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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. The pieces are then dressed round. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. Toronto. as shown in Fig. Ontario. until it is bound as shown in Fig. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . distant. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. It is held in this curve until dry. 2.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. To throw a boomerang. A piece of plank 12 in. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. 2. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. Fig. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw.Fig. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. with the hollow side away from you. long will make six boomerangs. 1. grasp it and hold the same as a club. wide and 2 ft. 1. Noble. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. 2 -. E. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. apart. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. 1. away. as shown in Fig. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. --Contributed by J.

the block will drop out. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. or rather no bottom at all. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. long. A very light. If the snow is of the right consistency. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. one inside of the circle and the other outside. 6 in. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. forcing it down closely. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. it is not essential to the support of the walls. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. made of 6-in. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. blocks . Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. Larger or smaller blocks can be used.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. but about 12 in. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. dry snow will not pack easily. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. thick. First. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. minus the top. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. A wall. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. which makes the building simpler and easier. and with a movable bottom. high and 4 or 5 in. however. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. and it may be necessary to use a little water. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome.

and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. a. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. 1. 3 -. above the ground. C. is 6 or 8 in. --Contributed by Geo. or an old safe dial will do. Ore. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. The piece of wood. It also keeps them out. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. which can be made of wood. There is no outward thrust. 1. wide. A nail. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. Fig. Union. 2. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. D. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . which is about 1 ft. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. 2. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. Fig.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. 3. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. Goodbrod. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. long and 1 in. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. and the young architect can imitate them. Fig.

and the other back of the stove and out of the way. S. Merrill. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up.When taking hot dishes from the stove. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. New York. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. one pair of special hinges. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. --Contributed by R. If ordinary butts are used. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. as the weight always draws them back to place. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. Syracuse. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. says the Sphinx. the box locked . the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box.

about 1-32 of an inch. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. as shown in Fig.and the performer steps out in view. as shown. If the measuring has been done properly. draw one-half of it. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. Place the piece in a vise. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. smooth surface. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. 2. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. allowing each coat time to dry. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. one for each corner. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. With the metal shears. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. as shown in Fig. 3. If they do not. proceed as follows: First. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. Fig. All . Alberta Norrell. Augusta. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. When the sieve is shaken. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. -Contributed by L. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. To make a design similar to the one shown. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. on drawing paper. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. It remains to bend the flaps. 1. Ga.

--Contributed by R. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. The current. in diameter. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. causing it to expand. from the back end. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. H. about 6 in. in passing through the lamp. A resistance. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. After this has dried. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. Galbreath. A piece of porcelain tube. R. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . long. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in.the edges should be left smooth. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. 25 gauge German-silver wire. should be in the line. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. which is about 6 in. as shown at AA. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. When the current is turned off. B. of No. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. is fitted tightly in the third hole. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. used for insulation. C. and in the positions shown in the sketch. If a touch of color is desired. 25 German-silver wire. Denver. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. In boring through rubber corks. To keep the metal from tarnishing. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. if rolled under the shoe sole. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. heats the strip of German-silver wire. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. Colo. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. The common cork.

The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. --Contributed by David Brown. 2. leaving a space of 4 in. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. . Fig. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. 1.bottom ring. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. Mo. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Kansas City. with thin strips of wood. as shown in Fig. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. between them as shown in Fig. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. 3. Purchase two long book straps. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering.

allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. 1. Kane. C. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. A. Two strips of brass. 3. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. which is the right weight for family use. Y. --Contributed by James M. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass.. and one weighing 25 lb. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. The string is then tied. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. Fig. to form a handle. Morse. Syracuse. These are shown in Fig. The folds are made over the string. N. and a pocket battery. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. --Contributed by Katharine D. as . Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. 1. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. 1. Fig. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. Fig. Pa. and tack smoothly. and also prevent any leakage of the contents.An ordinary electric bell. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig.. 4. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. When the aeroplane tips. in diameter. 2. having a gong 2-1/2 in. just the right weight for a woman to use. are mounted on the outside of the box. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. Doylestown. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. one weighing 15 lb. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. long. 36 in.

the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. machine screws. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. Day. four washers and four square nuts. in diameter. such as brackets. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. N. --Contributed by Louis J. Frame Made of a Rod . 2. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. and many fancy knick-knacks. The saw. if once used. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. 2.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. Floral Park. 1. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. two 1/8 -in. 3/32 or 1/4 in. Y. long. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. bent as shown in Fig. AA. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match.

after breaking up. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. Michigan. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. Of the leathers. using a swab and an old stiff brush. For etching. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. of water in which dissolve. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. 1 part nitric acid. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. though almost any color may be obtained. copper. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. An Austrian Top [12] . if copper or brass. the most expensive. Scranton. of water. Detroit. as well as the depth of etching desired. In the design shown. Watch Fob For coloring silver. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. --Contributed by W. as well as brass and copper. A. it has the correct strength. 1 part sulphuric acid. File these edges. therefore. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. or silver. Silver is the most desirable but. Rub off the highlights. allowing each time to dry. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. green and browns are the most popular.. of course. If it colors the metal red. treat it with color.may be made of either brass. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. The buckle is to be purchased. Drying will cause this to change to purple. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. be covered the same as the back. use them in place of the outside nuts. Apply two coats. With carbon paper trace these on the metal.

long. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. Tholl. 5-1/4 in. hole. long. 1-1/4 in.F. wide and 3/4 in. Bore a 3/4-in. 3/4 in. Parts of the Top To spin the top. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. A handle. is formed on one end. set the top in the 3/4 -in. hole in this end for the top. thick. --Contributed by J. pass one end through the 1/16-in. When the shank is covered. starting at the bottom and winding upward. allowing only 1-1/4 in. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. . The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. The handle is a piece of pine. Michigan. Ypsilanti. in diameter. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. A 1/16-in.

some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. tarts or similar pastry. --A. having no sides.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. A. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. The baking surface. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Mich. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. . Augusta. Ga. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Alberta Norrell. Northville. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. For black leathers. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. --Contributed by Miss L. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Houghton. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork.

A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. says Studio Light. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. Mo. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. the same as shown in the illustration. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. Stringing Wires [13] A. then solder cover and socket together. two turns will remove the jar. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. glass fruit jar. When you desire to work by white light. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . --Contributed by Irl Hicks. Centralia.

An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. Janesville. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. square by 62 in. as shown in the cross-section sketch.for loading and development. . square by 12 in. Wis. so it can be folded up. 1-1/4 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. They are fastened. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. 1-1/4 in. 16 Horizontal bars. 4 Braces. 4 Vertical pieces. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. and not tip over. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint.

and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. from scrap material. O. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. Rosenthal. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. After rounding the ends of the studs. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. C. after filling the pail with water. New York. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. Phillipsburg. Cincinnati. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. The whole. The front can be covered . --Contributed by Dr. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. -Contributed by Charles Stem. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. and a loop made in the end. H. If the loop is tied at the proper place. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction.

by all rules of the game. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. either for contact printing or enlargements. you are. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. principally mayonnaise dressing.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. sickly one. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. thoroughly fix. The results will be poor. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. --Contributed by Gilbert A. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. In my own practice. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. Baltimore. if you try to tone them afterward. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. The . doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. Develop them into strong prints. Md. If the gate is raised slightly. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. the color will be an undesirable. the mouth of which rests against a. By using the following method. 1 FIG. and. Wehr. FIG.

... Iodide of potassium .. in this solution.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. With a little practice..... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. A good final washing completes the process. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. 2 oz. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. 16 oz.. San Francisco. When the desired reduction has taken place....... as it will appear clean much longer than the white. three times...... Water . Place the dry print. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper.. Gray. It will bleach slowly and evenly. 5 by 15 in. but.. long to admit the angle support. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.... without previous wetting....bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.. Cal. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. L..... 20 gr... in size. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. when it starts to bleach.... wide and 4 in.... 2... etc.. transfer it to a tray of water.. 1 and again as in Fig.. The blotting paper can . preferably the colored kind.. to make it 5 by 5 in. where it will continue to bleach. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. --Contributed by T. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away." Cyanide of potassium ..... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper...... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper..... They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder.

Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Wilson Aldred Toronto. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Canada. --Contributed by J. wide below the . Corners complete are shown in Fig. 3. Monahan. having a width of 2-1/4 in.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. and a length of 5 in. --Contributed by L. Oshkosh.J. the shaft 1 in. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. wide. 20 gauge. Make a design similar to that shown. Wisconsin. the head of which is 2 in.

FIG. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. but use a swab on a stick. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. With the metal shears. then trace the other half in the usual way. Allow this to dry. then coloring. deep. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. Pierce a hole with a small drill. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. Apply with a small brush. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. 1. 1 Fig. Fig. 2. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. as shown in Fig. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. freehand. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. 1 part nitric acid. using carbon paper. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. 3. . A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. Make one-half of the design. being held perpendicular to the work. after folding along the center line. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. which gives the outline of the design Fig. 4. using a small metal saw. then put on a second coat. using turpentine. With files. After the sawing. For coloring olive green. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. The metal must be held firmly. After this has dried. Trace the design on the metal. 1 part sulphuric acid. Do not put the hands in the solution.

A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. Ii is an ordinary staple. as shown. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Carl Cramer. After the stain has dried. attach brass handles. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. New York. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. then stain it a mahogany color. --Contributed by M. Burnett. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. When this is cold. Syracuse. . Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. Cal. on a chopping board. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. Richmond. Conn. it does the work rapidly. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Morse.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. thick. --Contributed by H. --Contributed by Katharine D. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. M. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. East Hartford.

thick and 4 in.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. also locate the drill holes. saucers or pans. --Contributed by W. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. A. or tin. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. brass. L. square. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. indicating the depth of the slots. in width at the shank. 4. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. Jaquythe. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. Fig. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. and several 1/8-in. Cal. Atwell. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. WARNECKE Procure some brass. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. 1/4 in. 1. Florida. Kissimmee. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. H. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. Richmond. holes. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. 53 steel pens. one shaft. --Contributed by Mrs. as shown at A. machine screws. some pieces of brass. . two enameled. thick. not over 1/4 in. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. about 3/16 in. as shown in Fig. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line.. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines.

3. Bend as shown in Fig. 2. with a 3/8-in. each about 1 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. a square shaft used. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. If metal dishes. with 1/8-in. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. 5. about 1/32 in. 3. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. can be procured. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. into the hole. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. machine screws. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. Fig. as shown. supply pipe. A 3/4-in. using two nuts on each screw. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. with the face of the disk. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. The shaft hole may also be filed square. Fig. thick. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. as shown in Fig. and pins inserted. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. hole in the center. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. 2. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. in diameter and 1/32 in. and the ends filed round for the bearings. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. wide. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. 7. machine screws and nuts. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. long and 5/16 in. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. Fig. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. If the shaft is square. There should be a space of 1/16 in. hole. long by 3/4 in. 6. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. brass and bolted to the casing. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. 1. wide and bend as shown in Fig. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. as in Fig. These are connected to a 3/8-in. hole is drilled to run off the water. thick. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. lead should be run into the segments.. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing.

The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Stain the wood before putting in the . Ill. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. Canada. three of which are in the basket. --Contributed by S.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. long. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. With a string or tape measure. V. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. high and 15 in. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. deep over all. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. The lower part. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. or more in diameter. deep and 1-1/4 in. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. Be sure to have the cover. using four to each leg. Cooke. La Salle. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. we will call the basket. screws. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. The four legs are each 3/4-in. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. square and 30-1/2 in. Smith. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. --Contributed by F. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. from the top of the box. 8-1/2 in. When assembling. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. Fasten with 3/4-in. Hamilton. from the bottom end of the legs. Now you will have the box in two pieces. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. make these seams come between the two back legs. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. to make the bottom.

Fig. wide. Mass. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. 1. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. The side. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. -Contributed by Stanley H. as shown in the sketch. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Cover them with the cretonne. wide and four strips 10 in. and gather it at that point. Md. you can. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. If all the parts are well sandpapered. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Packard.2 Fig. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. 2. When making the display. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape .lining. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. sewing on the back side. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Baltimore. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Sew on to the covered cardboards. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. --also the lower edge when necessary. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. The folded part in the center is pasted together. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Boston. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. with the crudest of tools and a little practice.

Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Y. Orlando Taylor. It is not difficult to . saving all the solid part. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. L. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. with slight modifications. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Cross Timbers. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. and. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Fig. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Crockett. Mo. When through using the pad. N. Gloversville. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. --Contributed by B. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. It is cleanly. 3. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. --Contributed by H. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely.

--Contributed by Edith E. After this is done. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. are shown in the diagram. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Mass. and secure it in place with glue or paste. or if desired. Texas. -Contributed by C. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. After stirring. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. S. Lowell. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. El Paso. remove the contents. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Both of these methods are wasteful. If a file is used. Bourne. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. across the face. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. Lane. and scrape out the rough parts. it should be new and sharp.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the .

Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Ill. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. After several hours' drying. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel.cooking utensil. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. Turl. Greenleaf. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Those having houses . He captured several pounds in a few hours. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. The process works well and needs no watching. The insects came to the light. Oregon. Iowa. --Contributed by Loren Ward. F. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. circled over the funnel and disappeared. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Canton. As these were single-faced disk records. --Contributed by Marion P. Ill. Des Moines. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. --Contributed by Geo. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Wheeler. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Oak Park. A Postcard Rack [25].

Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. 6 in. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. and the second one for the developing bench. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. Glenbrook. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. Both sides can be put together in this way. plane and pocket knife. and both exactly alike. The single boards can then be fixed. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. by 2 ft. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. will do as well. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. but for cheapness 3/4 in. Worcester. Mass. material. --Contributed by Wm. one on each side of what will be the . but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. Only three pieces are required. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. thick. Lay the floor next. the best material to use being matched boards. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. and as they are simple in design. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. --Contributed by Thomas E. 6 in. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. Dobbins. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in.. Rosenberg.. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. the bottom being 3/8 in. not even with the boards themselves. Conn. boards are preferable.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one.

all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. nailing them to each other at the ridge. 8. 7. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. 3 and 4. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. 6. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. of the top of the door for the same reason.. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. and in the middle an opening.doorway. 11. and the top as at C in the same drawing. 5. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. The roof boards may next be put on. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. and should be zinc lined. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. 9 by 11 in. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. wide. 2 in section. 6 and 9. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. In hinging the door. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. and act as a trap for the light. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. hinged to it. Fig. by screwing to the floor. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. so that the water will drain off into the sink. 6. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. It is shown in detail in Fig. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. so that it will fit inside the sink. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. 9). This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. 10). which is fixed on as shown . can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. The developing bench is 18 in. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. as shown in Figs.. the closing side as at B. At the top of the doorway. below which is fixed the sink. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. is cut. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. brown wrapping paper.. etc. and to the outside board of the sides.

Details of the Dark Rook .

The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. 16. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. if desired. these being shown in Fig. 13. Fig. 2. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. are fastened in the corners inside. after lining with brown paper. 13. or red light as at K. A circular piece about 2 in. Erie. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. 15. Fig. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. as at M. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. and a 3/8-in. In use. The house will be much strengthened if strips. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. Pennsylvania. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. Fig. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. screwing them each way into the boards. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. For beating up an egg in a glass. but not the red glass and frame. 20. and a tank stand on it. mixing flour and water. or the room may be made with a flat roof. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. Fig. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. 18. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. 6. Karl Hilbrich. as shown in the sections. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. it is better than anything on the market. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. 16. which makes it possible to have white light. as shown in Fig. hole bored in the center for a handle. 1. preferably maple or ash. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. The handle should be at least 12 in. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. as at I. 19. 17. as in Fig. 14. though this is hardly advisable. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under.in Fig. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. four coats at first is not too many.

New York.copper should be. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. when put together properly is a puzzle. Mo. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. Eureka Springs. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. -Contributed by E. L. Kansas City. Ark. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. To operate. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. D. --Contributed by L. which. Mitchell. Yonkers. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . --Contributed by Wm. Smith. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. about 3/8 in. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. G. for a handle. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Schweiger. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. long. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. as shown in the sketch. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax.

1. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. Having completed the bare box. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. need them. especially for filling-in purposes. which binds them together. . as is usually the case. After the box is trimmed. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. 3. to make it set level. in order to thoroughly preserve it.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. as well as improve its appearance. as shown in Fig. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. A number of 1/2-in. as shown in Fig. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. Each cork is cut as in Fig. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. holes should be drilled in the bottom. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. the rustic work should be varnished. for the moment. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. 3. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. The corks in use are shown in Fig. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. The design shown in Fig. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. 2. If the sill is inclined. the box will require a greater height in front. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. 1 is very simple and easy to construct.

Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. 2. etc. being partly eaten into. and observe results. too dangerous. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. Traps do no good. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. can't use poison. . When the corn is gone cucumbers. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. it's easy. F. drilled at right angles. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. Each long projection represents a leg. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. life in the summer time is a vexation. 3. But I have solved the difficulty. share the same fate. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. 1. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. as shown in Fig. the squirrels come in droves from far and near.. cabbages. 4. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place.

The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. cut in 1/2-in. the coil does not heat sufficiently.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. and made up and kept in large bottles. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. long. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. cut some of it off and try again. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. of No. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. -. . Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. About 9-1/2 ft. The solution can be used over and over again. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. by trial. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. If. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. strips. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. Iowa. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores.

Dallas. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. . The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. of gasoline. coffee pot. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Pa. hot-water pot. --Contributed by Katharine D. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. of oleic acid with 1 gal. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. forks. 1) removed. and a strip. but with unsatisfactory results. --Contributed by James M. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. of whiting and 1/2 oz. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. In cleaning silver. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Do not wash them. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. is a good size--in this compound. Fig 2. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. Doylestown. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Morse. N. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. as shown in the sketch. Syracuse. it falls to stop G. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Kane. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. D. C.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. Texas. Knives. to cause the door to swing shut. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Stir and mix thoroughly. Y. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again.

As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. of course. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. --Contributed by Theodore L. Ill. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. . Fisher. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. using the paper dry. negatives. New Orleans. La. which is. --Contributed by Oliver S. Sprout. Pa. Harrisburg. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. but unfixed. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . later fixed and washed as usual. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Waverly. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.

