two smaller pieces. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. Bliss. this square box is well sandpapered. long. Another piece. thick. B. D. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. wide and 6-3/4 in. long. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up.once. Wind three layers of about No. wide and 6-1/2 in. thick and 3 in. long. F. long. After the glue. 1. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. forming an eye for a screw. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. the top and bottom. wide and 4-1/2 in. 1-1/4 in. and take care that the pieces are all square. as well as the edges around the opening. St. wide and 2-1/2 in. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. About 1/2 in. square. long. Glue a three cornered piece. 6-1/2 in. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. long. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. C. are rounded. wide and 5 in. Mo. 2 and 3. thick. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. 3/8 in. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. The bag is then turned inside out. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. wide and 2-3/4 in. pieces 2-5/8 in. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. A. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. soaked with water and blown up. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. E. C. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. 3 in. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. Figs. Fig. If carefully and neatly made. but can be governed by circumstances. Louis. long. about 3/8 in. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. Cut another piece of board. 3-1/4 in. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. of each end unwound for connections. square. The front. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. is set. Make a double stitch all around the edge. the mechanical parts can be put together. A. long. then centered.

The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. 4. in diameter. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. R. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. The end of the polar axis B. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. bored in the back. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. When the current flows through the coil. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. wide and 9 in. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. Yorkshire. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in.A. --Contributed by George Heimroth. and fasten in place. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. wide and 2-1/2 in.R. 4 is not movable. G. long. 1/16 in. C. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. The stronger the current. Place the tin. 4. that has the end turned with a shoulder. showing a greater defection of the pointer. long. the part carrying the pointer moves away. hole is fastened to the pointer. so it will just clear the tin. Fig. board. Chapman. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. Another strip of tin. These wires should be about 1 in. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. Austwick Hall. I. Fig. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. and the farther apart they will be forced. from one end. 1/4 in. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. 5-1/2 in. Like poles repel each other. the same size as the first. Richmond Hill. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. long. from the spindle. A pointer 12 in.and 2-5/8 in. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. L. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. and as the part Fig. 5. The resistance is now adjusted to show . W. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. The base is a board 5 in. F. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete.S. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. thick. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass.

shows mean siderial. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. 1881. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. A. 10 min. say Venus at the date of observation. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. and vice . 10 min. The following formula will show how this may be found. 30 min. M. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. at 9 hr. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. thus: 9 hr.

Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. owing to the low internal resistance. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. and then verify its correctness by measurement. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. or. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Hall.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. New Haven. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Conn. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc.m.f. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. --Contributed by Robert W. . The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. if one of these cannot be had. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell.

When the follower is screwed down. Fig. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. The boring bar. long. Wet paper will answer. leaves or bark.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. inside diameter and about 5 in. 1. fresh grass. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. put the fish among the ashes. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. arsenic to every 20 lb. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. 1-3/4 in. of alum and 4 oz. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . 3/8 in. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. and heap the glowing coals on top. Then. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. thick. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. cover up with the same. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. especially for cooking fish. as shown in the accompanying picture. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants.

A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. thick. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. Two pieces of 3/4 -in.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. fastened with a pin. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. pipe. about 1/2 in. when they were turned in. pipe. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. and threaded on both ends. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. pipe were fitted to these holes so that.

The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. It . 4. Clermont. 5. wide. the float is too high. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. however. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. Fig. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. a jump spark would be much better. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. Fig. as the one illustrated herewith. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. 30 in. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. A 1-in. The rough frame. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. long. labor and time. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. 2. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. was then finished on an emery wheel. then it should be ground to a fit. Fig. but never one which required so little material. square iron. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws.valve stems. and which gave such satisfactory results. 3. thick and 3 in. bent in the shape of a U. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. This plate also supports the rocker arms. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. If the valve keeps dripping. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. Iowa. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley.

strong clear material only should be employed. long. strengthened by a piece 4 in. The illustration largely explains itself. completes the merry-go-round. in diameter and 15 in. 12 ft. for the "motive power" to grasp. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. As there is no bracing. This makes an easy adjustment. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. hole bored in the post. being held in position by spikes as shown. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. extending above. set 3 ft. butting against short stakes. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. and a little junk. A malleable iron bolt. long. Nieman. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . If it is to be used for adults. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. W. --Contributed by C. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. It looks like a toy." little and big. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. timber. long. in fact. from all over the neighborhood. 3/4 in. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. with no trees or buildings in the way. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. no matter what your age or size may be. square and 5 ft.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. The seats are regular swing boards. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. A 3/4 -in. long is the pivot. Use a heavy washer at the head. square and 2 ft. so it must be strong enough. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. in the ground with 8 ft. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. square. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. The crosspiece is 2 in. and. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. rope is not too heavy. from the center. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around.

The bow is now bent. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. Having placed the backbone in position. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. To wind the string upon the reel. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. and 18 in. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. a wreck. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. square. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. light and strong. 1/4 by 3/32 in. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters.2 emery. and sent to earth. then it is securely fastened. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. 2. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. A reel is next made. These ends are placed about 14 in. away. Both have large reels full of . long. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. one for the backbone and one for the bow. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. 1. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. if nothing better is at hand.the fingers. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. as shown in Fig. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. The backbone is flat. 4. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel.

then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite.-Contributed by S. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. C. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. Bunker. Newburyport. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. The handle end is held down with a staple. common packing thread. he pays out a large amount of string. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. the balance. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. Y. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. If the second kite is close enough. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Moody. First. Mass. or glass-covered string. --Contributed' by Harry S. Brooklyn. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. often several hundred yards of it. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away.string. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. N. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites.

If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. make the pad as shown in the illustration. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Vt. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. If the table is round. each the size of half the table top. --Contributed by Earl R. lengths (Fig. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. then a dust protector. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. such as mill men use. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. square (Fig. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Hastings. must be attached to a 3-ft. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. then draw the string up tight.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Corinth. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. length of 2-in. cutting the circular piece into quarters. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine.

E. 6-1/4 in. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side.. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. . and E to G. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. from E to F. Wharton. Oakland. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. 17-1/2 in. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. Calif. Use a smooth. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B.. G to H.9-1/4 in. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. hard pencil.-Contributed by H. Moisten the . 16-1/4 in.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. from C to D. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. trace the design carefully on the leather. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. 2-1/4 in. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. which spoils the leather effect.. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions.

make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. also lines A-G. and E-G. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. H-B. and corresponding lines on the other side. wide. place both together and with a leather punch. Cut it the same size as the bag. To complete the bag. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. and lace through the holes. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. apart. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. Now cut narrow thongs. about 1/8 in. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. G-J. Trace the openings for the handles. get something with which to make a lining. is taken off at a time. if not more than 1 in. I made this motor . Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. with the rounded sides of the tools. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire.

The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. iron. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. --Contributed by J. . both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. of No. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. B. D. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. long.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. in length.M. each being a half circle. Pasadena. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. Calif. 2-1/4 in. 2. 24 gauge magnet wire. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. as shown in Fig. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. 1. Shannon. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. 1. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax.

The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. high. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. 1. pasted in alternately. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. near the center. balloon should be about 8 ft. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. and the gores cut from these. The gores for a 6-ft. are the best kind to make. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. from the bottom end. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical.

1. coming through the small pipe A. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. The boat soon attains considerable speed. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. leaving a long wake behind. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. In removing grease from wood. so it will hang as shown in Fig. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. E. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. as shown in Fig. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. somewhat larger in size. These are to hold the wick ball. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. A. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. 5. 3. --Contributed by R. in diameter. Fig. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. as shown in Fig. leaving the solution on over night. As the boat is driven forward by this force. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. 4. Staunton. using about 1/2-in. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. In starting the balloon on its flight. If the gores have been put together right. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water.widest point. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. 2. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. after which the paint will adhere permanently. lap on the edges. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. B. The steam. After washing. saturating it thoroughly.

The blocks are about 6 in. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. 1. long and each provided with a handle.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . as is shown in Fig. Second. long. There are three ways of doing this: First. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. in bowling form. Third. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. high and 8 in. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. In using either of the two methods described. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. apart on these lines. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. if you have several copies of the photograph. wide by 6 in. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it.

Fig. thick. Rinse the plate in cold water. 2. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. being careful not to dent the metal. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Albany. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Y. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. N. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Fig. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. not pointed down at the road at an angle. --Contributed by John A. Hellwig. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal.

any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. CC. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. 5 in. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. Break off the frame. Richmond. 2 the front view. and Fig. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. These corner irons are also screwed to.upon any particular object. A. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. A circular piece of wood. Paine. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. 6 in. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. With this device. which is 4 in. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Va. S. 1 Fig. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. are screwed to the circular piece. thick. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. with a set screw. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. wide and 8 in. --Contributed by R. through which passes the set screw S. long for the base. in diameter. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Corner irons. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. A. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. wide and of any desired height. is fastened to a common camera tripod. B. and. In Fig. and not produce the right sound. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish.

The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. La Salle. Kidder. S. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. This horn. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. as only the can is visible. in diameter of some 1-in. This will make a very compact electric horn. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. . connecting the engine and washing machine wheel.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. I made a wheel 26 in. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. D. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. thus producing sound waves. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. R. Lake Preston. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. pine boards. Ill. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. -1.

Doylestown. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. B. 2. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. --Contributed by James R. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. the same thickness as the coins. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. O. Feet may be added to the base if desired. A. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. 1. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. thick and 12 in. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Purdy. The frame is made of a heavy card. If the collection consists of only a few coins. If there is a large collection of coins. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. square. Fig. Kane. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . 1. --Contributed by C. Ghent.

This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. --Contributed by J. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides.E. A rivet punch is desirable. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. It will hold 4 oz. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. The material required is a sheet of No. Noble. Toronto. Milwaukee. cut and grooved. for after the slides have been shown a few times. plus a 3/8-in. Canada. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. thick. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. into which to place the screws . --Contributed by August T. If desired. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. A lead pencil. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. and then glued together as indicated. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. Smith.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. of developer. --Contributed by R. they become uninteresting. One Cloud. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful.J. a hammer or mallet. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. Neyer. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. though not absolutely necessary. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. border all around. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. melted and applied with a brush. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. several large nails. Cal. Wis.

The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. both outline and decoration. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. never upon the metal directly. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . using 1/2-in. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. and file it to a chisel edge. Take the nail. like the one shown. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. Remove the screws. screws placed about 1 in. There are several ways of working up the design. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. draw one part.

and two lengths. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. About 1/2 yd. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. square. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. . being ball bearing. square and 181/2 in. The pedal. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. two lengths. long. of 11-in. for the lower rails. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. l-1/8 in. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. 3. using a 1/2in. up from the lower end. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. square and 11 in. 1. Do not bend it over or flatten it. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. in the other. for the top. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. each 1 in. long. long. Provide four lengths for the legs. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. 2. 3/4 in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. as shown in Fig.wall. Rivet the band to the holder.

The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. Attalla. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. F. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by John Shahan. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. New York City. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. Ala. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. Quackenbush. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. having quite a length of threads.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection.

This novelty watch fob is made from felt. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . and the other 2-3/4 in. in depth. Assemble as shown in the sketch. D. stitched on both edges for appearance. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. long. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. college or lodge colors. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in.. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. making a lap of about 1 in. and 3/8 in. long. The desired emblem. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. Mich. initial. wide and 4-1/4 in. wide and 8-1/4 in. each 1-1/4 in. Luther. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. and two holes in the other. using class. something that is carbonated. Ironwood. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. Two pieces of felt. from the end. long. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. --Contributed by C. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. one about 1 in. the end of the other piece is folded over. from one end. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid.

if desired by the operator. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. 2. about 2 in. Schatz. This method allows a wide range of designs. which can be procured from a plumber. or more in height. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. 1/4 in. as shown in the sketch. Ind. from the center and opposite each other. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. Punch two holes A.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. --Contributed by John H. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. 1. and the cork will be driven out. as shown at B. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. Indianapolis. in the cover and the bottom. or a pasteboard box. A piece of lead. Fig. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. in diameter and 2 in.

