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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. away. as shown in Fig.Fig. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. long will make six boomerangs. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. 2. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. Fig. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. The pieces are then dressed round. It is held in this curve until dry. --Contributed by J. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. apart. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. 1. Ontario. 1. Toronto. grasp it and hold the same as a club. A piece of plank 12 in. with the hollow side away from you. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. 2 -. Noble. wide and 2 ft. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . E. as shown in Fig. 2. until it is bound as shown in Fig. distant. 1. To throw a boomerang. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve.

Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. high and 4 or 5 in. dry snow will not pack easily. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. made of 6-in. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. If the snow is of the right consistency. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. thick. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. long. 6 in. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. however. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. and with a movable bottom. it is not essential to the support of the walls. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. which makes the building simpler and easier. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. forcing it down closely. A wall. First. or rather no bottom at all. A very light. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. blocks . minus the top. and it may be necessary to use a little water. the block will drop out. but about 12 in. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. one inside of the circle and the other outside. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward.

1. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. is 6 or 8 in.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. D. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. Fig. a. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. wide. Fig.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. above the ground. 3 -. 2. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. The piece of wood. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. 2. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. Goodbrod. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. --Contributed by Geo. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. 3. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. which is about 1 ft. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. long and 1 in. It also keeps them out. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. or an old safe dial will do. 1. and the young architect can imitate them. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. A nail. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. There is no outward thrust. Fig. which can be made of wood. Union. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. C. Ore.

Syracuse. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. S. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. one pair of special hinges. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. says the Sphinx. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. as the weight always draws them back to place. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. --Contributed by R. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. and the other back of the stove and out of the way.When taking hot dishes from the stove. New York. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. the box locked . The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. If ordinary butts are used. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. Merrill. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box.

Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. When the sieve is shaken. as shown. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. If they do not. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. All . 2. To make a design similar to the one shown. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid.and the performer steps out in view. If the measuring has been done properly. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. proceed as follows: First. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. smooth surface. Fig. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. as shown in Fig. -Contributed by L. 3. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. allowing each coat time to dry. Ga. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. It remains to bend the flaps. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. as shown in Fig. about 1-32 of an inch. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. on drawing paper. Place the piece in a vise. 1. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. one for each corner. Augusta. draw one-half of it. Alberta Norrell. With the metal shears.

The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. To keep the metal from tarnishing. 25 German-silver wire. if rolled under the shoe sole. A piece of porcelain tube. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. 25 gauge German-silver wire. used for insulation. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. from the back end. The common cork. long. R. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. H. is fitted tightly in the third hole. which is about 6 in. When the current is turned off. If a touch of color is desired. A resistance. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. and in the positions shown in the sketch. in diameter. Galbreath. heats the strip of German-silver wire. After this has dried. The current. In boring through rubber corks. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. of No. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. --Contributed by R. as shown at AA. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. causing it to expand. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. should be in the line. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. Colo. in passing through the lamp.the edges should be left smooth. about 6 in. C. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. B. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. Denver.

2. leaving a space of 4 in. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. . This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. Mo. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. 1. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Kansas City. --Contributed by David Brown. with thin strips of wood. between them as shown in Fig. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Purchase two long book straps. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable.bottom ring. Fig. 3. as shown in Fig.

The folds are made over the string. --Contributed by James M. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Fig. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Y. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. These are shown in Fig. Two strips of brass. as . 2. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. The string is then tied. having a gong 2-1/2 in. just the right weight for a woman to use. and a pocket battery. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Fig. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. 3. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. --Contributed by Katharine D. 1. 1. A. Doylestown. Pa. one weighing 15 lb. and one weighing 25 lb. are mounted on the outside of the box. which is the right weight for family use. Syracuse. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. N. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. 1. 36 in. in diameter. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood.. Kane. C. long. to form a handle. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig.. Morse. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. When the aeroplane tips. 4.An ordinary electric bell. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. Fig. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. and tack smoothly. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year.

the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. --Contributed by Louis J. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. N. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. Frame Made of a Rod . Floral Park. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. 1. bent as shown in Fig. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. AA. 2. and many fancy knick-knacks. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. machine screws. 2. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. Day. 3/32 or 1/4 in.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. such as brackets. four washers and four square nuts. two 1/8 -in. if once used. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. long. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. The saw. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. Y. in diameter.

Watch Fob For coloring silver. or silver. For etching. In the design shown. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Detroit. it has the correct strength. 1 part sulphuric acid. use them in place of the outside nuts. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. File these edges. allowing each time to dry. using a swab and an old stiff brush. Of the leathers. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. A. If it colors the metal red. Silver is the most desirable but. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. Scranton. copper. Drying will cause this to change to purple. if copper or brass. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. of water. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. therefore. Apply two coats. Rub off the highlights. of water in which dissolve. be covered the same as the back.may be made of either brass. of course. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. after breaking up. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. though almost any color may be obtained. as well as the depth of etching desired. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. as well as brass and copper. the most expensive. green and browns are the most popular. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. --Contributed by W. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. 1 part nitric acid. An Austrian Top [12] .If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. Michigan. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. treat it with color. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. The buckle is to be purchased..

Ypsilanti. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. hole. Tholl. Bore a 3/4-in. pass one end through the 1/16-in. Michigan. in diameter. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. wide and 3/4 in. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. Parts of the Top To spin the top. long.F. long. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. starting at the bottom and winding upward. allowing only 1-1/4 in. thick. 1-1/4 in. . The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. A handle. set the top in the 3/4 -in. is formed on one end. A 1/16-in. 5-1/4 in. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. --Contributed by J. hole in this end for the top. 3/4 in. The handle is a piece of pine. When the shank is covered.

This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Northville. A. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. having no sides. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Mich. . the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. --Contributed by Miss L. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Ga. Augusta. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Alberta Norrell. Houghton. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. For black leathers. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. tarts or similar pastry. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. --A. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. The baking surface. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown.

Stringing Wires [13] A. Centralia. Mo. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. the same as shown in the illustration. glass fruit jar. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. two turns will remove the jar. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . says Studio Light. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. then solder cover and socket together. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. When you desire to work by white light.

. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. 1-1/4 in. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. Janesville. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. so it can be folded up. 1-1/4 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. square by 12 in. square by 62 in. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. and not tip over. Wis. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits.for loading and development. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. They are fastened. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. 4 Vertical pieces. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. 16 Horizontal bars. as shown in the cross-section sketch. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. 4 Braces.

The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. If the loop is tied at the proper place. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. C. After rounding the ends of the studs.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. Cincinnati. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. Rosenthal. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. H. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. The whole. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. O. after filling the pail with water. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. from scrap material. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Dr. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. The front can be covered . I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. -Contributed by Charles Stem. Phillipsburg. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. and a loop made in the end. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. New York.

The . you are. 1 FIG. the color will be an undesirable. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. If the gate is raised slightly. FIG. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. thoroughly fix. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. Wehr. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. sickly one. --Contributed by Gilbert A. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. either for contact printing or enlargements. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. and. Md. By using the following method. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. if you try to tone them afterward. The results will be poor. by all rules of the game. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. principally mayonnaise dressing. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Develop them into strong prints. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. In my own practice. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. the mouth of which rests against a. Baltimore.

.. but. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished..... preferably the colored kind. when it starts to bleach.. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes.. 16 oz. The blotting paper can . A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses... to make it 5 by 5 in... 1 and again as in Fig. etc... as it will appear clean much longer than the white. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. in this solution.... transfer it to a tray of water...... without previous wetting. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. Iodide of potassium . 2. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete... A good final washing completes the process.... It will bleach slowly and evenly. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away." Cyanide of potassium .. When the desired reduction has taken place..... 20 gr.. --Contributed by T. Place the dry print. three times.... 5 by 15 in. Cal. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig... 2 oz. wide and 4 in. With a little practice.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain........... where it will continue to bleach. Water ... L... San Francisco.. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in... in size. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. long to admit the angle support....... Gray..

Make a design similar to that shown. Oshkosh. --Contributed by L. and a length of 5 in. the shaft 1 in. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Monahan. 3. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate.J. --Contributed by J. Wilson Aldred Toronto. wide. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. having a width of 2-1/4 in. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Corners complete are shown in Fig. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Canada. wide below the . the head of which is 2 in. 20 gauge. Wisconsin.

For coloring olive green. With files. being held perpendicular to the work. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. using turpentine. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. The lines at A and B will need to be cut.FIG. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. Trace the design on the metal. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. Make one-half of the design. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. Do not put the hands in the solution. After this has dried. After the sawing. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. then put on a second coat. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. 3. . using carbon paper. freehand. then trace the other half in the usual way. The metal must be held firmly. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. 1 part nitric acid. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. Pierce a hole with a small drill. Allow this to dry. using a small metal saw. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. Fig. 1. 1 Fig. Apply with a small brush. which gives the outline of the design Fig. 4. 2. With the metal shears. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. but use a swab on a stick. then coloring. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. 1 part sulphuric acid. after folding along the center line. deep. as shown in Fig. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. and the saw allowed time to make its cut.

M. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Conn. --Contributed by Katharine D. as shown. Ii is an ordinary staple. thick. Burnett. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. --Contributed by H. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. East Hartford. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. After the stain has dried. Carl Cramer. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. Cal. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. When this is cold. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. New York. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. --Contributed by M. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. it does the work rapidly. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. . Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. Richmond. on a chopping board. Morse. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. then stain it a mahogany color. Syracuse. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. attach brass handles. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip.

Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel.. and several 1/8-in. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. square.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. L. as shown in Fig. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. Florida. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. --Contributed by Mrs. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. thick. also locate the drill holes. Cal. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. Fig. Jaquythe. in width at the shank. or tin. thick and 4 in. WARNECKE Procure some brass. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. not over 1/4 in. saucers or pans. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. Kissimmee. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. brass. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. H. A. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. some pieces of brass. --Contributed by W. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. as shown at A. about 3/16 in. holes. 1. Richmond. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. indicating the depth of the slots. 4. one shaft. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. 1/4 in. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. . The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. Atwell. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. machine screws. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. two enameled. 53 steel pens. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line.

3. thick. 2. each about 1 in.. hole in the center. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. The shaft hole may also be filed square. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. If metal dishes. 3. These are connected to a 3/8-in. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . If the shaft is square. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. 2. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. as in Fig. hole. a square shaft used. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. 5. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. long by 3/4 in. about 1/32 in. 1. 6. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. wide and bend as shown in Fig. and pins inserted. Bend as shown in Fig. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. Fig. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. as shown. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. wide. and the ends filed round for the bearings. machine screws and nuts. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. lead should be run into the segments. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. 7. A 3/4-in. thick. as shown in Fig. can be procured.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. hole is drilled to run off the water. There should be a space of 1/16 in. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. with the face of the disk. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. Fig. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. machine screws. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. long and 5/16 in. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. using two nuts on each screw. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. brass and bolted to the casing. in diameter and 1/32 in. with a 3/8-in. Fig. into the hole. with 1/8-in. supply pipe. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in.

Stain the wood before putting in the . Fasten with 3/4-in brads. using four to each leg. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. make these seams come between the two back legs. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. --Contributed by F. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. V. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. Ill. The four legs are each 3/4-in. The lower part. Canada. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. When assembling. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. Fasten with 3/4-in. high and 15 in.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. or more in diameter. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Smith. Now you will have the box in two pieces. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. deep over all. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. we will call the basket. screws. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. three of which are in the basket. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. square and 30-1/2 in. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. Cooke. from the bottom end of the legs. With a string or tape measure. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. to make the bottom. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Be sure to have the cover. 8-1/2 in. long. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. from the top of the box. deep and 1-1/4 in. --Contributed by S. Hamilton. La Salle.

How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. The side. Mass. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. --also the lower edge when necessary. Cover them with the cretonne. you can. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. Sew on to the covered cardboards. sewing on the back side. If all the parts are well sandpapered. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Md. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig.lining. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. wide and four strips 10 in. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Packard. Fig. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. Baltimore. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Boston. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. wide. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. as shown in the sketch. When making the display. The folded part in the center is pasted together. 2. 1. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things.2 Fig. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. -Contributed by Stanley H. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. and gather it at that point.

and. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. saving all the solid part. It is not difficult to . N. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Orlando Taylor. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. 3. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. with slight modifications. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Cross Timbers. Gloversville. When through using the pad. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Y. L. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Crockett. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Fig. --Contributed by B. Mo.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. It is cleanly. --Contributed by H. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads.

Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. After this is done. Texas. Mass. or if desired. --Contributed by Edith E. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. and scrape out the rough parts. remove the contents. Lowell. After stirring. Both of these methods are wasteful. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Lane. Bourne. across the face. and secure it in place with glue or paste. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. are shown in the diagram. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. If a file is used. it should be new and sharp. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. El Paso. S. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. -Contributed by C.

He captured several pounds in a few hours. Oak Park. Canton. After several hours' drying. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. The insects came to the light. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Greenleaf. Iowa. Wheeler. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. Turl. circled over the funnel and disappeared.cooking utensil. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. As these were single-faced disk records. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Those having houses . --Contributed by Loren Ward. --Contributed by Geo. F. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Ill. Des Moines. A Postcard Rack [25]. The process works well and needs no watching. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. Oregon. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. --Contributed by Marion P. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. Ill. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall.

material. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. and as they are simple in design. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. 6 in. not even with the boards themselves. Conn. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. but for cheapness 3/4 in. and both exactly alike. the bottom being 3/8 in. The single boards can then be fixed. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. Both sides can be put together in this way. and the second one for the developing bench. boards are preferable. one on each side of what will be the . Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. Lay the floor next. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. 6 in. the best material to use being matched boards. --Contributed by Thomas E. Glenbrook. will do as well. --Contributed by Wm. by 2 ft. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1.. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces.. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Worcester. Only three pieces are required. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. thick. Dobbins. Mass. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. Rosenberg. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. plane and pocket knife.

. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. so that the water will drain off into the sink. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. 7. and to the outside board of the sides. 2 in section. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. 9). 6 and 9. In hinging the door. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. 11. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. below which is fixed the sink. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. is cut. etc.. as shown in Figs. which is fixed on as shown . all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. wide. 10). of the top of the door for the same reason. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. At the top of the doorway. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. 5. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. and in the middle an opening.doorway. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. and act as a trap for the light. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged.. and the top as at C in the same drawing. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. 9 by 11 in. 6. brown wrapping paper. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. the closing side as at B. hinged to it. Fig. 8. 6. The developing bench is 18 in. and should be zinc lined. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. The roof boards may next be put on. It is shown in detail in Fig. nailing them to each other at the ridge. so that it will fit inside the sink. by screwing to the floor. 3 and 4.

Details of the Dark Rook .

in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. after lining with brown paper. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. Fig. four coats at first is not too many. 15. Fig. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. or the room may be made with a flat roof. Fig. hole bored in the center for a handle. The handle should be at least 12 in. For beating up an egg in a glass. 1. these being shown in Fig. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. 16. or red light as at K. Pennsylvania. --Contributed by W. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. 17. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. Erie. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. 19. A circular piece about 2 in. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. 16. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. are fastened in the corners inside. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. 13. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. as at I. Fig. and a 3/8-in. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. 6. screwing them each way into the boards. and a tank stand on it. it is better than anything on the market. mixing flour and water. but not the red glass and frame. 18. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. as shown in Fig. Karl Hilbrich. though this is hardly advisable. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. In use. 20. 2. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. if desired. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. 14. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. preferably maple or ash. The house will be much strengthened if strips. which makes it possible to have white light. as shown in the sections. as in Fig. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. 13. as at M. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside.in Fig.

New York. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. which. -Contributed by E. To operate. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. L. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. as shown in the sketch. Eureka Springs.copper should be. when put together properly is a puzzle. Kansas City. D. long. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. --Contributed by Wm. Mo. Mitchell. Ark. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. Schweiger. --Contributed by L. for a handle. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. about 3/8 in. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. G. Smith. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. Yonkers.

in order to thoroughly preserve it. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. Each cork is cut as in Fig. as well as improve its appearance. the box will require a greater height in front. 3. A number of 1/2-in. as shown in Fig. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. The corks in use are shown in Fig. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. holes should be drilled in the bottom. to make it set level. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. The design shown in Fig. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. as is usually the case. which binds them together. After the box is trimmed. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. If the sill is inclined. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. for the moment. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. . Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. need them. 1. as shown in Fig. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. 2.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. especially for filling-in purposes. the rustic work should be varnished. Having completed the bare box. 3.

it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. 3. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. as shown in Fig. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. and observe results. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. Each long projection represents a leg. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. 1. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. etc. too dangerous. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. cabbages. drilled at right angles. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. But I have solved the difficulty. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals.. 4. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. can't use poison. 2. Traps do no good. life in the summer time is a vexation. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. being partly eaten into. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. it's easy. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. When the corn is gone cucumbers. share the same fate. . The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. F.

The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. -. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. cut some of it off and try again. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. by trial. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. The solution can be used over and over again. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. the coil does not heat sufficiently. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. About 9-1/2 ft. of No. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. strips. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. If. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. Iowa. cut in 1/2-in. and made up and kept in large bottles.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. long. .

is a good size--in this compound. Do not wash them. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. of oleic acid with 1 gal. but with unsatisfactory results. to cause the door to swing shut. Y. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. In cleaning silver. Dallas. Fig 2. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Pa. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Knives. --Contributed by Katharine D.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. Stir and mix thoroughly. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by James M. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. hot-water pot. of gasoline. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. 1) removed. and a strip. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. D. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Texas. Kane. C. of whiting and 1/2 oz. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. coffee pot. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. forks. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Syracuse. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. it falls to stop G. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. Morse. . The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. N. Doylestown. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them.

Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Waverly. negatives. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. Ill. --Contributed by Theodore L. Pa. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. using the paper dry. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . . The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. La. Harrisburg. which is. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. Sprout. of course. New Orleans. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. --Contributed by Oliver S. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Fisher.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. later fixed and washed as usual. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. but unfixed. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper.

metal. The harmonograph. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. then . The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. To obviate this difficulty. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. a harmonograph is a good prescription. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. In this uncertainty lies the charm. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. Fig. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. 1. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. No two hamonograms are exactly alike.

Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. The length of the short pendulum H. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges.. provides a means of support for the stylus. which can be regulated. Chicago. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. what is most important. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. Another weight of about 10 lb. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups.. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. is attached as shown at H. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. in the center of the circle to be cut.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. one-fourth. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . A weight. A pedestal. Punch a hole. --Contributed by Wm. Ingham. with a nail set or punch. is about right for a 10-ft. Rosemont. J. Gaffney. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. exactly one-third. for instance. makes respectively 3. in diameter. 1-3/4 by 2 in. 1. or the lines will overlap and blur. and unless the shorter pendulum is. as shown in the lower part of Fig. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. as long as the other. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. such as a shoe buttoner. as shown in Fig. one-fifth. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. of about 30 or 40 lb. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. A small weight. Arizona. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. A small table or platform. R. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. ceiling. 1. etc. --Contributed by James T. G. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. Holes up to 3 in. to prevent any side motion. A length of 7 ft. K. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. that is.

4. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. 1. --Contributed by J. of course. The two key cards are made alike. 6. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. 3. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. one for the sender and one for the receiver. dividing them into quarters. and proceed as before. -Contributed by W. then put 2 at the top. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. The capacity of the vise. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. a correspondent of .J. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Cruger. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. 5. Cape May City. and 4 as in Fig. Fig. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual.J.H. distributing them over the whole card. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. Morey.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. then 3 as in Fig. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. Chicago. Fig. 2. N. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement.

thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. of ferricyanide of potash. Ga. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. sheet of well made asbestos paper. says Popular Electricity. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. 6 gauge wires shown. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. Cut through the center. Wind the successive turns of . The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. citrate of iron and ammonia. of water. respectively. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. Augusta. After securing the tint desired. drill 15 holes. wood-screws. long. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. Alberta Norrell. remove the prints. the portion of the base under the coil. Asbestos board is to be preferred. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. 30 gr. If constructed of the former. from the top and bottom. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. After preparing the base and uprights. of the uprights. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. deep. To assemble. 1/2 oz. 1/4 in. --Contributed by L. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. acetic acid and 4 oz.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. of 18-per-cent No. 22 gauge German-silver wire.

which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. cut and dressed 1/2 in. Y. as they are usually thrown away when empty. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. but these are not necessary.. which. Small knobs may be added if desired. square. N. rivets. 14 gauge. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. Labels of some kind are needed. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Ampere. screws. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. Ward. if one is not a smoker. etc. --Contributed by Frederick E. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. 16 gauge copper wire. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. then fasten the upright in place. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench.

. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. the pure muriatic acid should be used. G. The material can be of any wood. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. of glycerine to 16 oz. galvanized iron. --C. B. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. Richmond. In soldering galvanized iron. S. particularly so when the iron has once been used. being careful about the heat. or has become corroded. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. California. Copper.14 oz. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. If the soldering copper is an old one. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. zinc. it must be ground or filed to a point. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. especially if a large tub is used. a piece of solder. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. Kenosha. and one made of poplar finished black. --Contributed by A. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. Ark. E and F. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. Wis. then to the joint to be soldered. and labeled "Poison. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. Jaquythe. Eureka Springs. lead. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. C. A. as shown in the sketch. The parts are put together with dowel pins. sandpaper or steel wool. D. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. tinner's acid. brass. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. of water. Larson." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. This is considerable annoyance. Heat it until hot (not red hot). --Contributed by W. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. tin. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. and rub the point of the copper on it..

W. 1. Y. Six issues make a well proportioned book. B. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. 2. C. in diameter. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. brass and silver. This completes the die. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. however. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. Take a 3/4-in. The dimensions shown in Fig. N. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. such as copper. Hankin. a ring may be made from any metal. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. 7/8 in. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. round iron. which gives two bound volumes each year. The disk will come out pan shaped. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. Fig. Fig. The covers of the magazines are removed. nut. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. Apart from this. -Contributed by H. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. with good results. wide. D. Troy. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. I bind my magazines at home evenings. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. This will leave a clear hole. and drill out the threads. The punch A. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . in diameter. Brass rings can be plated when finished. thick and 1-1/4 in. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. Place the band.

using . The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. 2. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. 1. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. The covering can be of cloth. Coarse white thread. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. Place the cardboard covers on the book. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. The covering should be cut out 1 in. 2. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. 1 in Fig. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. 1/8 in. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. 1. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. C. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner.4. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. After drawing the thread tightly. on all edges except the back. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. deep. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. and place them against the strings in the frame. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. Five cuts. size 16 or larger. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. . The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. 5. of the ends extending on each side. threaded double. 1. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. and then to string No. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. allowing about 2 in. The sections are then prepared for sewing. and a third piece. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. Start with the front of the book. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. If started with the January or the July issue. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. is used for the sewing material. as shown in Fig. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. is nailed across the top. which is fastened the same as the first. through the notch on the left side of the string No. then back through the notch on the right side. The string No.

Divine. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. and. Cal. round iron. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. College View. Tinplate. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. For the blade an old talking-machine . Encanto. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. and mark around each one. at opposite sides to each other. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Nebr. Place the cover on the book in the right position. --Contributed by Clyde E. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. on which to hook the blade. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end.

bore. E. and a long thread plug. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). and another piece (B) 6 in. Then on the board put . fuse hole at D. C. Hays. Summitville. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. by 4-1/2 in. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. and 1/4 in. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. A. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. Make the blade 12 in. F. in order to drill the holes in the ends. with a steel sleeve. Ohio. and file in the teeth. with 10 teeth to the inch. -Contributed by Willard J. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. and 1/4 in. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. Miss. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. or double extra heavy. B.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. hydraulic pipe. thick. as it is sometimes called. On the upper side. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. Moorhead. by 1 in. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. at the same end.. thick. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. as shown. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in.. long.

18 gauge wire for the wiring. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. --Contributed by Chas. A lid may be added if desired. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. of wire to each coil. as from batteries. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. high around this apparatus. 4 jars. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . Boyd. some sheet copper or brass for plates. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Connect up as shown. of rubber-covered wire. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. and some No. using about 8 in. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. If you are going to use a current of low tension. H. the jars need not be very large. about 5 ft. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. Philadelphia.

Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. and for the rear runners: A.. The current then will flow through the motor. however. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. B and C. long by 22 in. The illustration shows how to shape it. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. making them clear those in the front runner. by 2 in. On the door of the auto front put the . B. oak boards. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. 2. A 3/4-in. 30 in. above the ground. B. First sandpaper all the wood. by 2 in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. are important. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. Equip block X with screw eyes. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. & S. Use no screws on the running surface. See Fig. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. Z. apart. 2 and 3. An iron washer. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. The connection between point No.the way. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig.. beginning at the rear. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble.. thick. by 1 in. 4 in. as they are not substantial enough.. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. 2. 1 and so on for No. Fig. 16-1/2 in. The stock required for them is oak. The sled completed should be 15 ft. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. as they "snatch" the ice. with the cushion about 15 in. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. wide. Use no nails. wide and 3/4 in. two pieces 14 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. two pieces 34 in. 27 B. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. 15-1/2 in. gives full current and full speed. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. by 1-1/4 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. C. At the front 24 or 26 in. For the brass trimmings use No. . When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. direct to wire across jars. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. two pieces 30 in. To wire the apparatus. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. sheet brass 1 in. long. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. 4) of 3/4-in. 5 on switch. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. by 1-1/4 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. 4. 3 in. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. steel rod makes a good steering rod.. 1 on switch. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. and four pieces 14 in. 1.. Construct the auto front (Fig. No. 11 in. 2 is lower down than in No. or source of current. wide by 3/4 in. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. and bolt through. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. 1 is connected to point No. The top disk in jar No. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. 3. and plane it on all edges. 3 and No. square by 14 ft. A variation of 1/16 in. by 5 in. Their size also depends on the voltage. 7 in. long. by 5 in. on No. two for each jar. C. is used to reduce friction. long. 2. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. Put arm of switch on point No. by 6 in. 2 in.. wide and 2 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. long. 34 in. In proportioning them the points A. thick. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in.

to improve the appearance. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. fasten a cord through the loop. a brake may be added to the sled. Fasten a horn. parcels. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. Then get some upholstery buttons. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. such as burlap. by 30 in. such as used on automobiles. etc. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. a number of boys may share in the ownership. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. The best way is to get some strong. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. cutting it out of sheet brass. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. long. cheap material. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. lunch. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. or with these for $25. If the expense is greater than one can afford. If desired. overshoes. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. If desired. by 1/2 in. brass plated. which is somewhat moist. may be stowed within. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. to the wheel.

the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same.tree and bring. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. --Contributed by Stewart H. Ill. . The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Leland. Lexington.

some files. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. Draw a circle on paper. will be over the line FG. mild steel or iron. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. Fig. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. thick. say 1 in. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. the same diameter as the wheel. London. E. Fig. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. With no other tools than a hacksaw. 2. The straight-edge. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. though more difficult. outside diameter and 1/16 in. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. FC. 4). the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. which.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. from F to G. a compass. sheet metal. the cut will be central on the line. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. The first tooth may now be cut. Fig. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. 3. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. with twenty-four teeth. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. CD. This guide should have a beveled edge. so that the center of the blade. The Model Engineer. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. when flat against it. A small clearance space. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. by drawing diameters. 1. First take the case of a small gearwheel. made from 1/16-in.

. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. R. as shown in Fig. ground it with a large piece of zinc. If there is no faucet in the house. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. or several pieces bound tightly together. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. No shock will be perceptible. B. Focus the camera in the usual manner. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. each in the center. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. some wire and some carbons. and the other outlet wire. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. A bright. Then take one outlet wire. Make a hole in the other. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. as shown in Fig. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. either the pencils for arc lamps.Four Photos on One Plate of them. 1. transmitter. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. 1. B. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. hold in one hand. electric lamp. as shown in Fig. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. 2.

It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. and will then burn the string C. of course. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. For a base use a pine board 10 in. Emsworth. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . If desired. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. under the gable. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. or more of the latter has been used. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. and about that size. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. as shown. are also needed. Slattery. D D are binding posts for electric wires. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. --Contributed by Geo. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. Dry batteries are most convenient. as indicated by E E. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. Wrenn. Several battery cells. J. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. by 12 in. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. a transmitter which induces no current is used. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. by 1 in. Ashland. leaving about 10 in. 36 wire around it. Then set the whole core away to dry. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. at each end for terminals. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. Pa. B. They have screw ends. One like a loaf of bread. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. and again wind the wire around it. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. one at the receiver can hear what is said. serves admirably. Ohio. But in this experiment. A is a wooden block.

connecting lamp receptacles. and switch. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. Jr. for the . soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. and the lamps. F. as shown. E. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. B B. From the other set of binding-posts. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. D. The oven is now ready to be connected. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. The coil will commence to become warm. Connect these three to switch. Fig. 1. Ohio. as shown. The apparatus is now ready for operation. 14 wire. run a No. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F.wire. 2. while C is open. First make a support. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. in parallel. the terminal of the coil. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. B B. and one single post switch. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. These should have hollow ends. in series with bindingpost. 12 or No. Newark. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. C. Fig. C. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. until the hand points to zero on the scale. At one side secure two receptacles. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. Place 16-cp.. Turn on switch. D.

After assembling the core as shown in Fig. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. 3 amperes. Continue in this way with 2 amperes.. is made of wire. 1. 6. D. drill through the entire case and valve. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . This may be made of wood. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. 14. The box is 5-1/2 in. thick. Montreal. Fig. If for 3-way. from the lower end.E. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. and D. drill a hole as shown at H. Dussault. 5. until the scale is full. Fig. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. It is 1 in. After drilling. long and make a loop. a battery. deep. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. 4 amperes. 4. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. Fig. although brass is better. To make one. 4 in. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. wind with plenty of No. --Contributed by J. 36 magnet wire instead of No. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. E. a variable resistance. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. inside measurements. 1. etc. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. Fig. where A is the homemade ammeter. high. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. 2. wide and 1-3/4 in. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. but if for a 4way. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. drill in only to the opening already through. is then made and provided with a glass front. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. 10 turns to each layer. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. long. D. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. 3. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. The core. Mine is wound with two layers of No. remove the valve. a standard ammeter. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. This is slipped on the pivot. as shown in the cut. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. 1/4 in. is made of iron. although copper or steel will do. to prevent it turning on the axle. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. 1/2 in. C. 14 wire.or 4-way valve or cock. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. 5. long. wide and 1/8 in. At a point a little above the center. The pointer or hand. A wooden box. B. 7.

F. D. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. E. in thickness . A. One wire runs to the switch. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. To start the light. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. and the arc light. as shown. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. which is used for reducing the current. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. This stopper should be pierced. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. By connecting the motor. provided with a rubber stopper.performing electrical experiments. and a metal rod. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. in diameter. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. making two holes about 1/4 in. and the other connects with the water rheostat. B. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. high. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole.

then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. 2. To insert the lead plate. A piece of wood. where he is placed in an upright open . A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. as shown in C. Carthage. Y. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. As there shown. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. Fig. If the interrupter does not work at first. as shown in B. N. 1. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. If all adjustments are correct. long. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Fig. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. 2. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Having finished the interrupter. Fig. B. 1. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. 1. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Turn on the current and press the button. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. Fig. --Contributed by Harold L. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. A. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Jones. Having fixed the lead plate in position.

light-colored garments. especially the joints and background near A. A. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. and must be thoroughly cleansed. The glass should be the clearest possible. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. The skeleton is made of papier maché. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. A white shroud is thrown over his body. They need to give a fairly strong light. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. The lights. figures and lights. especially L.. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. L and M.coffin. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. All . This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. could expect from a skeleton. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. inside dimensions. dressed in brilliant. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. and wave his arms up and down. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. The model. as the entire interior. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. loosejointed effect. and can be bought at Japanese stores. within the limits of an ordinary room. giving a limp. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. until it is dark there. should be miniature electric lamps. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. is constructed as shown in the drawings. the illusion will be spoiled. high. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. by 7 in. with the exception of the glass. If everything is not black. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. should be colored a dull black. by 7-1/2 in. to aid the illusion. which can be run by three dry cells. from which the gong has been removed. If it is desired to place the box lower down. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. Its edges should nowhere be visible.

Two finishing nails were driven in. W. fat spark. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. as shown in the sketch. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. San Jose. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. Fry. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. square block. If a gradual transformation is desired.that is necessary is a two-point switch. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. placed about a foot apart. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. --Contributed by Geo. after which it assumes its normal color. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. Cal.

When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. by small pieces of wood. Cohen. If a lighted match . and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. 1. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. This is a wide-mouth bottle. into the receiver G.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. In Fig. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. and should be separated about 1/8 in. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. or a solution of sal soda. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. The plates are separated 6 in. -Contributed by Dudley H. In Fig. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. F. to make it airtight. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. New York. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. hydrogen gas is generated. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. soldered in the top. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. One of these plates is connected to metal top. A (see sketch). the remaining space will be filled with air. B and C. with two tubes. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. as shown. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar.

2 shows the end view. N. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. or by direct contact with another magnet. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. Fig. of No. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. long. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. as is shown in the illustration. says the Model Engineer. A nipple. from the bottom. long. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. which is plugged up at both ends. 1/2 in. N. A. The distance between the nipple. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. P. which forms the vaporizing coil. should be only 5/16 of an inch. in diameter and 6 in. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. A. London. is then coiled around the brass tube. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. One row is drilled to come directly on top. 1. 36 insulated wire. A piece of 1/8-in. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. If desired. A. is made by drilling a 1/8in. B. and the ends of the tube. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. 1-5/16 in. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. A 1/64-in. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. C C. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. copper pipe.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. then a suitable burner is necessary. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. A. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. Fig. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. by means of the clips. either by passing a current of electricity around it. copper pipe.

Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. this makes a much nicer book. Fig. Cut four pieces of cardboard. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. fold and cut it 1 in. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. but if the paper knife cannot be used. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. duck or linen. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. at the front and back for fly leaves. should be cut to the diameter of the can. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. longer and 1/4 in. smoothly. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). boards and all. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . leaving the folded edge uncut. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. 2). Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board.lamp cord. taking care not to bend the iron. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. trim both ends and the front edge. 1. Fig. cut to the size of the pages. Fig. Take two strips of stout cloth. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. 1/4 in. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. A disk of thin sheet-iron. larger all around than the book. 3. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. Turn the book over and paste the other side. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. about 8 or 10 in. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. with a fine saw.

E. Another tank.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. without a head. H. is perforated with a number of holes. in diameter and 30 in. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. In the bottom. Toronto. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Another can. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. Ont. This will cause some air to be enclosed. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. is fitted in it and soldered. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. Parker. Bedford City. --Contributed by James E. and a little can. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. . It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. A. Noble. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. as shown. B. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. 18 in. the joint will be gas tight. but its diameter is a little smaller. is turned on it. D. 4). is soldered onto tank A. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. as shown in the sketch. is made the same depth as B. --Contributed by Joseph N. Va. which will just slip inside the little can. of tank A is cut a hole. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. A gas cock. or rather the top now. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. C. deep. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. pasting them down (Fig.

H is a square knot. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. 1. with an electric-bell magnet. fastened in the bottom. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. E. Beverly. D. If the pushbutton A is closed. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. tacks. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. The bridle knots. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. to prevent splitting. 2. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. Fig. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. J. Bott. A. If the back armature. A A. by 1/2 in. and sewed double to give extra strength. S. square by 42 in. which moves to either right or left. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. should be 1/4 in. The longitudinal corner spines. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. The diagonal struts.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. D. B. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. basswood or white pine. B. should be 3/8 in. N. The wiring diagram. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. which may be either spruce. are shown in detail at H and J. long. Fig. as shown at C. long. and the four diagonal struts. making the width. -Contributed by H. when finished. The small guards. exactly 12 in. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. should be cut a little too long. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. B. and about 26 in. thus adjusting the . which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle.. The armature. C. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. shows how the connections are to be made.

A bowline knot should be tied at J. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. shift toward F. E. Harbert. can be made of a wooden . loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. thus shortening G and lengthening F. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. If the kite is used in a light wind. --Contributed by Edw. Clay Center. Kan. that refuse to slide easily. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. for producing electricity direct from heat. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K.lengths of F and G. --Contributed by A. Chicago. and. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. and if a strong wind is blowing. however. the batteries do not run down for a long time. as shown. Stoddard. Closing either key will operate both sounders. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. to prevent slipping. D. with gratifying results. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high.

C. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. 16 single-covered wire. and also holds the pieces of wood. Chicago. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . D. C. Fasten a piece of wood. by means of machine screws or. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. A and B. 14 or No. --Contributed by A. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. F. When the cannon is loaded. B. Then. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. placed on top. E. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. spark. A. A. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. A. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current.frame. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. to the cannon. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. The wood screw. with a pocket compass. with a number of nails. in position. and the current may then be detected by means. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. C. E.. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. or parallel with the compass needle. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. which conducts the current into the cannon.

but no weights or strings. in this position the door is locked. . Chicago. press the button. --Contributed by Joseph B. In Fig. A and S. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. B. requiring a strong magnet. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Big Rapids. A and S.the current is shut off. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. To lock the door. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. with the long arm at L'. A hole for a 1/2 in. 1. To reverse. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. H. Connect as shown in the illustration. Keil. square and 3/8 in. screw is bored in the block. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Marion. where there is a staple. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. within the reach of the magnet. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Fig. To unlock the door. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Bend the strips BB (Fig. 1. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. Fig. Mich. to receive the screw in the center. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. --Contributed by Henry Peck. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. L. A. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. now at A' and S'. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. 1. Ohio. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. when in position at A'.

When ready for use. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. long. and if desired the handles may . about 18 in. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. The standard and base.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. pipe with 1-2-in. --Contributed by C. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. Rand. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. put in the handle. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. When the holes are finished and your lines set. Thread the other end of the pipe. Mass. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. and may be made at very slight expense. J. gas-pipe. West Somerville. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. hole. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. and C is a dumbbell. are enameled a jet black. if enameled white on the concave side. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. or for microscopic work. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings.

high by 1 ft.. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. M. long and 8 in. Mass. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . --Contributed by C. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. 1. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. which shall project at least 2 in. inside the pail.be covered with leather. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. 8 in. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. North Easton. with a cover. Warren. Fig. Make a cylindrical core of wood. across. A. 1. as shown at A in the sketch. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. D. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. across. B. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Fig. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. E.

projecting from each end (Fig. the point of the blue flame. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about.-G. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. passing wire nails through and clinching them. wider than the kiln. and your kiln is ready for business. the firing should be gradual. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. This done. E. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in.mixture of clay. if there is to be any glazing done. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. and 3/4 in. and 3/8 in. but it will burn a great deal of gas. C. pipe. After finishing the core. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. After removing all the paper. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. let this dry thoroughly. of fine wire. 1). 2 in. Fig. and varnish.. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. The 2 in. and cut it 3-1/2 in. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. Wind about 1/8 in. and with especial caution the first time. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. It is placed inside the kiln. in diameter. as dictated by fancy and expense. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. as is shown in the sketch. pipe 2-ft. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. 3) with false top and bottom. bottom and sides. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. which is the hottest part. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. 1330°. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. Line the pail. but will be cheaper in operation. C. pack this space-top. say 1/4 in. Cover with paper and shellac as before. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. long. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. 25%. or make one yourself. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. L. thick. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. such . Fit all the parts together snugly. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. hard porcelain. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. to hold the clay mixture. Set aside for a few days until well dried. cutting the hole a little smaller. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. 60%. full length of iron core. diameter. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. long over the lid hole as a chimney. carefully centering it. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end.. layer of the clay mixture. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. 15%. 2. about 1 in. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. sand. When lighted. Whatever burner is used. W. make two wood ends. 1390°-1410°. hotel china. and on it set the paper wrapped core. strip of sheet iron. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. and graphite.. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. thick. 1). if you have the materials. If the cover of the pail has no rim. in diameter. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. C.

T. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. 2. as shown in the sketch herewith. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. with a plane. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. 8 in. bind tightly with black silk. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. square them up and place in a vise. overlaps and rests on the body. . and plane off about 1/16 in. as in Fig. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. Take the red cards. diameter. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. C. and divide it into two piles. Of course. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. and discharges into the tube. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. Washington. Then take the black cards. R. length of . as in Fig. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. the next black. The funnel. around the coil. You can display either color called for. C. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. about 1/16 in. Then. and so on. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. Chicago. 2). and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience.53 in. B. procure a new deck. taking care to have the first card red. A. 2. leaving long terminals. every alternate card being the same color. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. --Contributed by J.. C.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. red and black. D. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. square them up. 1. Next restore all the cards to one pack. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. all cards facing the same way.

first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. 1 gill of litharge. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. A. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. about 20 in. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. Drill all the horizontal pieces. The upright pieces. to form a dovetail joint as shown. 1. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. and this is inexpensive to build. The cement. thus making all the holes coincide. stove bolts. the first thing to decide on is the size. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. as the difficulties increase with the size. angle iron for the frame. Long Branch. so that when they are assembled. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. F.. B. stove bolts. 1 gill of fine white sand. E. To find the fall of snow. B. A. N. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. E. through the holes already drilled. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. When the glass is put in the frame a space. It should be placed in an exposed location.C. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter.J. and then the frame is ready to assemble. D. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. C. Let . the same ends will come together again. All the horizontal pieces. Fig. of the frame. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. B. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. The bottom glass should be a good fit.

Aquarium Finished If desired.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. A. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. and. to the door knob. on the door by means of a metal plate. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . D. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. if desired. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. B. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. a centerpiece (A. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. Fig. Fasten the lever. having a swinging connection at C.

N. F. will open the door about 1/2 in. Fig. 6 in. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. from the outside top of the frame. to form the main supports of the frame. 26 in. approximately 1 ft. but mark their position on the frame. soldered to the end of the cylinder. Y. 1. to form the slanting part. long. Fig. according to the slant given C. Fig. Do not fasten these boards now. D. wide by 1 in. I referred this question to my husband. 2 at GG. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. long. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. To make the frame. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. long. to keep the frame from spreading. hoping it may solve the same question for them. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. They are shown in Fig. another. A small piece of spring brass. 2 is an end view. Fig. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. 1 is the motor with one side removed. screwed to the door frame. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. Fig. E. 1 . or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. with a water pressure of 70 lb. C. 3 shows one of the paddles. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. and Fig. another. Fig. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. which is 15 in. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. several lengths of scantling 3 in. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. Buffalo. showing the paddle-wheel in position. PAUL S. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. as at E. AA.. B. Cut two pieces 30 in. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. and another. long. 2 ft. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. Two short boards 1 in. for the top. --Contributed by Orton E. 1. thus doing away with the spring. Cut two of them 4 ft. White.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. wide . After nailing these together as shown in the illustration.

(It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. (I. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. in diameter. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. 4. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. 1.along the edges under the zinc to form . hole from the tops to the 1-in. These are the paddles. Now block the wheel. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. and drill a 1/8-in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. hole through the exact center of the wheel. thick. as shown in Fig. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. holes. tapering from 3/16 in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. steel shaft 12 in. Make this hole conical. remove the cardboard. 2) and another 1 in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. by 1-1/2 in. hole through their sides centrally. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. long to the wheel about 8 in. Next secure a 5/8-in. 2) form a substantial base. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Fig. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. 2) with a 5/8-in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. take down the crosspieces. and a 1/4 -in. with the wheel and shaft in place. hole through its center. hole to form the bearings. iron 3 by 4 in. to a full 1/2 in. hole through them. then drill a 3/16-in. and drill a 1-in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Fasten them in their proper position. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in.burlap will do -. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Fig. When it has cooled. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. Tack one side on. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. that is. Take the side pieces. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. from one end by means of a key. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. after which drill a 5/8 in. GG. pipe. iron. thick (HH. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Drill 1/8-in. Fig. 24 in.

This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room.a water-tight joint. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. place the outlet over a drain. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. If the bearings are now oiled. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. shutting out all light from above and the sides. it would be more durable. It is obvious that. and the subject may move. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. as shown in the sketch at B. as this makes long exposure necessary. Darken the rest of the window. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. Do not stop down the lens. of course. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. or what is called a process plate. The best plate to use is a very slow one. light and the plate. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. remove any white curtains there may be. . and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. Raise the window shade half way. Focus the camera carefully. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. Drill a hole through the zinc. but now I put them in the machine. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. says the Photographic Times. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. any window will do. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. drill press. and as near to it as possible. but as it would have cost several times as much. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. If sheet-iron is used. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. start the motor. and leave them for an hour or so. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. on the lens. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. ice-cream freezer. sewing machine. Correct exposure depends. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose.

and a base. or can be taken from an old magnet. or wood. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. The current required is very small. a glass tube. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. 2. and without fog. without detail in the face. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. D. the core is drawn down out of sight. With a piece of black paper. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. hard rubber. a core. The core C. or an empty developer tube. as a slight current will answer. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. The glass tube may be a test tube. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. with binding posts as shown. A. C. which is made of iron and cork. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. by twisting. B. On completing . 2. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. full of water. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. as shown in Fig. until the core slowly rises. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. an empty pill bottle may be used. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube.

1. 1 pt. according to his control of the current. finest graphite. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. The colors appear different to different people. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. is Benham's color top. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. 1 lb.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. and are changed by reversing the rotation. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. water and 3 oz. and make a pinhole in the center. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. white lead. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. and one not easy to explain. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. This is a mysterious looking instrument. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. whale oil.

but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. C. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. B.B. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. In prize games. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. when the action ceases. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. or three spot.. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. before cutting.L. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. As this device is easily upset. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. A. fan-like. especially if the deck is a new one. In making hydrogen. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. deuce. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. -Contributed by D. Chicago. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. nearly every time.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. thus partly filling bottles A and C. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced.

2 is also an enlarged sketch. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Detail of Phonograph Horn . Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. Fig. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. long. S. --Contributed by F..requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. in length and 3 in. W. . 1. 12 in. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. Huron. J. Bently. Detroit. (Fig. 2. that will fit loosely in the tube A. in diameter. as shown in Fig. Dak. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw.. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. Form a cone of heavy paper. 9 in. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. 10 in. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Fig. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Jr. --Contributed by C. 3). How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. 4. S. Make a 10-sided stick. long and 3 in. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box.

allowing 1 in. A. and walk in. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. long. about the size of a leadpencil. Fig. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. A second piece of silk thread. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. Denver. making it three-ply thick. it is equally easy to block that trick. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. --Contributed by Reader. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. but bends toward D. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . When the glue is thoroughly hardened. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. will cause an increased movement of C. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. E.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. Cut out paper sections (Fig. bend it at right angles throughout its length. C. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. with a pin driven in each end. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. 6. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. on one side and the top. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. push back the bolt. Fortunately. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. A piece of tin. Remove the form.

West St. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other.. Two wood-base switches. The upper switch. Fremont Hilscher. Minn. Paul. 4 ft. will last for several years. By this arrangement one. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. long. Jr. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine.strip. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. --Contributed by J. The reverse switch. are made 2 by 4 in. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. is connected each point to a battery. B. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. or left to right. posts. A. R.. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. while the lower switch. and rest on a brick placed under each end. W. put together as shown in the sketch. The 2 by 4-in. S S. are 7 ft. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. B. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. The feet. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. S. long. as shown. S.

2 the steam is entering the cylinder. The valve motion is shown in Figs. is an old bicycle pump. 3/8 in. Fig. In Fig. and has two wood blocks. 2. FF. the other parts being used for the bearing B. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. 2 and 3. cut in half. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft.every house. The hose E connects to the boiler. with two washers. either an old sewing-machine wheel. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. The piston is made of a stove bolt. E. The steam chest D. which is made of tin. Fig. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. which will be described later. 1. or anything available. and the crank bearing C. The base is made of wood. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. H and K. pulley wheel. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. and valve crank S. the size of the hole in the bearing B. thick. and a cylindrical . and in Fig.

Wis. can be an old oil can. of Cuba. Eustice. 4. The boiler. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. is cut out of tin. G. and saturated with thick oil. G. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. J. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. as shown in Fig. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. using the positive wire as a pen. This is wound with soft string. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed.piece of hard wood. --Contributed by Geo. Fry. 1. Schuh and A. Fig. or galvanized iron. The valve crank S. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. and a very amusing trick. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. W. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. Fig. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. as it is merely a trick of photography. to receive the connecting rod H. powder can. This engine was built by W. at that. San Jose. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. Cal. 3. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. and the desired result is obtained. C. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. First. .

Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. diameter. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. Fig. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. B. and Fig. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Fig. When turning. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. C. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. to cross in the center. as shown at AA. 1 by covering up Figs. 1 will be seen to rotate. B. Cut half circles out of each stave. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. They may be of any size. as shown. The smaller wheel. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. and place a bell on the four ends. Fig. and pass ropes around . and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions.

long. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. W. This in turn will act on the transmitter. --Contributed by H. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. such as clothes lines. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. produces a higher magnifying power). which allows the use of small sized ropes. which accounts for the sound. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. From a piece of thin . and enlarge the bore a little at one end. as shown in the illustration. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. To make this lensless microscope. say 1/2 or 3/4 in.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. A (a short spool. Louis. Mo. procure a wooden spool. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. from the transmitter. but not on all. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E.M.. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. St. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry.G.

The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. The lever. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. A. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. 1. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument.. and so on. H. Viewed through this microscope. bent as shown.. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. which are pieces of hard wood. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. (The area would appear 64 times as large. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig.) But an object 3/4-in. can be made of brass and the armature. by means of brads. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. or 64 times. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. fastened to a wooden base. 3. . if the distance is reduced to one-half. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. otherwise the image will be blurred. darting across the field in every direction. An innocent-looking drop of water. and at the center. in which hay has been soaking for several days. place a small object on the transparent disk. the object should be of a transparent nature. and look through the hole D. C. held at arm's length. cut out a small disk. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. is made of iron. D. the diameter will appear three times as large. D. E. B. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. e. the diameter will appear twice as large. Fig. as in all microscopes of any power. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. if the distance is reduced to one-third. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. C. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. 2. which costs little or nothing to make. The spring. is fastened at each end by pins. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. B. The pivot. i. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. To use this microscope. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings.

D. A switch. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. wide. 16 in. brass: E. The binding posts. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. wide. is cut from a board about 36 in. nail soldered on A. HH. wide. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. wood: F. The back. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. F. AA. soft iron. long. FF. should be about 22 in. brass. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. C. in length and 16 in. brass: B. coils wound with No. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. D. wide and set in between sides AA. C. similar to the one used in the sounder. fastened near the end. can be made panel as shown. K. Cut the top. thick. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. The door. wood. Fig. between the armature and the magnet. wood: C. wide. 1. . B. K. The base of the key. 2. or taken from a small one-point switch. or a single piece. Each side. which are made to receive a pivot. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. and are connected to the contacts. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob.SOUNDER-A. long and 14-1/2 in. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. brass or iron soldered to nail. A. 16 in. B. long by 16 in. wide and about 20 in. E. KEY-A. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. DD. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. D. Fig. connection of D to nail. binding posts: H spring The stop. 26 wire: E.

One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. with 3/4-in. cut in them. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above.. AA. When the electrical waves strike the needle. material. Make 12 cleats. long. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. brads. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. as shown. Ill. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. 2 and made from 1/4-in. In operation. E. Garfield. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. 13-1/2 in. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. as shown in the sketch.

in order to increase the surface.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. Ridgewood. Y. Brown. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. through which a piece of wire is passed. N. B. when used with a motor. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. A. Fairport. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. F. pulls down the armature. The cord is also fastened to a lever. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. A. --Contributed by John Koehler. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . E. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. A fairly stiff spring. A (see sketch). Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. down into the water increases the surface in contact. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. J. --Contributed by R. and thus decreases the resistance. C. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. Pushing the wire. and. will give a greater speed. filled with water. N. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. When the pipe is used. the magnet.

the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Borden. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. N. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. B. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. even those who read this description. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. --Contributed by Perry A. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door.for the secret contact. if desired. Gachville. Of course.

apart. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. Washington. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. long and full 12-in. wide. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. Cal. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. wide. thick and 12-in. From a piece of brass a switch. C. --Contributed by Dr. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. records and 5-5/8 in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. wide. C. Two drawers are fitted in this space. and on both sides of the middle shelf. Connect switch to post B.. The three shelves are cut 25-in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. With about 9 ft. . -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. 2. Nails for stops are placed at DD. Compton. in a semicircle 2 in. as shown in Fig. Jr. where the other end of wire is fastened. Mangold. 1. D. H. E. for 6-in. long and 5 in.whenever the bell rings. from the bottom. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. J. N. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. wide. --Contributed by H. for 10in. East Orange. wide. The top board is made 28-in. as shown in Fig. deep and 3/4 in. records. A. Dobson.

When the cord is passed over pulley C. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. as shown by the dotted lines. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. A. Roanoke. to which is fastened a cord. Va. as shown in Fig. 1. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. E. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . which in operation is bent. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. B.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. closed.

they will bind. In these grooves place wheels. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. 5) when they are placed. Figs. as shown in the illustration. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. it too loose. 1. Cut two grooves. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. Fig. 1 in. square and 7/8 in. These wheels should be 3/4 in. Put the rubber tube. 1 in. excepting the crank and tubing. Notice the break (S) in the track. deep. one in each end. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. in diameter. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Bore two 1/4 in. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. Fig. they will let the air through. If the wheels fit too tightly. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. 3). against which the rubber tubing.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. Fig. in diameter. 3. which should be about 1/2 in. in diameter. long. deep and 1/2 in. 4 shows the wheel-holder. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. The crankpin should fit tightly. In the sides (Fig. CC. thick (A. E. in diameter. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. is compressed by wheels. apart. wide. Do not fasten the sides too . Figs. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. through one of these holes. Now put all these parts together. D. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. E. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. but a larger one could be built in proportion. B. wide. thick. to turn on pins of stout wire. holes (HH.

The three legs marked BBB. For ease in handling the pump. because he can . stands 20 in. mark again. of material. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. tubing. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. A in Fig. Fig. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. the pump will give a steady stream. costing 10 cents. as it gives steadiness to the motion. mark for hole and 3 in. AA. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. is all the expense necessary. long. Fig. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. --Contributed by Dan H. Hubbard. Cut six pieces. though a small iron wheel is better. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. and are 30 in. In the two cross bars 1 in. Two feet of 1/4-in. iron. B. Take the center of the bar. 17-1/2 in. AA. a platform should be added. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. If the motion of the wheels is regular. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. Fig. The animal does not fear to enter the box. the other wheel has reached the bottom. and 3-1/2 in. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. The screen which is shown in Fig. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. Then turn the crank from left to right. 2. from each end. 2. and mark for a hole. from each end. Kan. 1. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. as shown in Fig. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. from each end. 1. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. To use the pump.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. Idana. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. 1. 1. from that mark the next hole. beyond each of these two. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. 15 in. Fig. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. 1. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. from the bottom and 2 in. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides.

Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. If it is wet. 4 oz. When through using the battery. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. stirring constantly. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. silvery appearance. It is useful for running induction coils. If the solution touches the zinc.see through it: when he enters. When the bichromate has all dissolved. and the solution (Fig. Meyer. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. rub the zinc well. The mercury will adhere. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. To cause a flow of electricity. C. The battery is now complete. 14 copper wire. acid 1 part). and touches the bait the lid is released and. --Contributed by H. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. some of it should be poured out. add slowly. however. or. of the top. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. potassium bichromate. 2). of water dissolve 4 oz. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. giving it a bright. until it is within 3 in. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. 1) must be prepared. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. The battery is now ready for use. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. but if one casts his own zinc. If the battery has been used before. dropping. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. The truncated. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. or small electric motors. there is too much liquid in the jar. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. . Philadelphia. Place the carbon in the jar. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. sulphuric acid. long having two thumb screws. shuts him in. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire.

while the coal door is being opened. The price of the coil depends upon its size.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. After putting in the coal. the battery circuit. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. Wis. If. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. pressing the pedal closes the door.Fig. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. i. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. e. the jump-spark coil . however. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. Madison. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W.. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. which opens the door. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. with slight changes.

Fig. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. in a straight line from top to bottom. which is made of light copper wire. This coil. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. the full length of the coil. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig.7. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. W W. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. Change the coil described. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. while a 12-in. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. coil. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. diameter. apart. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. This will make an excellent receiver. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. 7. made of No. Now for the receiving apparatus. 7. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. W W. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig.described elsewhere in this book. 5. After winding. and closer for longer distances. in a partial vacuum. 6. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. . as shown in Fig. 6. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. being a 1-in. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. as shown in Fig. 7). It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points.

1 to 4. where A is the headstock. which will be described later. For an illustration. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. 90°.The aerial line. I run my lathe by power. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. as it matches the color well. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. B the bed and C the tailstock. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. using an electric motor and countershaft. and hence the aerial line. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). after all. being vertical. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. at any point to any metal which is grounded. Figs. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. but simply illustrates the above to show that. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. being at right angles. A large cone pulley would then be required. to the direction of the current. 90°. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. above the ground. may be easily made at very little expense. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. but it could be run by foot power if desired. Run a wire from the other binding post. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. only. No. A. . A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. in the air. are analogous to the flow of induction. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. The writer does not claim to be the originator. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one.6 stranded. These circles. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. 1). after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. and for best results should extend up 50 ft.

pitch and 1/8 in. 4. just touching the shaft. A. 6 Headstock Details D. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. Fig. and Fig. The headstock. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. B. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . 2 and 3. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. Heat the babbitt well. which pass through a piece of wood. To make these bearings. on the under side of the bed. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. Fig. Fig. 5. thick. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. The bolts B (Fig. The bearing is then ready to be poured. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. 6. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. After pouring. 4. steel tubing about 1/8 in. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. but not hot enough to burn it. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. too. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. Fig. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. deep. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. and it is well to have the shaft hot. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. 5. and runs in babbitt bearings. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. The shaft is made of 3/4-in.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. one of which is shown in Fig. If the bearing has been properly made. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. tapered wooden pin. which are let into holes FIG.

but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. they may be turned up after assembling. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. the alarm is easy to fix up. FIG. The tail stock (Fig. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. Ill. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. of the walk . thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. A. and a 1/2-in. lock nut.other machines. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. If not perfectly true. Oak Park. embedded in the wood. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. B.J. If one has a wooden walk. Take up about 5 ft. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. This prevents corrosion. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. Newark. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. N.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. so I had to buy one.

Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. to remove all traces of grease. leaving a clear solution. clean the articles thoroughly. Minn. before dipping them in the potash solution. to roughen the surface slightly. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. and the alarm is complete. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. 2). Fig. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Jackson. (A. Minneapolis. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Finally. Then make the solution . --Contributed by R.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. To avoid touching it. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. so that they will not touch. S. of water. Connect up an electric bell. add potassium cyanide again. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. silver or other metal. save when a weight is on the trap. water. hang the articles on the wires. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution.

when the point of the key touches the tin. pewter. long. A (Fig. saw a piece of wood. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. Can be made of a 2-in. On brass. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. and then treated as copper. 1). B should be of the same wood. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. piece of broomstick. In rigging it to a sliding door. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. square. also. with the pivot 2 in. To provide the keyhole. such metals as iron. Take quick. of clothesline rope and some No. 3. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. The wooden block C. and 4 volts for very small ones. Make a somewhat larger block (E. hole in its center. with water. and the larger part (F. A 1/4 in. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. of water. but opens the door. if one does not possess a buffing machine. 1. which is advised. Fig. long. from the lower end. --Model Engineer. 1). this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. German silver. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. Having finished washing the precipitate. With an electric pressure of 3. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. silver can be plated direct. 3) directly over the hole. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. 1 not only unlocks. copper. a hand scratch brush is good. 3) strikes the bent wire L. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. light strokes.up to 2 qt. If accumulators are used. as at F. lead. Fig. I. Then. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. as shown in Fig. When all this is set up. which . and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. a circuit is completed. 10 in. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. 18 wire. use 2 volts for large articles. make a key and keyhole. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. will serve for the key. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. The wooden catch. Fig. with water. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. must be about 1 in. about 25 ft. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. Repeat six times.5 to 4 volts. Before silver plating. which is held by catch B. This solution. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. an old electric bell or buzzer. 1 in. zinc. Fig. Where Bunsen cells are used. thick by 3 in. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. shaking. If more solution is required. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. nickel and such metals. Screw the two blocks together.

a few simple tools. Fig. which unlocks the door. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. although a little more trouble. 2. Receiving the bowl again. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. The interior must be a dead black. 1. On either side of the box. and hands its contents round to the audience. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. spoons and jackknives. 1.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. enlarged. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. should be cut a hole. One end is removed. H. Klipstein. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. half way from open end to closed end. Thus. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. The magician stands in front of this. Heavy metal objects. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). is the cut through which the rope runs. H. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. some black paint. Fig. and black art reigns supreme. surrounding a perfectly black space. Objects appear and disappear. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. East Orange. 0. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. so much the better. Next. with a switch as in Fig. with the lights turned low. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. he tosses it into the cave. cut in one side. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. shows catch B. 116 Prospect St. the requisites are a large soap box. One thing changes to another and back again. top. no painting inside is required. one-third of the length from the remaining end.. --Contributed by E. The box must be altered first. B. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. 3. and a slit. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. and plenty of candles. to throw the light toward the audience. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. the illumination in front must be arranged. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. Next. To prepare such a magic cave. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. sides and end. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. some black cloth. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. between the parlor and the room back of it. or cave. the box should be painted black both inside and out. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. 2. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. heighten the illusion. H. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. Fig. and finally lined inside with black cloth. in his shirt sleeves. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. . he points with one finger to the box. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. Fig. In front of you. New Jersey. He removes the bowl from the black box. floor. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. such as forks.

The exhibitor should be . But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. The audience room should have only low lights. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. his confederate behind inserts his hand. and if portieres are impossible. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. of course. and pours them from the bag into a dish. of course. which can be made to dance either by strings. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. in which are oranges and apples. was identical with this. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. and several black drop curtains. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. the room where the cave is should be dark. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. a screen must be used. as presented by Hermann. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. if.Finally. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. Consequently. into the eyes of him who looks. which are let down through the slit in the top. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. is on a table) so much the better. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. But illusions suggest themselves. had a big stage. one on each side of the box. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. you must have an assistant. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. only he. The illusion. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton.

b1. 1. FIG. and c2 to the zinc. vice versa. and c4 + electricity.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. so arranged that. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. c4. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. as shown in Fig. is shown in the diagram. 2. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. held down on disk F by two other terminals. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). b3. Fig. respectively. held down by another disk F (Fig. their one end just slips under the strips b1. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. A represents a pine board 4 in. by means of two wood screws. Then. when handle K is turned to one side. 1. or b2. f2. terminal c3 will show . 2. e1 and e2. b2. if you turn handle K to the right. A. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. making contact with them. b2. and c1 – electricity. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. by 4 in. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. c2. making contact with them as shown at y. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. c1. c3. On the disk G are two brass strips. terminal c3 will show +. at L. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. or binding posts.a boy who can talk. Finally. respectively.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. 2). respectively. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. with three brass strips. d. b3. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. held down on it by two terminals. and a common screw. square. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes .. About the center piece H moves a disk.

More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. Newark. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. Tuttle. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. Jr. B is a onepoint switch. Ohio. -Contributed by A. when on No. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. --Contributed by Eugene F. and C and C1 are binding posts. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). 5. from five batteries. thus making the message audible in the receiver.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. 3. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. E. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. from four batteries. 4. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. jump spark coil. when on No. when A is on No. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. Joerin. . and then hold the receiver to your ear. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. from three batteries. 1.. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. When switch B is closed and A is on No. you have the current of one battery. and when on No.

Thus. Handy Electric Alarm . La.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. traveled by the thread. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. E. rule. is the device of H. A. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. as shown in the sketch. Redmond. per second for each second. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. mark. A. per second. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. and placed on the windowsill of the car. which may be a button or other small object. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. The device thus arranged. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. B. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. so one can see the time. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second.. mark. Wis. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. P. New Orleans. When you do not have a graduate at hand. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. A. of Burlington. and supporting the small weight. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. over the bent portion of the rule.

How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. Crafton. Pa. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. Instead. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. Then I sat down on the porch to wait.which has a piece of metal. B. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. but may be closed at F any time desired. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. --C. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. soldered to the alarm winder. and with the same result. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. C. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. --Contributed by Gordon T. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. which illuminates the face of the clock. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. wrapping the wire around the can several times. When the alarm goes off. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. Then if a mishap comes. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. S. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. Lane. for a wetting is the inevitable result. .

AA. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. --Contributed by A. and many other interesting and useful articles. The first thing to make is a molding bench. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. battery zincs. as shown. engines. binding posts. With the easily made devices about to be described. cannons. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. but it is a mistake to try to do this. Macey. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. Two cleats. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. A. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. L. as shown in Fig. and duplicates of all these. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. whence it is soon tracked into the house. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. C. 1. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. New York City. 1 . If there is no foundry Fig. models and miniature objects. small machinery parts. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. which may. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. It is possible to make molds without a bench. BE. when it is being prepared. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. bearings. ornaments of various kinds. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required.

thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. and the lower pieces. which should be nailed in. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. G. If desired the sieve may be homemade. D. The dowels. by 6 in. but this operation will be described more fully later on. Fig. 1. is shown more clearly in Fig. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. is made of wood. and the "drag. A wedge-shaped piece. A A. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. E. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. and saw it in half longitudinally. It is made of wood and is in two halves. high. makes a very good sieve." or lower part. The cloth bag. is filled with coal dust. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K." or upper half. will be required. by 8 in. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. as shown. If the box is not very strong. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. and this. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together.How to Make a Mold [96] . are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. II . which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. and a sieve. the "cope. previous to sawing.near at hand. The rammer. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. 2 . H. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. DD. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. Fig. white metal. 2. which can be either aluminum. 1. CC. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. The flask. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. A slight shake of the bag Fig. a little larger than the outside of the flask. F. An old teaspoon. as shown. say 12 in. is nailed to each end of the cope. CC. J. try using sand from other sources. which can be made of a knitted stocking. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. is about the right mesh.

either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. where they can watch the molders at work. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. and then more sand is added until Fig." in position. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. After ramming. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. and if water is added. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. as shown at E. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. It is then rammed again as before. the surface of the sand at . The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. as shown at D. In finishing the ramming. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. turn the drag other side up. in order to remove the lumps. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. Place another cover board on top. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. The sand is then ready for molding. or "drag. as shown at C." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. or "cope. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. as described. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. and thus judge for himself. as shown. as it is much easier to learn by observation. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. and by grasping with both hands. and scatter about 1/16 in.

Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. thus making a dirty casting. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. wide and about 1/4 in. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. made out of steel rod. After drawing the pattern. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. in order to prevent overheating. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. as shown in the sketch. it shows that the sand is too wet. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. thus holding the crucible securely. as shown at F. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. Place a brick or other flat. as shown at H. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. . after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. place the cope back on the drag. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. and then pour.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. as shown at H. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. as shown at J. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in." or pouring-hole. III. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. to give the air a chance to escape. The "sprue. as shown at G. after being poured. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. Fig. deep. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag.E should be covered with coal-dust. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. is next cut. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. in diameter. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. This is done with a spoon. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. the next operation is that of melting and pouring.

In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. --Contributed by Harold S. and. battery zincs. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. white metal and other scrap available. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. and the casting is then ready for finishing. used only for zinc. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. Minneapolis. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. Although the effect in the illustration . and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. is very desirable. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. Morton. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. although somewhat expensive. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. babbitt. or from any adjacent pair of cells. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. If a good furnace is available. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. may be used in either direction. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. but any reasonable number may be used. 15% lead. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. Referring to the figure. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. the following device will be found most convenient. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. In my own case I used four batteries.

Chicago. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. outward. B. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. --Contributed by Draughtsman. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. The bearings. as shown in the illustration. connected by cords to the rudder. To make it take a sheet-iron band. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. shaft made. Then replace the table. By replacing the oars with paddles. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. A. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. B. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. which will be sufficient to hold it. 3/4 in. Make one of these pieces for each arm. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. Then walk down among the audience. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. If desired. as shown at A. may be made of hardwood. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. Fig. Put a sharp needle point.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . says a correspondent of the Sphinx. backward. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. 2. The brass rings also appear distorted. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat.

2 and 3. C. being simply finely divided ice. It may seem strange that ice . Fig. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. E. A. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. 1.melted babbitt. or the paint will come off. 3. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. A block of ice. D. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. If babbitt is used. Snow. as shown in Fig. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. or under pressure. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. spoiling its appearance. when it will again return to its original state. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. The hubs. 1. 1. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. The covers. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. as shown in Fig. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. W. If galvanized iron is used. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. but when in motion. and a weight. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. should be made of wood. In the same way. 2. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands.

In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. by 1/4. square. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. sometimes only one or two feet a day. in. but by placing it between books. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. as per sketch. and assume the shape shown at B. by 5 in. by 2 in. as shown on page 65. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. brass. no matter how slow the motion may be. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. thus giving a high resistance contact. Pa. Lane. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. Crafton. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in.should flow like water. P. or supporting it in some similar way. but. which resembles ice in this respect. The rate of flow is often very slow. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions.. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. Pressing either push button. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . whenever there is any connection made at all. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. by 1/2 in. it will gradually change from the original shape A. --Contributed by Gordon T. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. B.

The transmitter consists of an induction coil. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. Indianapolis. weight. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. --Contributed by A. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. G. Wilkinsburg. The success depends upon a slow current. F.000 ft. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. B. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. D. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. as shown. vertical lever. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. Pa. and five dry batteries. the induction coil. and C. horizontal lever. draft. cord. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. H. Ward. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. as shown. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. alarm clock. The parts are: A. B.thumb screws. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. In the wiring diagram. I. A is the circuit breaker. furnace. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. draft chain. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. the battery. pulleys. E. about the size used for automobiles. K . wooden supports. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. G. C. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. J.

This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. The frame (Fig. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. will fit nicely in them. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. 2 are dressed to the right angle. such as used for a storm window. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. where house plants are kept in the home. material framed together as shown in Fig. which will provide a fine place for the plants. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. Kalamazoo. 3. Mich. How to Make an Electroscope [103] .shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. as well as the bottom. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. Artistic Window Boxes The top. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months.

the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. However. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. which sells for 25 cents. since a battery is the most popular source of power. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. This is more economical than dry cells.. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. W. i. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. one can regulate the batteries as required. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. but maintain the voltage constant. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. for some time very satisfactorily. and cost 27 cents FIG. N. in diameter. after a rest. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. 1. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. Halifax. a cork and a needle. The 1/2-cp. is something that will interest the average American boy. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. multiples of series of three.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. where they are glad to have them taken away.. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. Canada. S. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. this must be done with very great caution. by connecting them in series. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. in this connection. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. Grant. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. in any system of lamps. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. as if drawn upon for its total output. and the instrument will then be complete. 1 each complete with base. Push the needle into the cork. Thus. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. 1 cp. It must be remembered. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. --Contributed by Wm. and will give the . This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. as indicated by Fig. e. A certain number of these. so as to increase the current.. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. can be connected up in series. and a suitable source of power. However. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case.

So. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. Thus. according to the water pressure obtainable. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. and diffused light in a room. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. double insulated wire wherever needed. making. FIG. Chicago. and then lead No. to secure light by this method. and for Christmas trees. we simply turn on the water. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. 18 B & S. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. Thus. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. although the first cost is greater. generates the power for the lights. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. 2 shows the scheme. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. or 22 lights. lamps. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. if wound for 6 volts. and running the series in parallel. 3. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. Fig. especially those of low internal resistance. for display of show cases.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. lamp. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. These will give 3 cp.proper voltage. In conclusion. 1-cp. lamps. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. . and insert in the nearest lamp socket. by the proper combination of these. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. 11 series. each. as in Fig. However. where the water pressure is the greatest.. which is the same as that of one battery. If wound for 10 volts.

. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. and C. center points of switch. thus reversing the machine. field of motor. A indicates the ground.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. B. B. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. CC. as shown in the sketch. we were not bothered with them. are cut just alike. simply change the switch. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. To reverse the motor. Emig. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. --Contributed by F. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. Santa Clara. a bait of meat. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. bars of pole-changing switch. Cal. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. A. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. brushes of motor. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. AA. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. or from one pattern. Parker. or a tempting bone. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. the letters indicate as follows: FF. Plymouth. DD. and the sides. outside points of switch. --Contributed by Leonard E. Ind. switch. BB. After I connected up my induction coil.

W. a piece of string. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. The experiment works best . Melchior. which is in the door. To unlock the door. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. thus locking the door. one cell being sufficient. merely push the button E. Cal. Hutchinson. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. -Contributed by Claude B. The button can be hidden. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. When the circuit is broken a weight. 903 Vine St. San Jose.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. and a table or bench. a hammer. as it is the key to the lock. A.. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. Fry. If it is not. attached to the end of the armature B. or would remain locked. Minn. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked.

P. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Wis. Culebra. 18 Gorham St. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. the current flows with the small arrows. 4). which pulls the draft open. Canada. as shown in Fig. -. 3. Porto Rico. When the alarm rings in the early morning. Madison. where it will remain suspended as shown.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. Schmidt.. 3. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. 1). W. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Crawford Curry. the key turns. Ontario. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. C. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. On another block of wood fasten two wires. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. forming a loop. releasing the weight. D. Tie the ends of the string together. Brockville. in the ceiling and has a window weight. 2. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. the stick falls away. run through a pulley. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. I. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. . attached at the other end. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands.Contributed by F. --Contributed by Geo. A.

The cut shows the arrangement. or tree. J. running one direct to the receiver. J. 6 in. S. get two pieces of plate glass. N. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. and then to the receiver. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. thence to a switch. which fasten to the horn. thick. and break the corners off to make them round. and the other to the battery. Jr. or from a bed of flowers. and .. Camden. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. R. including the mouthpiece. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. D. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. Use a barrel to work on. Farley. First. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. made with his own hands. --Contributed by Wm. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. Connect two wires to the transmitter. square and 1 in. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph.

using straight strokes 2 in. L. then 8 minutes. melt 1 lb. unless a longer focal length is wanted. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. wide around the convex glass or tool. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. in length. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. set the speculum against the wall. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. with 1/4-in. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. Then warm and press again with the speculum. wetting it to the consistency of cream. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. Fasten. and label.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. When dry. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. and spread on the glass. Fig. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. and is ready for polishing. of water. Have ready six large dishes. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. 2. a round 4-in. as in Fig. while walking around the barrel. wet till soft like paint. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. A. the coarse grinding must be continued. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. also rotate the glass. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in.. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. or it will not polish evenly. Fig. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. and a large lamp. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. so the light . and the under glass or tool convex. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge.. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. twice the focal length away. by the side of the lamp. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. When done the glass should be semitransparent. Use a binger to spread it on with. When polishing the speculum. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. In a dark room. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. 2. with pitch. 1. or less. spaces. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. then take 2 lb. it should be tested with the knife-edge test.

100 gr. The polishing and testing done. then ammonia until bath is clear. When dry. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. 2. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid.. 840 gr. Place the speculum.. the speculum will show some dark rings. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. Then add solution B. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. longer strokes. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. Alcohol (Pure) …………….. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. if a hill in the center. Fig. cement a strip of board 8 in. with distilled water. as in K.. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. from the lamp. Then add 1 oz. also how the rays R from a star . The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way.. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. fill the dish with distilled water. 2. face down. The knife should not be more than 6 in. Two glass or earthenware dishes.. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. Solution D: Sugar loaf . in the bath and leave until the silver rises. 100 gr. If not. 4 oz.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. Fig. 4 oz. long to the back of the speculum. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in.……………. deep. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. touched with rouge. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. When the focus is found. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. Place the speculum S. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. and pour the rest into the empty dish.. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. or hills. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) ….……………………………. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. that was set aside.………………………………. 25 gr. Now add enough of the solution A. With pitch. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). Silver nitrate ……………………………. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. Nitric acid . 39 gr. Fig. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency... the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. the speculum is ready to be silvered.. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. must be procured.

I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. using strawboard and black paper. stop down well after focusing.. Then I made the one described. . cover with paper and cloth. long and cost me just $15. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. The flatter they are the less they will distort. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. Thus an excellent 6-in. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. slightly wider than the lens mount. Mellish. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. two glass prisms. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube.John E. which proves to be easy of execution. About 20. Make the tube I of sheet iron. and proceed as for any picture. with an outlay of only a few dollars. My telescope is 64 in. deg. telescope can be made at home. is a satisfactory angle. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. Place over lens. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black.

which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. -Contributed by A. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. Boody. D. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. Do not stir it. 2. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. Zimmerman. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. then add a little sulphate of potash. instead of the contrary. A. . Fig. The paper is exposed. unobstructed light strike the mirror. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. Ill. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. push the button D. 1. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. complete the arrangement. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. add the plaster gradually to the water. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. The rays of the clear. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. B. as shown in Fig. but will not preserve its hardening. says the Master Painter. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. To unlock. or powdered alum. and reflect through the negative. through the lens of the camera and on the board. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting.

Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. as in Fig. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Then blow through the spool. To reverse. as at A and B. also provide them with a handle. Fig. 2. so that it can rotate about these points. but will remain suspended without any visible support. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. 1). and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. use a string. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. 3. Fasten on the switch lever. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. throw . Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. as shown in the sketch. 2.

and E E. rinse in alcohol. Take out. San Antonio. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. A is the electricbell magnet. Tex. the armature. although this is not necessary. North Bend.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. L. Levy. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. wash in running water. Push one end of the tire into the hole. carbons. -Contributed by Morris L. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Tex. --Contributed by R. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. D. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Thomas. binding posts. San Marcos. Go McVicker. --Contributed by Geo. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. as shown in the sketch. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. carbon sockets. B. In the sketch. C C. Neb. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. . a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. and rub dry with linen cloth.

and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. --Contributed by Joseph B.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. 14 or No. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. wound evenly about this core. long or more. By means of two or more layers of No. Bell. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. 36 magnet wire. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. Brooklyn. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. 16 magnet wire. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made.

24 iron wire cut 7 in.which would be better to buy ready-made. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. in diameter. A 7/8-in. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. which is an important factor of the coil. one piece of the paper is laid down. a box like that shown in Fig. When cut and laid in one continuous length. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. with room also for a small condenser. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. 2 yd. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. After the core wires are bundled. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. as shown in Fig. then the strip of tin-foil. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. but if it is not convenient to do this work. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. 1. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. Beginning half an inch from one end. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. The condenser is next wrapped . at a time. 4. as the maker prefers. coil illustrates the general details of the work. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. and finally the fourth strip of paper. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. In shaping the condenser. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. long and 2-5/8 in. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. or 8 in. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. The following method of completing a 1-in. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. This makes a condenser which may be folded. wide. and the results are often unsatisfactory. No. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. which is desirable. making two layers. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. The primary is made of fine annealed No. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. in length. about 6 in. hole is bored in the center of one end. diameter. long and 5 in. the entire core may be purchased readymade.

B. F. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. battery . See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. long and 12 in.) The wiring diagram. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back.. I. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. which allows wiring at the back. shelf for clock. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. to the door. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. Fig. which is insulated from the first. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. and the other sheet. B. shows how the connections are made. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. the letters indicate as follows: A. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. V-shaped copper strip. bell. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. lines H. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. 3. forms the other pole or terminal. by 12 in. spark. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. go.securely with bands of paper or tape. The alarm key will turn and drop down. switch. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. whole length. ready for assembling. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. 4 in. D. A. and one from battery. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. open switch C. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. C. long to key. one from bell. flange turned on one side. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. E. copper lever with 1-in. round so that the inside . One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. G. wide.

as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. do not shortcircuit. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. If desired for use immediately. . They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. That is what they are for. of blue stone. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade.. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. from the bottom. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. 2 in. The circuit should also have a high resistance. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. and then rivet the seam. London. This is for blowing. of zinc sulphate. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. but with the circuit. Use a glass or metal shade. says the Model Engineer. Short-circuit for three hours. and the battery is ready for use. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. but add 5 or 6 oz. instead of close to it. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. Line the furnace.diameter is 7 in. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries.

You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. below the bottom of the zinc. and then. for some it will turn one way. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. This type of battery will give about 0. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. To operate the trick. g. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. If any or your audience presume to dispute.9 of a volt. as in the other movement. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. oxygen to ozone. If too low. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. grip the stick firmly in one hand. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Ohio. square and about 9 in. Try it and see." which created much merriment. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. At least it is amusing. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. and therein is the trick.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. 2. but the thing would not move at all. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. 1. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. imparting to them a violet tinge. Outside of the scientific side involved. long. while for others it will not revolve at all. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. affects . changes white phosphorus to yellow. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. the second finger along the side. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. porcelain and paper. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction.. herein I describe a much better trick. thus producing two different vibrations. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. or think they can do the same let them try it. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. Enlarge the hole slightly. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. for others the opposite way.

This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. but this is less satisfactory. says the Photographic Times. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. a short-focus lens. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. however. To the front board is attached a box. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . but small flowers. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. earth. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. but not essential. an old tripod screw. if possible. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. chemicals. and one of them is photomicrography. and. a means for holding it vertical. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. insects. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board.

10 ft 523 33 lb. which is 15 ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. 1. Mass. Boston. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. Fig. balloon. If the balloon is 10 ft. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. or 3 ft. 905 57 lb. AB. 12 ft.--Contributed by George C. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 5 in. 11 ft. 697 44 lb. 381 24 lb. 268 17 lb. in Cu. 179 11 lb. A line.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. Madison. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Ft Lifting Power. long and 3 ft. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. The following table will give the size. wide from which to cut a pattern. 113 7 lb. 6 ft. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 65 4 lb. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. while it is not so with the quill. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. CD. 9 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 8 ft. 5 ft. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 7-1/2 in. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. in diameter. Cap. and a line. or 31 ft. 7 ft. 7-1/2 in.