The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. 1. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. The harmonograph. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. To obviate this difficulty. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. In this uncertainty lies the charm.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. Fig. a harmonograph is a good prescription. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. then . metal. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy.

is about right for a 10-ft. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. A small table or platform. 1-3/4 by 2 in. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. --Contributed by Wm. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . The length of the short pendulum H. one-fourth. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. To saw and file it out takes time and skill.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. A small weight. and unless the shorter pendulum is. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. which can be regulated. Another weight of about 10 lb. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. of about 30 or 40 lb. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. with a nail set or punch. Arizona. Holes up to 3 in. 1. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. provides a means of support for the stylus. ceiling. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. --Contributed by James T. etc. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. is attached as shown at H. in the center of the circle to be cut. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. as shown in the lower part of Fig. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. in diameter. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. 1. A length of 7 ft. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. Rosemont. G. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. makes respectively 3. exactly one-third. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. Ingham. as shown in Fig. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. A weight. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. R. Punch a hole. A pedestal... Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. Chicago. that is. what is most important. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. Gaffney. such as a shoe buttoner. to prevent any side motion. for instance. J. as long as the other. or the lines will overlap and blur. one-fifth. K. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time.

one for the sender and one for the receiver. Cape May City. 2. and 4 as in Fig. dividing them into quarters. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. distributing them over the whole card. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. The two key cards are made alike. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. -Contributed by W.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. Morey. then put 2 at the top. --Contributed by J. a correspondent of . Cruger. Fig. 6. Fig. The capacity of the vise. 3. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. 1.J. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. 5.H. 4. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. Chicago. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. then 3 as in Fig. and proceed as before. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig.J. of course. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. N.

into the inside face of each upright to support the No. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. 1/4 in. citrate of iron and ammonia. sheet of well made asbestos paper. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. drill 15 holes. Alberta Norrell. After securing the tint desired. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. of 18-per-cent No. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Cut through the center. acetic acid and 4 oz. respectively. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. Wind the successive turns of . of ferricyanide of potash. of the uprights. To assemble. the portion of the base under the coil. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. of water. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. wood-screws. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. After preparing the base and uprights. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. If constructed of the former. remove the prints. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. deep. from the top and bottom.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. 6 gauge wires shown. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. 1/2 oz. --Contributed by L. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. Asbestos board is to be preferred. 22 gauge German-silver wire. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. long. Ga. Augusta. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. says Popular Electricity. 30 gr.

--Contributed by Frederick E. but these are not necessary. Ward. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. etc. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. 14 gauge. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Small knobs may be added if desired. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. screws. as they are usually thrown away when empty. then fasten the upright in place. which. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration.. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. rivets. 16 gauge copper wire. Ampere. cut and dressed 1/2 in. square. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. Labels of some kind are needed. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. if one is not a smoker. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. The case may be made of 1/2-in. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Y. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . N. These may be procured from electrical supply houses.

A. This is considerable annoyance. or has become corroded. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. galvanized iron. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. of water. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. The material can be of any wood. Eureka Springs. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered.. it must be ground or filed to a point. of glycerine to 16 oz. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. as shown in the sketch. Larson. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. If the soldering copper is an old one." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. particularly so when the iron has once been used. tin. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. and labeled "Poison. brass. --Contributed by W. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. the pure muriatic acid should be used. Ark. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. Jaquythe. and rub the point of the copper on it. Heat it until hot (not red hot). being careful about the heat. Wis. B. --Contributed by A. D. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. C. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. then to the joint to be soldered. zinc. lead. S. --C. Richmond. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. a piece of solder. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. Kenosha. tinner's acid. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. Copper. sandpaper or steel wool. California. G. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. In soldering galvanized iron. and one made of poplar finished black. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. especially if a large tub is used. The parts are put together with dowel pins. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub.14 oz. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. E and F. .

This will leave a clear hole. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . This completes the die. nut. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. in diameter. which gives two bound volumes each year. Hankin. round iron. however. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. The covers of the magazines are removed. brass and silver. Fig. and drill out the threads. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. such as copper. C. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. B. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. with good results. D. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. The dimensions shown in Fig. in diameter. wide. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. Take a 3/4-in. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. Fig. 1. -Contributed by H. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. Place the band. W. thick and 1-1/4 in. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. 2. Y. The disk will come out pan shaped.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Apart from this. Troy. Brass rings can be plated when finished. N. a ring may be made from any metal. I bind my magazines at home evenings. 7/8 in. Six issues make a well proportioned book. The punch A. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk.

and then to string No. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. Coarse white thread. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. 1. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. If started with the January or the July issue. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. is nailed across the top. using . Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. The covering should be cut out 1 in. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. deep. . and a third piece. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. allowing about 2 in. then back through the notch on the right side. After drawing the thread tightly. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. on all edges except the back. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. 1. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back.4. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. through the notch on the left side of the string No.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. The covering can be of cloth. The string No. which is fastened the same as the first. 1. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. Start with the front of the book. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. 2. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. is used for the sewing material. of the ends extending on each side. 5. The sections are then prepared for sewing. Five cuts. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. size 16 or larger. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. 1/8 in. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. and place them against the strings in the frame. as shown in Fig. Place the cardboard covers on the book. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. 2. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. C. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. threaded double. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. 1 in Fig.

Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. and. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. at opposite sides to each other. Cal. College View. Encanto. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. --Contributed by Clyde E. on which to hook the blade. round iron. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Nebr. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Place the cover on the book in the right position. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. and mark around each one. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Tinplate. Divine. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. For the blade an old talking-machine .

C. and another piece (B) 6 in. Moorhead. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. thick. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. A. and 1/4 in. bore. thick. as it is sometimes called. Then on the board put . -Contributed by Willard J. E. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). and 1/4 in. F. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it.. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. Make the blade 12 in. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. with a steel sleeve. as shown. and file in the teeth. by 1 in. long. in order to drill the holes in the ends. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. or double extra heavy. B. by 4-1/2 in. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. fuse hole at D. Ohio. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. Miss. with 10 teeth to the inch. On the upper side.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. and a long thread plug. Hays. hydraulic pipe.. at the same end. Summitville. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in.

Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. --Contributed by Chas. H. of rubber-covered wire. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. high around this apparatus. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. and some No. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. Philadelphia. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. the jars need not be very large. using about 8 in. Connect up as shown. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. of wire to each coil. A lid may be added if desired. Boyd. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. as from batteries. If you are going to use a current of low tension. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. 4 jars. about 5 ft. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil.

steel rod makes a good steering rod. At the front 24 or 26 in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. B and C.. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. For the brass trimmings use No. as they are not substantial enough. oak boards. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. Z. 5 on switch. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. The current then will flow through the motor. Their size also depends on the voltage. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. On the door of the auto front put the . then apply a coat of thin enamel. 3. square by 14 ft. thick. long. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. C. In proportioning them the points A. above the ground. 1 on switch. The connection between point No. 27 B. wide. is used to reduce friction. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. The illustration shows how to shape it. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. The top disk in jar No. 4... sheet brass 1 in. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. 1 is connected to point No. 2. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. To wire the apparatus.the way. 2 is lower down than in No. apart. Use no nails. An iron washer. 1. A 3/4-in. wide and 3/4 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. 16-1/2 in. 3 and No. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. Equip block X with screw eyes.. and plane it on all edges. 15-1/2 in. A variation of 1/16 in.. two pieces 30 in. as they "snatch" the ice. . Fig. and for the rear runners: A. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. & S. beginning at the rear. B. on No. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. 30 in. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. with the cushion about 15 in. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. Put arm of switch on point No. by 5 in. thick. 3 in. by 2 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. making them clear those in the front runner. The stock required for them is oak. long. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. wide by 3/4 in. gives full current and full speed. No. First sandpaper all the wood. 2 in. The sled completed should be 15 ft. long. Construct the auto front (Fig. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. 11 in. Use no screws on the running surface. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. by 2 in. 4 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. 1 and so on for No. by 1-1/4 in. direct to wire across jars. by 1 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. B. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. C. two pieces 34 in. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. are important. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. 2. by 6 in. and bolt through. 34 in. long. however. 2. long by 22 in. by 5 in. 7 in. and four pieces 14 in. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. two pieces 14 in. wide and 2 in. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. See Fig. two for each jar. or source of current. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. by 1-1/4 in.. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. 2 and 3. 4) of 3/4-in.. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in.

For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. If the expense is greater than one can afford. parcels. or with these for $25. etc. which is somewhat moist. by 1/2 in. such as used on automobiles. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. Fasten a horn. to improve the appearance. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. overshoes. may be stowed within. to the wheel. such as burlap. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . by 30 in. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. If desired. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. Then get some upholstery buttons. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. If desired. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. The best way is to get some strong. a brake may be added to the sled. long. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. fasten a cord through the loop. a number of boys may share in the ownership. cutting it out of sheet brass. brass plated. cheap material. lunch. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder.

the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same.tree and bring. Leland. Ill. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. . --Contributed by Stewart H. Lexington.

Draw a circle on paper. E. The Model Engineer. 4). 2. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. by drawing diameters. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. made from 1/16-in. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. mild steel or iron. the same diameter as the wheel. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. though more difficult. sheet metal. when flat against it. London. outside diameter and 1/16 in. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. a compass. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. some files. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. say 1 in. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. the cut will be central on the line. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . The straight-edge. Fig. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. thick. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. so that the center of the blade. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. The first tooth may now be cut. will be over the line FG. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. Fig. which. 1. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. FC. from F to G. This guide should have a beveled edge. With no other tools than a hacksaw. Fig. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. CD. 3. with twenty-four teeth. First take the case of a small gearwheel. A small clearance space.

B. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. . and connect to one side of a 2-cp. as shown in Fig. each in the center. hold in one hand. electric lamp. some wire and some carbons. ground it with a large piece of zinc. Make a hole in the other. and the other outlet wire. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. B. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. A bright. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. transmitter. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. Then take one outlet wire. 2. Focus the camera in the usual manner. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. or several pieces bound tightly together. 1. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal.Four Photos on One Plate of them. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. either the pencils for arc lamps. No shock will be perceptible. R. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. 1. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. If there is no faucet in the house.

--Contributed by Geo. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. as shown. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. For a base use a pine board 10 in. or more of the latter has been used. of course. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. A is a wooden block. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. under the gable. They have screw ends. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. B. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. one at the receiver can hear what is said. Pa. Several battery cells. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. Slattery. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. D D are binding posts for electric wires. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. and will then burn the string C. by 1 in. leaving about 10 in. as indicated by E E. and again wind the wire around it. Then set the whole core away to dry. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. J. 36 wire around it. and about that size. Ashland. are also needed. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. Emsworth. But in this experiment. at each end for terminals. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. by 12 in. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. Ohio. Wrenn. One like a loaf of bread. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. Dry batteries are most convenient. a transmitter which induces no current is used. If desired. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . serves admirably. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this.

C. Turn on switch. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. D. F. and the lamps. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian.. as shown. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. Fig. At one side secure two receptacles. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. in parallel. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. run a No. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. B B. Jr. The oven is now ready to be connected. Newark. First make a support. Fig. C. These should have hollow ends. until the hand points to zero on the scale. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. 2. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. connecting lamp receptacles. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. 14 wire. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. B B. Connect these three to switch. and one single post switch. while C is open. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. as shown. for the . The coil will commence to become warm. and switch. 1. 12 or No. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. The apparatus is now ready for operation. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. D.wire. Place 16-cp. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. Ohio. the terminal of the coil. in series with bindingpost. E. From the other set of binding-posts.

high. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. The box is 5-1/2 in. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. D. a battery. thick. 4 in. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. long. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. Montreal. Fig. 14. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. Mine is wound with two layers of No. long and make a loop. 5. If for 3-way. 6. a variable resistance. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. 1/2 in. This is slipped on the pivot. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. The core. 4. D. Fig. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . from the lower end. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. Dussault. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. 10 turns to each layer. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. although brass is better. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. At a point a little above the center. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. Fig. but if for a 4way. although copper or steel will do. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. is made of iron. is made of wire. to prevent it turning on the axle. 36 magnet wire instead of No. To make one. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. Fig. E. until the scale is full. as shown in the cut. --Contributed by J. a standard ammeter. A wooden box. 1.E. 1. wind with plenty of No. drill through the entire case and valve. 3 amperes. 3. deep. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. 4 amperes. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. B. 1/4 in. 2. After drilling. wide and 1/8 in. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. It is 1 in. is then made and provided with a glass front. and D. 7. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. remove the valve. 5. 14 wire. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. long. etc. C. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured.. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. The pointer or hand. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. drill in only to the opening already through.or 4-way valve or cock. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. drill a hole as shown at H.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. wide and 1-3/4 in. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. where A is the homemade ammeter. This may be made of wood.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. inside measurements. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw.

To start the light. E. making two holes about 1/4 in. provided with a rubber stopper. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. which is used for reducing the current. in thickness . The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. B. in diameter. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. and the arc light. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. high. F. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. One wire runs to the switch. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. By connecting the motor. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. and the other connects with the water rheostat. This stopper should be pierced. and a metal rod. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. A. as shown. D.performing electrical experiments. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators.

then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. 1. Fig. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Having fixed the lead plate in position. 1. as shown in B. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. 2. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Fig. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Carthage. 1. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Having finished the interrupter. N. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. A. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. long. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Turn on the current and press the button. where he is placed in an upright open . Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. If the interrupter does not work at first. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. A piece of wood. as shown in C. If all adjustments are correct. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. --Contributed by Harold L. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Fig. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. B. Y. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. 2. Jones. To insert the lead plate. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. As there shown. Fig.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A.

but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. giving a limp. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. could expect from a skeleton. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. which can be run by three dry cells. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. by 7-1/2 in.. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. L and M. to aid the illusion. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. If it is desired to place the box lower down. Its edges should nowhere be visible. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. the illusion will be spoiled. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. until it is dark there.coffin. They need to give a fairly strong light. A. should be colored a dull black. dressed in brilliant. should be miniature electric lamps. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. from which the gong has been removed. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. by 7 in. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. If everything is not black. The lights. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. and wave his arms up and down. The glass should be the clearest possible. is constructed as shown in the drawings. especially L. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. All . and can be bought at Japanese stores. especially the joints and background near A. as the entire interior. figures and lights. The model. and must be thoroughly cleansed. high. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. with the exception of the glass. loosejointed effect. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. inside dimensions. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. light-colored garments. A white shroud is thrown over his body. The skeleton is made of papier maché. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. within the limits of an ordinary room. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs.

If a gradual transformation is desired.that is necessary is a two-point switch. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. fat spark. square block. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. San Jose. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. as shown in the sketch. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. placed about a foot apart. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. Fry. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. Cal. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. Two finishing nails were driven in. W. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. after which it assumes its normal color. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. --Contributed by Geo.

which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. to make it airtight. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. New York. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. the remaining space will be filled with air. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. with two tubes. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. In Fig. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. F. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. -Contributed by Dudley H. 1. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. A (see sketch). B and C. soldered in the top. Cohen. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. If a lighted match . and should be separated about 1/8 in. In Fig. One of these plates is connected to metal top. This is a wide-mouth bottle. into the receiver G. by small pieces of wood. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. as shown.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. The plates are separated 6 in. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. or a solution of sal soda. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. hydrogen gas is generated. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. by a piece of hard rubber at each end.

A 1/64-in. A. from the bottom. 36 insulated wire. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. says the Model Engineer. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. then a suitable burner is necessary. as is shown in the illustration. long. either by passing a current of electricity around it. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. 1. A. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. long. One row is drilled to come directly on top. or by direct contact with another magnet. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. Fig. If desired. Fig. P. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. A. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . Three rows of holes 1/16 in. A. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. and the ends of the tube. copper pipe. C C. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. B. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. 2 shows the end view. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. should be only 5/16 of an inch. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. N. London. by means of the clips. in diameter and 6 in. 1/2 in. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. A piece of 1/8-in. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. of No. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. is then coiled around the brass tube. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. which forms the vaporizing coil. 1-5/16 in. A nipple. copper pipe. N. is made by drilling a 1/8in. which is plugged up at both ends. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. The distance between the nipple.

boards and all. Fig. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. Cut four pieces of cardboard. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. fold and cut it 1 in.lamp cord. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). 3. this makes a much nicer book. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. Take two strips of stout cloth. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. longer and 1/4 in. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. Turn the book over and paste the other side. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Fig. A disk of thin sheet-iron. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. 1/4 in. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. 2). should be cut to the diameter of the can. with a fine saw. leaving the folded edge uncut. Fig. trim both ends and the front edge. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. taking care not to bend the iron. larger all around than the book. cut to the size of the pages. smoothly. but if the paper knife cannot be used. duck or linen. at the front and back for fly leaves. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. 1. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. about 8 or 10 in. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position.

deep. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. in diameter and 30 in. of tank A is cut a hole. --Contributed by Joseph N. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. Noble. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. and a little can. or rather the top now. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. as shown in the sketch. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. Bedford City. E. the joint will be gas tight. without a head. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Ont. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. D. is made the same depth as B. but its diameter is a little smaller. Toronto. which will just slip inside the little can. Another can. is fitted in it and soldered. as shown. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. --Contributed by James E. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. is turned on it. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. 18 in. Parker. Another tank. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. 4). is soldered onto tank A. . C. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. Va. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. A. In the bottom. This will cause some air to be enclosed. H. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. B. is perforated with a number of holes. A gas cock. pasting them down (Fig.

N. A A. The bridle knots. The small guards. shows how the connections are to be made. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. square by 42 in. by 1/2 in.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. when finished. The wiring diagram. Fig. Fig. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. long. long. J. thus adjusting the . The armature. 1. which moves to either right or left. should be 1/4 in. which may be either spruce. tacks. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. B. should be cut a little too long. and about 26 in. 2. and the four diagonal struts. B.. are shown in detail at H and J. The longitudinal corner spines. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. If the back armature. D. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. as shown at C. Beverly. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. -Contributed by H. should be 3/8 in. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. The diagonal struts. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. C. B. E. S. A. D. making the width. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. to prevent splitting. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. Bott. basswood or white pine. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. fastened in the bottom. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. and sewed double to give extra strength. exactly 12 in. with an electric-bell magnet. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. If the pushbutton A is closed. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. H is a square knot. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box.

D. Harbert. and. to prevent slipping. shift toward F. as shown. --Contributed by A. and if a strong wind is blowing. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. --Contributed by Edw. for producing electricity direct from heat. can be made of a wooden . with gratifying results. Chicago. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. Clay Center. the batteries do not run down for a long time. Closing either key will operate both sounders. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. E. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. Kan. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. thus shortening G and lengthening F. Stoddard. If the kite is used in a light wind. A bowline knot should be tied at J. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. however.lengths of F and G. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. that refuse to slide easily.