Columbus. are turned up as in Fig. on both top and bottom. O. 5. putting in the design. The pieces of tin between the holes A. 1. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. Fig. and the ends of the bands looped over them. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. 4. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. A piece of thick glass. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig.Rolling Can Toy lead. or marble will serve. allowing the two ends to be free. as shown in Fig. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. metal. 3. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. it winds up the rubber band. . How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. When the can is rolled away from you. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. --Contributed by Mack Wilson.

Next place the leather on the glass. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. long and bored a 1/2-in. or more thick on each side. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. A pencil may be used the first time over. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. I secured a board 3/4 in. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. deep in its face. 3 in. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . 1 in. If it is desired to "line" the inside. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. from each end. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. thicker than the pinion. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. hole through it. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. and.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. thick. mark over the design. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. New York City. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. face up. The edges should be about 1/8 in. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. wide and 20 in. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. After this has been done.

1 piece for clamp. Fig. much of the hard labor will be saved. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 2 crosspieces. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 1 back board. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. pieces for the vise slides. thick top board.in the board into the bench top. 1. 3 by 3 by 36. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 1 top board. 1 top board. Brooklyn. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1 screw block. countersinking the heads of the vise end. lag screws as shown. N. M. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 3 by 3 by 6 in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. and fit it in place for the side vise. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 1 piece. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 2 end rails. Now fit up the two clamps. Cut the 2-in. New York. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Rice. 2 side rails. Make the lower frame first. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 4 guides. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. Syracuse. 2. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. --Contributed by A. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 1 piece for clamp. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. in diameter. Y. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in.

1 monkey wrench. 1 2-ft. 1 claw hammer. 1 rip saw. 3 and 6 in.screws. 1 compass saw. 1 pair dividers. 24 in. 1 pocket level. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 pair pliers. 1 marking gauge. Only the long run. 2 screwdrivers. The amateur workman. The bench is now complete.. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 nail set.. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 countersink. 1 jack plane or smoother. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 wood scraper. 1 cross cut saw. as well as the pattern maker. rule. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 bench plane or jointer. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. . 24 in. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop.. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. in diameter. 1 set gimlets. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 set chisels.

No. Fig. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. try square. being softer. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump.1. 2. 1 oilstone. the projecting point A. will be easier to work. Doylestown. 2 and 00 sandpaper. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. becomes like A. Pa. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. The calf skin. Fig. Fig. will sink into the handle as shown at D. after constant use. 1. 3. Fig.1 6-in. Kane. 1. ---Contributed by James M. but will not make .

Having prepared the two sides. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. First draw the design on paper. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. then prepare the leather. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. such as copper or brass. cover it completely with water enamel and. but a V-shaped nut pick. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. If cow hide is preferred. The form can be made of a stick of wood. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. and the length 6-5/8 in. will do just as well.as rigid a case as the cow skin. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. secure a piece of modeling calf. If calf skin is to be used. Two pieces will be required of this size. . After the outlines are traced. New York City. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. water or heat will not affect. -Contributed by Julia A. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. lay the design on the face. White. which steam. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. when dry. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. the same method of treatment is used. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. Turn the leather. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose.

This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Cobb. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. A. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. . and an adjustable friction-held loop. Portland. Cal. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Herrman.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. Richmond. as shown in the sketch. Maine. New York City. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by Chas. --Contributed by Chester L. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Jaquythe. C.

This was very difficult. . A thick piece of tin. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. Roberts. Wright. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. --Contributed by Geo. Cambridge. for instance. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. was marked out as shown. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Middletown. B. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. --Contributed by Wm. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well.. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. Conn. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. Mass. an inverted stewpan.

Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. well calcined and powdered. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. Chicago. The next morning there was no trace of oil. If any traces of the grease are left. which has been tried out several times with success. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. Herbert. but only an odor which soon vanished. L. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. so some bones were quickly calcined. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. Ind. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. but not running over. --Contributed by Paul Keller. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. and quite new. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. There was no quicklime to be had. Indianapolis. as shown. A beautifully bound book. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. used as part of furniture. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. F. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper.. . A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. apply powdered calcined magnesia. on a clear piece of glass. face down. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. When dry. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. and the grease will disappear. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. --Contributed by C. Bone.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. pulverized and applied. If the article is highly polished. Illinois. such as chair seats. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. of boiling water.

The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. long. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. high and are bolted to a block of wood. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. The pieces marked S are single. New York. the pieces . --Contributed by Geo. If properly adjusted. thick. says Scientific American. 2 in. deep and 5 in.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. wide and 12 in. soft steel with the opening 6 in.. 6 in. Tarrytown. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. set and thumbscrews. Howe. A. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle.. This coaster is simple and easy to make. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in.

If the letters are all cut the same height. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. for sending to friends. The seat is a board. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. they will look remarkably uniform. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. to the underside of which is a block. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. E. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. says Camera Craft. albums and the like. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. A sharp knife. Their size depends on the plate used. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. no doubt. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. with a short bolt through each pair as shown.

The puzzle is to get . This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. So made. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. and. pasting the prints on some thin card. using care to get it in the right position. In cutting out an 0. mount them on short pieces of corks. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. photographing them down to the desired size. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. for example. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. So arranged. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. after.

square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. squeezes along past the center of the tube. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . hung on pivots. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. so they will lie horizontal. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. long that will just fit are set in. Bayley. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. says the American Thresherman. of its top. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. He smells the bait. N. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. snow or anything to hide it.-Contributed by I.J. Old-Time Magic . The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. with the longest end outside. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. Cape May Point. G. A hole 6 or 7 in.

allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Press the hands together. Szerlip. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Rhode Island.faced up. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. E. then spread the string. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. --Contributed by L. Parker. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Pocatello. Brooklyn. then expose again. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Idaho. --Contributed by L. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Y. N. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Pawtucket. or rub the hands a little before doing so.

The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. narrower. long. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. 1. if any. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. or green oil paint. near the point end. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 2 Fig. in width. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. and if carefully made. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown.Genuine antique swords and armor. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. When the glue is thoroughly dry. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. or designs in this article are from authentic sources.. in building up his work from the illustrations. or a complete suit of armor. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. The pieces. they will look very much like the genuine article. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. Glue the other side of the blade. thick. whether he requires a single sword only. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. wipe the blade . The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. 3 Fig. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. using a straightedge and a pencil.. full size. wide and 2 in. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. The handle is next made. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. 1 Fig. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. says the English Mechanic. dark red. The blade should be about 27 in. end of the blade. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. When the whole is quite dry. 4 on the blade. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in.

A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. Fig.. 1/8 in. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. 4. The length of the handle. shows only two sides. Both edges of the blade are sharp. preferably of contrasting colors. This sword is about 68 in. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. in diameter. as it is . the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. 1. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. the length of the blade 28 in. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. about 1-1/2 in.. 3. the other two are identical. take two pieces of wood. and 3 in. In the finished piece. thick and 5 in. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. not for use only in cases of tableaux. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. the other is flat or half-round. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. 1. of course. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. 1. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. allowing for a good hold with both hands. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. 2. 1. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. the illustration. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. square and of any length desired. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. In making.with light strokes up and down several times. in the widest part at the lower end. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. In making this scimitar. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. 3. should be about 9 in. follow the directions as for Fig. long. 2. the other is flat or halfround. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig.

A cold . --Contributed by John Blake. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. Y. Both can be made easily. Morse. 2 in. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. piping and jackets by hard water. On each edge of the board. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Franklin. It is made of a plank. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. N. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. as there was some at hand. Mass. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. as can the pitch bed or block. or an insecure fastening. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. each about 1 ft. Doctors probed for the button without success. about 3/8 in. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. and. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. in an attempt to remove it. --Contributed by Katharine D. long. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. however. at the lower end. as shown in the sketch. Syracuse. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. The thinness of the plank. square. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. and if so. A piece of mild steel.

Trim up the edges and file them . and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. When the desired form has been obtained. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. To put it in another way. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. 18 gauge. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. 5 lb. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. To remedy this. tallow. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. 5 lb.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. secure a piece of brass of about No. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. a file to reduce the ends to shape. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. on the pitch... design down. using a small metal saw. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. When this has been done. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. plaster of Paris.

Fill the 3-in. and hang a bird swing.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. over the smaller vessel. Before giving the description. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30.000 ft. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Fig. 30 ft. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. in one minute or 550 lb. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. per second. one 18 in. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. using powdered pumice with lye. in diameter (Fig. . Clean the metal thoroughly. 1 ft. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. 1) and the other 12 in. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. per minute. and still revolve. make an unusual show window attraction. in diameter (Fig. but not to stop it. --Contributed by Harold H. in the center.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine.000 lb. or fraction of a horsepower. 3. 2). or 550 ft. to keep it from floating. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. That is lifting 33. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. lb. Cutter. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. The smaller is placed within the larger. in one second. 1 ft. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. This in turn divided by 33. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. A. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run.smooth. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. space between the vessels with water. lb. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. living together in what seems like one receptacle.

4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. 1 Fig. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. --Contributed. 2 Fig. Y. Somerville.3 Fig. Mass. Diameter Fig. The effect is surprising. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. by L.18 in. Campbell. or on a pedestal. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Diameter 12 in. F. N. --Contributed by J. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Szerlip. Brooklyn. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete .

as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished.copper of No. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. and then. Polish both of these pieces. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. This compound is impervious to water. and cut out the shape with the shears. In riveting. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. then by drawing a straightedge over it. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. unsatisfactory. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. is. keeping the center high. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. as a rule. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. using any of the common metal polishes. with other defects. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. to keep the metal from tarnishing. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. Do not be content merely to bend them over. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. after which it is ready for use. Rivet the cup to the base. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. the same as removing writing from a slate. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. often render it useless after a few months service. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. with the pliers. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. away from the edge. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. which. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. which may be of wood or tin. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. and the clay . care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine.

The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. 2. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Scotland. A. --Contributed by John T. in diameter and 5 in. Dunlop. DeLoof. Mich. 1. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. the device will work for an indefinite time. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. --Contributed by A. It is made of a glass tube. . Mich. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. The siphon is made of glass tubes. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver.can be pressed back and leveled. as shown in Fig. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Grand Rapids. Houghton. -Contributed by Thos. long. Shettleston. 3/4 in. Northville. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop.

stilettos and battle-axes. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. London.1 FIG. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. As the handle is to . put up as ornaments.FIG. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. 1. This sword is 4 ft. in width and 2 in. long. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle.