A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. and so on. of the very best heavy body. The pattern is now cut. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. This test will show if the bag is airtight. Repeat this operation four times. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. 2. using a fine needle and No. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. cutting all four quarters at the same time. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. of beeswax and boil well together. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. Procure 1 gal. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. 4. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. 3. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. keeping the marked part on the outside. The amounts necessary for a 10- . The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. making a double seam as shown in Fig. 70 thread. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. on the curved line from B to C. The cloth segments are sewed together. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD.

. Fill the other barrel. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. of iron borings and 125 lb. with 3/4in.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. of water will make 4 cu. 150 gr. 1 lb. until no more dirt is seen. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. When the clock has dried. if it is good it will dry off. Water 1 oz. as shown in Fig. About 15 lb. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. ft. should not enter into the water over 8 in. with the iron borings. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. capacity and connect them. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. this should be repeated frequently. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. . oil the spindle holes carefully. A. C. ]. In the barrel. or a fan. which may sound rather absurd. of gas in one hour. but if any grease remains on the hand. B. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. with water 2 in. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. A. After washing a part. Vegetable oils should never be used.. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. B. C. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. it is not fit to use.Green Iron ammonium citrate . by fixing. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. 5 . 5. pipe. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. balloon are 125 lb. All FIG. A. using a fine brush. a clean white rag.ft. leaving the hand quite clean. above the level of the water in barrel A. 1 lb. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. of sulphuric acid. The 3/4-in. The outlet. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. to the bag. B. of iron. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. or dusting with a dry brush.

Exposure. A cold. A longer exposure will be necessary. fix in hypo. The miniature 16 cp. . This aerial collector can be made in . and a vigorous negative must be used. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Port Melbourne. The positive pole. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. at the time of employment. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. says the Moving Picture World. or battery. 20 to 30 minutes. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use.Water 1 oz. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. The negative pole. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. dry atmosphere will give best results. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. toning first if desired. of any make. Printing is done in the sun.000 ft. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. to avoid blackened skin. Dry in the dark. and keep in the dark until used. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. . Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. of the cell is connected to the aerial line.. or carbon. or zinc. keeping the fingers out of the solution. Dry the plates in the dark.

part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. in diameter. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. making a ground with one wire. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. holes . when left exposed to the air. This will complete the receiving station. and as less current will flow the short way. as described below. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. both positive and negative. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. The storage cell. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. If the wave ceases. lay a needle. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. will soon become dry and useless. If the waves strike across the needle. As the telephone offers a high resistance. forming a cup of the pipe. long. and have the other connected with another aerial line. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell.various ways. 5 in. the resistance is less. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. a positive and a negative. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. lead pipe. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air.

Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block.as possible. The other plate is connected to the zinc. by soldering the joint. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. or tube B. When mixing the acid and water. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. except for about 1 in. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. an oblong one and a triangular one. a round one. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. or tube C. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. says the Pathfinder. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. D. B. namely: a square hole. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. This. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. This box can be square. does not need to be watertight. This support or block. of course. on each end. one to the positive. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. Two binding-posts should be attached. and the other to the negative. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current.

In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. long. wide. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. back and under. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. 2. is built 15 ft. 2. . in place on the wood. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. as shown in Fig. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. about 20 in. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. Only galvanized nails should be used. 1. This punt. as it is not readily overturned. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. A and B. as shown in Fig. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. leaving about 1/16 in. Chicago. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. 3. were fitted by this one plug. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. and match them together. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. deep and 4 ft. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. wide. C. and has plenty of good seating capacity. The third piece of brass. all around the edge. Ill. thick cut two pieces alike. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. 1. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. C.

Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. B. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . is cut 1 in. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Wash. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. A piece of 1/4-in. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Tacoma. thick and 3-1/2 in. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. A. gas pipe.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. square (Fig 2). In Fig. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in.

with the exception of insulated wire.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. it had to be borne in mind that. which the writer has made. without auxiliary phase. or "rotor. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. In designing. lamp. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. Wagner. may be of interest to some of our readers. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. if possible. says the Model Engineer. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. no more current than a 16-cp. The winding of the armature. no special materials could be obtained. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. which can be developed in the usual manner. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate." has no connection with the outside circuit. and to consume.--Contributed by Charles H. H.

Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. this little machine is not self-starting. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. also varnished before they were put in. being used. They are not particularly accurate as it is. Holes 5-32 in. wrought iron. bolts put in and tightened up. A. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. After assembling a second time. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. to be filed out after they are placed together." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. about 2-1/2 lb. B. and filled with rivets. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. were then drilled and 1/4-in. Unfortunately. 3. as shown in Fig. C. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. no steel being obtainable. with the dotted line. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. 4. thick. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. 1. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. holes. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. in diameter were drilled in the corners. The stator is wound full with No. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces.the field-magnet. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. or "stator. 5. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. while the beginnings . Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. and all sparking is avoided. 2. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators.

but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. and would not easily get out of order. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. 3-Contributed by C. as before stated. E. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. The rotor is wound with No. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. This type of motor has drawbacks. it would be very simple to build. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it.. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. McKinney. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. J. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. as shown in Fig. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. In making slides by contact. If too late for alcohol to be of use. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. 1. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. N. One is by contact. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. having no commutator or brushes. and all wound in the same direction. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. The lantern slide is a glass plate. Jr. The image should . When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. if applied immediately. as a means of illustrating songs. a regulating resistance is not needed. and as the motor runs at constant speed. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. and especially of colored ones. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. Newark. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. and the other by reduction in the camera. No starting resistance is needed. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. film to film. and as each layer of wire was wound. 2.

as shown in Fig. the formulas being found in each package of plates. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. 5. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. if possible. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density.appear in. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. 3. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. 4. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . C. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. Being unbreakable. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. they are much used by travelers. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. over the mat. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. to use a plain fixing bath. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. as shown in Fig. These can be purchased from any photo material store. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. except that the binding is different. Draw lines with a pencil. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. about a minute. a little extra work will be necessary. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. If the exposure has been correct. 1. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. Select a room with one window. 2. and then a plain glass. B. also. It is best. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. and development should be over in three or four minutes. D. A. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. Fig. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots.

The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. from the end piece of the chair. from the ends. 1. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. These longer pieces can be made square. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. 2. as shown at A. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. Hastings. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. Corinth. 16 in. long. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. in diameter and 20 in. Vt. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. known as rods and cones. wide and 50 in. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . If the star is in front of the left eye. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. while the dot will be in front of the other. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. or other stout cloth. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. in diameter and 40 in. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. as shown at B. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. is to be used for the seat. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. long. as shown in Fig. A piece of canvas. Fig. Fig. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. 1. long. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. from the center of this dot draw a star. holes bored in the end pieces. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end.

They will be found to be exactly the same distance. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. as shown in Fig. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. Cal. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. Auburn. made from an ordinary sash cord. as shown in Fig.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. A disk 1 in. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed.-Contributed by P. A belt. in thickness and 10 in. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. as well as to operate other household machines. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. . 2. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. per square inch. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. J. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. 1. O'Gara. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. A pitman was attached to the large pulley.

direction. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. Cut out a piece from the block combination. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. wide. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. or inconvenient to measure. long. Bore a 1/4-in. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. will be the thickness of the object. Put the bolt in the hole. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. square for a support. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. leaving it shaped like a bench. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. then removing the object. fairly accurate. to the top of the bench. and the construction is complete. with as fine a thread as possible. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. A simple. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. divided by the number of threads to the inch. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. The part of a rotation of the bolt. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. 3/4 in. it serves a very useful purpose. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. says the Scientific American. screwing it through the nut. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. thick and 2-1/2 in. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. . The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose.

Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. bolt in each hole. beyond the end of the wood. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Santa Maria. long. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. long is used for the center pole. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Bore a 3/4-in. Oal. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. material 12 ft. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. Place a 3/4-in. The wheel should be open . globe that has been thrown away as useless. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. which show up fine at night.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. piece of wood 12 ft. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe.

at the top and 4 in. The boards may be nailed or bolted. in diameter. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. long. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. The spool . wide and 1/8 in.Side and Top View or have spokes. is soldered. Tex. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. Graham. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. pieces used for the spokes. A cross bar. which should be 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. of the ends with boards. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. long. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. P. Fort Worth. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. from the ends. long. C. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. A piece of brass 2 in. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. square and 3 or 4 in. made of the same material. The width should be about 5-1/4 in.-Contributed by A. and on its lower end a socket. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. L. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. O. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. from the top end. thick is used for the armature. The coil. B. to be operated by the magnet coil. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. and the lower part 61/2 in. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. H and J. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. thick. A. C. thick. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. long. 1/2 in. at the bottom.

2 the hat hanging on it. do it without any apparent effort. S. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. Randolph. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. F. A. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. When you slide the pencil along the casing. Mass. long. C.000. S. 2. is drilled. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. 1. At the bottom end of the frame. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. R.000 for irrigation work. one without either rubber or metal end. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil.is about 2-1/2 in. . Bradlev.J. This tie can be used on grain sacks. --Contributed by Arthur D. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. for insulating the brass ferrule. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw.E. or a water rheostat heretofore described. and place it against a door or window casing. and directly centering the holes H and J. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. The armature. B.--A. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. which may be had by using German silver wire. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. D and E. and in numerous other like instances. that holds the lower carbon. This is a very neat trick if performed right. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. A soft piece of iron. by soldering. then with a firm.

is connected to a flash lamp battery. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. long and 1 in. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. may be made from a 3/8-in. about 1 in. leaving the projections as shown. 2. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. A. The vibrator. in diameter and 2 in. Experiment with Heat [134] . which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. wide. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. 1. D. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. from the core and directly opposite. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. with a 3/16-in. About 70 turns of No. long. thick. and then 1. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. Fig. for the secondary. S. B. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. in diameter.500 turns of No. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. in diameter and 1/16 in. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. for adjustment. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. S. The coil ends are made from cardboard. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. for the primary. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. about 3/16 in. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. is constructed in the usual manner. The core of the coil. F. in diameter. 1. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. about 1/8 in. The switch. hole in the center. C. Fig. The vibrator B. mixed with water to form a paste. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting.

This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. 1. which is cut with two holes. The knob on the dial extends out too far. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. and the same distance inside of the new board. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. Fig. thick on the inside. was to be secured by only three brass screws. as shown. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. 2 to fit the two holes. which seemed to be insufficient. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. between the boards. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. brass plate. in an ordinary water glass. with which to operate the dial. and then well clinched. 1. . to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. The tin is 4 in. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. as shown in the sketch. board. long and when placed over the board. lighted. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. The lock. which is only 3/8-in. wide. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. The three screws were then put in the hasp. 16 in. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. The hasp. it laps down about 8 in. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards.Place a small piece of paper. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together.

one in each division. but when the front part is illuminated. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. which completely divides the box into two parts. When the rear part is illuminated. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. the glass. any article placed therein will be reflected in. When making of wood. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. high for use in window displays.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . If the box is made large enough. and the back left dark. not shiny. square and 10-1/2 in. or in the larger size mentioned. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. black color. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. clear glass as shown. square and 8-1/2 in.

as shown in the sketch. a tank 2 ft. When using as a window display. and with the proper illumination one is changed. . wide will be about the right size. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. alternately. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. When there is no electric current available.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. as shown at A in the sketch. above the top of the tank.. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. long and 1 ft. into the other. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. as it appears.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

-Contributed by Mack Wilson. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. one for each side. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. Columbus. wide. or ferrous sulphate. 5 ft. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. dried and mixed with linseed oil. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. as shown. square and 40 in. Three windows are provided. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. square. from the ground. If a planing mill is near. lines gauged on each side of each. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. with a length of 13 in. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. A small platform. high. Shape the under sides first. is the green vitriol. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. bit. The 13-in. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. however. and boring two holes with a 1-in. thick and 3 in. hole. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. is built on the front. 1 in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. 2 ft. then use a red-hot iron to finish. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. long. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. bore from each end. under sides together. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. The pieces can then be taken out. 6 in. Iron sulphate. and 6 ft. but with a length of 12 in. gauge for depth. hole bored the full length through the center. O. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. two pieces 1-1/8 in. This hole must be continued . radius. using a 3/4-in. each. wide. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. and a solution of iron sulphate added. and a door in front. long. This precipitate is then washed.

" This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. thick and 3 in. Saw the two blocks apart.through the pieces forming the base. three or four may be attached as shown. A better way. square and drawing a diagonal on each. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. if shade is purchased. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. hole in each block. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. apply two coats of wax. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. If the parts are to be riveted. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. For art-glass the metal panels are . Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. When the filler has hardened. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. Directions will be found on the filler cans. The sketch shows one method of attaching. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. Electric globes--two. When this is dry. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in.

and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. METAL SHADE . Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.The Completed Lamp cut out. as brass. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.Construction of Shade . such as copper.

as shown in the sketch. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. Figure 1 shows the side. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. the object and the background. one way and 1/2 in. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The arms holding the glass. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. 2 the front view of this stand. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. as in ordinary devices. and Fig. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. the other. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera.

wide and 11 in. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Cut another circular piece 11 in. Before mounting the ring on the base. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. as shown in the cut. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. long. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. uncork and recork again. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. channel in the circumference of the ring. thick 5/8-in. An ordinary pocket compass. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Put the ring in place on the base. about 1-1/4 in. and an inside diameter of 9 in. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. as shown in the sketch. outside diameter. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. If the light becomes dim. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. in diameter for a base. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. as it is very poisonous. thus forming a 1/4-in. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. and swinging freely. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. wide and 6-5/16 in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. in diameter. pointing north and south. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire.

from the second to the third. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. and north of the Ohio river.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. black oxide of copper.865 1. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. into these cylinders. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. above the half can.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. and mirrors.715 . The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. Corresponding mirrors. EE. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. B.420 . AA. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in.289 . An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second.182 . The results given should be multiplied by 1. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.500 . CC. in diameter and 8 in. are mounted on a base. Place on top the so- . from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. of the top.600 .088 . Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. 1 oz.

closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. of pulverized campor. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. always remove the oil with a siphon. 31 gr. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. In Fig. little crystals forming in the liquid. then they will not rust fast. which otherwise remains clear. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. alcohol. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. University Park. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. Put the solution in a long. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. slender bottle. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. the wheel will revolve in one direction. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. says Metal Worker. Colo. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. When renewing. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. 62 gr.

Attach to the wires. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. If two of them are floating on the same solution. will allow the magnet to point north and south. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. This is used in place of the spoon. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. If zinc and carbon are used. Lloyd Enos. on the under side of the cork. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. Solder in the side of the box . A paper-fastener box. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. floating on a solution. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. --Contributed by C. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. about 1-1/4 in. If zinc and copper are used. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid.

To this standard solder the supporting wire. C. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. and on the other around the glass tube.not shorter than 18 in. The bottom of the box. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. D.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. and then solder on the cover. is made from a piece of No. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. Rhamstine. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. Bore holes for binding-posts. long. 14 wire will do. away. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. F. as shown in Fig. 1. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. to it. of wire on each end extending from the coil. wide and 2-1/2 in. The standard. Wind evenly about 2 oz. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. A. long that has about 1/4-in. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. hole. The base. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. or made with a little black paint. stained and varnished. 1-1/4 in. E. B. glass tubing .in. E. long. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. can be made of oak. of No. wide and 6 in. The spring should be about 1 in. A. H. D.Contributed by J. Thos. 10 wire about 10 in.in. A circular piece of cardboard. Take a small piece of soft iron. Use a board 1/2. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. 3 in. G--No. B. If the hose is not a tight fit. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. one on each side of the board. . C. D. piece of 1/4-in. brass tubing. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. C. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. 1/2. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. thick. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top .1-in. Put ends. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it.

The four pieces 1-1/2 ft.--Contributed by R. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. . J. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. of No. Milwaukee. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. When the glass becomes soft. 1. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. 2. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. 3. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. four hinges. N. long are used for the legs. Smith. Wis. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. Cuba. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. two pieces 2 ft.of the coil. About 1-1/2 lb. long. making a support as shown in Fig. 3 in. of mercury will be sufficient. E. is drawn nearer to the coil. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. 3-in. about 1 in. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. long. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. long. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. Teasdale. 5. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. as shown in Fig. Y.--Contributed by Edward M. in diameter. long. canvas. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. long. D. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. The iron plunger. from the right hand. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. of 8-oz.

an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. Break off the piece of glass. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. small aperture in the long tube. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. Break this thread off about 1/8 in.. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. leaving 8 in. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. 2. 5. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. The tube now must be filled completely. Take 1/2 in. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Can. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. 3. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. holding in the left hand. Keys. expelling all the air. long. Measure 8 in. thus leaving a. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Fig. 4. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. Seal the remaining 1/2 in.. 6. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. --Contributed by David A. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . of vacuum at the top. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. Toronto. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. This tube as described will be 8 in. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. although nearly any size could be made in the same way.

1 in. long. 3 in. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. 3 in. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. wide and 5 ft. 9 in. 5. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. 4 in. as shown in Fig. long. thick. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. These are bent and nailed. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. wood screws. with each projection 3-in. 1. thick. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame.6 -. thick. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. 4. as shown in Fig. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. Fig. wide and 3 in. This forms a slot. cut in the shape shown in Fig. thick. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. joint be accurately put together. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. 6. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. and 1/4 in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . 3. as in Fig. long. in diameter. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. but yellow pine is the best. wide and 5 ft. A crosspiece 3/4-in. Four blocks 1/4 in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. from the end of same. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. thick. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. and the single projection 3/4 in.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. wide and 5 ft. material 2 in. 7. 2. wide and 12 in. FIG. 1 in. long. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. The large pulley is about 14 in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame.

Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. by 1-in. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Kan. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Welsh. . Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. attach runners and use it on the ice. Water 1 oz. above the runner level. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. says Photography. first removing the crank. --Contributed by C. Manhattan. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. R.

A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. 1. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. Treasdale. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. as shown in Fig. 3. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. Printing is carried rather far. --Contributed by Wallace C. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. from an ordinary clamp skate. and very much cheaper. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Newton. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. --Contributed by Edward M. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. as shown in Fig. . of water.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Mass. 2. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. The print is washed. also. Leominster. 1 oz. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell.

1. Then. high. fasten a 2-in. and 3 ft. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. --Contributed by H. 1-1/2 ft. A. about 10 in. Church. hole. from one end. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. as shown in the sketch. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. Place a 10-in. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. and to the bottom. and bend them as shown in the sketch. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. The thread is broken off at the . and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. Fig.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. Fig. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. too. wide. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. 2. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. extending the width of the box. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. with about 1/8-in. 1 ft. high for rabbits. F. The swing door B. square piece. 1. say. which represents the back side of the door. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. Va. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. Alexandria. long. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. Take two glass tubes. causing the door to swing back and up. wide and 4 in.

Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. Fig. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. A and B. Crilly. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. say 8 in. in size. This opening. D. as shown in Fig.by 5-in. and go in the holder in the same way. Paste a piece of strong black paper. in size. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around.proper place to make a small hole. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. from the edge on each side of these openings. and exactly 5 by 7 in. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. . long. automobiles. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Cut an opening in the other piece. trolley cars. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. 10 in. says Camera Craft. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. being 1/8 in. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in.by 7-in. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. to be used as a driving pulley. wide. Take two pieces of pasteboard. high and 12 in. black surfaced if possible. Jr. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. Fig. shorter. 3. shorter at each end. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. wide. -Contributed by William M. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. plates. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. 2. 1. C. Chicago. Out two rectangular holes. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. camera and wish to use some 4. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. horses and dogs. inside of the opening. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. 1 in. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. but cut it 1/4 in. long. B.. wide and 5 in. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains.

The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. A cell of this kind can easily be made. wide will be required. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water.in. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. in diameter. making a . The needle will then point north and south. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. into which the dog is harnessed. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. long and 6 in. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod.. if it has previously been magnetized.

watertight receptacle. beeswax melted together. fodder. pine. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. of water. F is a spool. zinc oxide. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. says Electrician and Mechanic. filter. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. with narrow flanges. when the paraffin is melted. 1/4 lb. long which are copper plated.in. Pack the paste in. sal ammoniac. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. only the joints. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. in diameter and 6 in. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. for a connection. This makes the wire smooth. of the top. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. Form a 1/2-in. short time. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. Do not paint any surface. A is a block of l-in. in which P is the pan. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. leaving about 1/2-in. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. File the rods to remove the copper plate. and a notch between the base and the pan. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. plaster of paris. fuel and packing purposes. one that will hold about 1 qt. 1 lb. under the spool in the paraffin. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. B is a base of 1 in. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. of the plate at one end. Place the pan on the stove. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. . 3/4 lb. of rosin and 2 oz. pull out the wire as needed. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole.

so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. while for others it will not revolve at all. and he finally. Try it and see. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Enlarge the hole slightly. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Ohio. At least it is amusing. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. g. let them try it. long. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. If any of your audience presume to dispute." which created much merriment. for others the opposite way.. but the thing would not move at all. thus producing two different vibrations. for some it will turn one way. and one friend tells me that they were . grip the stick firmly in one hand. and therein is the trick. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Toledo. and then. as in the other movement. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. from vexation. square and about 9 in. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. or think they can do the same. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. 2. by the Hindoos in India.

rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. 6. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. 4. A square stick with notches on edge is best. rotation was obtained. If the pressure was upon an edge. Speeds between 700 and 1. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. 7. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. 3. and I think the results may be of interest. 2. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. The experiments were as follows: 1. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left.100 r. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. and. no rotation resulted. Thus a circular or . secondly. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. To operate. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. 5. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. p. by means of a center punch. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. gave the best results. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. the rotation may be obtained. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. m. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin.

graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. . C. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. Sloan. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. if the pressure is from the left. A. Lloyd. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. forming a handle for carrying. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. unwetted by the liquid. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. a piece of wire and a candle. is driven violently away. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. --Contributed by G. Washington. at first. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. or greasy. Duluth. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. it will be clockwise. and the height of the fall about 6 in. G. --Contributed by M. D. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. so far as can be seen from the photographs. A wire is tied around the can. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. Minn. Ph. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. the upper portion is. as shown. and the resultant "basket splash..D.. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

thick and 1 in. axle. flange and a 1/4-in. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. hole drilled in the center. with a 1/16-in. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. as shown in Fig. long. about 2-5/8 in. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. 1. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. Each wheel is 1/4 in. in diameter. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. as shown. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy .How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in.

--Contributed by Maurice E. wide and 16 in. San Antonio. wood. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. The current. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. This will save buying a track. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. with cardboard 3 in. long. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. 5. as shown in Fig. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. and the locomotive is ready for running. A trolley. bent as shown. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. 3. 3. holes 1 in. 2. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. lamp in series with the coil. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. is made from a piece of clock spring. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. Texas. 2. The motor is now bolted. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line.brass. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. The first piece. 6. These ends are fastened together. as shown in Fig. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . 4. Fig. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. of No. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. 1 from 1/4-in. which must be 110 volt alternating current.50. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. Fuller. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. If the ends are to be soldered. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. or main part of the frame. 3/4 in. bottom side up. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. Fig. is made from brass. are shown in Fig. each in its proper place. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. The parts. put together complete.

O. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. Fig 1. as shown in Fig. When cold treat the other end in the same way.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Fig. The quarter will not go all the way down. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. but do not heat the center. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. 1. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. the length of a paper clip. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. and holes drilled in them. then continue to tighten much more. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. and as this end . 2. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. 3. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Cincinnati. as shown in Fig.

When the cutter A. In the sketch. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. A pair of centers are fitted. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. or apparent security of the knot. and adjusted . which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. 2 and 1 respectively. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. When the trick is to be performed. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. or should the lathe head be raised. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. has finished a cut for a tooth. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them.

Fourth row: -Needle or pin case.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. note book. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. blotter back. dividing it into as many parts as desired. --Contributed by Samuel C. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). (3. swing lathe. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. twisted around itself and soldered. The frame holding the mandrel. about 1-1/2 in. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. above the surface. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. 2.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. (1. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. (5.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. tea cosey. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. coin purse.) Place the paper design on the leather and. Y. such as brass or marble. Second row: -Two book marks. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. Bunker. 1. gentleman's card case or bill book. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. When connecting to batteries. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. holding it in place with the left hand. lady's belt bag. --Contributed by Howard S.) Make on paper the design wanted. An ordinary machine will do.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. draw center lines across the required space. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. watch fob ready for fastenings. and a nut pick. trace the outline. if but two parts. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. long. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post.to run true. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. tea cosey. at the same time striking light. or one-half of the design. (6. lady's card case. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). (4. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. In this manner gears 3 in. N. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . book mark. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. Fold over along these center lines. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. if four parts are to be alike. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. Fig. Brooklyn. Bott. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. (2. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut.

and an ordinary bottle. some heavy rubber hose.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. Secure .

The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm.C. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle.. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. If the needle is not horizontal. Florida. D. B. Thrust a pin. into which fit a small piece of tube. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. A. a distance of 900 miles. where it condenses. and push it through a cork. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. and bore a hole through the center. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. C. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. The electrodes are made . from Key West. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle.

the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. long for the body of the operator. by 3/4 in. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. If 20-ft. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. 2. free from knots. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. 12 uprights 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. wide and 4 ft. 1-1/2 in. 1. 2 in. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Four long beams 3/4 in. C. wide and 4 ft. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. Connect as shown in the illustration. thick. D. thick. as shown in Fig. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. 1-1/4 in. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. 16 piano wire. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. take the glider to the top of a hill. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. thick. and also to keep it steady in its flight. Washington. long. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. To make a glide. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. lengths and splice them. --Contributed by Edwin L. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. or flying-machine. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. using a high resistance receiver. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. 3/4 in. wide and 3 ft. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. long. 2. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. wide and 3 ft. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. All wiring is done with No. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. both laterally and longitudinally. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. 2 arm sticks 1 in. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. which is tacked to the front edge. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. wide and 20 ft. Powell.in. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. apart and extend 1 ft. lumber cannot be procured. several strips 1/2 in. thick. square and 8 ft long. long. long. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. use 10-ft. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. wide and 4 ft long. 1/2. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. 1. The operator can then land safely and . apart and connect with the 12 uprights. 3. thick. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. slacken speed and settle. 1. long. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth.

but this must be found by experience. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes.gently on his feet. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Glides are always made against the wind. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Of course. Great care should be . the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly.

Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. M. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. as shown in Fig. half man and half horse. --Contributed by L.exercised in making landings. 2. Olson. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. a creature of Greek mythology. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. 1. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. When heated a little. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. Bellingham. which causes the dip in the line.

outside the box. square. making it 2-1/2 in. about the size of door screen wire. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. this will cost about 15 cents. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. a piece of brass or steel wire. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. of small rubber tubing. in diameter. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. 14 in. long and about 3/8 in. The light from the . If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. While at the drug store get 3 ft. long. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. about the size of stove pipe wire. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. at the other. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. will complete the material list.

but puzzling when the trick is first seen. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. Dayton. O. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. . 1. This is very simple when you know how. M. as shown in Fig. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. 2. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. while others will fail time after time. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. as shown in Fig. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. --Photo by M. Hunting. as shown in the sketch. If done properly the card will flyaway.

and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . closing both hands quickly. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve." or the Chinese students' favorite game. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. This game is played by five persons.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. hold the lump over the flame. as shown. place the other two. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. Cool in water and dry. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. If a certain color is to be more prominent. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. as described. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. as before. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. When the desired shape has been obtained. then put it on the hatpin head.

Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. these sectors. distribute electric charges . Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. or more in width. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. passing through neutralizing brushes.