Chicago. --Contributed by A. which conducts the current into the cannon. spark. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. B. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. C. in position.frame. by means of machine screws or. 14 or No. or parallel with the compass needle. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. with a number of nails. C. and the current may then be detected by means. A. and also holds the pieces of wood. Fasten a piece of wood. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. Then. A. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil.. E. When the cannon is loaded. A and B. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. to the cannon. F. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. with a pocket compass. 16 single-covered wire. D. placed on top. A. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. The wood screw. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. E. C.

Chicago. 1. --Contributed by Joseph B. Marion. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Bend the strips BB (Fig. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. but no weights or strings. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. screw is bored in the block. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Ohio. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Keil. Big Rapids. In Fig. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. To unlock the door. L. Connect as shown in the illustration. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Fig. H. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. 1. B. --Contributed by Henry Peck. when in position at A'. press the button. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. A and S. A and S. with the long arm at L'. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. requiring a strong magnet. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. square and 3/8 in. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. within the reach of the magnet. to receive the screw in the center. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. A hole for a 1/2 in. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. 1. Mich. in this position the door is locked. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. where there is a staple. Fig. . To lock the door. now at A' and S'. To reverse. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders.the current is shut off. A. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D.

When the holes are finished and your lines set. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. are enameled a jet black. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. J. West Somerville. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. gas-pipe. When ready for use. The standard and base. if enameled white on the concave side. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. Mass. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. and C is a dumbbell. and may be made at very slight expense. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. about 18 in. long. --Contributed by C.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. or for microscopic work. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. Rand. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. and if desired the handles may . a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. pipe with 1-2-in. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. put in the handle. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. hole. Thread the other end of the pipe. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings.

This peculiar property is also found in ice. Fig. 8 in. E. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. across. 1. M. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. which shall project at least 2 in. --Contributed by C. inside the pail. A. as shown at A in the sketch. across. 1. high by 1 ft. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Mass. Fig. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in.be covered with leather. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. B.. long and 8 in. Warren. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. with a cover. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. North Easton. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. Make a cylindrical core of wood. D.

While these are drying you may be making a muffle. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. 2 in. cutting the hole a little smaller. 1). This is a clay cylinder (Fig. pack this space-top. about 1 in. pipe 2-ft. passing wire nails through and clinching them. If the cover of the pail has no rim. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried.. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. 1). in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. 15%. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. and your kiln is ready for business. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°.. C. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. W. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. and cut it 3-1/2 in. and with especial caution the first time. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. but will be cheaper in operation. Fit all the parts together snugly. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. and 3/4 in. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. of fine wire. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. if there is to be any glazing done. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support.. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. as is shown in the sketch. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway.-G. hotel china. 60%. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. Fig. long. 3) with false top and bottom. strip of sheet iron. Cover with paper and shellac as before. in diameter. After removing all the paper. thick. make two wood ends. 25%. diameter. sand. 2. and graphite. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. C. projecting from each end (Fig. the firing should be gradual. say 1/4 in. if you have the materials. which is the hottest part. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. Line the pail. L. C. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. 1330°. bottom and sides. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. the point of the blue flame. and 3/8 in.mixture of clay. thick. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. and varnish. When lighted. and on it set the paper wrapped core. After finishing the core. 1390°-1410°. E. Wind about 1/8 in. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. Whatever burner is used. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. This done. as dictated by fancy and expense. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. The 2 in. carefully centering it. It is placed inside the kiln. Set aside for a few days until well dried. or make one yourself. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. pipe. such . but it will burn a great deal of gas. long over the lid hole as a chimney. wider than the kiln. layer of the clay mixture. hard porcelain. full length of iron core. to hold the clay mixture. in diameter. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. let this dry thoroughly. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. In like manner make the cover of the kiln.

2. procure a new deck. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. Of course. every alternate card being the same color. Then take the black cards. C. T. overlaps and rests on the body. and divide it into two piles. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. B.. 8 in. and so on. bind tightly with black silk. R. and discharges into the tube.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. diameter. . we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. as in Fig. 1. as in Fig. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. Take the red cards. length of . The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. You can display either color called for. square them up. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. The funnel. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. A. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. D. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. Next restore all the cards to one pack. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. 2). Washington. red and black. around the coil. the next black. taking care to have the first card red. as shown in the sketch herewith. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. 2. C. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. C. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. leaving long terminals. all cards facing the same way. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. square them up and place in a vise. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. Chicago. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards.53 in. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. --Contributed by J. and plane off about 1/16 in. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. Then. with a plane. about 1/16 in.

B. Long Branch. C. B. All the horizontal pieces. It should be placed in an exposed location. N. to form a dovetail joint as shown. D. A.J.C. angle iron for the frame. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. the same ends will come together again. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. of the frame. stove bolts. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. as the difficulties increase with the size. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. E. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. B. stove bolts. A. Fig. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. E. To find the fall of snow. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. The upright pieces. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. the first thing to decide on is the size. through the holes already drilled. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. so that when they are assembled. F. 1. about 20 in.. and then the frame is ready to assemble. and this is inexpensive to build. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. 1 gill of fine white sand. thus making all the holes coincide. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. Let . The cement. When the glass is put in the frame a space. Drill all the horizontal pieces. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. The bottom glass should be a good fit. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. 1 gill of litharge.

It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. B. to the door knob. and. if desired. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. D. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. a centerpiece (A.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. having a swinging connection at C. Fig. A. on the door by means of a metal plate. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. Fasten the lever. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. Aquarium Finished If desired. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump.

nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. to form the main supports of the frame. Cut two pieces 30 in. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. E. long. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. Buffalo.. which is 15 in. 2 at GG. To make the frame. They are shown in Fig. Fig. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. 1 . A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. Do not fasten these boards now. hoping it may solve the same question for them. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. and another. screwed to the door frame. another. Fig. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. 1 is the motor with one side removed. N. from the outside top of the frame. showing the paddle-wheel in position. 2 is an end view. according to the slant given C. PAUL S. to keep the frame from spreading. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. B. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. Fig. 3 shows one of the paddles. another. approximately 1 ft. Two short boards 1 in. A small piece of spring brass. Fig. and Fig. --Contributed by Orton E. wide by 1 in. D. will open the door about 1/2 in. 1. Fig. F. long. soldered to the end of the cylinder. wide . A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. Cut two of them 4 ft. for the top. White. but mark their position on the frame. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. 26 in. long. long. Y. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. as at E. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. I referred this question to my husband. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. Fig. thus doing away with the spring. to form the slanting part. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. 1. several lengths of scantling 3 in. 2 ft. 6 in. with a water pressure of 70 lb. C. AA. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required.

Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. 4. take down the crosspieces. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. to a full 1/2 in. hole through its center. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. hole through their sides centrally. and drill a 1-in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. GG. thick.burlap will do -. Next secure a 5/8-in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. by 1-1/2 in. in diameter. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. remove the cardboard. Now block the wheel. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. long to the wheel about 8 in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. iron 3 by 4 in. 2) and another 1 in. 24 in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. (I. When it has cooled. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets.along the edges under the zinc to form . with the wheel and shaft in place. Fig. thick (HH. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. These are the paddles. tapering from 3/16 in. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Fig. steel shaft 12 in. holes. 1. Fasten them in their proper position. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. from one end by means of a key. hole to form the bearings. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. pipe. Tack one side on. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). and drill a 1/8-in. Take the side pieces. Fig. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. 2) with a 5/8-in. Make this hole conical. hole through the exact center of the wheel. and a 1/4 -in. iron. after which drill a 5/8 in. hole through them. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. that is. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. as shown in Fig. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. 2) form a substantial base. long and filling it with babbitt metal. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. then drill a 3/16-in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Drill 1/8-in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in.

but now I put them in the machine. . and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. Correct exposure depends. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. sewing machine. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. and leave them for an hour or so. and as near to it as possible. The best plate to use is a very slow one. as shown in the sketch at B. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. but as it would have cost several times as much. Drill a hole through the zinc. Do not stop down the lens. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. says the Photographic Times. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. light and the plate. It is obvious that. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. as this makes long exposure necessary. If the bearings are now oiled. and the subject may move. shutting out all light from above and the sides. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. drill press. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. on the lens. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. Raise the window shade half way. start the motor. Darken the rest of the window. of course. Focus the camera carefully. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. place the outlet over a drain. remove any white curtains there may be. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. any window will do. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. or what is called a process plate. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. ice-cream freezer. it would be more durable.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. If sheet-iron is used. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation.a water-tight joint. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen.

and without fog. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. a glass tube. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. an empty pill bottle may be used. 2. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. or can be taken from an old magnet. 2. or wood. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. and a base. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. without detail in the face. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. A. a core. which is made of iron and cork. as shown in Fig. With a piece of black paper. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. or an empty developer tube. The core C. The current required is very small. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. The glass tube may be a test tube. On completing . D. B. with binding posts as shown. C.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. as a slight current will answer. hard rubber. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. by twisting. until the core slowly rises. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. full of water. the core is drawn down out of sight.

If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. 1 lb. whale oil. according to his control of the current. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. This is a mysterious looking instrument. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. and make a pinhole in the center. water and 3 oz. 1 pt. The colors appear different to different people. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. and one not easy to explain. and are changed by reversing the rotation. 1. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. white lead. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. finest graphite. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. is Benham's color top. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure.

2 can cut the cards at the ace.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. As this device is easily upset. when the action ceases. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. In prize games. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. C. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other.. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. before cutting. B. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . especially if the deck is a new one. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. Chicago. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. fan-like. -Contributed by D. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results.B. deuce. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced.L. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. or three spot. thus partly filling bottles A and C. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. A. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. nearly every time. In making hydrogen.

using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A.. Detail of Phonograph Horn . at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. W. Fig. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. 10 in. S. J. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. in length and 3 in. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Make a 10-sided stick.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. as shown in Fig.. 3). Fig. that will fit loosely in the tube A. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. 1. Detroit. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. --Contributed by C. Jr. in diameter. 4. --Contributed by F. long. long and 3 in. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. 9 in. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. (Fig. Bently. 12 in. S. . 2. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. Form a cone of heavy paper. Huron. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. Dak. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in.

trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. will cause an increased movement of C. A second piece of silk thread. about the size of a leadpencil. Denver. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. Fortunately. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. Cut out paper sections (Fig. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. C. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. it is equally easy to block that trick. Remove the form. --Contributed by Reader. and walk in. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. A. allowing 1 in. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. 4 and temporarily fastened in position.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. push back the bolt. on one side and the top. bend it at right angles throughout its length. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. Fig. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. making it three-ply thick. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. E. with a pin driven in each end. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. but bends toward D. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. 6. long. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. A piece of tin. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the .

By this arrangement one. Fremont Hilscher. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. 4 ft. A. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. Minn. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. S S. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. put together as shown in the sketch. The reverse switch.. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. Jr. as shown. will last for several years. The feet. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. are made 2 by 4 in. R. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. is connected each point to a battery. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. B. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . B. S. W.. S. The upper switch. and rest on a brick placed under each end. West St. while the lower switch.strip. are 7 ft. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. Two wood-base switches. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. long. or left to right. long. Paul. posts. --Contributed by J. The 2 by 4-in.

3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. thick.every house. and a cylindrical . and valve crank S. Fig. cut in half. pulley wheel. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. the other parts being used for the bearing B. The hose E connects to the boiler. with two washers. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. The base is made of wood. E. The steam chest D. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. The valve motion is shown in Figs. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. the size of the hole in the bearing B. 3/8 in. either an old sewing-machine wheel. and the crank bearing C. and in Fig. which is made of tin. or anything available. and has two wood blocks. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. Fig. 1. 2. The piston is made of a stove bolt. FF. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. 2 and 3. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. is an old bicycle pump. H and K. In Fig. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. which will be described later.

--Contributed by Geo. J. is cut out of tin. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. can be an old oil can. This engine was built by W. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. San Jose. The boiler. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. Fry. as shown in Fig. Wis. This is wound with soft string. Fig. or galvanized iron. and saturated with thick oil. 1. and the desired result is obtained. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. Fig. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing.piece of hard wood. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. 4. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. . powder can. Cal. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. at that. of Cuba. G. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. First. using the positive wire as a pen. G. W. Schuh and A. and a very amusing trick. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. 3. as it is merely a trick of photography. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. to receive the connecting rod H. Eustice. C. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. The valve crank S. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank.

Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. C. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. to cross in the center. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. B. They may be of any size. as shown. as shown at AA. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. and pass ropes around . 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. Fig. 1 will be seen to rotate. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. diameter. Fig. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. 1 by covering up Figs. Fig. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. and Fig. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. When turning. B. The smaller wheel. Cut half circles out of each stave. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. and place a bell on the four ends. A curious effect can be produced with Fig.

W. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. procure a wooden spool. as shown in the illustration. which allows the use of small sized ropes. long. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. A (a short spool. This in turn will act on the transmitter. Louis. but not on all. St. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. From a piece of thin . DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera.M. To make this lensless microscope. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. produces a higher magnifying power). A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry.G. Mo. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. such as clothes lines. which accounts for the sound. --Contributed by H. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers.. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. from the transmitter.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B.

The lever. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. the object should be of a transparent nature. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. fastened to a wooden base. place a small object on the transparent disk. Viewed through this microscope. C. cut out a small disk. 2. is fastened at each end by pins. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. bent as shown. The pivot. (The area would appear 64 times as large. An innocent-looking drop of water. and at the center. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. if the distance is reduced to one-half. E. Fig. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. e. the diameter will appear three times as large. the diameter will appear twice as large. which costs little or nothing to make. otherwise the image will be blurred. C. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. B. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. held at arm's length. can be made of brass and the armature. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. and look through the hole D. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. . D. To use this microscope. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. H. 3. or 64 times. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. i. by means of brads. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size.. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. 1. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters.) But an object 3/4-in.. D. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. as in all microscopes of any power. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. darting across the field in every direction. and so on. which are pieces of hard wood. A. is made of iron. in which hay has been soaking for several days. The spring. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. if the distance is reduced to one-third. B.

coils wound with No. C. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. fastened near the end. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in.SOUNDER-A. nail soldered on A. in length and 16 in. which are made to receive a pivot. F. C. D. wood. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. binding posts: H spring The stop. wood: F. Fig. . The base of the key. between the armature and the magnet. The binding posts. A switch. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. A. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. Cut the top. wide. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. D. The back. B. brass. brass: E. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. KEY-A. wood: C. 26 wire: E. brass: B. long by 16 in. should be about 22 in. long and 14-1/2 in. FF. The door. wide. DD. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. B. or a single piece. Each side. or taken from a small one-point switch. wide. 16 in. 2. connection of D to nail. and are connected to the contacts. can be made panel as shown. D. thick. AA. 1. E. long. is cut from a board about 36 in. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. wide. Fig. K. HH. wide and set in between sides AA. soft iron. similar to the one used in the sounder. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. K. wide and about 20 in. 16 in. brass or iron soldered to nail.

Make 12 cleats. In operation. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. --Contributed by Carl Formhals.. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. Ill. cut in them. E. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. as shown. Garfield. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. 2 and made from 1/4-in. When the electrical waves strike the needle. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. 13-1/2 in. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. as shown in the sketch. long. AA. material. brads. with 3/4-in. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire .How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig.

--Contributed by R. N. and. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. Pushing the wire. The cord is also fastened to a lever. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. A. Y. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. the magnet. Ridgewood. A. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. filled with water. A (see sketch). F. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. E. N. will give a greater speed. when used with a motor. --Contributed by John Koehler. C. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. A fairly stiff spring. B. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. J. in order to increase the surface. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. Fairport. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. When the pipe is used. pulls down the armature. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. through which a piece of wire is passed. down into the water increases the surface in contact. Brown. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . and thus decreases the resistance. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor.

or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. N. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. B. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm.for the secret contact. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. Of course. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. even those who read this description. --Contributed by Perry A. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Borden. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Gachville. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. if desired.

Nails for stops are placed at DD. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. deep and 3/4 in. in a semicircle 2 in. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. With about 9 ft. for 6-in. records and 5-5/8 in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. Connect switch to post B. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. where the other end of wire is fastened. East Orange. as shown in Fig. records. C. --Contributed by Dr. --Contributed by H. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. A.whenever the bell rings. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. long and full 12-in. .. D. for 10in. J. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. Washington. C. wide. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. wide. N. thick and 12-in. Dobson. apart. Mangold. The top board is made 28-in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. E. long and 5 in. H. Cal. from the bottom. 2. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. wide. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. wide. Jr. wide. and on both sides of the middle shelf. Compton. 1. as shown in Fig. From a piece of brass a switch. The three shelves are cut 25-in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. Cut the end pieces each 36-in.

depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. B. as shown in Fig. which in operation is bent. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. closed. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. Roanoke. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. A. Va. When the cord is passed over pulley C.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. 1. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. E. to which is fastened a cord. as shown by the dotted lines. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum.

When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. Fig. square and 7/8 in. Fig. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. but a larger one could be built in proportion. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. Notice the break (S) in the track. E. through one of these holes. Bore two 1/4 in. These wheels should be 3/4 in. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. E. Put the rubber tube. in diameter. thick. one in each end. Cut two grooves. which should be about 1/2 in. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. In these grooves place wheels. wide. excepting the crank and tubing. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. The crankpin should fit tightly. Fig. Figs. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. wide. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. 1 in. against which the rubber tubing. CC. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Now put all these parts together. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. in diameter. 3). Figs. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. thick (A. deep. 5) when they are placed. deep and 1/2 in. in diameter. long. 1. apart. in diameter. In the sides (Fig. to turn on pins of stout wire. 1 in. it too loose. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. If the wheels fit too tightly. they will let the air through. they will bind. 3. B. as shown in the illustration.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. is compressed by wheels. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. holes (HH. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. Do not fasten the sides too . 4 shows the wheel-holder. D.