2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball.represent copper. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. The ball is made as described in Fig. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. small rope and round-headed nails. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. firmly glued on. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The crossbar and blade are steel. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. sharp edges on both sides. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. with both edges sharp. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. In Fig. A German poniard is shown in Fig. narrower. long with a dark handle of wood. the axe is of steel. in length. This weapon is about 1 ft. glue and put it in place. This sword is about 4 ft. 9. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. This stiletto has a wood handle. A German stiletto. This weapon is also about 1 ft. string. These must be cut from pieces of wood. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. paint it a dark brown or black. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. sometimes called cuirass breakers. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. When dry. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. 3 is shown a claymore. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. studded with brass or steel nails. in width. the same as used on the end of the handle. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. This axe is made similar to the one . wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. very broad. Cut two strips of tinfoil. with both edges of the blade sharp. one about 1/2 in. with wire or string' bound handle. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. The lower half of the handle is of wood. In Fig. then glued on the blade as shown. the upper part iron or steel. in length. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. In Fig. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. 20 spike. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. 11 were used. 7. is shown in Fig. The handle is of wood. wood with a keyhole saw. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. which is about 2-1/2 ft. 8. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. 6. 5. When the whole is quite dry. 4. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. Both handle and axe are of steel. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. long. Three large. The sword shown in Fig.

so the contents cannot be seen. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. --Contributed by E. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. 2. When wrapped all the way around. together as shown in Fig. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. 10. high. Chicago. Davis.described in Fig. Old-Time Magic . such as braided fishline. the ends are tied and cut off. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. . will pull where other belts slip. W. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. This will make a very good flexible belt.

add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. To make the flowers grow in an instant. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. These wires are put in the jar. with the circle centrally located. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. Bridgeton. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. 2. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Macdonald. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. There will be no change in color. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. The dotted lines in Fig. held in the right hand. --Contributed by A. apparently. an acid. 1 and put together as in Fig.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Oakland. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. filled with water. four glass tumblers. about one-third the way down from the top. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. or using small wedges of wood. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. some of the liquid. Calif. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. in a few seconds' time. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. As zinc is much lighter than iron. N.J. Before the performance. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. S. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. causing the flowers to grow.

Cal. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. --Contributed by W. says a correspondent of Photo Era. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. 2 for height. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. and equally worthy of individual treatment. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. and kept ready for use at any time. Jaquythe. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. not only because of the fact just mentioned. unless some special device is used. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. Richmond. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. A. This outlines the desired opening. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. If the size wanted is No. which are numbered for convenience in working. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. 4 for width and No. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. practical and costs nothing. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. When many slides are to be masked. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size.

Secure a sheet of No. or a pair of old tongs. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. a little less acid than water. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. and do not inhale the fumes. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. not the water into the acid. possibly. may be changed. too. is about right for the No. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. which is dangerous. This done. The decoration. With a stick. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. paint the design. The one shown is merely suggestive. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. When etched to the desired depth. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. 16 gauge. and the extreme length 7 in. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. but they can be easily revived.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. the paper is folded along the center line. Draw a design. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. about half and half. the margin and the entire back of the metal. or. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. using the carbon paper.

If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. so that when it is pressed down. J is another wire attached in the same way. about 1 in. When the button S is pressed. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. as shown in Fig. The connections are simple: I. the bell will ring. long. as shown in the illustration. as at H. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. 2. about 2-1/2 in. It may be either nailed or screwed down. Fig. Then get two posts. 3. A. 3/8 in. . apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. Nail a board. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. 2. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. it will touch post F. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. 1. 5. C and D. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. Paint the table any color desired. long and 1 ft. Fig. about 3 ft. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. high. wide and of the same length as the table. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. Fig. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. and about 2-1/2 ft. wide. to the table. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. with the wires underneath. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. 4. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. about 8 in. thick.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. Cut out a piece of tin. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. 0 indicates the batteries. in diameter and 1/4 in. Fig. through it. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. as in Fig. attached to a post at each end. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. and bore two holes. 24 parts water. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. 2. repeat as many times as is necessary. Fig. 5. or more wide. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way.

Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. These rings can be carved out. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. thick. The circle is marked out with a compass. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. but they are somewhat difficult to make. 2. long serves as the dowel.Imitation Arms and Armor . The imitation articles are made of wood. A wood peg about 2 in. long. 1. says the English Mechanic. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. handle and all. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. the wood peg inserted in one of them. such as .PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. The entire weapon. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. is to appear as steel. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. This weapon is about 22 in. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. After the glue is dry. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel.

When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. If such a tool is not at hand. 8. with a sharp carving tool. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. 3. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The entire handle should be made of one piece. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. 2.ornamental scrolls. All of these axes are about the same length. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. Its length is about 3 ft. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. covered with red velvet. The handle is of steel imitation. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. is shown in Fig. or the amateur cannot use it well. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. . as described in Fig. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. etc. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. used at the end of the fifteenth century. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The axe is shown in steel. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. also. flowers. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. leaves. as before mentioned. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. 5. studded with large brass or steel nails. The lower half of the handle is wood. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The spikes are cut out of wood. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. long. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. This weapon is about 22 in. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. as shown. The handle is of wood. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. 6. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. the hammer and spike. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The upper half of the handle is steel.

6. 3. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. the knife resting on its back. The knife falling on its side (Fig. 4).Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. . as shown in Fig. Chicago. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Each person plays until three outs have been made. 1. a three-base hit. 5. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. Fig. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. and so on for nine innings. as in Fig. then the other plays. 2. calls for a home run. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 7) calls for one out. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown.

When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. as shown in Fig. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. This he does.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. Old-Time Magic .-Contributed by J. F. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. one of them burning . which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. of the rope and holds it. 3. of water for an hour or two. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. It may be found that the negative is not colored. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. with the rope laced in the cloth. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. as shown in Fig. 2. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. Mass. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. 1. Somerville. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. Campbell. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. hypo to 1 pt. while the committee is tying him up. If it is spotted at all. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo.

brightly. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. thick. Ky. shades the light for a few seconds. Drill Gauge screw. etc.. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger.Contributed by Andrew G. invisible to them (the audience). in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. --Contributed by C. 3/4 in. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. . 4 oz. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. with which he is going to light the other candle. Thome. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. 4 oz. and. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. of turpentine. of plumbago. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. of water and 1 oz. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. Lebanon. Brown. showing that there is nothing between them. the other without a light. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. Evans. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. of sugar. B. The magician walks over to the burning candle. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. New York City. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. --Contributed by L. He then walks over to the other candle. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. thus causing it to light. Ky. Louisville. bolt.

Pulteney. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. Its current strength is about one volt. H. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. but is not so good. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. thick. into a tube of several thicknesses. Y. which will give a strong. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. or blotting paper. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. To make the porous cell.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Do not add water to the acid. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. --Contributed by C. 5 in. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. In making up the solution. diameter. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. steady current. for the material. Denniston. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. about 5 in. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. N. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. long. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. but can be made up into any required voltage in series.

This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. steel. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. while the other end is attached by two screws.) may be obtained. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. steel. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. one drawing them together. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The . but somewhat lighter. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer.station. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. As to thickness. long with a bearing at each end. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. the other holding them apart. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. To insure this. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. Finally. One hole was bored as well as possible. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. carrying the hour circle at one end. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. After much experimentation with bearings. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. steel. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. a positive adjustment was provided. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described.

All set screws. All these adjustments. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. To find a star in the heavens." When this is done. To locate a known star on the map.. The pointer is directed to Alpha. and if it is not again directed to the same point. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. When properly set it will describe a great circle. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The pole is 1 deg. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. excepting those on the declination axis. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. Declination is read directly. once carefully made. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. Each shaft. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. and 15 min. save the one in the pipe. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. turn the pointer to the star. If the result is more than 24 hours. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. It is. is provided with this adjustment. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes." Only a rough setting is necessary. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. apart. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. Set the declination circle to its reading. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . 45 min. Point it approximately to the north star. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. Cassiopiae. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. The aperture should be 1/4 in. are tightened. subtract 24. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. need not be changed. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum.. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. Instead. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result.axis is adjusted by turning these screws.

In reality the first ball. 3 or 4 in. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. the others . add a little more benzole. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. is folded several times. long. as shown in the sketch. La. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. The dance will begin. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. Ohio. then add 1 2-3 dr. taking care not to add too much. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. is the real cannon ball. Strosnider. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. -Contributed by Ray E. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. benzole. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. cannon balls. If this will be too transparent. New Orleans. The ball is found to be the genuine article.. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. of ether. a great effect will be produced. Plain City. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. which is the one examined.

which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. without taking up any great amount of space. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards.. taps. F. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. 1). --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. 2. Mass. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. Milwaukee. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . Fig. small brooches. etc. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. as shown in the illustration. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Campbell. Somerville. --Contributed by J. San Francisco. Return the card to the pack. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Cal. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. In boxes having a sliding cover. Wis. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band.

At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. round pieces 2-1/4 in. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. prints. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. . I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. Connecticut. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. This box has done good service. as shown in the illustration. slides and extra brushes. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. thus giving ample store room for colors. from the bottom of the box. Hartford. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. Beller. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors.

A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. . the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. costing 5 cents. or placed against a wall. When the ends are turned under. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. about threefourths full. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. Darke.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. Fill the upper tub. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. O. -Contributed by C. 2). FIG. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. West Lynn. tacking the gauze well at the corners. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. will answer the purpose. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. holes in the bottom of one. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. Mass. with well packed horse manure. 1). This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center.

How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. if this is not available. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. Eifel. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. If the following directions are carried out. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. when they are raised from the pan. oil or other fluid. M. --Contributed by L. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. cutting the cane between the holes. If plugs are found in any of the holes. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. and each bundle contains . Chicago. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. they should be knocked out. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment.

The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. it should be held by a plug. and. 1. a square pointed wedge.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. as it must be removed again. as shown in Fig. In addition to the cane. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. then across and down. No plugs . after having been pulled tight. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. held there by inserting another plug. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. put about 3 or 4 in. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned.

1. 1. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. 5. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. but the most common. is the horizontal dial. as it always equals the latitude of the place. Their difference is . The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease.075 in. During the weaving. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. It consists of a flat circular table. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. 4. trim off the surplus rosin. and the one we shall describe in this article. or the style. called the gnomon.2 in. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. as shown in Fig.2+. for 2°. 41°-30'. 3. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . If handled with a little care. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. 40°. as for example. No weaving has been done up to this time. using the same holes as for the first layer. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. R. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. Fig. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. as the height of the line BC for lat. D.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. Even with this lubrication. W. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. 1 lat. There are several different designs of sundials.15+. is the base (5 in. --Contributed by M.15 in. Patrick.3 in. and for 1° it would be . 1. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. The style or gnomon. in this case) times the . -Contributed by E. the next smallest. 41 °-30'. we have 4. the height of the line BC. stretch the third one. If you have a table of natural functions. as shown in Fig. Michigan. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. This will make three layers. and for lat. All added to the lesser or 40°. it is 4. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case.= 4. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. 5 in. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. After completing the second layer. the height of which is taken from table No. 3. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used.5 in. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. lat. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. 42° is 4. Detroit. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. From table No.42 in. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon.075 in. When cool. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. Fig.

68 5-30 6-30 5. or if of stone.39 .12 52° 6. using the points A and C as centers. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.30 1.91 58° 8. 2. base.57 3.06 2.37 54° 6. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.93 2.85 35 .57 1.82 5.tangent of the degree of latitude.18 28° 2.64 4 8 3.56 . according to the size of the dial. and intersecting the semicircles. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.11 3. 2 for given latitudes.76 1.49 3.89 50° 5. Fig. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.88 36° 3.96 32° 3.28 .40 34° 3.38 .00 40° 4.87 1.44 44° 4.27 2.20 60° 8.33 .93 6.55 46° 5.10 6. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .19 1.37 5.41 38° 3. or more.81 4.02 1.87 4.55 30° 2. To layout the hour circle.66 48° 5. circle Sundial.30 2. gives the 6 o'clock points.46 . and perpendicular to the base or style. Its thickness. an inch or two.66 1. Table NO.42 .03 3.82 2. Chords in inches for a 10 in. . The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.26 4.07 4.49 30 .66 latitude.42 1. which will represent the base in length and thickness. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.82 3. Draw two semi-circles.55 4. 2. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.42 45 . draw two parallel lines AB and CD.85 1. long.23 6. For latitudes not given.99 2. if of metal.97 5 7 4. 1.63 56° 7.33 42° 4.46 3.29 4-30 7-30 3. and for this size dial (10 in.79 4.14 5.59 2.16 40 . Draw the line AD.32 6.83 27° 2.16 1.40 1. with a radius of 5 in.50 26° 2. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.94 1.55 5.77 2.

adding to each piece interest and value. if west.49 5.46 4.01 1.37 2. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. As they are the genuine reproductions. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.49 3. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.means that the dial is faster than the sun.12 5.14 1.50 . Sun time to local mean time.68 3.10 4. June 15. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.71 2. The + means that the clock is faster. 3.06 2.08 1.24 5. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. after allowing for the declination.30 2. 2 and Dec.52 Table No. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.82 3. Mitchell. it will be faster. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. Each weapon is cut from wood. 3. each article can be labelled with the name. --Contributed by J. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.from Sundial lime. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.89 3. An ordinary compass.53 1. 900 Chicago. and for the difference between standard and local time. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.50 55 . Sept.46 5. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.19 2. then the watch is slower.93 6. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .77 3. will enable one to set the dial.21 2. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. says the English Mechanic. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.60 4. Sioux City.98 4. London. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. This correction can be added to the values in table No..72 5. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.87 6.63 1. Iowa. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.79 6. and the . 25. E. April 16.34 5.add those marked + subtract those Marked .54 60 .57 1. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.