These pins. and 4 in. long and the shank 4 in. The plates are trued up. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. 1-1/2 in. and this should be done before cutting the circle. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. in diameter. The fork part is 6 in. 1 in. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. 3/4 in. 4. in diameter. material 7 in. and the outer end 11/2 in. 3. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. in diameter. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. in diameter and 15 in. 3. long. C C. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. in diameter. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. RR. or teeth. Two solid glass rods. EE. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. The drive wheels. are made from solid. 1. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. and pins inserted and soldered. at the other. in diameter. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. D. Two pieces of 1-in. free from wrinkles. brass tubing and the discharging rods. The collectors are made. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. the side pieces being 24 in. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. to which insulating handles . The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. The two pieces.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. GG. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. Fig. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. 2. Fig. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. after they are mounted. wide. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. and of a uniform thickness. long and the standards 3 in. are made from 7/8-in. wide at one end. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. in diameter. The plates. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. turned wood pieces. from about 1/4-in. long. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set.

Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. and the work was done by themselves. KK. Colo. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. long. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. Lloyd Enos. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. in diameter. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . which are bent as shown. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. D. --Contributed by C. wide and 22 ft.are attached. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines.. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. Colorado City. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. 12 ft. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. one having a 2-in. ball and the other one 3/4 in.

yet such a thing can be done. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. bit. deep. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. The key will drop from the string. using a 1-in. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. They can be used to keep pins and needles. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. and bore a hole 1/2 in. string together. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place.is a good one. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. as at A. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. pens .

screw-driver and sheet copper of No. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. inside the first on all. flat and round-nosed pliers. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. sharp division between background and design. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. Inside this oblong. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. extra metal on each of the four sides.. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. 7. This is to make a clean. 6. above the work and striking it with the hammer. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. and the third one 1/4 in.and pencils. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. stamp the background promiscuously. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. then the other side. Raise the ends. 2.. 5. They are easily made. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. unless it would be the metal shears. 8. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. about 3/4-in. they make attractive little pieces to have about. Proceed as follows: 1. 9. When the stamping is completed. above the metal. Use . slim screw. The second oblong was 3/4 in. two spikes. etc. 4. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. etc. inside the second on all. using a nail filed to chisel edge. very rapid progress can be made. Having determined the size of the tray. or cigar ashes. also trace the decorative design. 23 gauge. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. 3. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. file. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. Draw one-half the design free hand. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house.

7. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. In the first numbering. 10. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. third fingers. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. first fingers. 6. 9. second fingers. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. and the effect will be most pleasing. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. 8. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. and fourth fingers. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . The eyes. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72.

or the product of 6 times 6. or the product of 8 times 9.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether.. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. 11. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. or 60. Put your thumbs together. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. the product of 12 times 12. etc. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. In the second numbering. above 20 times 20. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. . if we wish. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. but being simple it saves time and trouble. Let us multiply 12 by 12. Still. etc. renumber your fingers. and the six lower fingers as six tens. 400. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. as high as you want to go. 600. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. which would be 70. or 80. etc. thumbs. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. which tens are added. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. first fingers. above 15 times 15 it is 200. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. Two times one are two. At a glance you see four tens or 40. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. there are no fingers above. viz. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing.. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. or numbers above 10. which would be 16. 25 times 25.. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. 2 times 2 equals 4. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. 12. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12.

as one might suppose. etc. It takes place also. 2. not rotation. beginning the thumbs with 16. and so on. being 80). adding 400 instead of 100. 3. The inversion and reversion did not take place. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. whether the one described in second or third numbering. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. which is the half-way point between the two fives.. first finger 17. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. or from above or from below. Take For example 18 times 18. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. twenties. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. at the will of the observer. thumbs. Proceed as in the second lumbering. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. first fingers 22. and. in the case of a nearsighted person. about a vertical axis. thirties. any two figures between 45 and 55. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. 8. 7. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. 21. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. forties. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. . the inversion takes place against his will.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. For figures ending in 6. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. 75 and 85. the value which the upper fingers have. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. further. or what. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. the lump sum to add. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. when he removes his spectacles. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. the value of the upper fingers being 20. And the lump sum to add. For example. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. the revolution seems to reverse. lastly. however.

The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. Looking at it in semidarkness. as . Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. when he knows which direction is right. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. The ports were not easy to make. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. sometimes the point towards him. tee. A flat slide valve was used. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. and putting a cork on the point. the other appearance asserts itself.

it is easily built. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. Beating copper tends to harden it and. H. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. The eccentric is constructed of washers. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. Ill. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. pipe 10 in. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. Fasten the block solidly. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. secure a piece of No. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Next take a block of wood. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. If nothing better is at hand. saw off a section of a broom handle.. apart. Springfield. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. in diameter. inexpensive. across and 1/2 in. across the head. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. as in a vise. Kutscher. deep. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. if continued too long without proper treatment. pipe. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. about 2 in. -Contributed by W. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. The steam chest is round. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. While this engine does not give much power.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. The tools are simple and can be made easily. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. bottom side up. and make in one end a hollow. such as is shown in the illustration. .

and. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. Hay. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. --Contributed by W. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. Vinegar. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. To overcome this hardness. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. This process is called annealing. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. as it softens the metal. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. S. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. C. Camden. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. especially when the object is near to the observer. O.will cause the metal to break. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. the other to the left. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. To produce color effects on copper. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper.

because. the left eye sees through a blue screen. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. in the proper choice of colors. So with the stereograph. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. with the stereograph. would serve the same purpose. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. orange. But they seem black. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. and lies to the right on the picture. it. they must be a very trifle apart. It is just as though they were not there. from the stereograph. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. The further apart the pictures are. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. the further from the card will the composite image appear. In order to make them appear before the card. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. although they pass through the screen. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. . In order that the picture shall be "plastic. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. The red portions of the picture are not seen. disappears fully. however. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. that for the right. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. the one for the left eye being blue. diameter.stereoscope. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. not two mounted side by side. and without any picture." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. because of the rays coming from them. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. as for instance red and green. while both eyes together see a white background. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. only the orange rays may pass through.

The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. wide and 1 in. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. long and a hole drilled in each end. etc. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. in the shape of a crank. thick. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. This should only be bored about half way through the block. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. A No. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. wireless. 12 gauge wire.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. or the middle of the bottle. The weight of the air in round . Cal. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. Place a NO. 1/4 in. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. San Francisco. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. in diameter. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals.

or. high.6) 1 in. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. the instrument. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. wide and 40 in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. high. long. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. thick. if you choose. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. 30 in. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. Only redistilled mercury should be used. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. square. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow.numbers is 15 lb. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. Before fastening the scale. will calibrate itself. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. pine 3 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. high. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. . a bottle 1 in. square. But if a standard barometer is not available. long. wide and 4 in. The 4 in. In general. if accurately constructed. the contrary. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. inside diameter and 2 in. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax.. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. long. and a slow fall. internal diameter and about 34 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. but before attempting to put in the mercury. or a column of mercury (density 13. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. a glass tube 1/8 in. 34 ft. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather.

a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. 1. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. long. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. the size of the outside of the bottle. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. wide and 10 in. 3. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. 6 and 7. 5. and place them as shown in Fig. Number the pieces 1. thick. 2. which is slipped quickly over the end. Mark out seven 1-in. Procure a metal can cover. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. a cover from a baking powder can will do.

7 over No. Move 2-Jump No. 2's place. 7 over No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Move 12-Jump No. 3 over No. Move 7-Jump No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places.J. Cape May Point. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. which is the very best material for the purpose. long and 2 ft. 7's place. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. shaped like Fig. 3 into No. as shown in Fig. 2's place. Move 4-Jump No. Make 22 sections. 6 over No. Move 3-Move No. This can be done on a checker board.-Contributed by W. 7. 5 over No. 1. l over No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 6 into No. Move 13-Move No. 6 in. 3. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. Move 5-Jump No. in diameter. Move 14-Jump No. L. 2 over No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 1 into No. 2 . Woolson. 5 over No. 2. 2 over No. N. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 1 to No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Move 8-Jump No. 1. Move 6-Move No. To make such a tent. 6. Move 15-Move No. Move 10-Move No. 3 to the center. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. each 10 ft. 5's place. 6 to No. 5's place. 3. using checkers for men. procure unbleached tent duck. Move 9-Jump No. 5. 3. Move ll-Jump No. 2. 6.

Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. 5. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. long. fill with canvas edging. wide at the bottom. round galvanized iron. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable.J. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. 2. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. added. 6-in. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. to a smooth board of soft wood. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. high. After transferring the design to the brass. 5) stuck in the ground. from the top. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. Nail a thin sheet of brass. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. Pa. made in two sections. as in Fig. 9 by 12 in. in diameter. Use blocks. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. 6. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. long and 4 in. Have the tent pole 3 in. 3 in. diameter. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. wide by 12 in. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. about 9 in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Fig. wide at the bottom. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. These are ventilators. Punch holes in the brass in .. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. will do. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. 2 in. Emsworth. As shown in the sketch. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in.in. Tress. Fig. --Contributed by G. leaving the rest for an opening. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. In raising the tent.

When all the holes are punched. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. bend into shape. excepting the 1/4-in. The pattern is traced as before. When the edges are brought together by bending.the spaces around the outlined figures. cut out the brass on the outside lines. apart. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. around the outside of the pattern. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. Corr. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. . The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. but before punching the holes. Chicago. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. It will not.

A cast-iron ring. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. --Contributed by Geo. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. A 6-in. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. Mayger. partially filled with cream. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. between which is placed the fruit jar. allowing 2 ft. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. Dunham. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. If a wheel is selected. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. pipe. pipe is used for the hub. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. Oregon. or center on which the frame swings. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. or. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. better still. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in.. or less. Que. E. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. --Contributed by H. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. Stevens. Badger. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil.however. These pipes are . G. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used.

The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe. bent to the desired circle. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. An extra wheel 18 in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. pipe clamps. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel.

2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. and the guide withdrawn. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. The performer. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. and dropped on the table. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. 1. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. 3. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. while doing this. which was placed in an upright position. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. as shown in Fig. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks.

Mo. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Louis. 2. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. F. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Denver. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. D. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. St. White. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. in diameter on another piece of tin. Colo. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. Harkins. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. 1. it requires no expensive condensing lens. -Contributed by C. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. --Contributed by H. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. and second. first. in a half circle. The box can be made of selected oak or .

The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. long and should be placed vertically. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. If a camera lens is used. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. wide. 1. wide by 5 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. long. represented by the dotted line in Fig. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. This will be 3/4 in. AA. high and 11 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. Two or three holes about 1 in. and. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. from each end. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. 5-1/2 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. wide and 6-1/2 in. focal length. and 2 in. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. 2. 3-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. long. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. fit into the runners. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. but not tight. An open space 4 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat.mahogany. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. high and must . which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. from each end of the outside of the box. as shown in Fig. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. wide and 5 in. The door covering this hole in the back.

then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. calling this February. Ohio. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. West Toledo. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. and extending the whole height of the lantern. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. then the second knuckle will be March. --Contributed by Chas. Bradley. C. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. calling that knuckle January. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand." etc. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. the article may be propped up . provided it is airtight. as it requires an airtight case. 1. and so on.. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. June and November. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. This process is rather a difficult one. April. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days.

A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. in. in. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. 2. taking care to have all the edges closed. . giving it an occasional stir. --Contributed by J. or suspended by a string. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. H. In each place two electrodes. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. and set aside for half a day. Y. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A.with small sticks. N. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. one of lead and one of aluminum. 1. and the lead 24 sq. Crawford. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. Pour in a little turpentine. In both Fig. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. but waxed. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. running small motors and lighting small lamps. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. The top of a table will do. fruit jars are required. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. the lid or cover closed. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. Schenectady. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. 1 and 2.

you remove the glass. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others.. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. You have an understanding with some one in the company. he throws the other. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . at the time of request for handkerchiefs. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. which you warm with your hands. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. This trick is very simple. as well as others. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. He. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. as you have held it all the time. O. Cleveland. After a few seconds' time. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. and take the handkerchief and unfold it.

Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. J. near a partition or curtain. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. if any snags are encountered. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Pull the ends quickly. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Colo. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. but in making one. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. in diameter in the center.-Contributed by E. Crocker. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely.take the handiest one. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Be sure that this is the right one. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. Victor. on a table. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. . put it under the glass. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. but by being careful at shores. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded.

The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. by 16 ft. by 10 ft. of 1-1/2-yd. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. square by 16 ft.. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. drilled and fastened with screws. 8 in. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. 4 outwales. from the stern. wide. 11 yd. long. 1 in. wide unbleached muslin. 2 in. one 6 in. from the bow and the large one. long. of rope. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. 9 ft. wide 12-oz. 3 and 4. are as follows: 1 keelson. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . by 2 in.. 1/8 in. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. and. apart. 2 and braced with an iron band. 1 in. long. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. for the bow. selected pine. and the other 12 in. 1. long. 8 yd. 1 piece. 1 piece. and fastened with screws. by 12 in. is 14 ft. wide and 12 ft. by 15 ft. 50 ft. by 2 in. of 1-yd. thick and 3/4 in. The keelson.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. for cockpit frame. 1/4 in. and is removed after the ribs are in place. for center deck braces. 1 in. clear pine. 14 rib bands. Fig. 1 in. at the ends. Both ends are mortised. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. 3 in. 2 gunwales. 1 mast. by 16 ft. 3 in. wide and 12 ft. by 8 in. Paint. for the stern piece. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 7 ft. the smaller is placed 3 ft. as illustrated in the engraving. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. ducking. screws and cleats. from each end to 1 in. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig.

The deck is not so hard to do. They are 1 in. length of canvas is cut in the center. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. screws. long. wood screws. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. 1 in. apart. long. from the bow. and fastened to them with bolts. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. . 1/4 in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. Before making the deck. wide. is a cube having sides 6 in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. The 11-yd. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. wide. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. Fig. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. thick. 3-1/2 ft. long. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. 6 and 7. gunwales and keelson. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. The block is fastened to the keelson. long is well soaked in water. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. doubled. A block of pine. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. Braces. thick. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. is cut to fit under the top boards. thick 1-1/2 in. wide and 24 in. 4 in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. corner braces. A piece of oak. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. Figs. wide and 3 ft. thick and 12 in. 7 and 8. a piece 1/4 in. also. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. 9. 1 in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. in diameter through the block. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. 6. 6 in. wide and 14 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. These are put in 6 in. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. Fig. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. A 6-in. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. 5. thick and 1/2 in. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. The trimming is wood. A seam should be made along the center piece. This block.

in diameter and 10 ft. at the other. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. apart in the muslin. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. 12. each 1 in. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. . The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. Tronnes. The sail is a triangle. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. 10 with a movable handle. wide at one end and 12 in.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. 11. Wilmette. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The house will accommodate 20 families. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. are used for the boom and gaff. E. is 6 in. Ill. long. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. The keel. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. Fig. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. thick by 2 in. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. A strip 1 in. The mast has two side and one front stay. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. wide. --Contributed by O. long. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin.

it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. about 5/16 in. Fig. square. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. with the ends and the other side rounding.into two 14-in. long and five 1/2-in. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. 3. 1. and the other 18 in. 1 yd. flat on one side. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. 2-1/2 in. wide. five 1/2-in. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. Take this and fold it over . making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. E. one 11-1/2 in. 2 in. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. Tronnes. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. wide and 2 ft. Cut the maple. flat headed screws. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. long. --Contributed by O. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. 5. long. wide and 30 in. flat-headed screws. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. and 3 ft. wide. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. as shown in Fig. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. thick. thick. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. 4. Bevel both sides of the pieces. long. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. Wilmette. 2-1/2 in. Ill. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. 2. thick. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy.

3-1/4 in. and the four outside edges. Fig. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. long. Cut another piece of board. A.once. Mo. 2 and 3. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. long. The bag is then turned inside out. F. wide and 6-3/4 in. are rounded. Louis. long. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. wide . The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. C. After the glue. wide and 4-1/2 in. of each end unwound for connections. 3 in. forming an eye for a screw. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. D. soaked with water and blown up. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. long. Make a double stitch all around the edge. wide and 2-1/2 in. The front. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. the mechanical parts can be put together. The sides are 3-1/4 in. Figs. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. long. the top and bottom. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. --Contributed by W. E. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. leaving a small opening at one corner. wide and 6-1/2 in. 1-1/4 in. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. A. 6-1/2 in. thick. wide and 2-3/4 in. Bliss. Wind three layers of about No. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. as well as the edges around the opening. 1. and make a turn in each end of the wires. long. St. B. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. and take care that the pieces are all square. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. is set. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. About 1/2 in. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. When the glue is set. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. 3/8 in. thick and 3 in. long. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. wide and 5 in. thick. square. square. 5 from 1/16-in. about 3/8 in. Another piece. Glue a three cornered piece. pieces 2-5/8 in. wide and 3 ft. C. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. If carefully and neatly made. but can be governed by circumstances. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. then centered. this square box is well sandpapered. long.

Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. thick. The base is a board 5 in. 4 is not movable. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. A pointer 12 in. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. in diameter. --Contributed by George Heimroth. Place the tin. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. and the farther apart they will be forced. The resistance is now adjusted to show . C. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. that has the end turned with a shoulder. board. 5-1/2 in. Richmond Hill. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. long. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. hole is fastened to the pointer. and as the part Fig.S. Another strip of tin.and 2-5/8 in. bored in the back. the part carrying the pointer moves away. so it will just clear the tin. Fig. 5. The end of the polar axis B. 4. Austwick Hall. Chapman. showing a greater defection of the pointer. 1/16 in. from the spindle. Yorkshire. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. wide and 9 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. 4. G. These wires should be about 1 in. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. and fasten in place.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. Fig. F. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. I. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. the same size as the first. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. R. When the current flows through the coil. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. from one end. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity.A. W. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . long. The stronger the current. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. L. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. Like poles repel each other. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling.R. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. 1/4 in. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. long. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply.

The following formula will show how this may be found. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. thus: 9 hr. 10 min.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. M. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. say Venus at the date of observation. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. 30 min. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. 1881. A. 10 min. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. at 9 hr. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. and vice . If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. shows mean siderial.

Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. and then verify its correctness by measurement. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid.f. or. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. Hall. if one of these cannot be had. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. . The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. New Haven. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. get a glazed vessel of similar construction.m. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. --Contributed by Robert W. owing to the low internal resistance. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Conn.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down.

When the follower is screwed down. 1. thick. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. Wet paper will answer. put the fish among the ashes. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. Then. Fig. arsenic to every 20 lb. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. especially for cooking fish. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. as shown in the accompanying picture. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. The boring bar. of alum and 4 oz. leaves or bark. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. 1-3/4 in. and heap the glowing coals on top. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. cover up with the same. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. 3/8 in. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. fresh grass. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. long. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. inside diameter and about 5 in. after scraping away the greater part of the coals.

turned to the same diameter as the flanges. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. fastened with a pin. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. and threaded on both ends. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. pipe. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. thick. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. pipe.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. when they were turned in. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. about 1/2 in.

Fig. the float is too high. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. 30 in. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. A 1-in. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. If the valve keeps dripping. Fig. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. 5.valve stems. It . long. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. as the one illustrated herewith. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. 4. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. then it should be ground to a fit. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. however. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. but never one which required so little material. bent in the shape of a U. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. Fig. 2. a jump spark would be much better. Clermont. wide. 3. square iron. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. thick and 3 in. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. The rough frame. was then finished on an emery wheel. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. labor and time. Iowa. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. This plate also supports the rocker arms. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. and which gave such satisfactory results.

with no trees or buildings in the way. W. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. from all over the neighborhood. It looks like a toy. no matter what your age or size may be. and a little junk. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. 12 ft. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. A 3/4 -in. long. A malleable iron bolt. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. square. so it must be strong enough. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. The illustration largely explains itself. If it is to be used for adults. from the center. being held in position by spikes as shown. As there is no bracing." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. in fact. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. Nieman. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. completes the merry-go-round. --Contributed by C. long. This makes an easy adjustment. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. strong clear material only should be employed. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. Use a heavy washer at the head. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. square and 5 ft. in diameter and 15 in. and. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . in the ground with 8 ft. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. The crosspiece is 2 in. set 3 ft. 3/4 in. for the "motive power" to grasp. The seats are regular swing boards. hole bored in the post. strengthened by a piece 4 in. square and 2 ft. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. rope is not too heavy. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. timber. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. butting against short stakes. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. long. extending above. long is the pivot. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders." little and big.

long. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. if nothing better is at hand. 1/4 by 3/32 in. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. 2. square. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. 1. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. and 18 in. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. These ends are placed about 14 in. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. Both have large reels full of . To wind the string upon the reel. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. one for the backbone and one for the bow. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. light and strong. A reel is next made.the fingers. The backbone is flat. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. a wreck. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. as shown in Fig. The bow is now bent. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. away. He shapes two pieces of bamboo.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. 4. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries.2 emery. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. then it is securely fastened. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. and sent to earth. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. Having placed the backbone in position.

Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever.string. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. or glass-covered string. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. common packing thread. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. the first tries to spear him by swift dives.-Contributed by S. the balance. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. Brooklyn. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. The handle end is held down with a staple. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . --Contributed' by Harry S. he pays out a large amount of string. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. N. Moody. Mass. If the second kite is close enough. First. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. often several hundred yards of it. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. C. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Y. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Newburyport. Bunker. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it.

tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. lengths (Fig. Corinth. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Hastings. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Vt. cutting the circular piece into quarters. each the size of half the table top. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. then draw the string up tight. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. square (Fig. If the table is round. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. --Contributed by Earl R. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. length of 2-in. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. must be attached to a 3-ft. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. then a dust protector. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. such as mill men use.

which spoils the leather effect. Use a smooth.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. and E to G. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. Wharton. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless.. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern.-Contributed by H. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. 6-1/4 in. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. trace the design carefully on the leather. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. E. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. G to H. from C to D. .9-1/4 in. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. from E to F. Oakland. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. 2-1/4 in. Moisten the .. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. 16-1/4 in. 17-1/2 in. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. hard pencil.. Calif. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work.

G-J. I made this motor . H-B. apart. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. and corresponding lines on the other side. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. To complete the bag. and E-G. also lines A-G. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. about 1/8 in. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. if not more than 1 in. Cut it the same size as the bag. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. place both together and with a leather punch. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. is taken off at a time. Trace the openings for the handles. and lace through the holes. with the rounded sides of the tools. Now cut narrow thongs. get something with which to make a lining. wide. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire.

Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. 24 gauge magnet wire. long. as shown in Fig. Pasadena. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. 1. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. Calif. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig.M. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. 1. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. iron. 2. Shannon. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. --Contributed by J. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. B. of No. 2-1/4 in. D. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. each being a half circle. in length. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. . The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead.

The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . from the bottom end. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. are the best kind to make. pasted in alternately. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. 1. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. The gores for a 6-ft. and the gores cut from these. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. high. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. near the center. balloon should be about 8 ft. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in.

The boat soon attains considerable speed. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. so it will hang as shown in Fig. These are to hold the wick ball. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. as shown in Fig. in diameter. coming through the small pipe A. B. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. using about 1/2-in. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. as shown in Fig.widest point. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. In starting the balloon on its flight. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. 2. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. Staunton. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . leaving the solution on over night. saturating it thoroughly. 1. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. As the boat is driven forward by this force. after which the paint will adhere permanently. Fig. E. 4. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. After washing. 5. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. If the gores have been put together right. 3. lap on the edges. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. The steam. leaving a long wake behind. --Contributed by R. A. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. In removing grease from wood. somewhat larger in size.

a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. Third. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. if you have several copies of the photograph. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. wide by 6 in. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. long. In using either of the two methods described. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. There are three ways of doing this: First. in bowling form. apart on these lines. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. Second. high and 8 in. The blocks are about 6 in. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. as is shown in Fig. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. long and each provided with a handle. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. 1. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife.

thick. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Y. Albany. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Rinse the plate in cold water.Fig. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. N. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. 2. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Fig. being careful not to dent the metal. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. --Contributed by John A. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Hellwig.

Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. and Fig. are screwed to the circular piece. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig.upon any particular object. Va. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . A circular piece of wood. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. wide and 8 in. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. and. Paine. These corner irons are also screwed to. in diameter. thick. Richmond. A. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. 1 Fig. CC. and not produce the right sound. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. is fastened to a common camera tripod. through which passes the set screw S. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. S. In Fig. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. with a set screw. B. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. Corner irons. which is 4 in. --Contributed by R. long for the base. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. With this device. 5 in. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. Break off the frame. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. wide and of any desired height. 2 the front view. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. 6 in. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. A.

Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. D. Lake Preston. Kidder. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. thus producing sound waves. I made a wheel 26 in. This will make a very compact electric horn. Ill. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. as only the can is visible. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. R.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. -1. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. in diameter of some 1-in. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. . La Salle. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. pine boards. S. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. This horn.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine.

square. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Purdy. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Kane. --Contributed by James R. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. 2. If there is a large collection of coins. If the collection consists of only a few coins. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . thick and 12 in. 1. A. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Fig.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. --Contributed by C. the same thickness as the coins. B. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. O. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Doylestown. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. 1. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. The frame is made of a heavy card. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Ghent.

The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. for after the slides have been shown a few times. border all around. Canada. --Contributed by August T. A rivet punch is desirable. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. If desired. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. a hammer or mallet. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box.J. though not absolutely necessary. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. melted and applied with a brush. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. A lead pencil. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. --Contributed by J. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Neyer. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. they become uninteresting. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. The material required is a sheet of No. Toronto. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. It will hold 4 oz. cut and grooved. Milwaukee. --Contributed by R. Cal. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. Smith. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Wis. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. Noble. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. thick. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. plus a 3/8-in. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful.E. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. and then glued together as indicated. into which to place the screws . A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. several large nails. One Cloud. of developer. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film.

Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. both outline and decoration. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. There are several ways of working up the design. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. using 1/2-in. and file it to a chisel edge. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. Remove the screws. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. like the one shown. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Take the nail. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. draw one part. never upon the metal directly. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. screws placed about 1 in.

. long. The pedal.wall. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. up from the lower end. being ball bearing. as shown in Fig. 1. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. 3/4 in. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. and two lengths. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. for the lower rails. two lengths. About 1/2 yd. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. Rivet the band to the holder. using a 1/2in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. square and 11 in. 3. of 11-in. square and 181/2 in. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. for the top. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. Provide four lengths for the legs. each 1 in. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. square. Do not bend it over or flatten it. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. l-1/8 in. 2. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. long. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. long. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. in the other. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. The lower rails are fitted in the same way.

Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. having quite a length of threads. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. --Contributed by W. Quackenbush. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. New York City. Attalla. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. Ala. --Contributed by John Shahan. F.

are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. one about 1 in. using class. --Contributed by C. Assemble as shown in the sketch. and two holes in the other. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. long. making a lap of about 1 in. long. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . Luther. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. Mich. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. initial. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. Two pieces of felt.. each 1-1/4 in. from the end. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. long. something that is carbonated. Ironwood. and the other 2-3/4 in. The desired emblem. D. in depth.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. stitched on both edges for appearance. college or lodge colors. Purchase a 1/2-in. the end of the other piece is folded over. from one end. wide and 8-1/4 in. and 3/8 in.