To use the pump. 2. 15 in. stands 20 in. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. If the motion of the wheels is regular. Take the center of the bar. and 3-1/2 in. mark again. from the bottom and 2 in. 1. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. and are 30 in. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Fig. 1. from each end. Then turn the crank from left to right. A in Fig. Fig. Cut six pieces. a platform should be added. the pump will give a steady stream. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. iron.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. B. from that mark the next hole. long. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. The screen which is shown in Fig. The animal does not fear to enter the box. Kan. Idana. because he can . and 1/2 by 1/4-in. though a small iron wheel is better. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. mark for hole and 3 in. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. of material. is all the expense necessary. costing 10 cents.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. from each end. Fig. tubing. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. as shown in Fig. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. AA. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. --Contributed by Dan H. and mark for a hole. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. as it gives steadiness to the motion. Two feet of 1/4-in. the other wheel has reached the bottom. AA. Fig. 1. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. For ease in handling the pump. beyond each of these two. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. The three legs marked BBB. 1. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. 2. 1. from each end. 17-1/2 in. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. In the two cross bars 1 in. Hubbard.

giving it a bright. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. dropping. Philadelphia. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. If the battery has been used before. The battery is now complete. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. add slowly. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. there is too much liquid in the jar. or small electric motors. --Contributed by H. The truncated. When through using the battery. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. rub the zinc well. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. of water dissolve 4 oz. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. and touches the bait the lid is released and. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. acid 1 part). sulphuric acid. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. long having two thumb screws. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. The mercury will adhere. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. until it is within 3 in. potassium bichromate. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. The battery is now ready for use. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. 1) must be prepared. To cause a flow of electricity. 14 copper wire. silvery appearance. It is useful for running induction coils. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. When the bichromate has all dissolved. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. however. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. Meyer. and the solution (Fig. 4 oz. some of it should be poured out. but if one casts his own zinc. stirring constantly. C. or. shuts him in. 2). Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. . If the solution touches the zinc. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. Place the carbon in the jar. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts.see through it: when he enters. If it is wet. of the top.

The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. the jump-spark coil . one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. pressing the pedal closes the door. Wis. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. however. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. After putting in the coal. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. Madison. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. with slight changes. The price of the coil depends upon its size. which opens the door. If. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit.Fig. i.. while the coal door is being opened. e. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. the battery circuit.

For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. Change the coil described. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. This coil. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. 6. coil. 7. being a 1-in. diameter. as shown in Fig. while a 12-in. which is made of light copper wire. and closer for longer distances. W W.7. the full length of the coil. in a partial vacuum. This will make an excellent receiver. 7). incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. . in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. 6. W W. apart. Fig. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. After winding. as shown in Fig. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. 7. 5.described elsewhere in this book. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. Now for the receiving apparatus. made of No. in a straight line from top to bottom. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in.

1 to 4. These circles. above the ground. in the air. Figs. 90°. to the direction of the current. using an electric motor and countershaft. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. but it could be run by foot power if desired. Run a wire from the other binding post. B the bed and C the tailstock. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. No. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. . transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. I run my lathe by power. at any point to any metal which is grounded. For an illustration. but simply illustrates the above to show that. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe.6 stranded. and hence the aerial line. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. 1). 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). may be easily made at very little expense. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. A. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. after all. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. which will be described later. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. as it matches the color well. being vertical. A large cone pulley would then be required. are analogous to the flow of induction. only. being at right angles. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. The writer does not claim to be the originator. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. 90°. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty.The aerial line. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. where A is the headstock.

hardwood being preferable for this purpose. 5. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. The bearing is then ready to be poured. The headstock. To make these bearings. and it is well to have the shaft hot. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. Fig. Fig. 4. one of which is shown in Fig. thick. B. 2 and 3. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. 4. and Fig. too. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. steel tubing about 1/8 in. deep. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. pitch and 1/8 in. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. 6. Fig. which pass through a piece of wood. 6 Headstock Details D. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. If the bearing has been properly made. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. tapered wooden pin. and runs in babbitt bearings. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. After pouring. on the under side of the bed. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . which are let into holes FIG. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. The bolts B (Fig. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. Fig. Heat the babbitt well. but not hot enough to burn it. A. just touching the shaft. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. 5.

To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut.other machines.J. Ill. N. FIG. lock nut. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. A. so I had to buy one.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. embedded in the wood. The tail stock (Fig. If one has a wooden walk. B. Take up about 5 ft. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. Newark. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. This prevents corrosion. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. of the walk . and a 1/2-in. If not perfectly true. the alarm is easy to fix up. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. they may be turned up after assembling. Oak Park. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. --Contributed by Donald Reeves.

to remove all traces of grease. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Fig. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. before dipping them in the potash solution. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Minneapolis. of water. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. To avoid touching it. water. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. hang the articles on the wires. clean the articles thoroughly. Jackson. add potassium cyanide again. --Contributed by R. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. Then make the solution . leaving a clear solution. 2). and the alarm is complete. (A. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Connect up an electric bell. Finally. so that they will not touch. S. to roughen the surface slightly. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. silver or other metal. Do not touch the work with the hands again. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. save when a weight is on the trap. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. American ash in 1-1/2 pt.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Minn. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings.

also. 18 wire. 1. Before silver plating. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. hole in its center. shaking. with the pivot 2 in. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. Fig. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. 1 not only unlocks. make a key and keyhole. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. about 25 ft. as at F. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. with water. a hand scratch brush is good. pewter. In rigging it to a sliding door. Fig. This solution. 3) directly over the hole. and the larger part (F. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. zinc. With an electric pressure of 3. and then treated as copper. with water. such metals as iron. A (Fig. Fig. The wooden catch. and 4 volts for very small ones. 1). slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. copper. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. 1 in. 1). thick by 3 in. light strokes. German silver. Then.up to 2 qt. which . Having finished washing the precipitate. must be about 1 in. B should be of the same wood. long. use 2 volts for large articles. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. of water. Where Bunsen cells are used. lead. Fig. If accumulators are used. I. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. silver can be plated direct. which is held by catch B. when the point of the key touches the tin. 3) strikes the bent wire L. 3. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. piece of broomstick. If more solution is required. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. Screw the two blocks together. 10 in. --Model Engineer. long. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. The wooden block C. from the lower end. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. Can be made of a 2-in. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. if one does not possess a buffing machine. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. of clothesline rope and some No. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. but opens the door. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. When all this is set up. Make a somewhat larger block (E. an old electric bell or buzzer. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. To provide the keyhole. square. saw a piece of wood. which is advised. On brass. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. will serve for the key.5 to 4 volts. Repeat six times. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. a circuit is completed. Take quick. as shown in Fig. nickel and such metals. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. A 1/4 in. This is best done by filling the bottle with water.

and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. top. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. Klipstein. the requisites are a large soap box. should be cut a hole.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. so much the better. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. One thing changes to another and back again. To prepare such a magic cave. Receiving the bowl again. Fig. One end is removed. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. Heavy metal objects. --Contributed by E. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. 2. Objects appear and disappear. some black cloth. surrounding a perfectly black space. The box must be altered first. and black art reigns supreme. On either side of the box. . The interior must be a dead black. no painting inside is required. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. H. Next. and plenty of candles. enlarged. the box should be painted black both inside and out. Fig. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. to throw the light toward the audience. one-third of the length from the remaining end. the illumination in front must be arranged. Fig. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. spoons and jackknives. although a little more trouble. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. between the parlor and the room back of it. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. with the lights turned low. which unlocks the door. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. 116 Prospect St. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. Next. 3. and hands its contents round to the audience. a few simple tools. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. Fig. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. cut in one side. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. Thus. 0. in his shirt sleeves. New Jersey. B. or cave. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. he points with one finger to the box. and a slit. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. is the cut through which the rope runs. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. The magician stands in front of this. heighten the illusion. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. such as forks. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. H. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. half way from open end to closed end. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. with a switch as in Fig. floor. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. and finally lined inside with black cloth. In front of you. 1. shows catch B. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. 2. East Orange. H. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. he tosses it into the cave. He removes the bowl from the black box. 1. sides and end. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. some black paint..

in which are oranges and apples. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. The exhibitor should be . and pours them from the bag into a dish. the room where the cave is should be dark. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. into the eyes of him who looks. But illusions suggest themselves. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. The illusion. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. which can be made to dance either by strings.Finally. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. a screen must be used. is on a table) so much the better. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. which are let down through the slit in the top. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. you must have an assistant. only he. of course. and if portieres are impossible. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. his confederate behind inserts his hand. Consequently. was identical with this. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. and several black drop curtains. had a big stage. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. one on each side of the box. if. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. of course. The audience room should have only low lights. as presented by Hermann. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain.

held down by another disk F (Fig. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. b1. 1. On the disk G are two brass strips. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. About the center piece H moves a disk. terminal c3 will show . The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance.a boy who can talk.. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. at L. b3. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. by 4 in. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). when handle K is turned to one side.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. A. and a common screw. 1. b2. c4. is shown in the diagram. c1. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . and c4 + electricity. their one end just slips under the strips b1. b2. FIG. and c1 – electricity. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. f2. by means of two wood screws. 2. so arranged that. or b2. held down on disk F by two other terminals. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. 2). making contact with them. as shown in Fig. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. respectively. terminal c3 will show +. respectively. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. e1 and e2. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. if you turn handle K to the right. d. with three brass strips. square. A represents a pine board 4 in. Finally. Fig. Then. making contact with them as shown at y. c3. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. c2. respectively.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. 2. and c2 to the zinc. held down on it by two terminals. vice versa. or binding posts. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. b3.

By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. Tuttle. -Contributed by A. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. thus making the message audible in the receiver. 4. 5. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. when A is on No. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. --Contributed by Eugene F. jump spark coil.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. from four batteries. and then hold the receiver to your ear. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. when on No. 3. from three batteries. E. Joerin. Ohio. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. when on No. Newark. and when on No. .. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. and C and C1 are binding posts. Jr. When switch B is closed and A is on No. B is a onepoint switch. 1. you have the current of one battery. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). from five batteries. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna.

mark. mark. A. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. over the bent portion of the rule. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. so one can see the time. The device thus arranged. and supporting the small weight.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. A. New Orleans. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. per second for each second. and placed on the windowsill of the car. Thus. which may be a button or other small object. B. La. P. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. Wis. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. as shown in the sketch. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. Handy Electric Alarm . is the device of H.. When you do not have a graduate at hand. per second. A. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. Redmond. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. rule. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. E. traveled by the thread. of Burlington. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel.

you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. . B. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. --Contributed by Gordon T. which illuminates the face of the clock. but may be closed at F any time desired. and with the same result. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. for a wetting is the inevitable result. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward.which has a piece of metal. --C. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. soldered to the alarm winder. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. S. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. wrapping the wire around the can several times. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. C. Crafton. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. When the alarm goes off. Instead. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. Pa. Lane. Then if a mishap comes.

the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. and many other interesting and useful articles. L. Macey. battery zincs. Two cleats. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. which may. cannons. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. whence it is soon tracked into the house. when it is being prepared. ornaments of various kinds. but it is a mistake to try to do this. C. A. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. and duplicates of all these. --Contributed by A. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. AA. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. as shown. With the easily made devices about to be described. New York City. small machinery parts. models and miniature objects. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. If there is no foundry Fig. engines. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. 1 . as shown in Fig. BE. binding posts. It is possible to make molds without a bench. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. bearings. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. The first thing to make is a molding bench. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. 1.

H. 1. 1. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips.How to Make a Mold [96] . and the lower pieces. DD. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. 2 . For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. The cloth bag. An old teaspoon. A A." or upper half. makes a very good sieve. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. D. CC. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. is shown more clearly in Fig. is nailed to each end of the cope. a little larger than the outside of the flask. The dowels. white metal. by 8 in. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. but this operation will be described more fully later on. E. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. as shown. CC. try using sand from other sources. G. as shown. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. It is made of wood and is in two halves. high. The flask. The rammer. F.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. Fig. by 6 in. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. will be required." or lower part. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. and a sieve. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. Fig. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. is made of wood. If desired the sieve may be homemade. If the box is not very strong. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. A wedge-shaped piece. II . say 12 in. previous to sawing. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. J. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. is about the right mesh.near at hand. and the "drag. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. which can be either aluminum. and saw it in half longitudinally. and this. which can be made of a knitted stocking. which should be nailed in. 2. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. is filled with coal dust. A slight shake of the bag Fig. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. the "cope.

scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. In finishing the ramming. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. or "drag. as shown at D. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. where they can watch the molders at work. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. and thus judge for himself. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. and if water is added. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. The sand is then ready for molding. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. and scatter about 1/16 in. as shown at E. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. or "cope. After ramming. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. and then more sand is added until Fig. as shown. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. It is then rammed again as before.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard." in position. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. and by grasping with both hands. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. in order to remove the lumps. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. the surface of the sand at . as shown at C. Place another cover board on top. as it is much easier to learn by observation. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. turn the drag other side up. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. as described. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. everything will be ready for the operation of molding.

after being poured. is next cut. as shown in the sketch. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. made out of steel rod. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. After drawing the pattern. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. thus holding the crucible securely. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. as shown at J." or pouring-hole. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. Fig. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle.E should be covered with coal-dust. This is done with a spoon. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. III. in order to prevent overheating. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. as shown at G. as shown at H. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. as shown at F. deep. and then pour. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. Place a brick or other flat. it shows that the sand is too wet. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. as shown at H. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. in diameter. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. place the cope back on the drag. wide and about 1/4 in. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. . which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. The "sprue. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. thus making a dirty casting. from the surface of the mold to the pattern.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. to give the air a chance to escape. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used.

In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. white metal and other scrap available. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. Morton. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. In my own case I used four batteries. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. If a good furnace is available. Although the effect in the illustration . may be used in either direction. Minneapolis. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. used only for zinc. 15% lead. --Contributed by Harold S. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. and the casting is then ready for finishing. or from any adjacent pair of cells. battery zincs. but any reasonable number may be used. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. Referring to the figure. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. is very desirable. babbitt. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. although somewhat expensive. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. and. the following device will be found most convenient.

How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. Then walk down among the audience. B. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. which will be sufficient to hold it. If desired. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. connected by cords to the rudder. Make one of these pieces for each arm. 3/4 in. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. --Contributed by Draughtsman. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . A. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. shaft made. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. backward. Chicago. Then replace the table. 2. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. To make it take a sheet-iron band. The brass rings also appear distorted. outward. B. may be made of hardwood. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. By replacing the oars with paddles. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. Fig. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. The bearings. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. as shown at A. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. as shown in the illustration. Put a sharp needle point.

This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. The hubs. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. when it will again return to its original state. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. Snow. as shown in Fig. 1. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. spoiling its appearance. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. and a weight. but when in motion. should be made of wood. If galvanized iron is used. If babbitt is used. A. 1. Fig. E. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. D. 1. or under pressure. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. or the paint will come off. C. 2 and 3. A block of ice. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. It may seem strange that ice . being simply finely divided ice. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. In the same way. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. 3. 2. W. as shown in Fig. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. The covers. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps.melted babbitt.

thus giving a high resistance contact. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. in. but by placing it between books. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. The rate of flow is often very slow.. Crafton. Lane. by 2 in. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. or supporting it in some similar way. P. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. --Contributed by Gordon T. as shown on page 65.should flow like water. but. Pa. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. by 5 in. which resembles ice in this respect. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. as per sketch. by 1/2 in. no matter how slow the motion may be. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. and assume the shape shown at B. it will gradually change from the original shape A. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. B. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. Pressing either push button. whenever there is any connection made at all. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. square. by 1/4. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. sometimes only one or two feet a day. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. brass.

Pa. weight. A is the circuit breaker.thumb screws. G. --Contributed by A. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. the battery. The parts are: A. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. alarm clock. Ward. and five dry batteries. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. B. wooden supports. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. the induction coil. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. as shown. C. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. draft. E. vertical lever.000 ft. G. horizontal lever. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. about the size used for automobiles. as shown. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. and C. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. pulleys. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. The success depends upon a slow current. furnace. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. J. K . In the wiring diagram. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. D. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. draft chain. cord. B. F. H. I. Indianapolis. Wilkinsburg. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out.

-Contributed by Gordon Davis. where house plants are kept in the home. 3. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. Mich. The frame (Fig. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. such as used for a storm window. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. material framed together as shown in Fig. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. 2 are dressed to the right angle. which will provide a fine place for the plants. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. Kalamazoo. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. will fit nicely in them. as well as the bottom. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. Artistic Window Boxes The top. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. How to Make an Electroscope [103] .

If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. and a suitable source of power. as indicated by Fig. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. e. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. Push the needle into the cork. so as to increase the current. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. one can regulate the batteries as required. by connecting them in series. 1 each complete with base. 1. Canada. which sells for 25 cents. this must be done with very great caution. since a battery is the most popular source of power. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp.. Thus.. as if drawn upon for its total output. This is more economical than dry cells. in this connection. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. in any system of lamps. It must be remembered. and the instrument will then be complete. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. --Contributed by Wm. but maintain the voltage constant. for some time very satisfactorily. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. and will give the . 1 cp.. and cost 27 cents FIG. W. The 1/2-cp. S. i. A certain number of these. Halifax. a cork and a needle. N. However. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. where they are glad to have them taken away. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. Grant. multiples of series of three. is something that will interest the average American boy. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. in diameter. after a rest. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. However. can be connected up in series. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel.

and for Christmas trees. although the first cost is greater. Thus. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. 11 series. Fig. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. 18 B & S.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. for display of show cases. 2 shows the scheme. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. making. and diffused light in a room. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. FIG. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. double insulated wire wherever needed. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. and is wound for any voltage up to ten.. each. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. and then lead No. In conclusion. if wound for 6 volts. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. 3. which is the same as that of one battery. and running the series in parallel. Chicago. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. However. So. we simply turn on the water. lamps. where the water pressure is the greatest. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet.proper voltage. or 22 lights. especially those of low internal resistance. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. generates the power for the lights. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. by the proper combination of these. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. lamps. as in Fig. 1-cp. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. If wound for 10 volts. lamp. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. These will give 3 cp. Thus. to secure light by this method. . and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. according to the water pressure obtainable.

--Contributed by F. B. Cal. field of motor. B. AA. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. BB. A indicates the ground. Plymouth. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. center points of switch. Ind. . bars of pole-changing switch. the letters indicate as follows: FF. and the sides. as shown in the sketch. outside points of switch. Emig. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. thus reversing the machine. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. or a tempting bone. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. are cut just alike. Santa Clara. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. DD. brushes of motor. CC. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. A. --Contributed by Leonard E. Parker. simply change the switch. we were not bothered with them. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. and C. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. switch. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. After I connected up my induction coil. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. To reverse the motor. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. or from one pattern. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. a bait of meat.

a hammer. thus locking the door. attached to the end of the armature B. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. a piece of string. Fry. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch.. which is in the door. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. The button can be hidden. as it is the key to the lock. or would remain locked. The experiment works best . If it is not.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. A. -Contributed by Claude B. Hutchinson. 903 Vine St. and a table or bench. When the circuit is broken a weight. merely push the button E. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. Melchior. Minn. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. To unlock the door. W. Cal. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. San Jose. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. one cell being sufficient.

Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. in the ceiling and has a window weight. the stick falls away. attached at the other end. Crawford Curry.. forming a loop. . A. C. as shown in Fig. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. 3. P. -. 4). When the alarm rings in the early morning. Brockville. I. which pulls the draft open. 18 Gorham St. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Wis. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. --Contributed by Geo. 3. where it will remain suspended as shown. 2. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Schmidt. Culebra.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. the current flows with the small arrows. Canada. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. 1). the key turns. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Madison.Contributed by F. releasing the weight. W. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. run through a pulley. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Tie the ends of the string together. Ontario. D. Porto Rico. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. On another block of wood fasten two wires. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule.

Use a barrel to work on. which fasten to the horn. and then to the receiver. or tree. --Contributed by Wm.. or from a bed of flowers. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. square and 1 in. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. thick. N. including the mouthpiece. J. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. get two pieces of plate glass. and the other to the battery. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. Farley. Connect two wires to the transmitter. J. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. The cut shows the arrangement. made with his own hands. running one direct to the receiver. Camden. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. Jr. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. and break the corners off to make them round. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. thence to a switch. S. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. and . D. R. 6 in. First. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone.

or less. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. Fasten. and is ready for polishing. 30 minutes and 90 minutes.. with pitch. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. Fig. of water. Have ready six large dishes. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. wide around the convex glass or tool. When dry. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. unless a longer focal length is wanted. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. by the side of the lamp. with 1/4-in. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. wet till soft like paint. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. spaces. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. A. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. Fig. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. or it will not polish evenly. melt 1 lb. and the under glass or tool convex. a round 4-in. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. twice the focal length away. 2. using straight strokes 2 in. 1. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. and label. and a large lamp. Use a binger to spread it on with. then take 2 lb. and spread on the glass. the coarse grinding must be continued.. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. When polishing the speculum. When done the glass should be semitransparent. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. in length. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. while walking around the barrel. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. wetting it to the consistency of cream. as in Fig. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. 2. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. L. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. Then warm and press again with the speculum. also rotate the glass. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. In a dark room. so the light . then 8 minutes. set the speculum against the wall.

cement a strip of board 8 in. with distilled water. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. 25 gr. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) ….. face down. or hills. deep.……………………………. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. then ammonia until bath is clear. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water …………………………….. Nitric acid . and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. the speculum will show some dark rings. if a hill in the center. Silver nitrate …………………………….. 39 gr. When dry.. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. Now add enough of the solution A. Place the speculum S. With pitch. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. Fig. 2. as in K. Two glass or earthenware dishes. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Fig. Solution D: Sugar loaf .……………. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz.. Place the speculum. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. Then add solution B.100 gr.. also how the rays R from a star . long to the back of the speculum.. touched with rouge. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. 4 oz. from the lamp. longer strokes. The polishing and testing done. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. the speculum is ready to be silvered. When the focus is found. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. The knife should not be more than 6 in.. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. Fig. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube.………………………………. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. that was set aside. 4 oz.. 2. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. must be procured. fill the dish with distilled water. 100 gr. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum).. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. and pour the rest into the empty dish. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. If not. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. 840 gr. Then add 1 oz.

Mellish. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. Place over lens. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. The flatter they are the less they will distort. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. telescope can be made at home. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. long and cost me just $15. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. Make the tube I of sheet iron. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. Then I made the one described. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. . Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. and proceed as for any picture. two glass prisms.. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. My telescope is 64 in. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. About 20. cover with paper and cloth. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. slightly wider than the lens mount. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. with an outlay of only a few dollars.John E. is a satisfactory angle. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. deg. using strawboard and black paper. stop down well after focusing. which proves to be easy of execution. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. Thus an excellent 6-in.

just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. Boody. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. To unlock. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. push the button D. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. B. Do not stir it. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. -Contributed by A. 1. as shown in Fig. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. D. through the lens of the camera and on the board. then add a little sulphate of potash. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. and reflect through the negative. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. Zimmerman. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. add the plaster gradually to the water. . A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. or powdered alum. complete the arrangement. 2. The paper is exposed. The rays of the clear. Ill. instead of the contrary. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. unobstructed light strike the mirror. but will not preserve its hardening. A. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. says the Master Painter. Fig.

2. 3. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. To reverse. Connect the wires as shown in Fig.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. as at A and B. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. as in Fig. but will remain suspended without any visible support. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. Fig. Then blow through the spool. 1). so that it can rotate about these points. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. 2. Fasten on the switch lever. use a string. throw . This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. also provide them with a handle. as shown in the sketch. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig.

A is the electricbell magnet. San Antonio. and E E. Take out. -Contributed by Morris L. the armature. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Tex. Thomas. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Levy. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Neb. binding posts. C C. --Contributed by R. North Bend. rinse in alcohol. In the sketch. Push one end of the tire into the hole. L. .Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. carbon sockets. B. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. --Contributed by Geo. D. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Go McVicker. wash in running water. Tex. as shown in the sketch. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. although this is not necessary. and rub dry with linen cloth. carbons. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. San Marcos.

It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. 36 magnet wire. 14 or No. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. Bell. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. 16 magnet wire. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. --Contributed by Joseph B. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. long or more. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. wound evenly about this core. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. By means of two or more layers of No. Brooklyn. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. Divested of nearly all technical phrases.

at a time. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. 1. as shown in Fig. long and 5 in. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. Beginning half an inch from one end. This makes a condenser which may be folded. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. The following method of completing a 1-in. 2 yd. diameter. a box like that shown in Fig. A 7/8-in. then the strip of tin-foil. as the maker prefers. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. In shaping the condenser. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. and finally the fourth strip of paper. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. After the core wires are bundled. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. which is desirable. and the results are often unsatisfactory. the entire core may be purchased readymade. The primary is made of fine annealed No. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. in length. about 6 in. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. which is an important factor of the coil. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. one piece of the paper is laid down. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. in diameter. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. 4. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. coil illustrates the general details of the work. The condenser is next wrapped . wide. but if it is not convenient to do this work. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. When cut and laid in one continuous length. or 8 in. with room also for a small condenser. No. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. hole is bored in the center of one end. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. making two layers.which would be better to buy ready-made. long and 2-5/8 in. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary.

Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. B. 4 in. lines H. The alarm key will turn and drop down. long and 12 in.securely with bands of paper or tape.) The wiring diagram. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. to the door.. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. which allows wiring at the back. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. one from bell. flange turned on one side. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. G. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. F. bell. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. spark. the letters indicate as follows: A. and one from battery. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. shelf for clock. A. C. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. I. copper lever with 1-in. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. open switch C. long to key. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. E. switch. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. ready for assembling. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. round so that the inside . and the other sheet. go. by 12 in. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. which is insulated from the first. B. wide. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. V-shaped copper strip. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. battery . then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. forms the other pole or terminal. shows how the connections are made. D. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. whole length. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. 3. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. Fig. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in.

You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. Line the furnace. and then rivet the seam. of zinc sulphate. The circuit should also have a high resistance.. London.diameter is 7 in. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. but with the circuit. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. of blue stone. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. says the Model Engineer. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. Short-circuit for three hours. Use a glass or metal shade. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. but add 5 or 6 oz. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. That is what they are for. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. . do not shortcircuit. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. This is for blowing. and the battery is ready for use. instead of close to it. 2 in. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. from the bottom. If desired for use immediately. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade.

and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. 1. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. and then. or think they can do the same let them try it.9 of a volt. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. thus producing two different vibrations. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. long. 2. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. If too low. Enlarge the hole slightly. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. porcelain and paper. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Outside of the scientific side involved. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. Try it and see. for some it will turn one way. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. If any or your audience presume to dispute. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. imparting to them a violet tinge. while for others it will not revolve at all. g. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. oxygen to ozone. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. At least it is amusing. grip the stick firmly in one hand. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. but the thing would not move at all. herein I describe a much better trick. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. affects . changes white phosphorus to yellow. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. for others the opposite way. This type of battery will give about 0. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. square and about 9 in. Very few can make it turn both ways at will.. To operate the trick. Ohio. as in the other movement. the second finger along the side. and therein is the trick. below the bottom of the zinc. Make a hole through the center or this one arm.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in." which created much merriment. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made.

This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. an old tripod screw. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. but small flowers. earth. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. chemicals. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. and. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. however. a means for holding it vertical. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. insects. a short-focus lens. but this is less satisfactory. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. but not essential. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand .a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. and one of them is photomicrography. says the Photographic Times. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. To the front board is attached a box.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. if possible. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in.

Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 12 ft. 7 ft. Ft Lifting Power. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. 65 4 lb. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. in Cu. 5 ft. 381 24 lb. 7-1/2 in. 268 17 lb. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. Cap. in diameter. The following table will give the size. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 113 7 lb. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. and a line. 7-1/2 in. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. balloon. 8 ft. while it is not so with the quill. Boston. 5 in. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 6 ft. Mass. Madison. which is 15 ft. AB. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 179 11 lb. Fig. 697 44 lb. 905 57 lb. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 1. or 31 ft.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. or 3 ft.--Contributed by George C. 9 ft. 11 ft. A line. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. wide from which to cut a pattern. CD. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. If the balloon is 10 ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb. long and 3 ft.

boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. using a fine needle and No. 3. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. cutting all four quarters at the same time. 4. and so on. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. of the very best heavy body. 70 thread. The cloth segments are sewed together. Procure 1 gal. The pattern is now cut. on the curved line from B to C. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. 2. of beeswax and boil well together. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. making a double seam as shown in Fig. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. Repeat this operation four times. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. The amounts necessary for a 10- . Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. This test will show if the bag is airtight. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. keeping the marked part on the outside.

as shown in Fig. 5. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. 1 lb. leaving the hand quite clean. About 15 lb. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. C. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. a clean white rag. ]. . of gas in one hour. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel.Green Iron ammonium citrate . C. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. pipe. ft. of iron. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. with the iron borings. Fill the other barrel. A. balloon are 125 lb. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. of sulphuric acid. if it is good it will dry off. B. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. using a fine brush. or a fan. with water 2 in. When the clock has dried. capacity and connect them. it is not fit to use. 150 gr. of iron borings and 125 lb. but if any grease remains on the hand. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. Water 1 oz. . this should be repeated frequently. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces.ft. which may sound rather absurd. or dusting with a dry brush. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. oil the spindle holes carefully. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. B. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. After washing a part. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. A. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. 5 . All FIG. The outlet. The 3/4-in. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. should not enter into the water over 8 in. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured.. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. of water will make 4 cu. 1 lb. until no more dirt is seen. A. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. to the bag. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. B. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. with 3/4in. In the barrel. above the level of the water in barrel A. by fixing. Vegetable oils should never be used. The benzine should be clean and free from oil.

Exposure. . of any make. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. and keep in the dark until used. fix in hypo. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. .Water 1 oz. or zinc. and a vigorous negative must be used. The negative pole. The miniature 16 cp. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. A cold. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Dry in the dark. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. of the cell is connected to the aerial line.. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. keeping the fingers out of the solution. A longer exposure will be necessary. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. or carbon. dry atmosphere will give best results. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. This aerial collector can be made in . The positive pole. or battery. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Dry the plates in the dark. Port Melbourne. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. says the Moving Picture World.000 ft. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. Printing is done in the sun. at the time of employment. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. 20 to 30 minutes. toning first if desired. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. to avoid blackened skin.

forming a cup of the pipe. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. long. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. a positive and a negative. The storage cell. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. and as less current will flow the short way. the resistance is less. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. 5 in. holes . either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. in diameter. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water.various ways. lead pipe. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. This will complete the receiving station. both positive and negative. when left exposed to the air. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. making a ground with one wire. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. If the waves strike across the needle. will soon become dry and useless. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. As the telephone offers a high resistance. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. and have the other connected with another aerial line. as described below. If the wave ceases. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. lay a needle.

on each end. says the Pathfinder. a round one. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. The other plate is connected to the zinc. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. and the other to the negative. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. B. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. one to the positive. does not need to be watertight. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. an oblong one and a triangular one. or tube B. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube.as possible. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. This. Two binding-posts should be attached. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. or tube C. of course. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. namely: a square hole. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. by soldering the joint. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. D. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. When mixing the acid and water. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. This support or block. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. This box can be square. except for about 1 in. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown .

as shown in Fig. C. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. as it is not readily overturned. and has plenty of good seating capacity. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. back and under. and match them together. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. 2. 2. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. Ill. as shown in Fig. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. about 20 in. leaving about 1/16 in. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. This punt. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. A and B. is built 15 ft. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. wide. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. C. deep and 4 ft. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. wide. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. Chicago. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. 1. 3. Only galvanized nails should be used. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. 1. . long. thick cut two pieces alike. were fitted by this one plug. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. in place on the wood. The third piece of brass. all around the edge.

Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. B. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. A. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . square (Fig 2). Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. A piece of 1/4-in. Tacoma. is cut 1 in. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. gas pipe. Wash. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. thick and 3-1/2 in. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. In Fig.

* * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . or "rotor.--Contributed by Charles H. In designing. it had to be borne in mind that. The winding of the armature. no more current than a 16-cp. which can be developed in the usual manner. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. lamp. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum." has no connection with the outside circuit. Wagner. with the exception of insulated wire. and to consume.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. without auxiliary phase. no special materials could be obtained. if possible. which the writer has made. may be of interest to some of our readers. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. H. says the Model Engineer.

5. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. A. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. bolts put in and tightened up. The stator is wound full with No. also varnished before they were put in." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. wrought iron. with the dotted line. Holes 5-32 in. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. as shown in Fig. 4. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. C. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. about 2-1/2 lb. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. B. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. thick. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. They are not particularly accurate as it is. being used. 2. no steel being obtainable. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. or "stator. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. and filled with rivets. After assembling a second time. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. holes. to be filed out after they are placed together. while the beginnings . which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. Unfortunately. were then drilled and 1/4-in. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. and all sparking is avoided. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. as shown in Fig. 1. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. this little machine is not self-starting. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. in diameter were drilled in the corners. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply.the field-magnet. 3.

as before stated. The rotor is wound with No. and the other by reduction in the camera. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. 1.. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. Newark. if applied immediately. No starting resistance is needed. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. Jr. One is by contact. J. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. 3-Contributed by C. The image should . The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. a regulating resistance is not needed. McKinney. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. The lantern slide is a glass plate. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. If too late for alcohol to be of use. and as the motor runs at constant speed. N. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. and especially of colored ones. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. and would not easily get out of order. film to film. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. This type of motor has drawbacks. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. and as each layer of wire was wound. In making slides by contact. E. 2. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. as a means of illustrating songs. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. it would be very simple to build. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. as shown in Fig. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. and all wound in the same direction. having no commutator or brushes.

The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. 4. a little extra work will be necessary. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. It is best. and then a plain glass. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. 2. 1. Fig. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. to use a plain fixing bath. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. 5. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. if possible. about a minute. as shown in Fig. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. and development should be over in three or four minutes. as shown in Fig. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. except that the binding is different. they are much used by travelers. also. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. 3. D. Select a room with one window. If the exposure has been correct. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. These can be purchased from any photo material store. A. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. the formulas being found in each package of plates. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. over the mat.appear in. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. B. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. Being unbreakable. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. Draw lines with a pencil. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. C.

The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. 1. in diameter and 20 in. as shown at B. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. as shown at A. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. is to be used for the seat. from the center of this dot draw a star. If the star is in front of the left eye. These longer pieces can be made square. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. or other stout cloth. long. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. as shown in Fig. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. Corinth. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. long. from the ends. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. 16 in. holes bored in the end pieces. 2. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. in diameter and 40 in. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. wide and 50 in. from the end piece of the chair. A piece of canvas. 1. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. long. Fig. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. Hastings. Vt. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. while the dot will be in front of the other. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. known as rods and cones. Fig.

made from an ordinary sash cord. O'Gara. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. A belt. . They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley.-Contributed by P. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. per square inch. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. 1. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. A disk 1 in. as well as to operate other household machines. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. in thickness and 10 in. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. Auburn. J. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. as shown in Fig. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. 2. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. Cal. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. as shown in Fig.

Bore a 1/4-in. it serves a very useful purpose. long. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. will be the thickness of the object. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. leaving it shaped like a bench. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. then removing the object. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. with as fine a thread as possible. and the construction is complete. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. thick and 2-1/2 in. fairly accurate. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. 3/4 in. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. screwing it through the nut. or inconvenient to measure. divided by the number of threads to the inch. to the top of the bench. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. Put the bolt in the hole. Cut out a piece from the block combination. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. square for a support. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. says the Scientific American. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. A simple. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. direction. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. . Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. The part of a rotation of the bolt. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. wide.

long. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. bolt in each hole. which show up fine at night. material 12 ft. Oal. piece of wood 12 ft. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Bore a 3/4-in. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. beyond the end of the wood. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. The wheel should be open . --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. long is used for the center pole. Place a 3/4-in. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Santa Maria. globe that has been thrown away as useless. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform.

long with the upper or wider part 4 in. L. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. pieces used for the spokes. C. H and J. which should be 1/4 in. thick is used for the armature. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. from the top end. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. A. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. and the lower part 61/2 in. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. square and 3 or 4 in.Side and Top View or have spokes. from the ends. is soldered. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. Fort Worth. The boards may be nailed or bolted. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. thick. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. long. The spool . long. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. made of the same material. wide and 1/8 in. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. in diameter. to be operated by the magnet coil. A cross bar. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. B. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. at the top and 4 in. long. of the ends with boards. at the bottom. The coil. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. Tex. thick. long. A piece of brass 2 in. C. O. P. and on its lower end a socket. Graham. 1/2 in.-Contributed by A. wide and 1/8 in.

000. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. At the bottom end of the frame. F. one without either rubber or metal end. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. long. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. The armature. for insulating the brass ferrule. This is a very neat trick if performed right. This tie can be used on grain sacks. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. A soft piece of iron. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. S. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. and place it against a door or window casing. 1. --Contributed by Arthur D. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. then with a firm.--A. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. and in numerous other like instances. that holds the lower carbon. by soldering. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. S. Mass. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. . D and E. A. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. C. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. which may be had by using German silver wire. R. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. When you slide the pencil along the casing. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way.E. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. or a water rheostat heretofore described. and directly centering the holes H and J. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. 2 the hat hanging on it. B. Bradlev.is about 2-1/2 in. placing the end of the cord under the first loop.000 for irrigation work. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. 2.J. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. is drilled. do it without any apparent effort. Randolph.

for adjustment. about 1 in. about 3/16 in. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. hole in the center. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. The vibrator. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. Fig. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. in diameter. is constructed in the usual manner. 1. in diameter and 1/16 in. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. The vibrator B. B. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. S. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. and the support C are made from thin spring steel.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. long and 1 in. leaving the projections as shown. D. Fig. Experiment with Heat [134] . It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. may be made from a 3/8-in. The core of the coil. for the primary. is connected to a flash lamp battery. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. and then 1. mixed with water to form a paste. wide. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. The coil ends are made from cardboard. About 70 turns of No. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. for the secondary. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. in diameter and 2 in. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. 2. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. about 1/8 in. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. 1. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. F. S. thick.500 turns of No. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. from the core and directly opposite. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. C. in diameter. A. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. The switch. with a 3/16-in. long.

While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. with which to operate the dial. lighted. it laps down about 8 in. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. long and when placed over the board. brass plate. Fig. as shown. The tin is 4 in. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. 16 in. 1. which is cut with two holes.Place a small piece of paper. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. 2 to fit the two holes. The three screws were then put in the hasp. in an ordinary water glass. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. and then well clinched. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. thick on the inside. The lock. 1. board. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. The hasp. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. as shown in the sketch. between the boards. was to be secured by only three brass screws. . to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. wide. which is only 3/8-in. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. which seemed to be insufficient. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. The knob on the dial extends out too far. and the same distance inside of the new board.

The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. not shiny. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. black color. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. one in each division. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. clear glass as shown. which completely divides the box into two parts. but when the front part is illuminated. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. or in the larger size mentioned. high for use in window displays. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. and the back left dark. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. square and 10-1/2 in. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. square and 8-1/2 in. the glass. When making of wood. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. any article placed therein will be reflected in. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. If the box is made large enough. When the rear part is illuminated.

or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. as it appears. alternately. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. place the goods in one part and the price in the other.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. and with the proper illumination one is changed. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. a tank 2 ft. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. as shown at A in the sketch. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. When using as a window display. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp.. as shown in the sketch. long and 1 ft. wide will be about the right size. When there is no electric current available. into the other. above the top of the tank. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. . Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. or a piece of this width put on the bottom.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

This hole must be continued . The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. but with a length of 12 in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. thick and 3 in. 5 ft. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. square and 40 in.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. gauge for depth. or ferrous sulphate. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. with a length of 13 in. Three windows are provided. and a door in front. under sides together. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. The 13-in. 6 in. wide. each. O. long. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. square. two pieces 1-1/8 in. is the green vitriol. bit. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. The pieces can then be taken out. and a solution of iron sulphate added. and boring two holes with a 1-in. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. A small platform. high. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. This precipitate is then washed. If a planing mill is near. Shape the under sides first. 2 ft. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. one for each side. bore from each end. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. Columbus. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. as shown. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. hole. hole bored the full length through the center. and 6 ft. however. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. wide. radius. then use a red-hot iron to finish. 1 in. lines gauged on each side of each. is built on the front. long. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. from the ground. dried and mixed with linseed oil. Iron sulphate. using a 3/4-in. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other.

sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Electric globes--two. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. Saw the two blocks apart. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright.through the pieces forming the base. When this is dry." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. For art-glass the metal panels are . apply two coats of wax. thick and 3 in. A better way. three or four may be attached as shown. If the parts are to be riveted. if shade is purchased. When the filler has hardened. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. hole in each block. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. Directions will be found on the filler cans. square and drawing a diagonal on each.

Construction of Shade . and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. such as copper. as brass. METAL SHADE . Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.The Completed Lamp cut out. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.

Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. and Fig. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. the object and the background. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. one way and 1/2 in. the other. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. as shown in the sketch. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. Figure 1 shows the side. 2 the front view of this stand. as in ordinary devices. The arms holding the glass.

is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. as shown in the cut. pointing north and south. thus forming a 1/4-in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. about 1-1/4 in. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. thick 5/8-in. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. channel in the circumference of the ring. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. uncork and recork again. wide and 6-5/16 in. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. An ordinary pocket compass. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. and swinging freely. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. Before mounting the ring on the base. in diameter for a base. Cut another circular piece 11 in. Put the ring in place on the base. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. as shown in the sketch. long. in diameter. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. as it is very poisonous. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. If the light becomes dim. outside diameter. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. and an inside diameter of 9 in.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. wide and 11 in. lies exactly in the plane of the coil.

to which a wire has been soldered for connections. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils.289 . 1 oz. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. in diameter and 8 in. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. B. Place on top the so- .375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. CC. of the top. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. from the second to the third. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. and mirrors. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. The results given should be multiplied by 1.088 . For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .865 1. AA. Corresponding mirrors.500 . high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.420 . Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. are mounted on a base. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. above the half can. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg.600 . black oxide of copper. and north of the Ohio river.715 .182 . EE. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. into these cylinders.

and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. little crystals forming in the liquid. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. 62 gr. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. In Fig. slender bottle. which otherwise remains clear. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . When renewing. University Park. the wheel will revolve in one direction. alcohol. always remove the oil with a siphon. then they will not rust fast. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Colo. of pulverized campor. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. Put the solution in a long. says Metal Worker. 31 gr.

the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. about 1-1/4 in. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. Attach to the wires. If zinc and copper are used. on the under side of the cork. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. This is used in place of the spoon. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. A paper-fastener box. If two of them are floating on the same solution. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. If zinc and carbon are used.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. floating on a solution. --Contributed by C. will allow the magnet to point north and south. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. Solder in the side of the box . which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. Lloyd Enos. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water.

as shown in Fig. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. The base. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. wide and 2-1/2 in. The bottom of the box. long. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. is made from a piece of No. . H. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. A. C. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. of wire on each end extending from the coil. Use a board 1/2. thick. The standard. piece of 1/4-in. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. long that has about 1/4-in. wide and 6 in. glass tubing . Rhamstine. long. Put ends. and then solder on the cover. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint.1-in. A circular piece of cardboard.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. F. hole. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. 10 wire about 10 in. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. 1/2. one on each side of the board. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. 1-1/4 in. 3 in. Bore holes for binding-posts. A. C. to it. and on the other around the glass tube. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. E. D. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. of No. The spring should be about 1 in. E. Thos. If the hose is not a tight fit. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. D. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface.in. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. B. G--No. away. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. can be made of oak. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. and connect the two wires from the coil to them.Contributed by J. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. 1. B. stained and varnished. Wind evenly about 2 oz. brass tubing. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. To this standard solder the supporting wire. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. C. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. or made with a little black paint.not shorter than 18 in. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. D. 14 wire will do.in. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. Take a small piece of soft iron.

long. making a support as shown in Fig. E. 2. of mercury will be sufficient. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. Y. Cuba. 1. About 1-1/2 lb. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft.of the coil. D. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. from the right hand. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. is drawn nearer to the coil. 3.--Contributed by Edward M. about 1 in. 3-in. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. When the glass becomes soft.--Contributed by R. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. Wis. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. . The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. long. two pieces 2 ft. four hinges. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. N. canvas. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. long are used for the legs. long. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. Teasdale. of No. Smith. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. The iron plunger. 5.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. long. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. as shown in Fig. 3 in. in diameter. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. of 8-oz. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. Milwaukee. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. J.

expelling all the air. of vacuum at the top. The tube now must be filled completely. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. long. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. This tube as described will be 8 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top.. Keys. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. 3. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube.. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. Measure 8 in. leaving 8 in. 2. Break off the piece of glass. small aperture in the long tube. Fig. holding in the left hand. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. 6. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. Can. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. Toronto. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. Take 1/2 in. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. thus leaving a. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. 4. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. 5. --Contributed by David A. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube.

in diameter. wide and 3 in. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. and the single projection 3/4 in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. wide and 5 ft.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. thick. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. from the end of same. but yellow pine is the best. long. This forms a slot. FIG. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. long. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. wood screws. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. 5. 4 in.6 -. with each projection 3-in. thick. wide and 5 ft. long. 7. Four blocks 1/4 in. Fig. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. cut in the shape shown in Fig. 6. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. 1 in. 9 in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. thick. 2. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. wide and 12 in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. as shown in Fig. 1 in. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . thick. 1. as shown in Fig. 4. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. long.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. These are bent and nailed. A crosspiece 3/4-in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. wide and 5 ft. 3 in. material 2 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. The large pulley is about 14 in. 3 in. joint be accurately put together. 3. as in Fig. and 1/4 in. thick. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in.

The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. . above the runner level. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Kan. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. by 1-in. Water 1 oz. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by C. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. Manhattan. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. says Photography. attach runners and use it on the ice. Welsh. R. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. first removing the crank.

fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. 1 oz. as shown in Fig. Treasdale. --Contributed by Wallace C. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. Printing is carried rather far. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. --Contributed by Edward M. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. and very much cheaper. also. as shown in Fig. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. Leominster. This is done with a camel's hair brush. 2. 3. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. of water. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. Mass. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. 1. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. The print is washed. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. . Newton. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. from an ordinary clamp skate. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt.

Va. wide and 4 in. as shown in the sketch. long. 1. hole. from one end. extending the width of the box. causing the door to swing back and up. The swing door B. fasten a 2-in. 2. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. Church. 1 ft. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. about 10 in. --Contributed by H. Take two glass tubes. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. Place a 10-in. F. Then. wide. say. Fig. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. with about 1/8-in. 1. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. and 3 ft. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. high. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. square piece. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. Alexandria. and bend them as shown in the sketch. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. A. which represents the back side of the door. and to the bottom. 1-1/2 ft. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. too. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. Fig. high for rabbits. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. The thread is broken off at the . the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap.

high and 12 in. 1. C. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. and exactly 5 by 7 in. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. in size. horses and dogs.by 5-in. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. shorter. This opening. A and B. automobiles. Crilly. from the edge on each side of these openings. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. inside of the opening. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. wide. -Contributed by William M. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. long. D. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. shorter at each end. 1 in. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. 2. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. say 8 in. long. Take two pieces of pasteboard. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. as shown in Fig. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. wide. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. Fig. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater.by 7-in. 3.. says Camera Craft. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. Fig. black surfaced if possible. Out two rectangular holes. to be used as a driving pulley. plates. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. Cut an opening in the other piece. being 1/8 in. in size. wide and 5 in. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. 10 in. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. trolley cars. Chicago. Paste a piece of strong black paper. B. camera and wish to use some 4.proper place to make a small hole. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. but cut it 1/4 in. and go in the holder in the same way. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. . Jr.

wide will be required. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. The needle will then point north and south.in. making a . if it has previously been magnetized. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed.. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. A cell of this kind can easily be made. in diameter. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. into which the dog is harnessed." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. long and 6 in.

only the joints.watertight receptacle. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. when the paraffin is melted. Pack the paste in. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. Place the pan on the stove.in. filter. for a connection. zinc oxide. B is a base of 1 in. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. and a notch between the base and the pan. 1 lb. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. of the top. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. says Electrician and Mechanic. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. fodder. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. in diameter and 6 in. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. Form a 1/2-in. F is a spool. File the rods to remove the copper plate. A is a block of l-in. long which are copper plated. with narrow flanges. of rosin and 2 oz. short time. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. Do not paint any surface. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. This makes the wire smooth. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. sal ammoniac. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. leaving about 1/2-in. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. plaster of paris. 3/4 lb. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. . beeswax melted together. of water. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. pull out the wire as needed. one that will hold about 1 qt. pine. 1/4 lb. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. under the spool in the paraffin. fuel and packing purposes. in which P is the pan. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. of the plate at one end.

" which created much merriment. and one friend tells me that they were . Ohio. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. or think they can do the same. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. for some it will turn one way. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Try it and see. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. grip the stick firmly in one hand. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. for others the opposite way. If any of your audience presume to dispute. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. and he finally.. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Toledo. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. as in the other movement. Enlarge the hole slightly. while for others it will not revolve at all. by the Hindoos in India. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and then. g. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. from vexation. At least it is amusing. square and about 9 in. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. let them try it. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. 2. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. long. thus producing two different vibrations. and therein is the trick. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. but the thing would not move at all. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee.

It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. no rotation resulted. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. gave the best results. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. 5. and I think the results may be of interest. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. To operate. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. by means of a center punch. Speeds between 700 and 1. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. 3. p. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. 6. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. A square stick with notches on edge is best. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. rotation was obtained. Thus a circular or . with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. the rotation may be obtained. The experiments were as follows: 1. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. and. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. 2. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. secondly. If the pressure was upon an edge. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. m. 4. 7.100 r.

a piece of wire and a candle. Duluth. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. --Contributed by M. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. is driven violently away. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. forming a handle for carrying. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. Sloan. unwetted by the liquid. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. and the height of the fall about 6 in." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. A wire is tied around the can. at first. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. A. as shown. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. if the pressure is from the left. D. Minn. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. so far as can be seen from the photographs.D. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward).. . Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. G. it will be clockwise. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. and the resultant "basket splash. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. Lloyd. Ph. C. Washington. or greasy. the upper portion is.. --Contributed by G. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. with a 1/16-in. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. hole drilled in the center. about 2-5/8 in. long." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. flange and a 1/4-in. in diameter. Each wheel is 1/4 in. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. as shown in Fig.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. axle. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. thick and 1 in. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. as shown. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. 1. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves.

wide and 16 in. wood. 2. with cardboard 3 in. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. The first piece. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Maurice E. 3. The current. 1 from 1/4-in. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. is made from a piece of clock spring. lamp in series with the coil. each in its proper place. bottom side up. Fig. These ends are fastened together. and the locomotive is ready for running. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. as shown in Fig. which must be 110 volt alternating current. The parts. A trolley. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. 5. San Antonio. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. of No. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. If the ends are to be soldered. Texas. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. This will save buying a track. bent as shown. The motor is now bolted. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame.brass. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. put together complete. Fuller. or main part of the frame. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. 6. is made from brass. holes 1 in. Fig. 3. 2. are shown in Fig. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . long. 4. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig.50.

If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. O. Fig. When cold treat the other end in the same way. as shown in Fig. the length of a paper clip. but do not heat the center. 3. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. then continue to tighten much more. and holes drilled in them. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Cincinnati. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. and as this end . Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. The quarter will not go all the way down. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. 2. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Fig 1. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. 1. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a.

Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. and adjusted . A pair of centers are fitted. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. In the sketch. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. When the trick is to be performed. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. When the cutter A.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. or apparent security of the knot. has finished a cut for a tooth. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. 2 and 1 respectively. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. or should the lathe head be raised. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end.

Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). swing lathe. (5. Fig. An ordinary machine will do. and a nut pick. tea cosey. --Contributed by Howard S. long. tea cosey. (6. (4. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. (3. if but two parts. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. note book. book mark. (2. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. if four parts are to be alike. trace the outline. (1. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. When connecting to batteries. In this manner gears 3 in. twisted around itself and soldered. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. dividing it into as many parts as desired. coin purse. Bott.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. lady's belt bag. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire.to run true.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. lady's card case. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. at the same time striking light. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. watch fob ready for fastenings. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in.) Place the paper design on the leather and. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. --Contributed by Samuel C. Second row: -Two book marks. 1. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. The frame holding the mandrel. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. Y. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. draw center lines across the required space. gentleman's card case or bill book. Fold over along these center lines. such as brass or marble. 2. Bunker. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). Make free-hand one quarter of the design. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. holding it in place with the left hand. Brooklyn. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. above the surface. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn.) Make on paper the design wanted. blotter back. or one-half of the design.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. N. about 1-1/2 in. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather.

some heavy rubber hose.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. Secure . and an ordinary bottle.

Florida. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. C. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. a distance of 900 miles. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. into which fit a small piece of tube. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. from Key West. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle.C. The electrodes are made . D. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. Thrust a pin. where it condenses. A. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. and bore a hole through the center.. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. and push it through a cork. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. If the needle is not horizontal. B. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown.

propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. long for the body of the operator. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. long. wide and 3 ft. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. long. D. thick. long. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. Washington. Powell. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. wide and 4 ft. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. wide and 3 ft. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. by 3/4 in. thick. wide and 4 ft. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. 3. 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. C.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. 1. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. thick. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. long. 1-1/2 in. both laterally and longitudinally. 2. square and 8 ft long. slacken speed and settle. 1. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. and also to keep it steady in its flight. thick. Four long beams 3/4 in. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. several strips 1/2 in. wide and 4 ft long. or flying-machine. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. which is tacked to the front edge. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. 2. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. using a high resistance receiver. Connect as shown in the illustration. lengths and splice them. apart and extend 1 ft. long. 12 uprights 1/2 in. take the glider to the top of a hill. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. 16 piano wire.in. All wiring is done with No. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. wide and 20 ft. thick. 2 in. 1-1/4 in. as shown in Fig. If 20-ft. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. as shown in Fig. The operator can then land safely and . use 10-ft. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. lumber cannot be procured. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. 1. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. --Contributed by Edwin L. 2 arm sticks 1 in. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. free from knots. 1/2. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. To make a glide.

The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Great care should be . and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. but this must be found by experience. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Glides are always made against the wind. Of course. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.gently on his feet.

Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. 2. When heated a little.exercised in making landings. M. --Contributed by L. half man and half horse. which causes the dip in the line. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. a creature of Greek mythology. Olson. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. as shown in Fig. Bellingham. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. 1. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a.

At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. While at the drug store get 3 ft. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. this will cost about 15 cents. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. long. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. square. in diameter. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. 14 in. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. long and about 3/8 in. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. a piece of brass or steel wire. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. about the size of door screen wire. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. outside the box. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. about the size of stove pipe wire. making it 2-1/2 in. will complete the material list. at the other. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. of small rubber tubing. The light from the . The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral.