The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 1. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth.. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. Partisan. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. . 3. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. the length of which is about 5 ft. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. When putting on the tinfoil. Glaive and Voulge brass nails.

sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. . with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. A gisarm or glaive. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The edges are sharp. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown.. The length of this bar is about 5 in. long with a round staff or handle. This weapon is about 6 ft. which are a part of the axe. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. long. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. press it well into the carved depressions. about 4 in. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. 8. 5. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. It is about 6 ft. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. the holes being about 1/4 in. used about the seventeenth century. The spear is steel. long with a round wooden handle. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. 6 ft. The extreme length is 9 ft.which is square. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. is shown in Fig. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. sharp on the outer edges. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. 7. long. in diameter.

the cross cords. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. The twisted cross cords should . H. Ohio. In Figs. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. apart. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. are put in place. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. Loudonville. This is important to secure neatness. B. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. 1. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. Workman. the most durable being bamboo. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. 2 and 3. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. They can be made of various materials.-Contributed by R. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. as shown in Fig. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. used for spacing and binding the whole together. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. 4. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. 5. Substances such as straw.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. are less durable and will quickly show wear. or in holes punched in a leather strap. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. Cut all the cords the same length. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. and if placed from 6 to 12 in.

below the top to within 1/4 in. of the bottom. New York. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. Four V-shaped notches were cut. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. To remedy this. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. New Orleans. wide. La. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. in which was placed a piece of glass. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. A slit was cut in the bottom. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. Lockport. The first design shown is for using bamboo. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. bamboo or rolled paper. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. This was turned over the top of the other can. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. Harrer. M. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. as shown at B. for a length extending from a point 2 in. 3 in. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin.be of such material. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. shaped as shown at C. -Contributed by Geo. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated.

The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. It would be well to polish the brass at first. --Contributed by Joseph H. Ill. Maywood. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. Y. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. Sanford. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. Cal. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. about 1/16 in. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. wide. and two along the side for attaching the staff. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. the brass is loosened from the block. Schaffner.tape from sticking to the carpet. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. Shay. --Contributed by Chas. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. is shown in the accompanying sketch. N. turned over but not fastened. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. This plank. Pasadena. This should be done gradually. do not throw away the gloves. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. H. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. giving the appearance of hammered brass. After this is finished. --Contributed by W. Newburgh. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall.

Richmond. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. --E. K. Unlike most clocks. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. bent as shown. in diameter. Ill. the pendulum swings . Oak Park. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. A. -Contributed by W. Marshall. Jaquythe. Cal. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob.

Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. wide. long and at each side of this. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. on the board B. bar. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. such as this one. bearing on the latter. Chicago. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. . and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. about 12 in. high. about 6 in. is an electromagnet. to the first one with screws or glue. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. A. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. 7-1/2 in. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. Now place the board to be joined. only have the opposite side up. by 1-5/16 in. 3/4 in. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. 5/16 in. In using this method. in diameter. Secure a board.. the center one being 2-3/4 in. C. are secured in the base bar. The construction is very simple. and the other two 2-5/8 in. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. away. high. wide that is perfectly flat. high and 1/4 in. high. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. --Contributed by V. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. says the Scientific American. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Metzech. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. thick. Fasten another board. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. 6 in. B. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. Two uprights. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported.

These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. plates should be made 8 in. or more. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. 1. 3. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. wide and 1 in. Phoenixville. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. Fig. --Contributed by Elmer A. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. square. as shown at A. whose dimensions are given in Fig. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. from one end. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. . 2. square inside. The trigger. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Vanderslice. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. by driving a pin through the wood. is fastened in the hole A. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. Fig. 1. long. Pa.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. wide and 5 in. 1. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. 4.

2 parts of whiting. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. as shown in the illustration. Ohio.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. which allows 1/4 in. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. if only two bands are put in the . Fostoria. -Contributed by J. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces.A. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. by weight. 5 parts of black filler. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. square. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. Simonis. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. one-half the length of the side pieces. rubbing varnish and turpentine.

Grand Rapids. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. which may be either of ground or plain glass. No. preferably copper. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. and it may be made as a model or full sized. is necessary. says the English Mechanic. Shaw. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. --Contributed by Thos. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in.lower strings. in the opposite end of the box. DeLoof. 8 in. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. G. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. long. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. Dartmouth. It must be kept moist and well . A double convex lens. wide and about 1 ft. 1. as shown in Fig. If a plain glass is used. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. -Contributed by Abner B. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. II. deep. A mirror. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. In constructing helmets. Michigan. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. and the picture can be drawn as described. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. Mass. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. keeps the strong light out when sketching. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. place tracing paper on its surface. In use. A piece of metal. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. is set at an angle of 45 deg. London.

3. Scraps of thin. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. 2. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. and the deft use of the fingers. as in bas-relief. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. the clay model oiled. The clay. as shown in Fig. and over the crest on top. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. After the clay model is finished. 1. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. will be necessary. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. brown. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. joined closely together. and continue until the clay is completely covered. 1. on which to place the clay. a few clay-modeling tools. and left over night to soak. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. All being ready. or some thin glue. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. This being done. take. shown in Fig. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. with a keyhole saw.kneaded.

The center of the ear guards are perforated. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. When dry. They are all covered with tinfoil. should be modeled and made in one piece. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. as shown: in the design. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. When the helmet is off the model. 1. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. 9. the piecing could not be detected. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. This contrivance should be made of wood. with the exception of the vizor. will make it look neat. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 5. the skullcap. and so on. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. square in shape. which should be no difficult matter. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. In Fig. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. When perfectly dry. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance.as possible. one for each side. 7. or. and the ear guards in two pieces. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. In Fig. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. The whole helmet. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. as seen in the other part of the sketch. Indianapolis. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. Indiana. a crest on top. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. owing to the clay being oiled. then another coating of glue. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. --Contributed by Paul Keller. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. a few lines running down. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. The band is decorated with brass studs. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. Before taking it off the model.

22 gauge resistance wire. also the switch B and the fuse block C. of fire clay. as shown in Fig. 2. 4 lb. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. JJ. 1. two ordinary binding posts. 2. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. with slits cut for the wires. each 4-1/2 in. 1. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . The points marked BB are the glass tubes. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. about 1 lb. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. long. A round collar of galvanized iron. is then packed down inside the collar. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. If a neat appearance is desired. Fig. 1. 1 in. is shown in Fig. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. as it stands a higher temperature. thick. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. Fig. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. Fig. when they are placed in opposite positions. if this cannot be obtained. about 1/4 in. 4. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. FF. one small switch. 2. 1. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. Fig. 4. This will allow the plate. AA. If asbestos is used. AA. long. wide and 15 in. of mineral wool. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. long. which can be bought from a local druggist. high. if the measurements are correct. or. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. one oblong piece of wood. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. and two large 3in. screws. E and F. one glass tube. This will make an open space between the plates. thick sheet asbestos. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. The plate. 4. Fig. are allowed to project about 1 in. the holes leading to the switch.same size. 4. AA. 3 in. 4. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. German-silver wire is better. until it is within 1 in. 4. Fig. 12 in. The reverse side of the base. of No. Fig. The mineral wool. Fig. the fuse block. Fig. one fuse block. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. in diameter and 9 in. 1. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. GG. as shown in Fig. to receive screws for holding it to the base. and C. The holes B and C are about 3 in. as shown in Fig. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. 3. for connections. above the collar. Fig. 4. and. of the top. Fig. should extend about 1/4 in. about 80 ft. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. 1. The two holes. Fig. Fig. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD.

more wire should be added. Catherines. as the turns of the wires. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. KK. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. steam will form when the current is applied. and pressed into it. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. Fig.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. 4. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. The clay. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. A. This completes the stove. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. Cnonyn. Cal. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. If it is not thoroughly dry. it leaves a gate for the metal. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. --Contributed by W. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. If this is the case. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. Can. Cover over about 1 in. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. above the rim. Next. will slip and come in contact with each other. --Contributed by R. allowing a space between each turn. This point marks the proper length to cut it. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. While the clay is damp. then. A file can be used to remove any rough places. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. so that the circuit will not become broken. H. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. Cut a 1/2-in. It should not be left heated in this condition. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. Richmond. Jaquythe. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. deep. II. causing a short circuit. Fig. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. when cool. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . apart. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. St. It should not be set on end. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. As these connections cannot be soldered. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. using care not to get it too wet. when heated. When this is done. When the tile is in place. 2.

" A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. but 12 by 24 in. is large enough. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. constructed of 3/4-in. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. the air can enter from both top and bottom. as shown. and the frame set near a window. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. Louisville. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. square material in any size.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. --Contributed by Andrew G. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. the pie will be damaged. Ky. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. and the prints will dry rapidly. Then clip a little off the . Thorne. says the Photographic Times.

is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. 4 in. Figs. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. A 1/8-in. Fig.Paper Funnel point. Le Mars. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. W. 14 in. high. The driving arm D. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. slip on two cardboard washers. in diameter and about 4 in. The board can be raised to place . Fig. as shown. high. 2. 1 and 3. thick. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. allowing each end to project for connections. 1/2 in. 1/2 in. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. The connections are made as shown in Fig. open out. in diameter. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. high. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. wide and 3 in. Fig. each 1 in. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. The upright B. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. which gives the shaft a half turn. The connecting rod E. Two supports. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. 1. Herron. -Contributed by S. An offset is bent in the center. Iowa. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. thick and 3 in. 2-1/2 in. 3. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. 1. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. wide. long. wide and 7 in. long. thick and 3 in. long. causing a break in the current. As the shaft revolves. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. at GG. which are fastened to the base. thereby saving time and washing. each 1/2 in. 22 gauge magnet wire. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. 1. for the crank. long. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. 1.

and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. . --Contributed by William F. Mass. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. as shown in the sketch. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. Stecher. making a framework suitable for a roost. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. 3 in. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. on a board. Place the pot. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. In designing the roost. in height. Dorchester. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. One or more pots may be used. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. bottom side up. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft.

preferably.. 1. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. Fig. The materials required are rope or. F. ordinary glue. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. as shown in Fig. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Wind the .Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. odd corners. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. adopt the method described. etc. without any corresponding benefit. grills and gratings for doors. in diameter. paraffin and paint or varnish. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. The bottom part of the sketch. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. shelves. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. when combined. and give it time to dry. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time.. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. windows. F. that it is heated. 1. will produce the pattern desired. if it is other than straight lines.

I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. six designs are shown. M. 2. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Lockport. -Contributed by Geo. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Fig. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] .Fig. cut and glue them together. Harrer. Y. N.

Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. 1. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. This piece of horse armor. which was used in front of a horse's head. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. etc.. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. but no farther. will be retained by the cotton. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular.. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. when it will be observed that any organic matter. chips of iron rust. London. As the . The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. and the sides do not cover the jaws. says the English Mechanic. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers.. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. etc.

4. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. This being done. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. which is separate. This triangularshaped support. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. 8. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. 2.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. except the thumb and fingers. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. The armor is now removed from the model. then another coat of glue. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. 2. the rougher the better. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. as the surface will hold the clay. but for . and therefore it is not described. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. the same as in Fig. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. with the exception of the thumb shield. An arrangement is shown in Fig. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. This can be made in one piece. as shown in the sketch. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. All being ready. This will make the model light and easy to move around. 6 and 7. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. and the clay model oiled. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. and will require less clay. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. In Fig. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. which can be made in any size. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. but the back is not necessary.

in depth. two for the jaws and one a wedge. the two pieces of foil will draw together. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. N.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. Redondo Beach. are glued to it. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. and the instrument is ready for use. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. fastened to the rod. but 3-1/2 in. 1/2 in. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. 9. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. If it does not hold a charge. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. Y. When locating the place for the screw eyes. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. 2. wide and 1/2 in. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. cut into the shape shown in Fig. . the top of the rod. will be about right. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. The two pieces of foil. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. are better shown in Fig. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. Calif. A piece of board. --Contributed by John G. each about 1/4 in. the foils will not move. La Rue. long. two in each jaw. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. --Contributed by Ralph L. running down the plate. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Buxton. Goshen.

At a point 6 in. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. enameled or otherwise decorated. When a fish is hooked. Bryan. hole bored through it. --Contributed by Mrs. as this will cut under the water without splashing. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. Texas. The can may be bronzed. M. as shown in the illustration. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. Corsicana. from the smaller end. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. about 15 in. long. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. A. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. 2-1/2 in. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. silvered. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. is made of a 1/4-in. as indicated in the . the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. pine board.

Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. A good size is 5 in. put a coat or two of wax and polish . and trace upon it the design and outline. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. 22 is plenty heavy enough. as shown. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. take a piece of thin wood. When it has dried over night. long over all. If soft wood. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown.Match Holder accompanying sketch. Polish the metal. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. using a piece of carbon paper. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. Basswood or butternut. will do as well as the more expensive woods." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. Any kind of wood will do. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. Having completed the drawing. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. Next prepare the metal holder. wide by 6 in. then with a nail. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. using powdered pumice and lye. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. thick. punch the holes. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. such as basswood or pine was used. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. or even pine. 3/8 or 1/4 in.

To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. If carving is contemplated. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. long. the whole being finished in linseed oil. 1/2 in. of pure olive oil. It is useful for photographers. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. wide and 5 in. thick. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. can be made on the same standards. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. are used for the cores of the magnets. Two wire nails. . is used for the base of this instrument. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. Jaquythe.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. If one has some insight in carving. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. each 1 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. --Contributed by W. Richmond. A. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. Instead of the usual two short ropes. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. 2 in. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. Cal. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. long. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly.

then covered with red. 25 gauge. says the English Mechanic. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. leaving about 1/4 in. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. A piece of tin. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. at A. in the shape shown in the sketch. All of the parts for the armor have been described. as shown in Fig. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. 1. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. . cut in the shape of the letter T. Lynas. --Contributed by W. London. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. the paper covering put on. 3.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. H. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. About 1 in. as shown by the dotted lines. cloth or baize to represent the legs. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. except that for the legs. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. when the key is pushed down. similar to that used in electric bells. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. A rubber band. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. acts as a spring to keep the key open. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. about No.

The two pieces are bolted together. about 1 in. and eight small holes. one to another . When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. apart. in the other end. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. at each end. can be made in a few minutes' time. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. or ordinary plaster laths will do. apart. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. flat headed carriage bolt. Fig. 2. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. Instead of using brass headed nails. In one end of the piece. 1 and drill a 1/4in. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. A 1/4-in. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. 3 in. long. 1 in. for the sake of lightness. not too tight. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. Cut them to a length or 40 in. hole in the center. drill six 1/4-in. So set up. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. Silver paper will do very well. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. Secure two strips of wood. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. holes.. By moving the position of the bolt from. says Camera Craft.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. make the same series of eight small holes and. Take the piece shown in Fig. These can be purchased at a stationery store. completes the equipment. brass paper fasteners will be found useful.

Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. the one marked A. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. Fig. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. and lay it over the one to the right. lay Cover B and the one under D. but instead of reversing . How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. C over D and B. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. 2. taking the same start as for the square fob. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. doubled and run through the web of A. as in portraiture and the like. A is the first string and B is the second. 2. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. long. Then draw all four ends up snugly. as shown in Fig. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. In this sketch. Then take B and lay it over A. for instance. of the ends remain unwoven. 1. then B over C and the end stuck under A. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. 4. A round fob is made in a similar way. 2.of the larger holes in the strip. in Fig. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. Start with one end. D over A and C. and the one beneath C.

Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. Rupp. 3. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. Other designs can be made in the same manner. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. The round fob is shown in Fig. A loop. the design of which is shown herewith. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. as at A in Fig. Ohio. 5. is left out at the center before starting on one side. always lap one string. Monroeville. is to be made of leather. long. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. as in making the square fob. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. --Contributed by John P. as B. especially if silk strings are used.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. 1-1/2 in. over the one to its right. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made.

This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. it can be easily renewed. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. using the reverse side. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. beeswax or paraffin. Houghton.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. A. door facing or door panel. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. such as a nut pick. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. When the supply of wax is exhausted. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Northville. -Contributed by A. . Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. pressing it against the wood. filling them with wax. Mich. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. Any smooth piece of steel.

This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. those on matte paper will work best. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. it is best to leave a plain white margin. Enough plaster should. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. N. Petersburg. says Photographic Times. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. thick. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. E and F. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. long. Fold together on lines C. although tin ones can be used with good success. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. New York. J. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. Y. Ill. . but any kind that will not stick may be used. D. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. place it face down in the dish. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Select the print you wish to mount. and about 12 in. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. leaving about 1/4 in. if blueprints are used. remaining above the surface of the board. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. --Contributed by O. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. and after wetting.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. Thompson. apart and driven in only part way. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. The tacks should be about 1 in. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking.

bell flowers. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. will be rendered perfectly white. violets. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. Lower into the test tube a wire. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. roses. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. etc. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. without mixing the solutions. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. as shown at the left in the sketch. filling the same about onehalf full. as shown in the right of the sketch. One of the .. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water.

The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. South Dakota. as shown. made of heavy tin. The tin horn can be easily made. Shabino. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. turned a little tapering. is about 2-1/2 in. thick. or delicate tints of the egg. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. in diameter and 1 in. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . long and made of wood. as shown in the sketch. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. to keep the core from coming off in turning. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. 2. but which will not wobble loose. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. When soldering these parts together. Fig. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. should be soldered to the box. long. 3. shading. not too tightly. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. The first point should be ground blunt. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm.. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. The diaphragm. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. A rod that will fit the brass tube. 1. about 1/8s in. and at the larger end. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. 1-7/8 in. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. L. --Contributed by L. Millstown. The sound box. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing.

wondering what it was. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Gold. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. and. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. put a board on top. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. says the Iowa Homestead. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. mice in the bottom. Chicago.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Victor. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Ill.Contributed by E. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. E. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Jr. Colo. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch.

The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. Y. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Buffalo. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. . Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. Ottawa.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. N. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. Can. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Pereira. --Contributed by Lyndwode. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien.

cut round. as shown. as it can be made quickly in any size.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. longer than the length of the can. above the end of the dasher. Cal. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. a piece of tin. and at one end of the stick fasten. De Loof. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Grand Rapids. Richmond. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. through which several holes have been punched. by means of a flatheaded tack. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by W. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. --Contributed by Thos. Jaquythe. A. Mich. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. This cart has no axle. Put a small nail 2 in. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels.

The baseboard and top are separable. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. 1/4 in. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. as shown. wide.1. --Contributed by James M. Notches 1/8 in. Pa. apart. thick. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2 in. of course. A wedge-shaped piece of . A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. New Orleans. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. 1-1/2 in. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. wide and as long as the box. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. I reversed a door gong. The candles. 1. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. La. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. 1 ft. long. deep and 3 in. board. 2. Kane. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. cut in the center of the rounding edge. were below the level of the bullseye. wide and 3 ft. screwed it on the inside of a store box. Doylestown. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. 2. Fig. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. wide and 1/8 in. 2. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle.

the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. Mass. West Union. Worcester. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. Wood. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in.Book Back Holders metal. scissors. wide rubber bands or felt. stone or wood. The block can also be used as a paperweight. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. 3. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. wide into each side of the casing. For the handle. the blade is put back into the groove . --Contributed by G. This device is very convenient for invalids. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. when placed as in Fig. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. After the glue has dried. dressing one surface of each piece. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. the reason being that if both were solid. the shelf could not be put on the window. to prevent its scratching the desk top. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. as shown in Fig. Cover the block with rubber. When not in use. by cutting away the ends. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. 1. etc. Needles. take two pieces of hard wood. After completing the handle. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. A. can be picked up without any trouble.. Ia. it can be removed without marring the casing. will. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge.

Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. thus carrying the car up the incline. long. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Mass. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. 2. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. S. Malden. as shown in Fig. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. -Contributed by W. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. square and 4 in. . Hutchins. as shown in Fig. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Ohio. Erie. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. 1 in. --Contributed by H. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Cleveland. Jacobs. A. 1.and sharpened to a cutting edge. If desired. Pa. A notch is cut in one side.

. The letters can be put on afterward. N. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. will be needed.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions.. Cape May Point. a board on which to work it. This will insure having all parts alike. and an awl and hammer. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. 6 by 9-1/2 in. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. Prepare a design for the front. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. If one such as is shown is to be used.J. One sheet of metal.

" In all appearance. only the marginal line is to be pierced. as shown. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. placed on a table. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. One coat will do. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. in the waste metal. says Master Painter. If any polishing is required. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. behind or through the center of a table leg. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. but weird and distant. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. or. 1 part. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. that can be worked in your own parlor. a violin. varnish. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. if desired. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. . 2 parts white vitriol. which is desirable. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. The stick may be placed by the side of. 3/4 part. Remove the metal. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. to right angles. turpentine. mandolin or guitar. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper.Fasten the metal to the board. The music will not sound natural. flat brush. So impressive are the results. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. paste the paper design right on the metal. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. 1/4 part. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. applied by means of a brush. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. On the back. and add sugar of lead as a dryer.

The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. each 6 in. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. Two pairs of feet. is bent square so as to form two uprights. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. across the top. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. apart. it might be difficult. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. London. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. round-head machine screws. and is easy to construct. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. long and measuring 26 in. long. says Work. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. One thing is always at hand and that is wood.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. square bar iron. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. The longest piece. each 28 in. wide. are shaped as shown in Fig. long and spread about 8 in. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. 3. 2. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. With proper tools this is easy. . which should be about 5-1/2 ft. without them. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. thick by 1/2 in.

better still. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. or. After the joints are soldered. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. 4. Place the corner piece of glass. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. in the grooves of the borders. and the base border. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. D. on it as shown. Fig. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. The glass. 5. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. 5. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. using rosin as a flux. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. The design is formed in the lead. While the piece of lead D. C. lead. After the glass is cut. cut a long piece of lead. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. B. Fig. special flux purchased for this purpose. 6. the latter being tapped to . as shown in Fig. is held by the brads. 7. The brads are then removed. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. A.

Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Dreier. This . Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. Secure a post. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. thick and drill 3/4-in. then drill a 3/4-in. H. plates. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. rounded at the top as shown.. then flatten its end on the under side. and round the corners of one end for a ring. rocker bolt. long. square and of the length given in the drawing. Two styles of hand holds are shown.the base of the clip. in diameter and 1/4 in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. Jr. as shown in Fig. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. J. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. bolt. holes through their centers. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. one on each side and central with the hole. not less than 4 in. bolt. Bore a 5/8-in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. and two wood blocks. long. plank about 12 ft. This ring can be made of 1-in. A and B. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. --Contributed by W. Fasten the plates to the block B. 8. in diameter and about 9 in. long. Bore a 3/4-in. The center pin is 3/4-in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. N. Make three washers 3-in. Camden. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. wood screws in each washer. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in.

hickory. by 3 ft. boards along the side of each from end to end. 4 in. from one edge. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. Draw a line on the four 7-in. To substitute small. by 6-1/2 ft. can make a first class gymnasium. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. 3 in. long. 1-1/4in. 4 pieces. 9 in. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . square by 5 ft. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. long. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. in diameter and 7 in. long. long. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. 16 screws. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. horse and rings. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood.will make an excellent cover for a pot. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. 1/2 in. long and 1 piece. chestnut or ash. 4 pieces. 50 ft. because it will not stand the weather. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. apart for a distance of 3 ft. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. bit. The four 7-in. long. shanks. screws. 7 in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. of 1/4-in. La. square by 9-1/2 ft. New Orleans. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. straight-grained hickory. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. 4 in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. bolts and rope. 1 by 7 in. long. 1. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. 3/4 by 3 in. If trees are convenient. 2-1/2 in. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. 4 filler pieces. 2 by 4 in. and some one can swing an axe. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. by 2 ft. maple.

then buried to a depth of 2 ft. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. piece of wood. boards coincide. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. apart. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped..bored. so the 1/2-in. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. apart. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. each 3 ft. 8 in. deep and remove all loose dirt. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. at each end. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. and once tightened the bar will be rigid.. 2. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. Bore a 9/16-in. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. from the end. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground.

then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. not even the tumbler. disappearing only to reappear again. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. When the interest of the crowd. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. passing through a screweye at either end. the effect is very striking. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. not much to look at in daytime. but most deceptive at dusk. If the tumbler is rotated. He stretched the thread between two buildings. which at once gathered." which skimmed along the distant horizon.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. it follows the edge for about 1 in. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. about 100 ft. was at its height. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. apart. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. in an endless belt. just visible against the dark evening sky. and materially heightened the illusion. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. and ascends the stem. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C.. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. it is taken to the edge of the foot. And all he used was a black thread. . W. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. and then passes in a curve across the base.

2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. by 10 ft. 4 wood screws. long. 2 by 3 in. from either side of the center. The cork will come out easily. Chisel out two notches 4 in. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. and turned in a spiral D. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. so the point will be on top. square and 51/2 ft. 8 bolts. long. deep. long. by 3 ft. 2 by 4 in. beginning at a point 9 in. by 2 ft. 4 knee braces. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 7 in. long. 2 by 4 in. 8 in. 8 in. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 8 in. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 2 in. 4 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. preferably cedar. 4 bolts. wide and 1 in. long. 1. La. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. A wire about No. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. square and 6 ft. 6 in. Fig. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. New Orleans. long and 1 doz. 2 cross braces. large spikes. To make the apparatus. 4 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. by 7 ft. 2 by 4 in. long. long. long. 2 base pieces. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. 2 side braces. Bevel the ends of .

( To be Continued. leave it undressed. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. but even unpainted they are very durable. as shown in the diagram. A large sized ladle. additional long. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. The wood so treated will last for years. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. save the bars. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. and countersinking the heads. using four of the 7-in bolts. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. After the trenches are dug. jellies. screws. Cal. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. Two endpieces must be made. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes..the knee braces. except the bars. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. Jaquythe. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. These will allow the ladle to be turned. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. --Contributed by W. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. . etc. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. A. leaving the strainer always in position. Richmond. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. which face each other. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. equipped with a strainer. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. If using mill-cut lumber. of 7 ft. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. so the bolts in both will not meet.

of sufficient 1ength. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. thus holding the pail as shown. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. . Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. which seems impossible. drill press or planer. or various cutting compounds of oil. A.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. it is necessary to place a stick. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. partly a barrier for jumps. Oil. In order to accomplish this experiment. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. milling machine. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good.

4 in. long. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. long.. but 5 ft. 4-1/2 in. 4 in. bolts. Hand holds must be provided next. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. from each end. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. 2 adjusting pieces. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. long. and free from knots. beginning 1-1/2 in. stud cut rounding on one edge. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . long. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. 3 in. by 3 ft. The material required is as follows: Two posts. To construct. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. ten 1/2-in. two 1/2-in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. by 3 ft. long. to fasten the knee braces at the top. 2 by 4 in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. piece of 2 by 4-in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. square by 5-1/2 ft. is a good length. bolts. bolts. square by 5 ft. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. 4 in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. 2 by 4 in. 7 in. bolt. long. 2 bases. 2 by 4 in. apart in a central position on the horse. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. 4 knee braces. 1 in. by 3 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth.. 1 cross brace. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. wood yard or from the woods. Procure from a saw mill. projections and splinters. long. These are placed 18 in. in the ground. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. in diameter--the larger the better. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. These are well nailed in place. The round part of this log must be planed. long. apart.

This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. A. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Jaquythe. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. Such a hand sled can be made in a . says the Sporting Goods Dealer. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. over and around. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. snow. pipe and fittings. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Richmond. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping.horse top. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. it is caused by some obstruction. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. etc. no one is responsible but himself. then bending to the shape desired. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. Cal. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. water.--Contributed by W. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. such as a dent. it is caused by an overloaded shell. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. but nevertheless. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. Also.

shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. will give the length. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Joerin. Toronto. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. when complete. . Noble. Mass. is much better than a wood sled. at E and F. Vener. 1/4 or 3/16 in. --Contributed by Arthur E. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. --Contributed by J. The end elevation. These. Paris.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. then run a string over each part. Ontario. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. thick. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. when straightened out. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. W. France. 1. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Boston. 2. which. are all the tools necessary. in width and 1/32 in. --Contributed by James E. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water.

A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. The method shown in Figs. . 4. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. It is best to use soft water. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. nor that which is partly oxidized. and the latter will take on a bright luster. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. 3. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. are nailed. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. AA and BB.

The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. or various rulings may be made. Percy Ashley in Rudder. as shown in Fig. 1). Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. Broad lines can be made. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. The materials used are: backbone. 2. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. or unequal widths as in Fig. as shown in Fig. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 3. 8 and 9. class ice-yacht. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 2. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. . 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 4.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. pins to keep them from turning. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. but if it is made much longer. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. It can be made longer or shorter. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. out from the collar. A good and substantial homemade lathe. 1-Details of Lathe sort. 1. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. a tee and a forging. The headstock is made of two tees. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. pipe. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. a larger size of pipe should be used. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron.Fig. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. Both the lower . about 30 in. long. bent and drilled as shown.

as shown in Fig. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. M. Musgrove. else taper turning will result. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. Man. but also their insulating properties. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. It is about 1 in. To do this. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. 2. --Contributed by M. 1. Cal. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. Held. a corresponding line made on this. 3/4 or 1 in. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. . 2. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. 2. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. or a key can be used as well. Boissevain. --Contributed by W. UpDeGraff. Indiana. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. Fruitvale. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. and will answer for a great variety of work. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. W. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. thick as desired. Laporte. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. a straight line should be scratched Fig.

If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. --Contributed by E. Ark. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. In use. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. Ft. as shown. Smith. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. J. To obviate this. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. long. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. The handle is of pine about 18 in. Cline. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle.

--Contributed by Walter W. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. White. centering is just one operation too many. face off the end of the piece. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. This prevents the drill from wobbling. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. La. and when once in true up to its size. take . After being entered.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. the drill does not need the tool. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. if this method is followed: First. New Orleans. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. Colo. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. Denver. which should be backed out of contact. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. on starting the lathe. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club.

as shown in D. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. unknown to the spectators. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. shown at C. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. is put into the paper tube A. and can be varied to suit the performer. after being shown empty. It can be used in a great number of tricks. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. The handkerchief rod. all the better. shorter t h a n the wand. After the wand is removed. and this given to someone to hold. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. a long piece of glass tubing. by applying caustic soda or . vanishing wand. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. says the Sphinx.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. the cap is placed over the paper tube. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. The glass tube B. In doing this. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. a bout 1/2 in.

1 End. As the cement softens. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. End. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. cut to any shape desired. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. 1. 1 Neck. 1/4 in. preferably hard maple. The sides. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. This dimension and those for the frets . Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. With care and patience. 1 Bottom. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. Glue the neck to the box. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. and glue it to the neck at F. 2 Sides. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. across the front and back to strengthen them. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. with the back side rounding. by 14 by 17 in. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. long. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F.potash around the edges of the letters. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. square and 1-7/8 in. can be made by the home mechanic. thick. Glue strips of soft wood. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. 3/16. as shown by K. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. The brace at D is 1 in. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. and if care is taken in selecting the material. Cut a piece of hard wood.

thick and about 1 ft. When it is completed you will have a canoe. A board 1 in. long is used for a keel. in diameter. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length.should be made accurately. Carbondale. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. -Contributed by J. Frary. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. O. 1) on which to stretch the paper. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. 3/16 in. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. and beveled . The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. Six holes. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. or backbone. Stoddard. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Norwalk. H. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. but it is not.Pa. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. --Contributed by Chas. E. toward each end. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig.

while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. but before doing this. thick. buy some split cane or rattan. with long stout screws. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. will answer nearly as well. procure at a carriage factory. thick. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. 3). 3. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. These are better. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. 1. or other place. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. Fig. 2). Green wood is preferable. long. a. 1 and 2. Fig. wide by 26 in. in such cases. The ribs. 13 in. . after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. B. such as hazel or birch. Fig. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. 3. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. two strips of wood (b. as before described. Fig. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. 3/8 in. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. 4. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. Osiers probably make the best ribs. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. by means of a string or wire. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. two twigs may be used to make one rib. 2. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. Fig. the loose strips of ash (b. C. in thickness and should be cut. and so. such as is used for making chairbottoms. as shown in Fig. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. Any tough. apart. but twigs of some other trees. 2). b. and. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. and the smaller ends to the gunwales.. long are required. 3). Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. Shape these as shown by A. are next put in. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. or similar material. twigs 5 or 6 ft. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. For the gunwales (a. Fig. Fig. C. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. as they are apt to do. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. In drying.) in notches. b. when made of green elm. b. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. Fig. probably. 4). and are not fastened. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. and notched at the end to receive them (B. The cross-boards (B. as shown in Fig. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. slender switches of osier willow. which are easily made of long. Fig. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. some tight strips of ash.

Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. of very strong wrapping-paper. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. If not. and light oars. It should be drawn tight along the edges. When thoroughly dry. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. wide. When the paper is dry. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. and held in place by means of small clamps. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. B. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. after wetting it. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. preferably iron. Being made in long rolls. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. tacking it to the bottom-board. however. Fig. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. and very tough. Then take some of the split rattan and. If the paper be 1 yd. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. apply a second coat of the same varnish. if it has been properly constructed of good material. but with less turpentine. 5). and as soon as that has soaked in. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. It should be smooth on the surface. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. and steady in the water. but neither stiff nor very thick. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. The paper is then trimmed. You may put in .

fore and aft. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. 5). where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. and if driven as shown in the cut. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. Drive the lower nail first. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. 2. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. 1 and the end in . 1. and make a movable seat (A. 5. to fit it easily. they will support very heavy weights. We procured a box and made a frame. Fig. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. Fig. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. Fig. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked.