--Contributed by John H. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. about 2 in. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. 1. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. from the center and opposite each other. if desired by the operator. 1/4 in. Ind. or a pasteboard box. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. or more in height. as shown at B. in the cover and the bottom. Schatz. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Punch two holes A. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. This method allows a wide range of designs. Indianapolis. Fig. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. in diameter and 2 in. A piece of lead. and the cork will be driven out. 2. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. as shown in the sketch. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. which can be procured from a plumber.

The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. or marble will serve. as shown in Fig. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. metal. 1. A piece of thick glass. allowing the two ends to be free. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. . made of paper strips pasted on the tin. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. it winds up the rubber band. are turned up as in Fig. 3. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. 4.Rolling Can Toy lead. on both top and bottom. The pieces of tin between the holes A. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. putting in the design. 5. When the can is rolled away from you. Fig. and the ends of the bands looped over them. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. O. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. Columbus. --Contributed by Mack Wilson.

from each end. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. mark over the design. 1 in. and. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. hole through it. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. face up. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. 3 in. A pencil may be used the first time over. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. wide and 20 in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. thicker than the pinion. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . I secured a board 3/4 in. thick. long and bored a 1/2-in. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. The edges should be about 1/8 in. If it is desired to "line" the inside. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. After this has been done. or more thick on each side. deep in its face. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. Next place the leather on the glass. New York City.

2 by 2 by 18 in. Syracuse. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 2 crosspieces. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. N. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. --Contributed by A. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. much of the hard labor will be saved. 1. Brooklyn. 1 piece. pieces for the vise slides. Now fit up the two clamps. 1 by 12 by 77 in. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Make the lower frame first. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. in diameter. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. Cut the 2-in. M. 1 piece for clamp. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in.in the board into the bench top. 1 back board. 2 by 12 by 77 in. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Fig. Rice. 2. Y. 1 top board. 2 side rails. countersinking the heads of the vise end. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 2 end rails. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 1 piece for clamp. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 1 top board. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. New York. and fit it in place for the side vise. thick top board. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 1 screw block. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 3 by 3 by 20 in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. lag screws as shown. 3 by 3 by 36. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 4 guides.

1 monkey wrench. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. . 1 pair pliers. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood.. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop.screws. rule. 1 rip saw. in diameter. 1 set chisels. 1 wood scraper. 1 nail set. 2 screwdrivers. 1 bench plane or jointer. If each tool is kept in a certain place. Only the long run. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 set gimlets. 1 compass saw. 1 claw hammer. The amateur workman.. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 cross cut saw. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 pair dividers. They can be purchased at a hardware store.. 1 2-ft. 1 countersink. 1 pocket level. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 marking gauge. The bench is now complete. 3 and 6 in. 24 in. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. as well as the pattern maker. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 24 in. 1 brace and set of bits. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 jack plane or smoother.

2 and 00 sandpaper. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. Kane. 2. Fig. the projecting point A.1 6-in. 1. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. No. 3. will be easier to work. after constant use. Fig. 1 oilstone. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. but will not make . Fig. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. Fig. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. becomes like A. ---Contributed by James M.1. The calf skin. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. Doylestown. 1. being softer. try square. Pa. will sink into the handle as shown at D.

as rigid a case as the cow skin. will do just as well. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. White. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. when dry. then prepare the leather. lay the design on the face. If cow hide is preferred. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. After the outlines are traced. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. but a V-shaped nut pick. If calf skin is to be used. . Two pieces will be required of this size. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. First draw the design on paper. such as copper or brass. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. water or heat will not affect. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. New York City. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. the same method of treatment is used. cover it completely with water enamel and. Turn the leather. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. -Contributed by Julia A. Having prepared the two sides. and the length 6-5/8 in. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. The form can be made of a stick of wood. which steam. secure a piece of modeling calf.

will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Jaquythe. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. --Contributed by Chester L. Cal. New York City. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. Richmond. and an adjustable friction-held loop. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. as shown in the sketch. . When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. A.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. Portland. Maine. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Herrman. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. C. Cobb. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by Chas.

for instance. --Contributed by Wm. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly.. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. Roberts. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. Cambridge. Conn. . as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. an inverted stewpan. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. This was very difficult. Wright. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Middletown. was marked out as shown. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Mass. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. A thick piece of tin. B. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. --Contributed by Geo.

but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. Indianapolis. such as chair seats. which has been tried out several times with success. but not running over. F. Chicago. apply powdered calcined magnesia. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. used as part of furniture. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. well calcined and powdered. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass.. Herbert. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. --Contributed by C. of boiling water. pulverized and applied. A beautifully bound book. The next morning there was no trace of oil.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. as shown. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. --Contributed by Paul Keller. Bone. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. . on a clear piece of glass. When dry. L. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. Illinois. but only an odor which soon vanished. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. There was no quicklime to be had. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. Ind. If the article is highly polished. and quite new. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. face down. so some bones were quickly calcined. If any traces of the grease are left. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. and the grease will disappear. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned.

This coaster is simple and easy to make. thick.. the pieces . How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle..Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. A. Howe. If properly adjusted. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. long. set and thumbscrews. soft steel with the opening 6 in. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. says Scientific American. New York. high and are bolted to a block of wood. 6 in. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. wide and 12 in. Tarrytown. --Contributed by Geo. 2 in. The pieces marked S are single. deep and 5 in.

many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. says Camera Craft. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. If the letters are all cut the same height. albums and the like. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. to the underside of which is a block. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. they will look remarkably uniform. A sharp knife. no doubt. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. for sending to friends. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. Their size depends on the plate used. E. The seat is a board.

and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. using care to get it in the right position. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. mount them on short pieces of corks. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. So made. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. So arranged. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. photographing them down to the desired size. after. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. The puzzle is to get . pasting the prints on some thin card. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. for example. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. In cutting out an 0. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. and.

Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. with the longest end outside. says the American Thresherman. Old-Time Magic . then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. Cape May Point. He smells the bait. G. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. long that will just fit are set in.-Contributed by I. so they will lie horizontal. hung on pivots. squeezes along past the center of the tube. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . of its top. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. Bayley. snow or anything to hide it. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. N. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week.J.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. A hole 6 or 7 in. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit.

Idaho. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Brooklyn. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Szerlip. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Pawtucket. Y. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Press the hands together. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Parker. then expose again. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. or rub the hands a little before doing so. N. --Contributed by L. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . E. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Rhode Island. Pocatello. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. --Contributed by L. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. then spread the string. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury.faced up. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin.

1. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. The blade should be about 27 in. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. or green oil paint. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. The pieces. 2 Fig. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. says the English Mechanic. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. using a straightedge and a pencil. narrower. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. or a complete suit of armor. they will look very much like the genuine article. if any. long. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. dark red. wide and 2 in. 4 on the blade. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. When the whole is quite dry.Genuine antique swords and armor. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. and if carefully made. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. near the point end. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. thick. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. in building up his work from the illustrations. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. full size. 1 Fig. When the glue is thoroughly dry. wipe the blade . 3 Fig. The handle is next made. Glue the other side of the blade. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty.. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. whether he requires a single sword only. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. in width. end of the blade. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in.

for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. Fig. In making. 1/8 in. 1. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. and 3 in. the illustration. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. 1. in the widest part at the lower end. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. should be about 9 in. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side.. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. Both edges of the blade are sharp. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. In the finished piece. the other two are identical. thick and 5 in. long. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. In making this scimitar. 3. the other is flat or halfround.with light strokes up and down several times. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. preferably of contrasting colors. not for use only in cases of tableaux. follow the directions as for Fig. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. shows only two sides. in diameter. take two pieces of wood. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. the other is flat or half-round.. about 1-1/2 in. 4. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. as it is . using a soft and dry piece of cloth. square and of any length desired. This sword is about 68 in. the length of the blade 28 in. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. allowing for a good hold with both hands. of course. The length of the handle. 1. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. 1. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. 3. 2. 2.

or an insecure fastening. Syracuse. as there was some at hand. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. A piece of mild steel. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. --Contributed by John Blake. It is made of a plank.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. in an attempt to remove it. On each edge of the board. 2 in. each about 1 ft. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. Doctors probed for the button without success. as shown in the sketch. A cold . Morse. about 3/8 in. --Contributed by Katharine D. and if so. however. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. The thinness of the plank. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. square. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. at the lower end. piping and jackets by hard water. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. Y. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. and. Mass. Franklin. Both can be made easily. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. N. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. as can the pitch bed or block. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. long.

The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. To put it in another way. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. When this has been done. design down. When the desired form has been obtained. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal.. To remedy this. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal.. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. secure a piece of brass of about No. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. tallow. 5 lb. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. a file to reduce the ends to shape. plaster of Paris. 5 lb. 18 gauge. Trim up the edges and file them . on the pitch. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. using a small metal saw.

Fig.000 lb.000 ft. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. one 18 in. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. using powdered pumice with lye. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. That is lifting 33. per minute. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. space between the vessels with water. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. . 30 ft.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. over the smaller vessel. The smaller is placed within the larger. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. to keep it from floating. and still revolve. but not to stop it. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. lb. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Before giving the description. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. and hang a bird swing. --Contributed by Harold H. in the center. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. in one minute or 550 lb. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. in one second. living together in what seems like one receptacle.smooth. make an unusual show window attraction. per second. Cutter. in diameter (Fig. This in turn divided by 33. 1 ft. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. in diameter (Fig. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. 2). 1) and the other 12 in. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Clean the metal thoroughly. A. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. 1 ft. or 550 ft. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. 3. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. Fill the 3-in. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. or fraction of a horsepower. lb. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel.

Somerville. F. or on a pedestal. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use.3 Fig. 1 Fig. Mass. Szerlip. Y. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. --Contributed by J. Diameter 12 in. Diameter Fig. --Contributed. Brooklyn. Campbell. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. N. 2 Fig. by L. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes.18 in. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. The effect is surprising.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water.

is. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. and cut out the shape with the shears. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. and then. with the pliers. which. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. then by drawing a straightedge over it. Rivet the cup to the base. unsatisfactory. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. keeping the center high. away from the edge. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. as a rule. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. to keep the metal from tarnishing. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. and the clay . using any of the common metal polishes. This compound is impervious to water. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. with other defects. the same as removing writing from a slate. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. which may be of wood or tin. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. In riveting. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown.copper of No. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. Polish both of these pieces. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. after which it is ready for use. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. often render it useless after a few months service. Do not be content merely to bend them over. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would.

Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark.can be pressed back and leveled. A. -Contributed by Thos. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. 2. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. in diameter and 5 in. 3/4 in. Northville. DeLoof. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. the device will work for an indefinite time. Shettleston. 1. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. as shown in Fig. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. Dunlop. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. Mich. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. Houghton. long. Mich. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. Scotland. --Contributed by John T. Grand Rapids. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. The siphon is made of glass tubes. It is made of a glass tube. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. . --Contributed by A.

London. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. long. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. 1. put up as ornaments. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. in width and 2 in. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. As the handle is to . stilettos and battle-axes.FIG. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. This sword is 4 ft. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in.1 FIG. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil.

glue and put it in place. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. Cut two strips of tinfoil. in length. The lower half of the handle is of wood. sharp edges on both sides. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. studded with brass or steel nails. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. 20 spike. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. long with a dark handle of wood. firmly glued on. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. A German poniard is shown in Fig. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. narrower. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. Both handle and axe are of steel. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. long. the same as used on the end of the handle. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. one about 1/2 in. in length. These must be cut from pieces of wood. A German stiletto. When the glue is thoroughly dry. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. 3 is shown a claymore. The ball is made as described in Fig. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. in width. the axe is of steel. string. When dry. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. small rope and round-headed nails. sometimes called cuirass breakers. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. This weapon is about 1 ft. wood with a keyhole saw. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. 7. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. 8. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. 5. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. 11 were used. then glued on the blade as shown. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. When the whole is quite dry. is shown in Fig. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. In Fig. This axe is made similar to the one . A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. Three large. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. The crossbar and blade are steel. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. In Fig. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. which is about 2-1/2 ft. paint it a dark brown or black. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. with wire or string' bound handle. The handle is of wood. In Fig. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. The sword shown in Fig. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. This sword is about 4 ft. This stiletto has a wood handle. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. 4. the upper part iron or steel. with both edges of the blade sharp. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. very broad. with both edges sharp. 9. 6. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft.represent copper. This weapon is also about 1 ft.

The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. 2. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. --Contributed by E. Davis. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. When wrapped all the way around. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. Old-Time Magic . such as braided fishline. will pull where other belts slip. 10. high. This will make a very good flexible belt. Chicago. . Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. together as shown in Fig. so the contents cannot be seen. W. the ends are tied and cut off. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil.described in Fig. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand.

an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. As zinc is much lighter than iron.J. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. filled with water. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. causing the flowers to grow. The dotted lines in Fig. --Contributed by A. Oakland. S. Calif. an acid. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. 1 and put together as in Fig. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. with the circle centrally located. These wires are put in the jar. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. Macdonald. about one-third the way down from the top. 2. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . N. or using small wedges of wood. apparently. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. held in the right hand. some of the liquid. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Bridgeton. Before the performance. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. There will be no change in color. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. four glass tumblers. in a few seconds' time. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof.

When many slides are to be masked. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. This outlines the desired opening. 4 for width and No. Cal. Jaquythe. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. and equally worthy of individual treatment. which are numbered for convenience in working. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. not only because of the fact just mentioned. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. and kept ready for use at any time. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. If the size wanted is No. --Contributed by W. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. unless some special device is used. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. says a correspondent of Photo Era. A. 2 for height. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. Richmond. practical and costs nothing.

The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. This done. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. possibly. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. too.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. or a pair of old tongs. may be changed. which is dangerous. and the extreme length 7 in. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. The decoration. not the water into the acid. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. the margin and the entire back of the metal. and do not inhale the fumes. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. Draw a design. but they can be easily revived. or. about half and half. the paper is folded along the center line. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. The one shown is merely suggestive. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . Secure a sheet of No. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. With a stick. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. using the carbon paper. When etched to the desired depth. a little less acid than water. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. 16 gauge. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. is about right for the No. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. paint the design. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid.

Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 3/8 in. about 2-1/2 in. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. J is another wire attached in the same way. 24 parts water. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. attached to a post at each end. Fig. the bell will ring. about 1 in. or more wide. 2. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. wide. 5. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. as in Fig. When the button S is pressed. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. it will touch post F. Fig. so that when it is pressed down. 1. about 8 in. 0 indicates the batteries. as at H. through it. A. It may be either nailed or screwed down. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. Fig. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. and bore two holes. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. 2. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. wide and of the same length as the table. in diameter and 1/4 in. to the table. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. with the wires underneath. . 2. about 3 ft. C and D. Paint the table any color desired. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. Fig. The connections are simple: I. as shown in the illustration. long. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. Then get two posts. thick. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. repeat as many times as is necessary. 5. Fig. as shown in Fig. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. 4. high. Cut out a piece of tin. and about 2-1/2 ft. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. long and 1 ft. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. 3. Nail a board.

A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. These rings can be carved out. The entire weapon. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. says the English Mechanic. 1. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. but they are somewhat difficult to make. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. This weapon is about 22 in.Imitation Arms and Armor . remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. long. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the wood peg inserted in one of them. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. A wood peg about 2 in. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. handle and all. The imitation articles are made of wood. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The circle is marked out with a compass. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. long serves as the dowel. After the glue is dry. is to appear as steel. such as . thick.. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. 2.

The tinfoil should be applied carefully. long. Its length is about 3 ft. The upper half of the handle is steel. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. The handle is of steel imitation. This weapon is about 22 in. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. or the amateur cannot use it well. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. . A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. covered with red velvet. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. used at the end of the fifteenth century. The lower half of the handle is wood. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. flowers. The entire handle should be made of one piece. as described in Fig. is shown in Fig. The handle is of wood.ornamental scrolls. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. The axe is shown in steel. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. as shown. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. 3. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. leaves. also. 2. The spikes are cut out of wood. If such a tool is not at hand. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. 8. the hammer and spike. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. as before mentioned. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. 6. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. etc. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. All of these axes are about the same length. 5. with a sharp carving tool. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. studded with large brass or steel nails. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth.

5. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The knife falling on its side (Fig. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. Fig. . 3. the knife resting on its back. 7) calls for one out. Each person plays until three outs have been made. Chicago. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 2. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. as in Fig. 4). 6. 1.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. as shown in Fig. and so on for nine innings. calls for a home run. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. a three-base hit. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. then the other plays. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board.

F. one of them burning . If it is spotted at all. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. of the rope and holds it. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. Somerville. 3. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. Mass. 1.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. Campbell.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. This he does. with the rope laced in the cloth. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. Old-Time Magic . It may be found that the negative is not colored. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. hypo to 1 pt. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. while the committee is tying him up. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. of water for an hour or two.-Contributed by J. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. 2. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.

you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole.. Thome. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. of water and 1 oz. Evans. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. showing that there is nothing between them. . The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. B. thus causing it to light. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. 4 oz. with which he is going to light the other candle. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. --Contributed by L. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. New York City. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. --Contributed by C. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. bolt. Brown. etc. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. and. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. 3/4 in. thick. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing.brightly. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. 4 oz.Contributed by Andrew G. Lebanon. Ky. He then walks over to the other candle. of plumbago. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. shades the light for a few seconds. Louisville. The magician walks over to the burning candle. of turpentine. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. Drill Gauge screw. invisible to them (the audience). Ky. of sugar. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. the other without a light.

which will give a strong. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. or blotting paper. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. diameter. Do not add water to the acid. Its current strength is about one volt. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. Denniston. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. into a tube of several thicknesses. In making up the solution. Pulteney. 5 in. Y. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. To make the porous cell. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. H. --Contributed by C. long. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. for the material. about 5 in. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. N. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. but is not so good. steady current.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. thick.

Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. steel. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. long with a bearing at each end. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The . The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. carrying the hour circle at one end. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. As to thickness. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. a positive adjustment was provided. To insure this. After much experimentation with bearings. one drawing them together. while the other end is attached by two screws. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. One hole was bored as well as possible. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. steel. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. the other holding them apart.) may be obtained. Finally. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground.station. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. but somewhat lighter. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. steel. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces.

Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. 45 min. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. If the result is more than 24 hours. and 15 min. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. To find a star in the heavens. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. Cassiopiae. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. All these adjustments. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. need not be changed.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. in each direction from two points 180 deg. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. subtract 24. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. is provided with this adjustment. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up.. The pointer is directed to Alpha. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. turn the pointer to the star.." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. The pole is 1 deg. excepting those on the declination axis. Point it approximately to the north star. To locate a known star on the map. Set the declination circle to its reading. Declination is read directly. The aperture should be 1/4 in. once carefully made. Instead." When this is done. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg." Only a rough setting is necessary. are tightened. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. apart. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. save the one in the pipe. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. When properly set it will describe a great circle. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. It is. and if it is not again directed to the same point. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. Each shaft. All set screws.

long. as shown in the sketch. New Orleans. La. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. The ball is found to be the genuine article. of ether. Strosnider. Plain City. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. Ohio. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. which is the one examined. is folded several times.. benzole. add a little more benzole. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. The dance will begin. then add 1 2-3 dr. taking care not to add too much. a great effect will be produced. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. is the real cannon ball. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. If this will be too transparent. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. cannon balls.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. 3 or 4 in. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. the others . Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. In reality the first ball. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. -Contributed by Ray E. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination.

The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. San Francisco. Milwaukee. Fig. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. small brooches. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. Return the card to the pack. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. 1). A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. as shown in the illustration. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. Mass. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. Campbell. Cal. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown.. 2. Wis.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. --Contributed by J. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. without taking up any great amount of space. taps. F. In boxes having a sliding cover. Somerville. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. etc.

Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Beller. as shown in the illustration. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. Hartford. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. thus giving ample store room for colors. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. slides and extra brushes. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. Connecticut. prints. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. This box has done good service. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. from the bottom of the box. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. . round pieces 2-1/4 in.

I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. When the ends are turned under. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. or placed against a wall. about threefourths full. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. tacking the gauze well at the corners. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. 2). The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. FIG. Darke. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. 1). Mass. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. holes in the bottom of one. costing 5 cents. will answer the purpose. Fill the upper tub.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. West Lynn. with well packed horse manure. -Contributed by C. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. . O.

Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. and each bundle contains . A pair of these shields will always come in handy. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. M. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. If the following directions are carried out. Eifel. oil or other fluid. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. if this is not available. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. when they are raised from the pan. they should be knocked out. --Contributed by L. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. Chicago. cutting the cane between the holes. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. If plugs are found in any of the holes.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane.

held there by inserting another plug. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. it should be held by a plug. In addition to the cane. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. a square pointed wedge. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. then across and down. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. after having been pulled tight. as shown in Fig. No plugs . The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. and. 1. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. as it must be removed again. put about 3 or 4 in.

and the one we shall describe in this article. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . using the same holes as for the first layer.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. trim off the surplus rosin. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. Even with this lubrication. 1 lat. 1. is the horizontal dial. During the weaving. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. After completing the second layer.42 in.15 in. 3. Michigan. Fig.15+. as shown in Fig. lat. but the most common. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. 5. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. the height of the line BC. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. we have 4. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig.5 in. The style or gnomon. and for 1° it would be . -Contributed by E. Patrick. 1. R. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. If handled with a little care. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. it is 4. is the base (5 in.075 in. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. All added to the lesser or 40°. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. Fig. This will make three layers.2 in. There are several different designs of sundials. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. as the height of the line BC for lat. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. From table No. When cool. called the gnomon. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. No weaving has been done up to this time. W. stretch the third one. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. as for example. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. or the style. in this case) times the . The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. 42° is 4. 41°-30'. If you have a table of natural functions. 41 °-30'. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. Detroit. the height of which is taken from table No. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. the next smallest. Their difference is . --Contributed by M. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. and for lat. 40°.3 in.= 4. as shown in Fig.2+.075 in. 1. 5 in. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. 3. It consists of a flat circular table. as it always equals the latitude of the place. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. 4. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. D. for 2°.

42 45 .06 2.55 4.49 30 .56 .10 6. gives the 6 o'clock points. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.66 latitude. or more. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.97 5 7 4.16 40 . and for this size dial (10 in. Its thickness.93 6. Fig.29 4-30 7-30 3.99 2.30 1.57 1.82 5.66 48° 5. long.55 5.20 60° 8.93 2.68 5-30 6-30 5.26 4. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. For latitudes not given.89 50° 5. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. 1. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . according to the size of the dial.81 4.18 28° 2. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.03 3.64 4 8 3.96 32° 3.32 6.39 .42 .55 30° 2.66 1.11 3.77 2.63 56° 7.50 26° 2. and intersecting the semicircles.55 46° 5.79 4. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. if of metal. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. 2 for given latitudes.46 . which will represent the base in length and thickness. To layout the hour circle.40 1.07 4.94 1.23 6. an inch or two. with a radius of 5 in.30 2. using the points A and C as centers.38 . .46 3.76 1.83 27° 2. Draw two semi-circles. or if of stone.02 1. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.91 58° 8. Chords in inches for a 10 in.82 2.87 1.88 36° 3.14 5.49 3.16 1.28 . 2. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. Table NO. 2. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.40 34° 3.42 1.tangent of the degree of latitude.00 40° 4.57 3.85 1.44 44° 4.19 1.82 3.59 2.37 5. base.27 2.85 35 . The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. and perpendicular to the base or style.33 . Draw the line AD.33 42° 4.37 54° 6.87 4.41 38° 3.12 52° 6. circle Sundial. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.

54 60 .34 5. Mitchell.. says the English Mechanic.37 2. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. 2 and Dec. Sun time to local mean time.add those marked + subtract those Marked . This correction can be added to the values in table No. 3. Iowa. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. London.24 5. after allowing for the declination. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.46 5. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.19 2. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.71 2.93 6. then the watch is slower.08 1.14 1. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.98 4.49 5. if west. and for the difference between standard and local time. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. Each weapon is cut from wood.means that the dial is faster than the sun. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. As they are the genuine reproductions.50 55 . adding to each piece interest and value.01 1. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. Sept. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. will enable one to set the dial.68 3.10 4. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. each article can be labelled with the name. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.60 4.21 2.82 3. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .from Sundial lime.06 2. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.72 5.12 5. Sioux City. 25.87 6. June 15.89 3. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. E.50 . An ordinary compass.79 6. and the . April 16. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.30 2.46 4. it will be faster. The + means that the clock is faster.52 Table No.57 1.77 3.63 1. 3.49 3. 900 Chicago. --Contributed by J.53 1.

This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. The spear head is of steel about 15 in.. 3. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. 1. the length of which is about 5 ft. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. . wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. When putting on the tinfoil. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. Partisan.

The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. long with a round staff or handle. 7. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The spear is steel. in diameter. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. the holes being about 1/4 in. It is about 6 ft. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. long. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. used about the seventeenth century. 6 ft. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. press it well into the carved depressions. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. 8. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The edges are sharp. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. . The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. long with a round wooden handle. A gisarm or glaive. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. is shown in Fig. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. about 4 in. This weapon is about 6 ft. long. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. sharp on the outer edges. 5. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The extreme length is 9 ft. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color.which is square. The length of this bar is about 5 in. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. which are a part of the axe. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails..

1. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. Ohio. B. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. Cut all the cords the same length. the cross cords. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. apart. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. are less durable and will quickly show wear. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. are put in place. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. They can be made of various materials. Substances such as straw.-Contributed by R. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. 4. The twisted cross cords should . The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. the most durable being bamboo. as shown in Fig. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. In Figs. 5. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. or in holes punched in a leather strap. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. 2 and 3. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. H. used for spacing and binding the whole together. Workman. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. Loudonville. This is important to secure neatness.

bamboo or rolled paper. To remedy this. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. 3 in. Harrer. This was turned over the top of the other can. in which was placed a piece of glass. New Orleans. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. La. M. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. The first design shown is for using bamboo. of the bottom. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. New York. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. shaped as shown at C. for a length extending from a point 2 in. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. -Contributed by Geo. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. below the top to within 1/4 in. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. wide.be of such material. A slit was cut in the bottom. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. as shown at B. Lockport. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. Four V-shaped notches were cut.

which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. This should be done gradually. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. wide. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. giving the appearance of hammered brass. --Contributed by W. Newburgh. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. After this is finished. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Shay. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. Sanford. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. --Contributed by Chas. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . Pasadena. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. Ill. Cal. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. do not throw away the gloves. and two along the side for attaching the staff. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. N. This plank. Maywood. H. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright.tape from sticking to the carpet. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. about 1/16 in. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. the brass is loosened from the block. --Contributed by Joseph H. It would be well to polish the brass at first. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. Y. Schaffner. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. turned over but not fastened. is shown in the accompanying sketch. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac.

Oak Park. Richmond. Jaquythe. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. A. -Contributed by W. --E. Marshall.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. the pendulum swings . Unlike most clocks. K. bent as shown. in diameter. Ill. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Cal.

and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. wide. by 1-5/16 in. only have the opposite side up. away. such as this one. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. A. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. 7-1/2 in. high. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. In using this method. on the board B. and the other two 2-5/8 in. 6 in. thick. 5/16 in. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. wide that is perfectly flat. high. Chicago. --Contributed by V. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. the center one being 2-3/4 in. is an electromagnet. Fasten another board. about 6 in. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. B. Now place the board to be joined. high. Secure a board. Two uprights. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. to the first one with screws or glue. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. in diameter. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. C. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. are secured in the base bar. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. long and at each side of this. high and 1/4 in. 3/4 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally.. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Metzech. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. The construction is very simple. bearing on the latter. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. bar. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. about 12 in. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. says the Scientific American. . Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip.