Hunting. O. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. as shown in the sketch. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. leaving the penny poised on the finger end.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. --Photo by M. 1. M. . This is very simple when you know how. while others will fail time after time. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. as shown in Fig. 2. If done properly the card will flyaway. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. Dayton. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. as shown in Fig. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors.

as shown. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. place the other two. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve." or the Chinese students' favorite game. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. closing both hands quickly. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. If a certain color is to be more prominent. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. hold the lump over the flame. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. as before. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. Cool in water and dry. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. When the desired shape has been obtained. This game is played by five persons.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. then put it on the hatpin head. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. as described. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project.

How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. these sectors. or more in width. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. passing through neutralizing brushes. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. distribute electric charges . Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal.

The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. RR. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. wide. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. The plates. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. wide at one end. in diameter. as shown in Fig. in diameter.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. to which insulating handles . long. Fig. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. long. or teeth. GG. long and the standards 3 in. The plates are trued up. brass tubing and the discharging rods. free from wrinkles. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. The drive wheels. 3. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. 3. The two pieces. Two pieces of 1-in. as shown in Fig. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. 4. Two solid glass rods. at the other. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. 2. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. turned wood pieces. in diameter. in diameter. after they are mounted. The collectors are made. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. from about 1/4-in. 1-1/2 in. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. in diameter and 15 in. and this should be done before cutting the circle. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. EE. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. and 4 in. 1 in. in diameter. the side pieces being 24 in. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. These pins. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. and the outer end 11/2 in. in diameter. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. 3/4 in. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. material 7 in. 1. The fork part is 6 in. long and the shank 4 in. C C. Fig. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. D. and pins inserted and soldered. and of a uniform thickness. are made from 7/8-in. are made from solid.

Colo. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. one having a 2-in. long.are attached. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. ball and the other one 3/4 in. wide and 22 ft. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water.. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. --Contributed by C. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. 12 ft. and the work was done by themselves. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. Lloyd Enos. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. Colorado City. KK. which are bent as shown. D. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. in diameter. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods.

"The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. They can be used to keep pins and needles. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. deep. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. as at A. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. the boards are then put in a vise as shown.is a good one. The key will drop from the string. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. pens . The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. string together. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. and bore a hole 1/2 in. bit. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. using a 1-in. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. yet such a thing can be done. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork.

The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. they make attractive little pieces to have about. Proceed as follows: 1. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. sharp division between background and design. The second oblong was 3/4 in. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. 5. using a nail filed to chisel edge. flat and round-nosed pliers. This is to make a clean. inside the first on all. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. 7. above the work and striking it with the hammer. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. Having determined the size of the tray. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. extra metal on each of the four sides. 3. and the third one 1/4 in. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. above the metal. about 3/4-in. 23 gauge. 8. 2. When the stamping is completed. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. stamp the background promiscuously.and pencils. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. They are easily made. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. slim screw. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. file. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. etc. Use . Inside this oblong. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. or cigar ashes. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. 6. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. then the other side. unless it would be the metal shears. inside the second on all. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. etc. very rapid progress can be made. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. draw on paper an oblong to represent it.. two spikes. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings.. also trace the decorative design. Raise the ends. 4. 9. Draw one-half the design free hand.

the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. 6. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. The eyes. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. and fourth fingers. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. first fingers. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. 9. In the first numbering. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . third fingers. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. 7. 10. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. and the effect will be most pleasing. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. second fingers. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. 8.

Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. 12. above 15 times 15 it is 200. or the product of 8 times 9. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. Let us multiply 12 by 12. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. renumber your fingers. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. In the second numbering. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. thumbs. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. or 80. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. At a glance you see four tens or 40. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. etc. and the six lower fingers as six tens. above 20 times 20. the product of 12 times 12.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. . and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. there are no fingers above. Still. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. which tens are added. Put your thumbs together. or numbers above 10. or the product of 6 times 6. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. etc. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. but being simple it saves time and trouble. 400. etc. if we wish. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. first fingers. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. which would be 70. 600. or 60. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand.. 25 times 25. which would be 16.. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. 11. 2 times 2 equals 4. Two times one are two. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. as high as you want to go. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. viz. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20.. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144.

etc. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. the inversion takes place against his will. . and. as one might suppose. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. the value which the upper fingers have. whether the one described in second or third numbering. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. or from above or from below. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. For example. the revolution seems to reverse. beginning the thumbs with 16. about a vertical axis. 21. the lump sum to add. not rotation. in the case of a nearsighted person. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. The inversion and reversion did not take place. 8. It takes place also. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. Proceed as in the second lumbering. forties. 75 and 85. 2. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. And the lump sum to add. being 80). which is the half-way point between the two fives. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. and so on. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. first fingers 22. thirties. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. further. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. Take For example 18 times 18. the value of the upper fingers being 20. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. first finger 17.. For figures ending in 6. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. adding 400 instead of 100. thumbs. twenties. at the will of the observer. or what. any two figures between 45 and 55. 7. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. 3. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. lastly. when he removes his spectacles. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. however.

The ports were not easy to make. as . when he knows which direction is right. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. Looking at it in semidarkness. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. the other appearance asserts itself. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. A flat slide valve was used. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. sometimes the point towards him. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. and putting a cork on the point. tee. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin.

across and 1/2 in. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. apart. pipe 10 in. bottom side up. -Contributed by W. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. While this engine does not give much power. such as is shown in the illustration. Kutscher. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. Beating copper tends to harden it and. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block.. across the head. . on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. and make in one end a hollow. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. inexpensive. Fasten the block solidly. in diameter. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. it is easily built. as in a vise. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. H. saw off a section of a broom handle. Next take a block of wood. Springfield. Ill. pipe. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. The steam chest is round. if continued too long without proper treatment. about 2 in. The tools are simple and can be made easily. The eccentric is constructed of washers. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. deep. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. secure a piece of No. If nothing better is at hand.

--Contributed by W. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. Hay. Camden. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. S. and. This process is called annealing. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. the other to the left. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. especially when the object is near to the observer.will cause the metal to break. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. Vinegar. C. To produce color effects on copper. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. To overcome this hardness. as it softens the metal. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. O. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand.

and lies to the right on the picture. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. the left eye sees through a blue screen. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. would serve the same purpose. however. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. The red portions of the picture are not seen. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. disappears fully. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. . as for instance red and green. not two mounted side by side. only the orange rays may pass through.stereoscope. in the proper choice of colors. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. and without any picture. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. with the stereograph. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. from the stereograph. that for the right. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. diameter. But they seem black. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. while both eyes together see a white background. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. the further from the card will the composite image appear. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. It is just as though they were not there. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. although they pass through the screen. the one for the left eye being blue. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. So with the stereograph. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. The further apart the pictures are. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. In order to make them appear before the card. it. because. orange. because of the rays coming from them. they must be a very trifle apart.

in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. 12 gauge wire. or the middle of the bottle. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. long and a hole drilled in each end. This should only be bored about half way through the block. The weight of the air in round . wide and 1 in. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. etc. Cal. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. Place a NO. in diameter. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. 1/4 in. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. thick. wireless.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. San Francisco. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. in the shape of a crank. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. A No. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire.

will calibrate itself. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. The 4 in. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. or. the contrary. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. high. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. thick. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. 34 ft. a glass tube 1/8 in. or a column of mercury (density 13. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. wide and 4 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. and a slow fall. the instrument. long. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. But if a standard barometer is not available. long. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. high. pine 3 in. if accurately constructed. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. inside diameter and 2 in. wide and 40 in. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in.numbers is 15 lb. Only redistilled mercury should be used. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. Before fastening the scale. internal diameter and about 34 in. high. square. In general. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. square. if you choose. long. a bottle 1 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather..6) 1 in. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. . The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. but before attempting to put in the mercury. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. 30 in.

and place them as shown in Fig. which is slipped quickly over the end. Procure a metal can cover. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. Number the pieces 1. long. a cover from a baking powder can will do. 1. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. the size of the outside of the bottle. 3. 5. Mark out seven 1-in. 6 and 7. 2. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. wide and 10 in. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. thick.

using checkers for men. 3 into No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. Move 10-Move No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 1 into No.J. Move 13-Move No. procure unbleached tent duck. Move 2-Jump No. l over No. 7 over No. Cape May Point. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 7 over No. 7. Move 14-Jump No. 2's place. Move 4-Jump No. Move 12-Jump No. Move 15-Move No. Move 3-Move No. 5. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. Woolson. Move 5-Jump No. 5 over No. To make such a tent. 3. 1 to No. 6 to No. 6. 6. as shown in Fig. 2 over No. 3. each 10 ft. 3 to the center. 6 over No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 2. 5's place. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 5 over No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 6 in. 5's place. 6 into No. 3 over No. 1. L.-Contributed by W. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. Make 22 sections. which is the very best material for the purpose. 2's place. 2. 2 . Move ll-Jump No. 2 over No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. Move 7-Jump No. 3. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. N. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. This can be done on a checker board. in diameter. Move 6-Move No. 7's place. Move 8-Jump No. Move 9-Jump No. 1. long and 2 ft. shaped like Fig.

fill with canvas edging. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design.. 2. 9 by 12 in. Fig. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. 2 in. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. Have the tent pole 3 in. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. wide at the bottom. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. After transferring the design to the brass. leaving the rest for an opening. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. from the top. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas.in. as in Fig. 6-in. Use blocks. Emsworth. will do. Fig. long. made in two sections. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. about 9 in. 5) stuck in the ground. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. In raising the tent. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Pa. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. in diameter. added. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. 5. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. These are ventilators. diameter. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. wide at the bottom. Tress. Punch holes in the brass in . wide by 12 in. long and 4 in. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. As shown in the sketch. Nail a thin sheet of brass. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. high.J. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. round galvanized iron. 6. to a smooth board of soft wood. --Contributed by G. 3 in. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in.

When the edges are brought together by bending. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. When all the holes are punched.the spaces around the outlined figures. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. apart. excepting the 1/4-in. The pattern is traced as before. . around the outside of the pattern. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. bend into shape. cut out the brass on the outside lines. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. It will not. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. Corr. but before punching the holes. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. Chicago. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads.

A cast-iron ring. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. pipe is used for the hub. Badger. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. G. partially filled with cream. --Contributed by H. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in.. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. better still. These pipes are . Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. Que. E. allowing 2 ft. Stevens. between which is placed the fruit jar. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making.however. or less. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. A 6-in. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. or center on which the frame swings. or. Dunham. If a wheel is selected. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. Mayger. pipe. Oregon. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. --Contributed by Geo.

Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. pipe. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. bent to the desired circle. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. An extra wheel 18 in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe clamps.

A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. 1. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. 3. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. as shown in Fig. and dropped on the table. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The performer. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. and the guide withdrawn. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. while doing this. which was placed in an upright position. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position.

1. St. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. it requires no expensive condensing lens. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. and second. -Contributed by C. Harkins. Colo. Louis. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. Denver. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. White. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. in a half circle.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Mo. The box can be made of selected oak or . --Contributed by H. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. in diameter on another piece of tin. 2. D. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. first. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. F. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover.

The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. The door covering this hole in the back. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. focal length. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. 2. as shown in Fig. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. wide and 5 in. This will be 3/4 in. long. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. AA. Two or three holes about 1 in. If a camera lens is used. long and should be placed vertically. high and must . wide. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box.mahogany. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. and 2 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. but not tight. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. from each end of the outside of the box. long. wide and 6-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. An open space 4 in. wide by 5 in. high and 11 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. 5-1/2 in. 1. 3-1/2 in. and. fit into the runners. from each end. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight.

provided it is airtight. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. calling that knuckle January. C. June and November. West Toledo. April. Ohio. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. and extending the whole height of the lantern. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached.. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. This process is rather a difficult one. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. 1. then the second knuckle will be March. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen." etc. calling this February. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. Bradley. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. the article may be propped up . The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. as it requires an airtight case. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. --Contributed by Chas. and so on.

the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. N. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. . The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. one of lead and one of aluminum. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. fruit jars are required. 2. Crawford. running small motors and lighting small lamps. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. In each place two electrodes. Pour in a little turpentine. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. and set aside for half a day. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. and the lead 24 sq. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. The top of a table will do. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. Y. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. --Contributed by J. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. 1. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. the lid or cover closed. 1 and 2. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. in. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. giving it an occasional stir. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. Schenectady. H. taking care to have all the edges closed. in. In both Fig. but waxed. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum.with small sticks. or suspended by a string.

Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. you remove the glass.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. You have an understanding with some one in the company. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. as well as others. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. He. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. This trick is very simple. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. Cleveland. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will .. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. as you have held it all the time. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. he throws the other. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. which you warm with your hands. After a few seconds' time. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. O. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. and take the handkerchief and unfold it.

and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. but by being careful at shores. J. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward.-Contributed by E. Colo. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Crocker. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. in diameter in the center. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. Victor. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. put it under the glass. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. near a partition or curtain. Be sure that this is the right one. . on a table.take the handiest one. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Pull the ends quickly. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. if any snags are encountered. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. but in making one.

The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. by 2 in. Both ends are mortised. The keelson. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. long. 14 rib bands. 1/8 in. Fig. screws and cleats. selected pine. and the other 12 in. 1. from the stern. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. Paint. 1 mast. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 1 in. of 1-yd. the smaller is placed 3 ft. wide unbleached muslin. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. from each end to 1 in. by 16 ft.. one 6 in. by 2 in. and is removed after the ribs are in place. clear pine. by 16 ft. for cockpit frame. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. drilled and fastened with screws. 3 in. wide 12-oz. 4 outwales. 2 gunwales. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. for the bow. for center deck braces. 8 yd. from the bow and the large one.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 7 ft. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. wide and 12 ft. is 14 ft. long. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. of 1-1/2-yd. 1 piece. are as follows: 1 keelson. Two forms are made as shown in Figs.. by 15 ft. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . and. 3 in. by 8 in. long. 9 ft. wide. 11 yd. of rope. by 12 in. 3 and 4. 50 ft. 1 in. 1 in. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. ducking. 1 in. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. as illustrated in the engraving. 2 in. 2 and braced with an iron band. apart. long. 8 in. for the stern piece. and fastened with screws. thick and 3/4 in. 1/4 in. wide and 12 ft. at the ends. square by 16 ft. 1 piece. by 10 ft.

wide and 14 in. 4 in. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. These are put in 6 in. is cut to fit under the top boards. length of canvas is cut in the center. wide.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. The trimming is wood. 9. thick and 1/2 in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. apart. wide and 3 ft. A seam should be made along the center piece. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. Fig. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. thick. They are 1 in. wide. wood screws. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. . corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. 1/4 in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. Braces. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. 1 in. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. A block of pine. and fastened to them with bolts. also. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. thick and 12 in. 6. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. in diameter through the block. long. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. 5. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. 1 in. 6 and 7. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. Figs. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. long. gunwales and keelson. thick. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. screws. 6 in. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. wide and 24 in. Fig. A 6-in. thick 1-1/2 in. A piece of oak. 3-1/2 ft. This block. long is well soaked in water. The deck is not so hard to do. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. from the bow. corner braces. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. long. The 11-yd. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. The block is fastened to the keelson. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. a piece 1/4 in. doubled. is a cube having sides 6 in. 7 and 8. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. Before making the deck.

The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. 11. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. 10 with a movable handle. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. is 6 in. The mast has two side and one front stay. The keel. . 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. thick by 2 in. in diameter and 10 ft. A strip 1 in. at the other. long. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. are used for the boom and gaff. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. Ill. wide at one end and 12 in. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. wide. Fig. Tronnes.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. Wilmette. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. E. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. each 1 in. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. 12. The sail is a triangle. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. long. The house will accommodate 20 families. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. apart in the muslin. --Contributed by O.

and the other 18 in. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. 2-1/2 in. flat-headed screws. thick. wide. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. 5. 3. Wilmette. long. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. Fig. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. wide and 2 ft. long. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. Bevel both sides of the pieces. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. Take this and fold it over . who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. 2 in. wide. 2. Cut the maple. flat headed screws. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. as shown in Fig. E. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. long and five 1/2-in. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. 1 yd. with the ends and the other side rounding. thick. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. about 5/16 in. flat on one side. 1. one 11-1/2 in. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. square. --Contributed by O.into two 14-in. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. and 3 ft. 2-1/2 in. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. Ill. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. wide and 30 in. thick. Tronnes. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. five 1/2-in. 4. long.

Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. is set. Mo. D. long. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. long. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. Figs. Glue a three cornered piece. 6-1/2 in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. as well as the edges around the opening. soaked with water and blown up. Louis. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. When the glue is set. wide and 6-1/2 in. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. The front. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. about 3/8 in. long. and the four outside edges. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. are rounded. and take care that the pieces are all square. long. thick and 3 in. thick. F. long. but can be governed by circumstances. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. St. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. B. wide and 6-3/4 in. C. C. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. long. wide . 5 from 1/16-in. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. long. pieces 2-5/8 in. 1-1/4 in. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. If carefully and neatly made. 1. 2 and 3. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. --Contributed by W. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. About 1/2 in. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. wide and 5 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. Bliss. Another piece. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. The bag is then turned inside out. A. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. square. then centered. wide and 3 ft. and make a turn in each end of the wires. wide and 2-3/4 in. The sides are 3-1/4 in. this square box is well sandpapered. After the glue. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. Cut another piece of board. of each end unwound for connections. Wind three layers of about No. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. square. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. forming an eye for a screw. 3 in. A. wide and 4-1/2 in. E. Fig. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen.once. the mechanical parts can be put together. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. long. thick. 3/8 in. 3-1/4 in. the top and bottom.

The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. Place the tin.S. Fig. --Contributed by George Heimroth. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. 1/4 in. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. Yorkshire. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H.R. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. showing a greater defection of the pointer. and as the part Fig. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. 5-1/2 in. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. The resistance is now adjusted to show . Chapman. The end of the polar axis B. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. A pointer 12 in. the part carrying the pointer moves away. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. 5. bored in the back. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. long. wide and 9 in. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. wide and 2-1/2 in. The stronger the current. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. These wires should be about 1 in. G. Like poles repel each other. 1/16 in. 4. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. Austwick Hall. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. board. from one end. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. 4. so it will just clear the tin. The base is a board 5 in. F. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. R. and the farther apart they will be forced. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. thick. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. Richmond Hill. and fasten in place. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. 4 is not movable. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. the same size as the first. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. L. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in.A. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. When the current flows through the coil. hole is fastened to the pointer. I. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. Fig. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. from the spindle. C. in diameter. that has the end turned with a shoulder. W. Another strip of tin. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in.and 2-5/8 in. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. long. long.