A good way to handle this work. being softer where the flame has been applied. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. and the glass. This is an easy . Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass.Fig. 3. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. Pa. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. Close the other end with the same operation. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. and the result is. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. 5. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. This way has its drawbacks. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. this makes the tube airtight. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. Pittsburg. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. 4. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast.

fourth. above the metal. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. or six arms. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. also trace the decorative design. fifth. Oswald. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. three. metal shears. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. Sixth. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. 23 gauge. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. with a piece of carbon paper. Give the metal a circular motion. extra metal all around. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. then reverse. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. third. After the bulb is formed. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. The candle holders may have two. By holding the nail about 1/4 in.way to make a thermometer tube. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. second. very rapid progress can be made. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. file. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. above the work and striking it with the hammer. flat and round-nosed pliers. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. rivet punch. thin screw. -Contributed by A. four. Seventh.

The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. drip cup. Having pierced the bracket. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. Metal polish of any kind will do.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. Small copper rivets are used. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. and holder. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together.

winding the ends where they came together with wire. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. Twenty cents was all I spent. Soak 1 oz. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. and water 24 parts. sugar 1 part. and add the gelatine. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. alcohol 2 parts. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. deep. and it will be ready for future use. Fifty. The boom. Mother let me have a sheet. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. smooth it down and then remove as before. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Shiloh. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. all the rest I found. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. and brace and bit were the tools used. and in a week . I steer with the front wheel. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. glycerine 4 parts. when it will be ready for use. N. The gaff. the stick at the bottom of the sail. thus it was utilized. of glycerine to about 200 deg. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. they were like an ice boat with a sail. on a water bath. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. Heat 6-1/2 oz. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. except they had wheels instead of runners. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. F. A saw. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. hammer. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. and other things as they were needed. is a broomstick. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. if it has not absorbed too much ink. J. using a steel pen.

A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. a projecting lens .

The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. H. wire brads. If a small saw is used.. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. long. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. thick. and the work carefully done. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. E. 8 in. or a lens of 12-in. slide to about 6 ft. This ring is made up from two rings. at a point 1 in. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. DD. describe a 9-in. and a projecting lens 2 in. but if such a box is not found. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. about 2 ft. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. The slide support. focus enlarging a 3-in. as desired. 1/2 to 3/4 in. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. Fig. wide. and the lens slide. A table. 3. 1. A and B. are . The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. and 14 in. G. The board is centered both ways. wide and 15 in. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. and. at a distance of 24 ft. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. or glue. provided the material is of metal. well seasoned pine. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. above the center.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. high.

How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. To reach the water. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. apply two coats of shellac varnish. the strips II serving as guides. should the glass happen to upset. placed on the water. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. the water at once extinguishes the flame. P. The arrangement is quite safe as. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. B. E.constructed to slip easily on the table. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. JJ. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil.-Contributed by G. St. of safe. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. and when the right position is found for each. Minn. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. Paul. but not long enough. A sheet . light burning oil. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. Small strips of tin. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr.

Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. Schenectady. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. Fig. 9 in. Y. I ordered a canvas bag. from a tent company. 3 in. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. If one of these clips is not at hand. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. 12 ft. 4. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. Fig. 3.. then the corners on one end are doubled over.H. to cover the mattresses. 3. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. form a piece of wire in the same shape. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. N. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . by 12 ft. --Contributed by J. 2. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. 1. Crawford.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded.

C. Denver. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. for amperes and the other post. Pa. 1/2 in. 1. in the center coil. 2. 3 to swing freely on the tack. V. Fold two strips of light cardboard. To calibrate the instrument. A Film Washing Trough [331] . A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. 3/4 in. Attach a piece of steel rod. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. wide. long and 3/16 in. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. to the coil of small wire for volts. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. 1/2 in. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. insulating them from the case with cardboard. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. 3/4 in. open on the edges. D. drill two 3/16 in. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. Warren. through which the indicator works. White. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. 2. Do not use too strong a rubber. long. Fig. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. Fasten the wire with gummed label. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. so as to form two oblong boxes. An arc is cut in the paper. Fig. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. Teasdale. first mark the binding-post A. thick. --Contributed by Walter W. --Contributed by Edward M. to keep it from unwinding.each edge. apart. and insert two binding-posts. A rubber band. 1. holes in the edge. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. Colo. as shown in Fig. 2.

apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. --Contributed by M. Cut a 1/4-in. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. as shown. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Place this can on one end of the trough. Dayton. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. M.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. with the large hole up. O. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Wood Burning [331] . Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Hunting. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width.

then into this bottle place. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . mouth downward. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle.

2. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. Place the small bottle in as before. Ala. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. Whitehouse. thick. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. --Contributed by John Shahan. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. 3/4 in. as shown in the sketch. Auburn. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. wide and 4 in. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. N.Y. If the small bottle used is opaque.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. Upper Troy. but not very thick. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. This will make a very pretty ornament. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . If the cork is adjusted properly. 1. many puzzling effects may be obtained. --Contributed by Fred W. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. provided the bottle is wide. long.

The wire L was put . pulley F. as shown in Fig. 1. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. in diameter and 1 in. The bearing blocks were 3 in. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. 4. 3. Fig. even in a light breeze. such as blades and pulleys. --Contributed by D. I. to the shaft. Both bearings were made in this manner. Fig. thick and 3 in. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. which was nailed to the face plate. sugar pine on account of its softness. G. Fig. 2 ft. Fig. was 1/4in. 1. long. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. 1. or ordinary telephone transmitters. was keyed to shaft C. Milter. which gave considerable power for its size. by the method shown in Fig. which was 6 in. W. which extended to the ground. 1 in. 2. On a 1000-ft. 1. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. Its smaller parts. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. iron rod. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. high without the upper half. were constructed of 1-in. The shaft C. K. line. wide. B. A staple. The 21/2-in. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. thick. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. 1. Fig. thick. pulley. If a transmitter is used. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line.

were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. through the latter. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. 6. The smaller one. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. If you have no bell. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. 3 in. This board was 12 in. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. square to the board P at the top of the tower. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. The bed plate D. 2. apart in the tower. for instance. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. long and bend it as . 1. wide and 1 in. and was cut the shape shown. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Fig. so that the 1/4-in. The power was put to various uses. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. 25 ft. 6. G. hole was bored for it. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. Fig. long and bend it as shown at A. strips. a 1/2-in. providing one has a few old materials on hand. This completes the receiver or sounder. with brass headed furniture tacks. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. This fan was made of 1/4-in. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. in diameter. when the windmill needed oiling. 5. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. 1) 4 in. top down also. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. Fig. 1. hole for the shaft G was in the center. across the thin edge of a board. was tacked. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. Fig. Fig. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. cut out another piece of tin (X. as. pine 18 by 12 in. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. was 2 ft. R. Fig. H. Fig. There a 1/4-in. in the center of the board P. 0. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. long and 3 in. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. Two washers were placed on shaft C. To make the key. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. washers were placed under pulley F. with all parts in place. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. long. To lessen the friction here. The other lid. 1. 1. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. long and 1/2 in. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. long.

and. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. McConnell. using cleats to hold the board frame. at the front. Now.shown. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. When tired of this instrument. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. fitted with paddles as at M. although it can be made with but two. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Thus a center drive is made. leaving the other wire as it is. as shown at Water. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. as indicated. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. 1. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. like many another device boys make. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Before tacking it to the board. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. The rear barrels are. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. -Contributed by John R. 2. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. Going back to Fig. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. after the manner of bicycle wheels. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. causing a buzzing sound. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. By adjusting the coils.

thin sheet brass for the cylinder. seat yourself on the bicycle seat.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. which will give any amount of pleasure. as shown in Fig. There is no danger. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. or even a little houseboat. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. To propel it. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. can be built. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. feet on the pedals. The speed is slow at first. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. 3. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . If the journals thus made are well oiled. copper piping and brass tubing for base. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. there will not be much friction. 1.

2. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. Turn a small circle of wood. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. Fig. If magnifying glass cannot be had. or it may be put to other uses if desired. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. 1. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. Place one brass ring in cylinder. then the glass disc and then the other ring. 2. Fig. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. and so creating a false circuit. B. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. Fig. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. C. Then melt out the rosin or lead.of pleasure for a little work. Fig. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. 1. D. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. A. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. 1. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. If it is desired to make the light very complete. 2. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube.

To operate this. thick. wire from batteries to switch. E. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. or 1/4in. J. The parts indicated are as follows: A. set alarm key as shown in diagram. such as is used for cycle valves. 4-1/2 in. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. brass rod. Throw lever off from the right to center. bell. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. 3/8 in. --Contributed by Geo. brass strip. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. 4 in. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. X. D. and pulled tight.india rubber tubing. B. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. wire from bell to switch. Brinkerhoff. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . copper tubing. while lying in bed. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. 5-1/4 by 10 in. after two turns have been made on the key. Utah. long. near the bed. dry batteries. bracket. G. wide and 1/16 in. To throw on light throw levers to the left. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. C. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. key of alarm clock. shelf. if too small. T. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time.. some glue will secure them. When alarm goes off. S. --Contributed by C. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. F. by having the switch on the baseboard. switch. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . Ogden. C. long. I. H. Swissvale. wire from light to switch. after setting alarm. which stops bell ringing. To get the cylinder into its carriage. Chatland. In placing clock on shelf. contact post. Pa. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing.

Lanesboro. Chapman. 1. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. as at A. as . 2. Fig. All that is required is a tin covering. 2. A flannel bag. place stick and all in a pail of sand. Fig. as at A. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. will do the heating. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. 4 in. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. from one end. as in Fig. a bed warmer. as at B. making it as true and smooth as possible. about 6 in. gives the heater a more finished appearance. Having finished this. in diameter. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. being careful not to get the sand in it. Minn. about 3-1/2 in. in diameter. 1/4 in. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Pull out the nail and stick. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. Fig. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. S. --Contributed by Chas. long. This is to form the fuse hole. which can be made of an old can. Make a shoulder. A small lamp of about 5 cp. letting it extend 3/4 in. 3. for instance. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. Make the spindle as in Fig. wide. 1. beyond the end of the spindle. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick.

wide and 3 ft. 5/8 in. The illustration shows how this is done. will be sufficient to make the trigger. wide and 6 ft. 11/2 in. --Contributed by Arthur E. 3/8 in. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. spring and arrows. long. A piece of tin. 1 in. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. 6 in. this is to keep the edges from splitting.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. thick. long. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. but if this wood cannot be procured. thick. long. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. deep. 1. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. wide and 3/8 in. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. Joerin. The material must be 1-1/2 in. thick. ash. A piece of oak. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. good straight-grained pine will do. or hickory.

4. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. Such a temporary safe light may be . and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. Ill. Wilmette. Fig. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. To shoot the crossbow. Trownes. and one for the trigger 12 in. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. in diameter. better still. Fig. 7. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. The trigger. from the end of the stock. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. or through the necessity of. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. wide at each end. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by O. which is 1/4 in. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. 8. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. Fig. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. as shown in Fig. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. from the opposite end. The stick for the bow. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. 6. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. 3. having the latter swing quite freely. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. it lifts the spring up.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. When the trigger is pulled. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. 2. place the arrow in the groove. 9. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. E. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. thick. The bow is not fastened in the stock. To throw the arrow. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. A spring.