The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. 3. . Place the cardboard square in the nick B. 2. whose dimensions are given in Fig. Fig. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. or more. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. by driving a pin through the wood. 1. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. is fastened in the hole A. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. 1. as shown at A. long. Vanderslice. wide and 1 in. The trigger. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. Phoenixville. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. from one end. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. Pa. 4.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. square inside. plates should be made 8 in. square. wide and 5 in. 1. Fig. --Contributed by Elmer A.

square. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. 5 parts of black filler. Simonis. 3 parts of stiff keg lead.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. Fostoria. which allows 1/4 in. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. as shown in the illustration. Ohio. one-half the length of the side pieces. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. by weight. -Contributed by J. if only two bands are put in the .A. 2 parts of whiting. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. rubbing varnish and turpentine.

but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. London. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. In constructing helmets. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. deep. A double convex lens. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. wide and about 1 ft. -Contributed by Abner B. in the opposite end of the box. Mass. If a plain glass is used. A mirror. keeps the strong light out when sketching. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. It must be kept moist and well . preferably copper. as shown in Fig. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. which may be either of ground or plain glass. says the English Mechanic. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. and the picture can be drawn as described. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. No. Shaw. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. A piece of metal. place tracing paper on its surface. G. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. DeLoof. 1. Michigan. II. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. 8 in. is set at an angle of 45 deg. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. There is no limit to the size of the helmet.lower strings. long. Dartmouth. --Contributed by Thos. and it may be made as a model or full sized. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. Grand Rapids. is necessary. In use.

3. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. with a keyhole saw. After the clay model is finished. a few clay-modeling tools. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. as shown in Fig. the clay model oiled. and left over night to soak. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. take. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. on which to place the clay. joined closely together. or some thin glue. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. 2. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. and the deft use of the fingers. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. The clay. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . 1. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. as in bas-relief. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. and over the crest on top. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. Scraps of thin. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. This being done. All being ready. shown in Fig. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. will be necessary. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. and continue until the clay is completely covered. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. 1. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig.kneaded. brown.

make holes with a small awl at equal distances. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. The whole helmet. a crest on top. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. which should be no difficult matter. This contrivance should be made of wood. The center of the ear guards are perforated. Indiana. 5. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum.as possible. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 1. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. When the helmet is off the model. 7. as shown: in the design. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. They are all covered with tinfoil. In Fig. Before taking it off the model. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. the piecing could not be detected. When perfectly dry. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. square in shape. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. When dry. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. 9. Indianapolis. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. or. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. a few lines running down. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . should be modeled and made in one piece. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. the skullcap. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. owing to the clay being oiled. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. and so on. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. one for each side. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. will make it look neat. and the ear guards in two pieces. The band is decorated with brass studs. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. In Fig. with the exception of the vizor. --Contributed by Paul Keller. as seen in the other part of the sketch. then another coating of glue.

1. Fig. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. 12 in. and. of No. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. Fig. as shown in Fig. is shown in Fig. each 4-1/2 in. 1. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. should extend about 1/4 in. long. about 1/4 in. with slits cut for the wires. The two holes. above the collar. Fig. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. until it is within 1 in. one glass tube. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. The plate. of fire clay. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. 1 in. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. This will make an open space between the plates. Fig. if this cannot be obtained. the holes leading to the switch. The reverse side of the base. AA. of mineral wool. one oblong piece of wood. one fuse block. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. 4. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. 1. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. which can be bought from a local druggist. Fig. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . as shown in Fig. 4. This will allow the plate. thick. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. Fig. Fig. screws. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. 1. the fuse block. and C. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. to receive screws for holding it to the base. 2. thick sheet asbestos. about 80 ft. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. of the top. FF. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. 4 lb. for connections. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. as it stands a higher temperature. Fig. and two large 3in. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. 4. if the measurements are correct. If a neat appearance is desired. AA. 4. long. 3 in. JJ.same size. one small switch. AA. high. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. Fig. 2. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. Fig. E and F. are allowed to project about 1 in. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. If asbestos is used. 1. German-silver wire is better. The holes B and C are about 3 in. The mineral wool. long. as shown in Fig. 2. also the switch B and the fuse block C. is then packed down inside the collar. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. or. wide and 15 in. Fig. in diameter and 9 in. 4. about 1 lb. 1. two ordinary binding posts. when they are placed in opposite positions. 22 gauge resistance wire. A round collar of galvanized iron. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. 4. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. Fig. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. 3. GG. 4. Fig.

In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. Can. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. Richmond. As these connections cannot be soldered. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. then. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. St. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. KK. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. causing a short circuit. it leaves a gate for the metal. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. This completes the stove. A file can be used to remove any rough places. Fig. when cool. so that the circuit will not become broken. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. Cnonyn. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. when heated. It should not be set on end. Catherines. A. --Contributed by W. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. more wire should be added. steam will form when the current is applied. 2. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. Next. above the rim. as the turns of the wires. While the clay is damp. Jaquythe. II. --Contributed by R. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . This point marks the proper length to cut it. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. apart. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. will slip and come in contact with each other. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. 4. Cal. The clay. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. Fig. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. allowing a space between each turn. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. deep. and pressed into it.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. If it is not thoroughly dry. If this is the case. When the tile is in place. Cut a 1/2-in. It should not be left heated in this condition. using care not to get it too wet. When this is done. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. Cover over about 1 in. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. H.

is large enough. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. Louisville. says the Photographic Times. Thorne. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. the air can enter from both top and bottom. the pie will be damaged. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. and the frame set near a window. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. Then clip a little off the ." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. square material in any size. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. constructed of 3/4-in. and the prints will dry rapidly. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. as shown. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. Ky. but 12 by 24 in. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. --Contributed by Andrew G. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame.

Two supports. 2-1/2 in. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. in diameter and about 4 in. each 1 in. The connections are made as shown in Fig. 14 in. The driving arm D. thick and 3 in. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. 1. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. high. allowing each end to project for connections. for the crank. high. wide. in diameter. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. 22 gauge magnet wire. high. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. Fig. at GG. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. 4 in.Paper Funnel point. 1. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. The upright B. 2. Le Mars. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. long. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. wide and 7 in. W. thick and 3 in. thick. Fig. thereby saving time and washing. The board can be raised to place . Figs. 1/2 in. which are fastened to the base. 1 and 3. wide and 3 in. Fig. The connecting rod E. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. which gives the shaft a half turn. long. Iowa. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. An offset is bent in the center. long. 1/2 in. long. Herron. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. open out. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. causing a break in the current. -Contributed by S. each 1/2 in. 1. As the shaft revolves. as shown. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. 1. slip on two cardboard washers. 3. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. A 1/8-in.

the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. 3 in. Dorchester. One or more pots may be used. on a board. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. bottom side up. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. making a framework suitable for a roost. Place the pot. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. --Contributed by William F. . Mass. Stecher. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. in height. as shown in the sketch.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. In designing the roost. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft.

ordinary glue. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. 1. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. windows. that it is heated. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. odd corners. adopt the method described. grills and gratings for doors. The bottom part of the sketch. without any corresponding benefit. in diameter. if it is other than straight lines. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. etc. F. shelves.. when combined. The materials required are rope or. paraffin and paint or varnish. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. as shown in Fig. 1. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. Wind the . Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. F. preferably. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. will produce the pattern desired. Fig. and give it time to dry..

-Contributed by Geo. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. N. six designs are shown. 2. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. cut and glue them together.Fig. M. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Fig. Y. Harrer. Lockport.

1. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Pour the water in until the filter is filled.. says the English Mechanic. chips of iron rust. etc. when it will be observed that any organic matter. but no farther. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure.. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. This piece of horse armor.. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. and the sides do not cover the jaws. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. As the . will be retained by the cotton. London. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. which was used in front of a horse's head. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. etc.

is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. This will make the model light and easy to move around. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. and will require less clay. 2. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. as the surface will hold the clay. This being done. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the same as in Fig. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. and the clay model oiled. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. as shown in the sketch.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. which is separate. 2. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. and therefore it is not described. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. An arrangement is shown in Fig. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. the rougher the better. In Fig. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. with the exception of the thumb shield. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. except the thumb and fingers. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. 8. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. The armor is now removed from the model. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. This can be made in one piece. which can be made in any size. 4. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. 6 and 7. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. All being ready. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. but the back is not necessary. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. then another coat of glue. but for . This triangularshaped support. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns.

Buxton. When locating the place for the screw eyes. but 3-1/2 in. and the instrument is ready for use. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. the foils will not move. Calif. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. two in each jaw. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. long. Redondo Beach. --Contributed by Ralph L. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. are glued to it. in depth. --Contributed by John G. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. 9. running down the plate. fastened to the rod. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. will be about right. cut into the shape shown in Fig. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. The two pieces of foil. . The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. two for the jaws and one a wedge. are better shown in Fig. 2. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. Y. La Rue. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. If it does not hold a charge.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. Goshen. each about 1/4 in. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. 1/2 in. A piece of board. the two pieces of foil will draw together. the top of the rod. N. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. wide and 1/2 in.

as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. --Contributed by Mrs. Bryan. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Texas. Corsicana. as this will cut under the water without splashing. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. as shown in the illustration. enameled or otherwise decorated. M. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. At a point 6 in. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. The can may be bronzed. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. is made of a 1/4-in. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. silvered. When a fish is hooked. as indicated in the . Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. long. pine board. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. A. from the smaller end.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. 2-1/2 in. about 15 in. hole bored through it.

then with a nail. Polish the metal. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. 3/8 or 1/4 in. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. punch the holes. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. Next prepare the metal holder. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. using a piece of carbon paper." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. long over all. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. using powdered pumice and lye. Any kind of wood will do. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. take a piece of thin wood. will do as well as the more expensive woods. When it has dried over night. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. and trace upon it the design and outline. as shown. If soft wood. put a coat or two of wax and polish . such as basswood or pine was used.Match Holder accompanying sketch. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. wide by 6 in. thick. Having completed the drawing. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. or even pine. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. Basswood or butternut. 22 is plenty heavy enough. A good size is 5 in. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place.

This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. long. Cal. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. wide and 5 in. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. Jaquythe. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. each 1 in. the whole being finished in linseed oil. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. It is useful for photographers. is used for the base of this instrument. Instead of the usual two short ropes. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. --Contributed by W. If carving is contemplated. Richmond. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. thick. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. long. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. A. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. 2 in. are used for the cores of the magnets. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. of pure olive oil. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. If one has some insight in carving. . 1/2 in. can be made on the same standards. Two wire nails. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces.

about No. A rubber band. A piece of tin. except that for the legs. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. . behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. cloth or baize to represent the legs. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. acts as a spring to keep the key open. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. as shown in Fig. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. H. similar to that used in electric bells. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. then covered with red. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. when the key is pushed down. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. the paper covering put on. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. 25 gauge. London.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. cut in the shape of the letter T. --Contributed by W. as shown by the dotted lines. 1. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. says the English Mechanic. About 1 in. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. at A. All of the parts for the armor have been described. leaving about 1/4 in. 3. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. Lynas. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. in the shape shown in the sketch. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood.

Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. 3 in. at each end. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. can be made in a few minutes' time. or ordinary plaster laths will do. By moving the position of the bolt from. Secure two strips of wood. 1 and drill a 1/4in. So set up. apart. not too tight. Instead of using brass headed nails. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. make the same series of eight small holes and. 2. and eight small holes. apart. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. A 1/4-in. completes the equipment. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. 1 in. In one end of the piece. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. Silver paper will do very well.. Cut them to a length or 40 in. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. The two pieces are bolted together. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. one to another . holes. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. says Camera Craft. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. Fig. flat headed carriage bolt. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. about 1 in. in the other end. hole in the center. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. These can be purchased at a stationery store. Take the piece shown in Fig. for the sake of lightness. drill six 1/4-in. long.

then B over C and the end stuck under A. of the ends remain unwoven. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. In this sketch. in Fig. D over A and C. 4. as in portraiture and the like. taking the same start as for the square fob. 2. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. C over D and B. and the one beneath C. Then draw all four ends up snugly. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. doubled and run through the web of A. 2. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. but instead of reversing . and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. and lay it over the one to the right. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. lay Cover B and the one under D. Start with one end.of the larger holes in the strip. 1. A is the first string and B is the second. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. for instance. the one marked A. long. Then take B and lay it over A. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. as shown in Fig. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. Fig. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. 2. A round fob is made in a similar way.

a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. as B. over the one to its right. 1-1/2 in. 3. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. Rupp. Ohio. 5. especially if silk strings are used. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . The round fob is shown in Fig. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. is to be made of leather. A loop. is left out at the center before starting on one side. --Contributed by John P. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. the design of which is shown herewith. Other designs can be made in the same manner. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. as at A in Fig.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. long. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. as in making the square fob. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. always lap one string. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. Monroeville.

using the reverse side. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. A. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. door facing or door panel. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. Mich. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. filling them with wax. . Any smooth piece of steel. pressing it against the wood. When the supply of wax is exhausted. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. such as a nut pick. Northville. Houghton. -Contributed by A. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. beeswax or paraffin. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. it can be easily renewed. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin.

Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. . says Photographic Times. --Contributed by O. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. D. Fold together on lines C. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. apart and driven in only part way. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. if blueprints are used. long. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. E and F. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. Y. J. Petersburg. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. The tacks should be about 1 in. remaining above the surface of the board. N. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Thompson. but any kind that will not stick may be used. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. place it face down in the dish. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. thick. although tin ones can be used with good success.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. it is best to leave a plain white margin. Ill. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Select the print you wish to mount. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. and about 12 in. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. Enough plaster should. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. those on matte paper will work best. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. leaving about 1/4 in. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. and after wetting. New York. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope.

roses. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. without mixing the solutions. bell flowers. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. violets. etc. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. will be rendered perfectly white. filling the same about onehalf full. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. as shown at the left in the sketch. as shown in the right of the sketch. Lower into the test tube a wire.. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. One of the . Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution.

in diameter and 1 in. made of heavy tin. A rod that will fit the brass tube. is about 2-1/2 in. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. should be soldered to the box. South Dakota. 1-7/8 in. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The diaphragm. Fig. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. but which will not wobble loose. turned a little tapering. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. long. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. The tin horn can be easily made. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. --Contributed by L. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. not too tightly. about 1/8s in. as shown in the sketch. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. thick. Shabino. to keep the core from coming off in turning. Millstown. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. 3. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. The first point should be ground blunt. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. 2. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. When soldering these parts together. 1. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. L. or delicate tints of the egg. long and made of wood. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube.. and at the larger end. The sound box. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . as shown. shading.

Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. E. Victor. Jr.Contributed by E. and weighted it with a heavy stone. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. and. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Chicago. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. mice in the bottom. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. wondering what it was. Gold. put a board on top.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Ill. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. says the Iowa Homestead. Colo. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom.

Pereira. Buffalo. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. --Contributed by Lyndwode. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. N. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Can. Y. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. Ottawa. . A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table.

How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. and at one end of the stick fasten. De Loof. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Mich. by means of a flatheaded tack. A. above the end of the dasher. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. as shown. Put a small nail 2 in. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. Richmond. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. cut round. Grand Rapids. Cal. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. as it can be made quickly in any size. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. longer than the length of the can. --Contributed by W. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. --Contributed by Thos. Jaquythe. a piece of tin. through which several holes have been punched. This cart has no axle.

Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle.1. deep and 3 in. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. The candles. 1 ft. --Contributed by James M. 1. Notches 1/8 in. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. wide. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. screwed it on the inside of a store box. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. 1-1/2 in. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. The baseboard and top are separable. A wedge-shaped piece of . although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. 2. wide and 3 ft. 2. 2 in. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. 2. long. apart. wide and 1/8 in. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. La. of course. Doylestown. New Orleans. Fig. Pa. board. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. as shown. were below the level of the bullseye. 1/4 in. I reversed a door gong. thick. Kane.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. cut in the center of the rounding edge. wide and as long as the box. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces.

West Union. the reason being that if both were solid. Wood.Book Back Holders metal. it can be removed without marring the casing. This device is very convenient for invalids. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. 3. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. wide rubber bands or felt.. etc. can be picked up without any trouble. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Worcester. the shelf could not be put on the window. will. when placed as in Fig. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. as shown in Fig. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. scissors. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. take two pieces of hard wood. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. After the glue has dried. Needles. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. wide into each side of the casing. 1. Mass. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. When not in use. --Contributed by G. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Ia. After completing the handle. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. dressing one surface of each piece. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. Cover the block with rubber. to prevent its scratching the desk top. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. A. by cutting away the ends. stone or wood. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. the blade is put back into the groove . The block can also be used as a paperweight. For the handle.

If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. -Contributed by W. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. square and 4 in. A notch is cut in one side. Erie. S. thus carrying the car up the incline.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Cleveland. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. --Contributed by Maud McKee. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Ohio. Jacobs. Pa. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Mass. is shown in the accompanying sketch. 1 in. 1. as shown in Fig. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. long. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Hutchins. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. A. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Malden. . Each one is made of a hardwood block. 2. as shown in Fig. If desired. --Contributed by H. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block.

6 by 9-1/2 in. The letters can be put on afterward. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. will be needed. One sheet of metal.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. If one such as is shown is to be used. . Prepare a design for the front. N. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. and an awl and hammer. This will insure having all parts alike. Cape May Point.J.. a board on which to work it.

a violin. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. if desired. behind or through the center of a table leg. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. as shown. paste the paper design right on the metal. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. which is desirable. to right angles. One coat will do. placed on a table. 2 parts white vitriol. that can be worked in your own parlor. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. The music will not sound natural. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. . it may be effected by an application of potash lye. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. but weird and distant. flat brush. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. If any polishing is required. applied by means of a brush. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. Remove the metal. The stick may be placed by the side of. in the waste metal. only the marginal line is to be pierced. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. says Master Painter. 3/4 part. mandolin or guitar.Fasten the metal to the board. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. So impressive are the results. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed." In all appearance. 1 part. On the back. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. turpentine. varnish. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. or. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. 1/4 part.

Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. With proper tools this is easy. square bar iron. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. are shaped as shown in Fig. long and measuring 26 in. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. each 28 in. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. says Work. apart. 3. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. London. it might be difficult. wide. round-head machine screws. The longest piece. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. each 6 in. Two pairs of feet. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. across the top. . The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. is bent square so as to form two uprights. 2. and is easy to construct. long. without them. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. long and spread about 8 in. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. thick by 1/2 in. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective.

6. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. The brads are then removed. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. Fig. Fig. or. 4. cut a long piece of lead. as shown in Fig. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. in the grooves of the borders. special flux purchased for this purpose. using rosin as a flux. and the base border. better still. A. The glass. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. C. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. B. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. is held by the brads. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. While the piece of lead D. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. After the glass is cut. the latter being tapped to . 5. D. on it as shown. Place the corner piece of glass. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. After the joints are soldered. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. 5. 7. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. lead. The design is formed in the lead.

each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. J. This ring can be made of 1-in. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. one on each side and central with the hole. not less than 4 in.. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. 8. Dreier. then flatten its end on the under side. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. bolt. long. The center pin is 3/4-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. as shown in Fig. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. Two styles of hand holds are shown. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. N. --Contributed by W. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. Camden. plank about 12 ft. bolt. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Bore a 5/8-in. then drill a 3/4-in. square and of the length given in the drawing. rocker bolt. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. holes through their centers. Fasten the plates to the block B. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. This . and round the corners of one end for a ring. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. H. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. long. Make three washers 3-in. wood screws in each washer. plates. Secure a post. and two wood blocks. in diameter and 1/4 in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. in diameter and about 9 in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. A and B. thick and drill 3/4-in. rounded at the top as shown.the base of the clip. Bore a 3/4-in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. long. Jr. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in.

maple. from one edge. straight-grained hickory. long and 1 piece. by 6-1/2 ft. long. long. in diameter and 7 in. 7 in. 50 ft. 9 in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. 4 pieces. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. 1/2 in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. of 1/4-in. bolts and rope. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. 4 pieces. 4 in. horse and rings. because it will not stand the weather. can make a first class gymnasium. hickory. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. long. square by 9-1/2 ft. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. the money outlay will be almost nothing.will make an excellent cover for a pot. 1 by 7 in. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. La. To substitute small. long. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. apart for a distance of 3 ft. chestnut or ash. by 2 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. If trees are convenient. 1. bit. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. 1-1/4in. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. and some one can swing an axe. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. 16 screws. long. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. 4 filler pieces. long. 3 in. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. 2 by 4 in. 4 in. 3/4 by 3 in. boards along the side of each from end to end. Draw a line on the four 7-in. New Orleans. square by 5 ft. The four 7-in. screws. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. by 3 ft. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. shanks. 2-1/2 in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars.

Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. deep and remove all loose dirt. and once tightened the bar will be rigid.bored.. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. apart. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . 2. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. at each end. boards coincide. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut.. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. so the 1/2-in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. piece of wood. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. each 3 ft. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. 8 in. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. Bore a 9/16-in. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. from the end. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. apart.

it follows the edge for about 1 in. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. and materially heightened the illusion. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. it is taken to the edge of the foot. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. If the tumbler is rotated. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. He stretched the thread between two buildings. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. but most deceptive at dusk. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. just visible against the dark evening sky. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. the effect is very striking. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. and ascends the stem. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. When the interest of the crowd. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. And all he used was a black thread. in an endless belt. not much to look at in daytime. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. . in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. passing through a screweye at either end. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. and then passes in a curve across the base. was at its height. apart.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. disappearing only to reappear again. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. which at once gathered. not even the tumbler." which skimmed along the distant horizon.. about 100 ft. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim.

2 base pieces. La. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. deep. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. by 2 ft. To make the apparatus. 4 wood screws. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. long. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. A wire about No. by 3 ft. 4 bolts. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. large spikes. 8 in. 7 in. 2 side braces. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. beginning at a point 9 in. 4 in. 2 by 4 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. long. long. Bevel the ends of . wide and 1 in. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. Fig. long. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. long. New Orleans. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. so the point will be on top. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. from either side of the center. long. 8 in. The cork will come out easily. 2 cross braces. long. preferably cedar. by 7 ft. 8 in. square and 51/2 ft. long. 4 in. long and 1 doz. 2 by 4 in. and turned in a spiral D. 8 bolts. 4 knee braces. by 10 ft. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 2 by 3 in. 1. 6 in. 2 in. 2 by 4 in. square and 6 ft. Chisel out two notches 4 in.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside.

while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. Cal. using four of the 7-in bolts. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. equipped with a strainer. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. Richmond. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. and countersinking the heads. etc. . A large sized ladle. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. so the bolts in both will not meet. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. screws. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather.the knee braces. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. If using mill-cut lumber. leave it undressed. The wood so treated will last for years. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. leaving the strainer always in position. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. of 7 ft.. jellies. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. save the bars. but even unpainted they are very durable. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. as shown in the diagram. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. Jaquythe. Two endpieces must be made. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. which face each other. additional long. ( To be Continued. These will allow the ladle to be turned. After the trenches are dug. except the bars. A. --Contributed by W. from the bottom of the base up along the posts.

partly a barrier for jumps. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. . Oil. it is necessary to place a stick. thus holding the pail as shown. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. which seems impossible. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. or various cutting compounds of oil. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. milling machine. of sufficient 1ength. A. drill press or planer.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. In order to accomplish this experiment. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over.

by 3 ft. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. projections and splinters. long. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. apart. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. bolts. two 1/2-in. bolts. in the ground. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 1 cross brace. ten 1/2-in. square by 5 ft. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. These are well nailed in place. The round part of this log must be planed. long. wood yard or from the woods. 7 in. 2 by 4 in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. 4 knee braces. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in.. 3 in. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. 2 by 4 in. The material required is as follows: Two posts. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. 2 adjusting pieces. apart in a central position on the horse. 2 bases. by 3 ft. in diameter--the larger the better. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. Hand holds must be provided next. Procure from a saw mill. from each end. long. long. 4 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. bolt. square by 5-1/2 ft. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. beginning 1-1/2 in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. to fasten the knee braces at the top. but 5 ft. 4 in. 2 by 4 in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. These are placed 18 in. by 3 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. long. bolts. stud cut rounding on one edge. long.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. piece of 2 by 4-in. long. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. 4-1/2 in. is a good length. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. To construct. 4 in. and free from knots. long.. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. 1 in.

When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Richmond. over and around. no one is responsible but himself. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Also. such as a dent. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape.--Contributed by W. Such a hand sled can be made in a . This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Cal. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. then bending to the shape desired. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. Jaquythe. etc. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. snow. A.horse top. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. water. pipe and fittings. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. but nevertheless. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. it is caused by an overloaded shell. it is caused by some obstruction.

one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. --Contributed by James E. These. Mass. thick. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. will give the length. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. is much better than a wood sled. are all the tools necessary. in width and 1/32 in. 1/4 or 3/16 in. which. 2. Vener. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Joerin. --Contributed by Arthur E. when complete. Toronto. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. . Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. --Contributed by J. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Paris. W. Noble. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. The end elevation.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. when straightened out. France. 1. Boston. Ontario. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. then run a string over each part. at E and F.

Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. and the latter will take on a bright luster. AA and BB. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. . Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. 4.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. The method shown in Figs. are nailed. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. 3. nor that which is partly oxidized. It is best to use soft water. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade.

Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 1). having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. or various rulings may be made. as shown in Fig. or unequal widths as in Fig. . How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. class ice-yacht. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 4. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 2. as shown in Fig. 8 and 9. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. 2. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. 3. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. Broad lines can be made. Percy Ashley in Rudder. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. The materials used are: backbone.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. pins to keep them from turning. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. 1. a tee and a forging. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. out from the collar. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The point should extend about 11/2 in. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. long. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The headstock is made of two tees. pipe. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point.Fig. but if it is made much longer. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. bent and drilled as shown. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. 1-Details of Lathe sort. about 30 in. It can be made longer or shorter. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. a larger size of pipe should be used. Both the lower . A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work.

else taper turning will result. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. thick as desired. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. Man. --Contributed by W. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. 2. To do this. Laporte. --Contributed by W. It is about 1 in. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. 3/4 or 1 in. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. Cal. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Musgrove. Fruitvale. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Held. a straight line should be scratched Fig. UpDeGraff. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. W. or a key can be used as well. 2. as shown in Fig. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. Indiana. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. 1. as shown in Fig. but also their insulating properties. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. 2. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. and will answer for a great variety of work. M. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. . The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. --Contributed by M. a corresponding line made on this. Boissevain.

In use. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. Ft. To obviate this. --Contributed by E. J. long. Ark. as shown. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. Cline. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. Smith. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. and the two loops are made of heavy wire.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. The handle is of pine about 18 in.

Colo. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. the drill does not need the tool.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. New Orleans. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. This prevents the drill from wobbling. --Contributed by Walter W. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. White. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. take . Denver. La. centering is just one operation too many. After being entered. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. if this method is followed: First. and when once in true up to its size. on starting the lathe. which should be backed out of contact. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. face off the end of the piece. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill.

The glass tube B. In doing this. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. as shown in D. unknown to the spectators. all the better. says the Sphinx. a long piece of glass tubing. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. The handkerchief rod. after being shown empty. vanishing wand. After the wand is removed. by applying caustic soda or . and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. It can be used in a great number of tricks. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. the cap is placed over the paper tube. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. and this given to someone to hold. a bout 1/2 in. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. shorter t h a n the wand. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. and can be varied to suit the performer. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. is put into the paper tube A. shown at C.

giving it an old-fashioned appearance. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. and glue it to the neck at F. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. preferably hard maple. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. 3/16. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. With care and patience. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. Glue the neck to the box. and if care is taken in selecting the material. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. 2 Sides. The sides. thick. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. can be made by the home mechanic. 1 Bottom. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. End. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines.potash around the edges of the letters. as shown by K. As the cement softens. across the front and back to strengthen them. Cut a piece of hard wood. by 14 by 17 in. square and 1-7/8 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. 1 Neck. This dimension and those for the frets . A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. cut to any shape desired. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. with the back side rounding. Glue strips of soft wood. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. 1. long. The brace at D is 1 in. 1 End. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. 1/4 in. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in.

probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe.should be made accurately. in diameter. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. 3/16 in. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. toward each end. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels.Pa. thick and about 1 ft. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. A board 1 in. and beveled . but it is not. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. --Contributed by Chas. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. long is used for a keel. 1) on which to stretch the paper. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Six holes. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. Frary. Norwalk. Stoddard. Carbondale. -Contributed by J. E. When it is completed you will have a canoe. H. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. or backbone. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. O. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand.

and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. 3. probably. 2. Osiers probably make the best ribs. as shown in Fig. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. procure at a carriage factory. long. 4. 1. Fig. and notched at the end to receive them (B. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. The ribs. C.) in notches. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. are next put in. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. but twigs of some other trees. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. such as hazel or birch. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. B. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. or similar material. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. Fig. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. For the gunwales (a. and are not fastened. b. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. the loose strips of ash (b. as shown in Fig. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. Fig. 3). in such cases. In drying. wide by 26 in. Fig. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. Fig. . 13 in. 3. but before doing this.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. slender switches of osier willow. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. 4). two strips of wood (b. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. Green wood is preferable. long are required. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. Shape these as shown by A. two twigs may be used to make one rib. thick. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. in thickness and should be cut. which are easily made of long. thick. 3). will answer nearly as well. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in.. some tight strips of ash. b. Fig. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. 1 and 2. b. Fig. These are better. and. 2). and so. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. Fig. or other place. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. as before described. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. apart. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. The cross-boards (B. a. such as is used for making chairbottoms. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. when made of green elm. with long stout screws. by means of a string or wire. as they are apt to do. 3/8 in. twigs 5 or 6 ft. buy some split cane or rattan. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. Fig. Any tough. 2). In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. C.

You may put in . cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. wide. preferably iron. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. When the paper is dry. however. of very strong wrapping-paper. and light oars. Then take some of the split rattan and. Being made in long rolls. The paper is then trimmed. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. and very tough. When thoroughly dry. 5). passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. B. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. but with less turpentine. but neither stiff nor very thick. If the paper be 1 yd. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. and steady in the water. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. after wetting it. It should be drawn tight along the edges. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. and held in place by means of small clamps. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. if it has been properly constructed of good material. apply a second coat of the same varnish. and as soon as that has soaked in. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. If not. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. tacking it to the bottom-board. Fig. It should be smooth on the surface. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost.

allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. fore and aft. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. to fit it easily. and if driven as shown in the cut. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. and make a movable seat (A. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. 5. Drive the lower nail first. Fig. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. Fig. 1. Fig. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. 1 and the end in . A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. 2.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. 5). We procured a box and made a frame. they will support very heavy weights. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks.

Pittsburg. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. this makes the tube airtight. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. Pa. A good way to handle this work. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. and the result is. being softer where the flame has been applied. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. 4. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast.Fig. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. 5. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. This is an easy . and the glass. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. 3. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. Close the other end with the same operation. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. This way has its drawbacks. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long.

third. three. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. fifth. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. 23 gauge. second. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. Oswald. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. also trace the decorative design. -Contributed by A. rivet punch. thin screw. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. Seventh.way to make a thermometer tube. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. flat and round-nosed pliers. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. or six arms. above the metal. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. then reverse. very rapid progress can be made. After the bulb is formed. file. The candle holders may have two. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. fourth. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. four. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. Give the metal a circular motion. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. metal shears. with a piece of carbon paper. extra metal all around. above the work and striking it with the hammer. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. Sixth. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First.

Having pierced the bracket. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Small copper rivets are used.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. Metal polish of any kind will do. drip cup. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. and holder.

of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. and add the gelatine. is a broomstick. thus it was utilized. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Mother let me have a sheet. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. glycerine 4 parts. Soak 1 oz. of glycerine to about 200 deg. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. and it will be ready for future use. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. hammer. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. The boom. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. on a water bath. when it will be ready for use. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. alcohol 2 parts. N. Fifty. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. the stick at the bottom of the sail. I steer with the front wheel. except they had wheels instead of runners. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. F. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. The gaff. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. A saw. and other things as they were needed. and water 24 parts. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. and brace and bit were the tools used. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. Heat 6-1/2 oz. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. winding the ends where they came together with wire. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. sugar 1 part.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. if it has not absorbed too much ink. using a steel pen. Shiloh. all the rest I found. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. J. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. smooth it down and then remove as before. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. and in a week . Twenty cents was all I spent. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. deep.

Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. a projecting lens . A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

at a point 1 in. or a lens of 12-in. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. are . and the lens slide. wire brads. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. H. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. long. provided the material is of metal. The board is centered both ways. and a projecting lens 2 in. G. thick. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. DD. high. and.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. E. as desired. 8 in. slide to about 6 ft. at a distance of 24 ft. A and B. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. focus enlarging a 3-in. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. wide. 1. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. about 2 ft. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. If a small saw is used. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. 1/2 to 3/4 in. above the center. well seasoned pine. Fig. or glue. describe a 9-in. and the work carefully done. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. and 14 in. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. This ring is made up from two rings. 3. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. The slide support. wide and 15 in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer.. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. A table. but if such a box is not found.

The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. the strips II serving as guides. Minn. apply two coats of shellac varnish. P. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E.constructed to slip easily on the table. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. of safe. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. Small strips of tin. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. JJ. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. light burning oil. placed on the water. A sheet . Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. The arrangement is quite safe as.-Contributed by G. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. but not long enough. Paul. and when the right position is found for each. St. To reach the water. B. E. the water at once extinguishes the flame. should the glass happen to upset.

12 ft. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. Crawford. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. Schenectady. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. by 12 ft. to cover the mattresses. Y. then the corners on one end are doubled over. form a piece of wire in the same shape. Fig. 3. 9 in.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. Fig. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. N. 2. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig.H. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . 3 in.. from a tent company. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. I ordered a canvas bag. 3. If one of these clips is not at hand. 4. 1. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one.

A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. first mark the binding-post A. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. 1/2 in. Fasten the wire with gummed label. --Contributed by Edward M. Fig. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. 2. White. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. insulating them from the case with cardboard. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. long. 2. A rubber band. through which the indicator works. to the coil of small wire for volts. Teasdale. An arc is cut in the paper. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. Fig. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig.each edge. so as to form two oblong boxes. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. D. to keep it from unwinding. C. 1. 1/2 in. open on the edges. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. Warren. drill two 3/16 in. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. holes in the edge. 3 to swing freely on the tack. wide. Colo. A Film Washing Trough [331] . Fold two strips of light cardboard. Denver. long and 3/16 in. Attach a piece of steel rod. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. 3/4 in. 2. 1. 3/4 in. thick. Pa. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. V. --Contributed by Walter W. for amperes and the other post. To calibrate the instrument. as shown in Fig. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. Do not use too strong a rubber. apart. in the center coil. and insert two binding-posts.

Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Place this can on one end of the trough. M. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. --Contributed by M. Hunting. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Wood Burning [331] . O. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Cut a 1/4-in. as shown. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Dayton. with the large hole up. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed.

The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. then into this bottle place. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. mouth downward. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top.

Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. 3/4 in. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. --Contributed by John Shahan.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. 1. 2. --Contributed by Fred W. If the cork is adjusted properly. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. as shown in the sketch. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. many puzzling effects may be obtained. This will make a very pretty ornament. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. Ala. provided the bottle is wide. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. but not very thick. Whitehouse. N. wide and 4 in.Y. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. If the small bottle used is opaque. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. Upper Troy. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. thick. long. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. Auburn. Place the small bottle in as before.

Fig. sugar pine on account of its softness. Fig. Fig. The wire L was put . The 21/2-in. which extended to the ground. was 1/4in. Fig. was keyed to shaft C. even in a light breeze. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. which was 6 in. 1. in diameter and 1 in. to the shaft. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. were constructed of 1-in. or ordinary telephone transmitters. Both bearings were made in this manner. 1 in. 1. On a 1000-ft. K. The bearing blocks were 3 in. line. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. which gave considerable power for its size. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. 1. Fig. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. G. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. wide. thick and 3 in. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. 2. as shown in Fig. high without the upper half. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. Its smaller parts. --Contributed by D. 4. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. 1. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. 3. The shaft C. thick. 1.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. 2 ft. pulley F. iron rod. such as blades and pulleys. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. thick. pulley. W. A staple. If a transmitter is used. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. long. I. B. by the method shown in Fig. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. which was nailed to the face plate. Milter.

2. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. G. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. hole for the shaft G was in the center. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. 25 ft. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. To lessen the friction here. long and 1/2 in. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. pine 18 by 12 in. across the thin edge of a board. when the windmill needed oiling. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. To make the key. wide and 1 in. 6. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. The power was put to various uses. 3 in. This completes the receiver or sounder. long and bend it as . Cut another piece of tin 3 in. The other lid. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. Fig. as. cut out another piece of tin (X. through the latter. was tacked. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. If you have no bell. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. This board was 12 in. in the center of the board P. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. There a 1/4-in. long. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. strips. The smaller one. 6. with all parts in place. top down also. 5. The bed plate D. R. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. Fig. in diameter. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. H. 1) 4 in. Fig. was 2 ft. 1. apart in the tower. Fig. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. 0. washers were placed under pulley F. 1. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. Fig. Fig. Two washers were placed on shaft C. hole was bored for it. square to the board P at the top of the tower. This fan was made of 1/4-in. long and bend it as shown at A. and was cut the shape shown. Fig. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. long. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. long and 3 in. for instance. so that the 1/4-in. 1. 1. with brass headed furniture tacks. providing one has a few old materials on hand. a 1/2-in.

as shown at Water. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. like many another device boys make. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. 1. after the manner of bicycle wheels. using cleats to hold the board frame. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. as indicated. When tired of this instrument. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. although it can be made with but two. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. The rear barrels are. and. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. By adjusting the coils. Thus a center drive is made. -Contributed by John R. leaving the other wire as it is. Before tacking it to the board. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Now. causing a buzzing sound. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Going back to Fig. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. 2. McConnell. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. fitted with paddles as at M. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him.shown. at the front. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts.

there will not be much friction. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. 3. or even a little houseboat. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. The speed is slow at first. can be built. feet on the pedals. There is no danger.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. 1. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. copper piping and brass tubing for base. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. To propel it. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. which will give any amount of pleasure. If the journals thus made are well oiled. as shown in Fig. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels.

Fig. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. If it is desired to make the light very complete. Fig. Turn a small circle of wood. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. 1. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. Place one brass ring in cylinder. A. 2. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. then the glass disc and then the other ring. 2. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. Then melt out the rosin or lead. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. If magnifying glass cannot be had. Shape small blocks of boxwood. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. 2. Fig. or it may be put to other uses if desired. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through.of pleasure for a little work. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. C. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. and so creating a false circuit. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. 1. Fig. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. 1. D. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. B. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions.

and pulled tight. 4-1/2 in. some glue will secure them. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. 5-1/4 by 10 in. wire from batteries to switch. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) .india rubber tubing. D. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. E. To get the cylinder into its carriage. To operate this. bracket. When alarm goes off. near the bed. long. brass rod. Brinkerhoff. G. contact post. wire from light to switch. after two turns have been made on the key. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. Ogden. copper tubing. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. after setting alarm. long. Utah. Swissvale. while lying in bed. dry batteries. To throw on light throw levers to the left. which stops bell ringing. by having the switch on the baseboard. T. --Contributed by C. key of alarm clock. such as is used for cycle valves. 3/8 in. The parts indicated are as follows: A. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. I. bell. In placing clock on shelf. H. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. switch. F. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. set alarm key as shown in diagram. or 1/4in. B. X. Pa.. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. C. --Contributed by Geo. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. brass strip. wide and 1/16 in. Throw lever off from the right to center. shelf. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. if too small. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . J. thick. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. 4 in. C. Chatland. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. wire from bell to switch. S.

Having finished this. Fig. gives the heater a more finished appearance. --Contributed by Chas. as at A. Minn. which can be made of an old can. Make a shoulder. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. wide. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. 2. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. as . scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. as at A. about 6 in. as at B. a bed warmer. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. beyond the end of the spindle. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. being careful not to get the sand in it. will do the heating. 3. Fig. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. 2. 4 in. 1. from one end. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. Chapman. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. in diameter. making it as true and smooth as possible. as in Fig. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. about 3-1/2 in. A flannel bag. Fig. for instance. A small lamp of about 5 cp. This is to form the fuse hole. S. 1/4 in. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. long. 1. All that is required is a tin covering. Pull out the nail and stick. Make the spindle as in Fig. Lanesboro. in diameter. place stick and all in a pail of sand.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. letting it extend 3/4 in.

3/8 in. wide and 3/8 in. The material must be 1-1/2 in. long. 5/8 in. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . spring and arrows. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. 1. wide and 3 ft. --Contributed by Arthur E. good straight-grained pine will do. A piece of tin. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. or hickory. 6 in. but if this wood cannot be procured. wide and 6 ft. this is to keep the edges from splitting. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. long. thick. A piece of oak. thick. deep. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. ash. 1 in. thick. 11/2 in. will be sufficient to make the trigger. The illustration shows how this is done.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. Joerin. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. long.

The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. E. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. Such a temporary safe light may be . and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. wide at each end. Trownes. A spring. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. The stick for the bow. The trigger. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. 6. which is 1/4 in. Wilmette. as shown in Fig. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. 3. Fig. from the opposite end. --Contributed by O. from the end of the stock. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. 8. or through the necessity of. better still. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. place the arrow in the groove. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. When the trigger is pulled. and one for the trigger 12 in. 9. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. 4. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. To shoot the crossbow. The bow is not fastened in the stock. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. To throw the arrow. having the latter swing quite freely. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. 2. Fig. Ill. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. in diameter. it lifts the spring up. thick. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. Fig. 7. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice.

The cut should be about 5 ft. By chopping the trunk almost through. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. Remove one end. since the flame of the candle is above A. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. is used as a door. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. from the ground. make the frame of the wigwam. says Photo Era. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. and replace as shown at B. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. making lighting and trimming convenient. This lamp is safe. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. Remove the bottom of the box. The hinged cover E. from the ground. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. apart. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. or only as a camp on a short excursion. the bark lean-to is a . The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. C. respectively. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. and nail it in position as shown at A. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. Moreover. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. it is the easiest camp to make. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges.

The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. will dry flat. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. A piece of elm or hickory. and when the camp is pitched. and split the tops with an ax. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. thick. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. Tongs are very useful in camp. long and 1-1/2 in. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. are a convenient size for camp construction. selecting a site for a camp. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. long and 2 or 3 ft. and cedar. 6 ft. wide. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. 3 ft. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. a 2-in. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. wide and 6 ft. nails are necessary to hold it in place. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. Where bark is used. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. deep and covered with blankets. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. For a foot in the middle of the stick. .quickly constructed and serviceable camp. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. Sheets of bark. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. For a permanent camp. piled 2 or 3 ft. makes a good pair of tongs. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. long. make the best kind of a camp bed. In the early summer. spruce. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in.

or even a rough lock for the camp larder. and affording accommodation for several persons. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. hinges. . Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top.

into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. changing the water both morning and night. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. I drove a small cork. to another . The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Fig. A. deep and 4 in. about 4 in. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. B. --Contributed by James M. wide. 1. and provide a cover or door. Kane.. When the temperature outside is 10 deg.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. the interior can. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. Doylestown. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. B. Pa.

limit. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. 3. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. until. C.glass tube. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. for instance. This makes . a liquid. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. The diagram. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. to pass through an increasing resistance. for instance. 4 and 5). if necessary. such as ether. 2. Fig. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. The current is thus compelled. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. fused into one side. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. E. which project inside and outside of the tube. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. 2.

Fig. After cleaning them with the solution. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. 4-1/2 in. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. and for the outside of the frame. on a lathe. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. which will make it uniform in size. Michigan. mark off a space. brass or iron.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. 3-3/8 in. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. bent at right angles as shown. but merely discolored. in diameter. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. therefore. to allow for finishing. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. Before removing the field from the lathe. A 5/8in. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. screws. 1. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. between centers. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. thick. When the frame is finished so far. clamp the template. which may be of any thickness so that. as shown in the left-hand sketch. After the template is marked out. as shown in Fig. cannot be used so often. set at 1/8 in. they will make a frame 3/4 in. thicker. larger than the dimensions given. assemble and rivet them solidly. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. thick. hole is . to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. drill the four rivet holes. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. 3. If the thickness is sufficient. by turning the lathe with the hand. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. Then the field can be finished to these marks. 3-3/8 in. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. making it 1/16 in. is composed of wrought sheet iron. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. A. Alpena. brass. The bearing studs are now made. when several pieces are placed together. These holes are for the bearing studs. or pattern. or even 1/16 in. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. 2. tap. two holes. in diameter. Fig. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown.

and drilled to receive the armature shaft. soldered into place. file them out to make the proper adjustment. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . or otherwise finished. 4. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. and build up the solder well. is turned up from machine steel. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. Fig. When the bearings are located.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. solder them to the supports. into which a piece of 5/8-in. brass rod is inserted. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. The shaft of the armature.

A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. After they . 3/4 in. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. holes through them for rivets.. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. 3. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. as shown in Fig. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. as shown in Fig. 6. threaded. and held with a setscrew. thick. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. 9. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. or segments. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. as shown in Fig. 1-1/8 in. 5. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. wide. wide. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. washers. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. hole and tap it for a pin. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. Armature-Ring Core. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. then drill a 1/8-in. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. Rivet them together. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. and then they are soaked in warm water. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. When annealed. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. When this is accomplished. to allow for finishing to size. by 1-1/2 in. thick. Procure 12 strips of mica. 3/4 in. Find the centers of each segment at one end. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. as shown in Fig. sheet fiber. thick. 1/8 in.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. as shown m Fig. brass rod. as shown in Fig. inside diameter. being formed for the ends. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. Make the core 3/4 in. 8. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. 7. thick and 1/4 in. deep and 7/16 in. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. After the pieces are cut out. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. 3. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. 6. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. The sides are also faced off and finished. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. The pins are made of brass. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. thick are cut like the pattern.

Fig. and wind on four layers. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. yet it shows a series of . After one coil. are soldered together. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. they are glued to the core insulation. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. shown at B. and bring the end of the wire out at B. after the motor is on the stand. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. being required. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. The two ends are joined at B. 5. Run one end of the field wire. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. shown at A. sheet fiber. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. by bending the end around one of the projections. The field is wound with No. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. Fig. In starting to wind. The source of current is connected to the terminals. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. The winding is started at A. All connections should be securely soldered. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. of the wire. sheet fiber. This winding is for a series motor. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. about 100 ft. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. 1. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. When the glue is set. wide and 1 in. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. the two ends of the wire. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. or side.have dried. 1. To connect the wires. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. until the 12 slots are filled. which will take 50 ft. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. of the end to protrude. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. of No. 8 in. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. 6 in. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. long. thick.

and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. which serves as the ground wire. is fastened to the metallic body. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. as in the case of a spiral. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . one from each of the eight contacts. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. Nine wires run from the timer. still more simply. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. A 1/2-in. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. or. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. and one. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started.

board. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. circle. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. It should be . the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. Covering these is a thin. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. of the dial. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. 45 deg. thus giving 16 different directions. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. 6 in. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in.The Wind Vane. long. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. Without this attachment.

Place the leather on some level. and securely nail on the top of the box. long to give the best results. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. Before tacking the fourth side. however. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. or. To work these outlines. To make it. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 14 by 18 in. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. thus making a universal joint. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. -Contributed by James L. will be enough for the two sides. called a chip carving knife. Y.about 6 ft. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. . Buffalo. according to who is going to use it. high. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. also a piece of new carpet. Blackmer. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. making it heavy or light. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. Fill the box with any handy ballast. N. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. and about 6 in. if not too high. Cut 3-in. will answer the purpose just as well. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. will be sufficient. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. though a special knife. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. is most satisfactory. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown.

being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. A good leather paste will be required. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. An ordinary sewing-machine . Paste the silk plush to the inner side. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.

Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. a needle and some feathers. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. and tie them together securely at the bottom. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. temporary lameness. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. of water. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. or a hip that has been wrenched. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap.will do if a good stout needle is used. Morse. --Contributed by Katharine D. can be thrown away when no longer needed. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. of common salt and 10 lb. Y. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. B. and fasten the feathers inside of it. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. N. Syracuse. square and tying a piece of . especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. rather than the smooth side. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. away from it. If a fire breaks out. as in cases of a sprained ankle. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames.

openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. wound on the head end. --Contributed by J. but not sharp. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. the corners being wired. deep. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. . as shown. --Contributed by John A. The body of the receiver. There is a 1-in. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. A small wooden or fiber end. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. B. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. thus helping the rats to enter. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. F. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. cut to the length of the spool. The strings should be about 15 in. Wis. Y.J. etc. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. Hellwig. This not only keeps the rats out. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws.string to each corner. which is the essential part of the instrument. The end is filed to an edge. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. Gordon Dempsey. The coil is 1 in. commonly called tintype tin. A. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. setting traps. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. N. and tacked it to the boards.. and the receiver is ready for use. and a coil of wire. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. wide and 1/16 in. made up of four layers of No. board all around the bottom on the inside. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. 1/8 in. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. G. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. One end is removed entirely. high. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. Paterson. Ashland. Albany. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. The diaphragm C. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. N. E. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. is cut on the wood. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. letting it go at arm's length. long. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. long. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. laying poisoned meat and meal. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown.

a piece of small wire. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. Take a piece of string or. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. A single line will be sufficient. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. and bend each strip in shape. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. begin with the smallest scrolls. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. wide.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. better still. To clean small articles. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. gold. The vase is to have three supports. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. to . dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight.

Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Work down the outside line of the design. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. sharp pencil. from the lines EF on the piece. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. 6-3/8 in.. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse.. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. About 1 in. 4-1/4 in. Fold the leather on the line EF. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. After taking off the pattern. through which to slip the fly AGH. thus raising it. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. Trace also the line around the purse. as shown in the sketch. 3-1/2 in. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. . stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. Press or model down the leather all around the design.which the supports are fastened with rivets. from E to F. from C to D. and does not require coloring. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. 3-1/4 in. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. using a duller point of the tool. wide when stitching up the purse. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used.

This also should be slightly beveled. Fit this to the two . Procure a thin board 1/4 in. leaving the lug a. and. following the dotted lines. as shown in Fig. and a model for speed and power. The entire cut should be slightly beveled.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. First. with a compass saw. all the way around. as well as useful. by 12 ft. 1 was cut. thick. 3. and tack the other piece slightly. deep. the "open" side. with the largest side down. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. and which will be very interesting. and cut out a wheel. 2. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. and the projections B. It can be made without the use of a lathe. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. then place the square piece out of which Fig. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. then nail it. Cut off six pieces 12 in. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. Then nail the wheel down firmly.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. deep. around the wheel. square. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. Make the lug 1/4 in. b. Now take another piece of wood. 1. and cut it out as shown in Fig. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. 1/2 in. with the open side down. It is neat and efficient. being cast in wooden molds. When it is finished. long. with pins or small nails.

deep. hole entirely through at the same place. 4. as shown by the . and boring a 3/8-in. hole bored through its center. then bolt it together. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. square pieces of wood. square pieces of wood. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. place it between two of the 12-in.pieces just finished. 1. and lay it away to dry. and cut it out as shown in Fig.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. hole 1/4 in. one of which should have a 3/8-in. holes through it. as shown by the black dots in Fig. bolts. Now take another of the 12-in. After it is finished. Take the mold apart. slightly beveled. Now put mold No. and bore six 1/4-in. and clean all the shavings out of it. in the center of it.

put the top of the brace through this hole. and 3/8-in. place the entire machine in a vise. and bore three 1/4-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. over the defective part. and connect to the boiler. 4. screw down. 5. take an ordinary brace. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. place it under the drill. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. Fig. and pour babbitt metal into it. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. This is the same as Fig. Let it stand for half an hour.1. 1. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. one in the projections. B. and pouring metal in to fill it up. If there should happen to be any holes or spots.1. and run in babbitt metal again. see that the bolts are all tight. until it is full. in diameter must now be obtained. only the one is left-handed. as shown in illustration. lay it on a level place. and two 1/4-in. Pour metal into mold No. and lay it away to dry. wide and 16 in. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. This is mold No. from the one end. instead of the right-handed piece. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. long. and drill them in the same manner. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. 6. Now take mold No.black dots in Fig. Using the Brace . Then bolt the castings together. true it up with a square. A piece of mild steel 5 in. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. This is for a shaft. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. b. After it is fitted in. 6.2. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. Commencing 1-1/2 in. d. This will cast a paddle-wheel. holes. fasten a 3/8-in. and drill it entirely through. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. and the exhaust hole in projection b. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. Now cut out one of the 12-in. and the other in the base. long.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. so that it will turn easily. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing.2. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. where the casting did not fill out. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. drill in it. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. holes at d. the other right-handed. Put this together in mold No. one in the lug.

Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. and with three small screw holes around the edge. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. long. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. one 6 ft. Then take a knife or a chisel. and. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. At each end of the 6ft. will do good service. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. and the other 8 ft. with a boss and a set screw. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Plan of Ice Boat . while it is running at full speed.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. turn the wheel to the shape desired.. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. piece and at right angles to it.

long and 2-1/2 in. 1. This fits in the square hole. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. so much the better will be your boat. as the runners were fastened. long. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. piece and at right angles to it. To the under side of the 8-ft. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. plank nail 8-in. where they often did considerable damage. Fig. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. in front of the rudder block. 1. The spar should be 9 ft. at the end. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. Fig. plank. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. distant. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. Make your runners as long as possible. projecting as in Fig. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. at the top. long. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. leaving 1 ft. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. should be of hardwood. which may come in handy in heavy winds. at the butt and 1 in. in diameter in the center. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. tapering to 1-1/2 in. 2 by 3 in. Over the middle of the 6-ft. 8 a reef point knot. and about 8 in. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. in diameter at the base. bolt the 8-ft. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. Run the seam on a machine. boards to make the platform. in the top before the skate is put on. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. 3. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. The tiller. in diameter. Figure 2 shows the rudder post.

The arrangement proved quite too effective. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. Mechanicsburg. and the alarm bell will ring. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. Ariz. small piece of wood. so that they come in contact at C. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. to block B. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. Pa. --Contributed by J. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. P. Its parts are as follows: A. allowing the springs to contact at C. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. The . and place it behind a stove.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. S S. Phoenix. --Contributed by John D. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. block of wood nailed to A. bent into a hook at each end. R. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. B. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. Adams. P. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. wide. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. Comstock.

6 in. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. 2. high. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. and make it into a clock to hang on the wall. 1. and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred. The stump makes the best support.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. The center pole should be 10 ft. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. says the American Boy. Arbor Wheels [359] Emery w