The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. C. making lighting and trimming convenient. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. since the flame of the candle is above A. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. is used as a door. apart. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. and replace as shown at B. and nail it in position as shown at A. says Photo Era. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. respectively. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. The cut should be about 5 ft. make the frame of the wigwam. Remove one end. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. The hinged cover E. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. from the ground. This lamp is safe. the bark lean-to is a . An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. it is the easiest camp to make. from the ground. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. Remove the bottom of the box. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. By chopping the trunk almost through. Moreover. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D.

running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. 3 ft. a 2-in. nails are necessary to hold it in place. For a foot in the middle of the stick. A piece of elm or hickory. selecting a site for a camp. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. wide. makes a good pair of tongs. Where bark is used. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. spruce. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. long and 1-1/2 in. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. deep and covered with blankets. Tongs are very useful in camp. wide and 6 ft. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. are a convenient size for camp construction. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. . Sheets of bark. For a permanent camp. In the early summer. thick. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. will dry flat. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. 6 ft. and split the tops with an ax. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. and cedar. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. piled 2 or 3 ft. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. long. long and 2 or 3 ft. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. and when the camp is pitched. make the best kind of a camp bed. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom.

and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. . and affording accommodation for several persons. hinges.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried.

and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. wide. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. B. 1. I drove a small cork. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. --Contributed by James M. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. about 4 in. changing the water both morning and night. and provide a cover or door. Fig. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell.. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Kane. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. A. deep and 4 in. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Doylestown. the interior can.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. to another . Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. Pa. B. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured.

for instance. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. fused into one side. The diagram. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. which project inside and outside of the tube. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. such as ether. shows how the connections to the supply current are made.glass tube. for instance. 2. E. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. a liquid. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. This makes . The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. if necessary. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. Fig. The current is thus compelled. to pass through an increasing resistance. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. until. C. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. limit. 2. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. 3. 4 and 5).

making it 1/16 in. Fig. or pattern. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. Before removing the field from the lathe. is composed of wrought sheet iron. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. therefore. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. between centers. 3. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. A 5/8in. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. tap. which may be of any thickness so that. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. set at 1/8 in. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. Fig. thick. These holes are for the bearing studs. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. as shown in the left-hand sketch. larger than the dimensions given. brass. brass or iron. Michigan. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. in diameter. they will make a frame 3/4 in. and for the outside of the frame. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. to allow for finishing. 1. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. in diameter. on a lathe. Alpena. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. assemble and rivet them solidly. clamp the template. The bearing studs are now made. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. by turning the lathe with the hand. two holes. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. 4-1/2 in. A. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. which will make it uniform in size. If the thickness is sufficient. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. as shown in Fig. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. screws. or even 1/16 in. 3-3/8 in. After the template is marked out. thicker. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. thick. drill the four rivet holes. After cleaning them with the solution. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. 2. hole is . bent at right angles as shown. 3-3/8 in. cannot be used so often. but merely discolored. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. when several pieces are placed together. When the frame is finished so far. Then the field can be finished to these marks. mark off a space. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown.

When the bearings are located. 4. Fig. into which a piece of 5/8-in. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. is turned up from machine steel. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. file them out to make the proper adjustment. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. brass rod is inserted. The shaft of the armature. solder them to the supports. or otherwise finished. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. soldered into place.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. and build up the solder well.

6. 5. to allow for finishing to size. Rivet them together. wide. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. 8. thick. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. thick. wide. threaded. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. as shown in Fig. 7. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. thick are cut like the pattern. as shown in Fig. When annealed. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. being formed for the ends. 3. When this is accomplished. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. brass rod. Find the centers of each segment at one end. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. 3/4 in. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. holes through them for rivets. 9. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. inside diameter. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. sheet fiber. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. by 1-1/2 in. After they . Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. 6.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. as shown m Fig. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. and held with a setscrew. Armature-Ring Core. then drill a 1/8-in. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. as shown in Fig. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. deep and 7/16 in. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. and then they are soaked in warm water. or segments. thick and 1/4 in. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. 3. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. as shown in Fig. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. thick. 1-1/8 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. Procure 12 strips of mica. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. Make the core 3/4 in. The pins are made of brass. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. washers. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. After the pieces are cut out. hole and tap it for a pin. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe.. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. 1/8 in. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. The sides are also faced off and finished. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze.

is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. The field is wound with No. they are glued to the core insulation. shown at B. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. of No. To connect the wires. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. shown at A. which will take 50 ft. being required. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. The winding is started at A. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. yet it shows a series of . making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. are soldered together. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. wide and 1 in. The source of current is connected to the terminals. about 100 ft. and wind on four layers. All connections should be securely soldered. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. 5. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. After one coil. 1. 8 in. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. Fig. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. and bring the end of the wire out at B. of the end to protrude. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. of the wire. long. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. until the 12 slots are filled. by bending the end around one of the projections. sheet fiber. after the motor is on the stand. thick. Run one end of the field wire. This winding is for a series motor. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. When the glue is set. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. Fig. or side. The two ends are joined at B. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. 1. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. the two ends of the wire. 6 in. sheet fiber. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. In starting to wind. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire.have dried.

you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. and one. Nine wires run from the timer. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . or.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. which serves as the ground wire. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. A 1/2-in. still more simply. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. as in the case of a spiral. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. is fastened to the metallic body. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. one from each of the eight contacts. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle.

The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. long. 45 deg. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. thus giving 16 different directions. Covering these is a thin. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. circle. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. Without this attachment. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. of the dial. 6 in. board. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it.The Wind Vane. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. It should be . A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button.

squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. however. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. Blackmer. Fill the box with any handy ballast. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather.about 6 ft. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. according to who is going to use it. also a piece of new carpet. Place the leather on some level. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. high. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. N. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. and about 6 in. if not too high. long to give the best results. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. making it heavy or light. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. Buffalo. . will answer the purpose just as well. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. -Contributed by James L. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. To work these outlines. will be enough for the two sides. thus making a universal joint. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. To make it." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. Y. or. called a chip carving knife. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. Cut 3-in. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. though a special knife. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. is most satisfactory. Before tacking the fourth side. will be sufficient. and securely nail on the top of the box. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. 14 by 18 in.

Paste the silk plush to the inner side. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. A good leather paste will be required. An ordinary sewing-machine . being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.

away from it. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. If a fire breaks out. rather than the smooth side. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Y. a needle and some feathers. Syracuse. square and tying a piece of . Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. can be thrown away when no longer needed. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. of common salt and 10 lb. --Contributed by Katharine D. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. N. Morse. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. B. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. as in cases of a sprained ankle. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch.will do if a good stout needle is used. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. or a hip that has been wrenched. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. and tie them together securely at the bottom. temporary lameness. of water. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use.

etc. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. the corners being wired. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. setting traps. There is a 1-in. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. This not only keeps the rats out. as shown. Gordon Dempsey. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. but not sharp. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. F. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. The coil is 1 in. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. is cut on the wood. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. Paterson. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. thus helping the rats to enter. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. G. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. The end is filed to an edge. wide and 1/16 in. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. N. The strings should be about 15 in. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. long. Ashland. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. A small wooden or fiber end. . Wis. N. long. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. commonly called tintype tin. Y. --Contributed by J. made up of four layers of No. cut to the length of the spool. wound on the head end.J. high. and a coil of wire. and tacked it to the boards. board all around the bottom on the inside. --Contributed by John A. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. The diaphragm C. which is the essential part of the instrument. Albany. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. deep. B. laying poisoned meat and meal. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. and the receiver is ready for use. 1/8 in. -Contributed by Ben Grebin.. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. E. letting it go at arm's length.string to each corner. The body of the receiver. One end is removed entirely. A. Hellwig. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool.

better still. To clean small articles. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. A single line will be sufficient. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. wide. and bend each strip in shape. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. Take a piece of string or. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. The vase is to have three supports. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. a piece of small wire. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. to . Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. gold. begin with the smallest scrolls. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls.

Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. from E to F.. 6-3/8 in. Trace also the line around the purse. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. 3-1/4 in. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. 3-1/2 in. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. and does not require coloring. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H.which the supports are fastened with rivets. Fold the leather on the line EF. thus raising it. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. from C to D.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. About 1 in. Work down the outside line of the design. using a duller point of the tool. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. from the lines EF on the piece. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. Press or model down the leather all around the design. through which to slip the fly AGH. wide when stitching up the purse. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. After taking off the pattern. as shown in the sketch. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. 4-1/4 in. sharp pencil. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. . Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in..

b. deep. It is neat and efficient. When it is finished. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. with the largest side down. the "open" side. as shown in Fig. thick. then place the square piece out of which Fig. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. Cut off six pieces 12 in. 1. This also should be slightly beveled. as well as useful. 2.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. by 12 ft. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. 3. First. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. all the way around. with pins or small nails. then nail it. It can be made without the use of a lathe. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. and which will be very interesting. and cut out a wheel. being cast in wooden molds. with the open side down. following the dotted lines. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. Now take another piece of wood. and a model for speed and power.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. with a compass saw. deep. Then nail the wheel down firmly. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. and. 1 was cut. 1/2 in. Fit this to the two . and tack the other piece slightly. Make the lug 1/4 in. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. square. long. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. around the wheel. leaving the lug a. and the projections B.

place it between two of the 12-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. 1. square pieces of wood. and clean all the shavings out of it. holes through it. then bolt it together. hole bored through its center.pieces just finished. as shown by the . hole 1/4 in. hole entirely through at the same place. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Take the mold apart. 4. square pieces of wood. Now take another of the 12-in. bolts. in the center of it. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. and bore six 1/4-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. After it is finished. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and lay it away to dry. deep. slightly beveled. one of which should have a 3/8-in. Now put mold No. and boring a 3/8-in.

B. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. Using the Brace . This is the same as Fig. After it is fitted in. 6. Put this together in mold No. b. the other right-handed. instead of the right-handed piece. holes. fasten a 3/8-in. put the top of the brace through this hole.2. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. 5. and the other in the base. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. where the casting did not fill out. and drill them in the same manner. Pour metal into mold No.1. Commencing 1-1/2 in. lay it on a level place. d. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. Now take mold No. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. long. true it up with a square. take an ordinary brace. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. wide and 16 in. from the one end. and lay it away to dry. see that the bolts are all tight. as shown in illustration. and connect to the boiler. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. place the entire machine in a vise.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. so that it will turn easily. long.black dots in Fig. 6. screw down. drill in it. and two 1/4-in. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. and pour babbitt metal into it. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. and pouring metal in to fill it up.2. one in the projections. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. and run in babbitt metal again. This will cast a paddle-wheel. Let it stand for half an hour. holes at d. and drill it entirely through. until it is full. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. A piece of mild steel 5 in. This is for a shaft. only the one is left-handed. and the exhaust hole in projection b. Then bolt the castings together. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. over the defective part. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench.1. place it under the drill. This is mold No. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. one in the lug. Now cut out one of the 12-in. and 3/8-in. Fig. as shown by the black dots in Fig. 1. and bore three 1/4-in. 4. in diameter must now be obtained. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in.

Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. turn the wheel to the shape desired. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Plan of Ice Boat . If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. long. and the pleasure many times repays the effort.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. one 6 ft. will do good service. piece and at right angles to it. and. Then take a knife or a chisel. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. At each end of the 6ft.. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. and the other 8 ft. and if instructions have been carefully followed. with a boss and a set screw. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. while it is running at full speed. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft.

which may come in handy in heavy winds. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. boards to make the platform. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. as the runners were fastened. 1. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. This fits in the square hole. To the under side of the 8-ft. long. in diameter in the center. at the top. where they often did considerable damage. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . at the butt and 1 in. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. 8 a reef point knot. in diameter. 2 by 3 in. bolt the 8-ft. distant. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. and about 8 in. The tiller. The spar should be 9 ft. in diameter at the base. long. Figure 2 shows the rudder post.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. leaving 1 ft. tapering to 1-1/2 in. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. Fig. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or st