The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. 30 min. at 9 hr. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. The following formula will show how this may be found. 10 min. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. say Venus at the date of observation. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. A. and vice . If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. thus: 9 hr. 1881. shows mean siderial. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. 10 min. M.

if one of these cannot be had. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Conn. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon.f. . and then verify its correctness by measurement.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. --Contributed by Robert W. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. New Haven.m. Hall. or. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. owing to the low internal resistance.

1-3/4 in. Wet paper will answer. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. 1. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. thick. Then. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. as shown in the accompanying picture. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. When the follower is screwed down. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. fresh grass. leaves or bark. Fig. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. inside diameter and about 5 in. cover up with the same. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. long. especially for cooking fish. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. The boring bar. and heap the glowing coals on top. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. of alum and 4 oz. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. put the fish among the ashes. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. arsenic to every 20 lb.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. 3/8 in.

when they were turned in. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. thick.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. about 1/2 in. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. and threaded on both ends. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. pipe. pipe. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. fastened with a pin. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the .

but never one which required so little material. however. The rough frame. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. This plate also supports the rocker arms. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. 30 in. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. Fig. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. 4. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. A 1-in. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. labor and time. the float is too high. long. 5.valve stems. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. Fig. wide. Clermont. thick and 3 in. 3. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. 2. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. If the valve keeps dripping. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. Fig. as the one illustrated herewith. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. Iowa. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. bent in the shape of a U. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. then it should be ground to a fit. and which gave such satisfactory results. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. It . was then finished on an emery wheel. square iron. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. a jump spark would be much better.

Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. strong clear material only should be employed. rope is not too heavy. If it is to be used for adults. from all over the neighborhood. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. 3/4 in. A malleable iron bolt. extending above. long is the pivot. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. The crosspiece is 2 in. and a little junk. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. strengthened by a piece 4 in." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. long. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. square and 5 ft. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet." little and big. and. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. in fact. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. with no trees or buildings in the way. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. A 3/4 -in. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. in the ground with 8 ft. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. The seats are regular swing boards. As there is no bracing. Nieman. square and 2 ft. It looks like a toy. in diameter and 15 in. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. long. no matter what your age or size may be. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. 12 ft. completes the merry-go-round. for the "motive power" to grasp. square. set 3 ft. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. long. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. This makes an easy adjustment. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. so it must be strong enough. --Contributed by C. timber. from the center. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. Use a heavy washer at the head. butting against short stakes. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . being held in position by spikes as shown. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. hole bored in the post. W. The illustration largely explains itself.

therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. light and strong. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. A reel is next made.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. 4. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. 1. long. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. square. if nothing better is at hand. one for the backbone and one for the bow. Having placed the backbone in position. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. To wind the string upon the reel. The backbone is flat. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. a wreck. 2. away. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. then it is securely fastened. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. and sent to earth. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle.2 emery. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. 1/4 by 3/32 in. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. and 18 in. The bow is now bent. These ends are placed about 14 in. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string.the fingers. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. as shown in Fig. Both have large reels full of . Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig.

the first tries to spear him by swift dives. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. often several hundred yards of it. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away.-Contributed by S. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The handle end is held down with a staple. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Moody. First. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. Newburyport. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. he pays out a large amount of string. Brooklyn. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. common packing thread. or glass-covered string. the balance. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Mass. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. --Contributed' by Harry S. N. Bunker. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw.string. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. If the second kite is close enough. C. Y.

square (Fig. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. each the size of half the table top. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. length of 2-in. must be attached to a 3-ft. then a dust protector. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. such as mill men use. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Hastings. Corinth. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. If the table is round. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. lengths (Fig. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Vt. --Contributed by Earl R. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. then draw the string up tight.

This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. . and E to G. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. Use a smooth. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather.9-1/4 in.-Contributed by H. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. Calif. 2-1/4 in..Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. trace the design carefully on the leather. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. 16-1/4 in. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Wharton. 6-1/4 in. Oakland. G to H. Moisten the . The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. 17-1/2 in. which spoils the leather effect.. from E to F. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. hard pencil. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp.. from C to D. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. E. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. If leaves are wanted in extending the table.

Now cut narrow thongs. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. about 1/8 in. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. G-J. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. wide. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. To complete the bag. and E-G. and lace through the holes. Trace the openings for the handles. with the rounded sides of the tools. apart. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. is taken off at a time. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. if not more than 1 in. place both together and with a leather punch. H-B. Cut it the same size as the bag. I made this motor . get something with which to make a lining. and corresponding lines on the other side. also lines A-G.

iron. Pasadena. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. 1.M. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. D. 1. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. 2-1/4 in. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. as shown in Fig. Shannon. B. 2. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. --Contributed by J. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. in length. Calif. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. of No. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. . The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. long. each being a half circle. 24 gauge magnet wire.

The gores for a 6-ft. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. near the center. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. high. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. and the gores cut from these. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. from the bottom end. 1. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. balloon should be about 8 ft. are the best kind to make. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. pasted in alternately.

using about 1/2-in. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. In removing grease from wood. 4. so it will hang as shown in Fig. 3. as shown in Fig. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. somewhat larger in size. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. E. After washing. --Contributed by R. saturating it thoroughly.widest point. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. The steam. leaving a long wake behind. Fig. 5. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. in diameter. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. In starting the balloon on its flight. as shown in Fig. 2. Staunton. The boat soon attains considerable speed. These are to hold the wick ball. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. A. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. If the gores have been put together right. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. B. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. lap on the edges. after which the paint will adhere permanently. coming through the small pipe A. As the boat is driven forward by this force. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. 1. leaving the solution on over night. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in.

leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. in bowling form. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. Second. high and 8 in. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. In using either of the two methods described. long. The blocks are about 6 in. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. if you have several copies of the photograph. apart on these lines. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. long and each provided with a handle. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. as is shown in Fig. Third. 1. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. There are three ways of doing this: First. wide by 6 in. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print.

1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Albany. Fig. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Rinse the plate in cold water. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Y. Hellwig. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. being careful not to dent the metal. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution.Fig. --Contributed by John A. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. thick. 2. not pointed down at the road at an angle. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. N.

after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. In Fig. are screwed to the circular piece. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. A. A circular piece of wood. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. Break off the frame. 2 the front view. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. A. CC. B. wide and of any desired height. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. Corner irons. wide and 8 in. S. and not produce the right sound. through which passes the set screw S. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. 1 Fig. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. and Fig. with a set screw. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . Richmond. and. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. Va. in diameter. is fastened to a common camera tripod. 6 in. 5 in. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. which is 4 in. thick.upon any particular object. --Contributed by R. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. With this device. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. long for the base. Paine. These corner irons are also screwed to.

shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. I made a wheel 26 in. R. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. -1. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. La Salle. .-Contributed by John Sidelmier. This horn. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. as only the can is visible. pine boards. S. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Ill. Kidder. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. D. Lake Preston. This will make a very compact electric horn. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. in diameter of some 1-in. thus producing sound waves.

O.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. the same thickness as the coins. The frame is made of a heavy card. --Contributed by C. Fig. Ghent. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. --Contributed by James R. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. 1. square. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. If there is a large collection of coins. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Kane. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. 2. 1. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Purdy. Doylestown. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. A. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. B. thick and 12 in.

--Contributed by August T. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. Cal. Neyer. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. Smith. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. A rivet punch is desirable. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Milwaukee. into which to place the screws . --Contributed by J. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. though not absolutely necessary.E. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. of developer.J. they become uninteresting. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. and then glued together as indicated. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. cut and grooved. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. The material required is a sheet of No. Noble. melted and applied with a brush. One Cloud. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Wis. Toronto. border all around. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. A lead pencil. thick. several large nails. for after the slides have been shown a few times.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. plus a 3/8-in. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. a hammer or mallet. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. It will hold 4 oz. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. Canada. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. If desired. --Contributed by R.

This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. There are several ways of working up the design.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. draw one part. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. screws placed about 1 in. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Take the nail. like the one shown. Remove the screws. never upon the metal directly. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. and file it to a chisel edge. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. using 1/2-in. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. both outline and decoration. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth.

wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. up from the lower end. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. Provide four lengths for the legs. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. square. Rivet the band to the holder. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. long. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. . Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. l-1/8 in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. using a 1/2in. in the other. for the lower rails. 2. 1. being ball bearing. square and 181/2 in. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. 3. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. long. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. for the top. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. and two lengths. About 1/2 yd.wall. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. as shown in Fig. of 11-in. The pedal. 3/4 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. Do not bend it over or flatten it. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. square and 11 in. each 1 in. two lengths. long.

--Contributed by John Shahan. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. Attalla. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. Ala. F. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. New York City. Quackenbush. having quite a length of threads.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. --Contributed by W. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel.

in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. each 1-1/4 in. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . initial. college or lodge colors. wide and 4-1/4 in. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. from one end. D. and the other 2-3/4 in. using class. Two pieces of felt. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. one about 1 in. something that is carbonated. and 3/8 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. and two holes in the other. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. --Contributed by C.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. long. making a lap of about 1 in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. in depth. wide and 8-1/4 in. from the end. stitched on both edges for appearance. Ironwood. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Mich. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class.. The desired emblem. long. Luther. long. the end of the other piece is folded over.

if desired by the operator. or a pasteboard box. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. 1/4 in. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. about 2 in. Schatz. Punch two holes A.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. and the cork will be driven out. from the center and opposite each other. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. Indianapolis. or more in height. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. which can be procured from a plumber. as shown in the sketch. Ind. Fig. A piece of lead. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. as shown at B. 1. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. in diameter and 2 in. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . --Contributed by John H. This method allows a wide range of designs. 2. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. in the cover and the bottom.

4. or marble will serve. Fig. 5. it winds up the rubber band. When the can is rolled away from you. 1. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. allowing the two ends to be free. Columbus. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. 3. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. putting in the design. metal. The pieces of tin between the holes A.Rolling Can Toy lead. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. O. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. . A piece of thick glass. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. are turned up as in Fig. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. and the ends of the bands looped over them. on both top and bottom. as shown in Fig. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick.

A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. face up. mark over the design. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. wide and 20 in. thick. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. If it is desired to "line" the inside. long and bored a 1/2-in. I secured a board 3/4 in. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . from each end. The edges should be about 1/8 in. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. deep in its face.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. New York City. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. 1 in. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. Next place the leather on the glass. or more thick on each side. After this has been done. and. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. 3 in. A pencil may be used the first time over. hole through it. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. thicker than the pinion. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer.

1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 3 by 3 by 20 in. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 1 screw block. --Contributed by A. much of the hard labor will be saved. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 3 by 3 by 6 in. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. N. 1 top board. 1 piece for clamp. Make the lower frame first. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 2. pieces for the vise slides. 1. in diameter. 1 by 9 by 80 in. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. Cut the 2-in. 1 piece. 2 crosspieces. and fit it in place for the side vise. 4 guides. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 3 by 3 by 36. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Syracuse. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Fig. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. Rice. 2 side rails. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 2 end rails. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker.in the board into the bench top. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 2 by 2 by 18 in. Now fit up the two clamps. New York. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 1 piece for clamp. 1 top board. M. Brooklyn. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. thick top board. lag screws as shown. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 1 back board. Y. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them.

24 in. 1 jack plane or smoother. 3 and 6 in. it can be easily found when wanted.. 1 set chisels. 1 countersink. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 marking gauge. 1 pair dividers. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. as well as the pattern maker. 1 2-ft. 1 claw hammer. 1 cross cut saw. 1 pair pliers. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 bench plane or jointer.screws. 1 compass saw. 24 in. 1 rip saw. in diameter. 1 wood scraper. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 pocket level. . 1 set gimlets. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 monkey wrench. Only the long run. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. If each tool is kept in a certain place. The bench is now complete. rule. 1 nail set. The amateur workman. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 2 screwdrivers.. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools..

after constant use. Pa. Fig. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. Fig. The calf skin. Doylestown. will be easier to work. 2. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. becomes like A. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. 1 oilstone. ---Contributed by James M. 3. Kane. 1. Fig. being softer. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. will sink into the handle as shown at D. 2 and 00 sandpaper. Fig. 1. No.1 6-in. the projecting point A. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin.1. try square. but will not make .

then prepare the leather. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. New York City. secure a piece of modeling calf. Having prepared the two sides. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. Two pieces will be required of this size. such as copper or brass. will do just as well. Turn the leather. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. but a V-shaped nut pick. which steam. cover it completely with water enamel and. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. water or heat will not affect. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. -Contributed by Julia A.as rigid a case as the cow skin. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. White. After the outlines are traced. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. If calf skin is to be used. The form can be made of a stick of wood. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. and the length 6-5/8 in. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. First draw the design on paper. the same method of treatment is used. If cow hide is preferred. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. lay the design on the face. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. when dry. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. .

Portland. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Maine. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Richmond. New York City. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. --Contributed by W. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Herrman. A. Cobb. . Jaquythe.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. --Contributed by Chas. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Cal. --Contributed by Chester L. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. as shown in the sketch. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. C. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. and an adjustable friction-held loop.

The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. an inverted stewpan. Mass.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner.. Cambridge. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. This was very difficult. Wright. . A thick piece of tin. B. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. for instance. --Contributed by Wm. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. Middletown. Conn. Roberts. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. was marked out as shown. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. --Contributed by Geo.

then immerse the print in it and squeegee. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. L. --Contributed by C. well calcined and powdered.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. which has been tried out several times with success. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. and the grease will disappear.. The next morning there was no trace of oil. and quite new. Indianapolis. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. face down. Bone. so some bones were quickly calcined. If the article is highly polished. There was no quicklime to be had. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. apply powdered calcined magnesia. used as part of furniture. Illinois. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. --Contributed by Paul Keller. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. as shown. of boiling water. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. pulverized and applied. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. Chicago. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. When dry. A beautifully bound book. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. such as chair seats. Ind. but only an odor which soon vanished. F. but not running over. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. . Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. on a clear piece of glass. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. If any traces of the grease are left. Herbert.

wide and 12 in. the pieces . --Contributed by Geo. Howe. set and thumbscrews. thick. long. 2 in.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. deep and 5 in. The pieces marked S are single. soft steel with the opening 6 in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. If properly adjusted. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. This coaster is simple and easy to make.. A. 6 in. New York. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. Tarrytown.. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. high and are bolted to a block of wood. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. says Scientific American. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner.

Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. E. The seat is a board. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. says Camera Craft. no doubt. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . to the underside of which is a block. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. albums and the like. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. they will look remarkably uniform. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. If the letters are all cut the same height. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. A sharp knife. Their size depends on the plate used. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. for sending to friends. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are.

and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. The puzzle is to get . mount them on short pieces of corks. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. using care to get it in the right position. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. photographing them down to the desired size. after. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. So made. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. So arranged. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. for example. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. and. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. In cutting out an 0. pasting the prints on some thin card. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole.

with the longest end outside. of its top. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. long that will just fit are set in. snow or anything to hide it. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. He smells the bait. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . Old-Time Magic . the tube righting itself at once for another catch. squeezes along past the center of the tube. so they will lie horizontal. G. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. Bayley. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in.-Contributed by I. Cape May Point. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. A hole 6 or 7 in. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. hung on pivots. N. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand.J. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. says the American Thresherman.

Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Press the hands together. then spread the string. Idaho. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Pawtucket. --Contributed by L. Y. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. N. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Brooklyn. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Pocatello. Parker. E. --Contributed by L. Szerlip.faced up. Rhode Island. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. --Contributed by Charles Graham. then expose again. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before.

The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. or green oil paint. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. or a complete suit of armor. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. 1. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. The handle is next made.. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. whether he requires a single sword only. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. long. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. When the whole is quite dry. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. full size. wide and 2 in.. narrower. near the point end. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The pieces. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. they will look very much like the genuine article. 4 on the blade. in building up his work from the illustrations. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. wipe the blade . Glue the other side of the blade. The blade should be about 27 in.Genuine antique swords and armor. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. in width. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. end of the blade. using a straightedge and a pencil. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. and if carefully made. 3 Fig. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. says the English Mechanic. if any. thick. dark red.

. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. of course. 3. This sword is about 68 in. Both edges of the blade are sharp. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. Fig. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. long. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. preferably of contrasting colors. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. 1/8 in. the illustration. 1. in diameter. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. not for use only in cases of tableaux. about 1-1/2 in. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. 2. 1. follow the directions as for Fig. the other is flat or half-round. 1. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. thick and 5 in. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. and 3 in. 2. In making. In the finished piece. shows only two sides. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. square and of any length desired. In making this scimitar. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece.with light strokes up and down several times. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. 1. as it is . the length of the blade 28 in. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. allowing for a good hold with both hands. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. take two pieces of wood.. 4. the other two are identical. The length of the handle. in the widest part at the lower end. 3. the other is flat or halfround. should be about 9 in. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. The pommel is a circular piece of wood.

and if so. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. --Contributed by Katharine D. about 3/8 in. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. The thinness of the plank. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. long. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. and. N. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. It is made of a plank. in an attempt to remove it. Syracuse. square.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. as there was some at hand. A cold . Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. or an insecure fastening. 2 in. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. each about 1 ft. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. --Contributed by John Blake. A piece of mild steel. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. however. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. at the lower end. Y. Mass. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. Both can be made easily. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. Franklin. as shown in the sketch. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. piping and jackets by hard water. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. Doctors probed for the button without success. as can the pitch bed or block. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. Morse. On each edge of the board. are fastened two pieces of strap iron.

18 gauge. When this has been done. a file to reduce the ends to shape. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. When the desired form has been obtained. using a small metal saw. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. tallow. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. secure a piece of brass of about No. design down. Trim up the edges and file them . on the pitch. To remedy this. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. 5 lb. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal.. 5 lb. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass.. To put it in another way. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. plaster of Paris. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over.

Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Fill the 3-in. . 2). Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. 1 ft. and hang a bird swing. to keep it from floating. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. in one second. The smaller is placed within the larger. space between the vessels with water. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Fig. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. over the smaller vessel.000 lb. This in turn divided by 33. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. one 18 in. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds.000 ft. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft.smooth. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. in the center. Before giving the description. in one minute or 550 lb. Clean the metal thoroughly. or fraction of a horsepower. living together in what seems like one receptacle. 3. 1 ft. but not to stop it. lb. That is lifting 33. lb. or 550 ft. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. make an unusual show window attraction. Cutter. 30 ft. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. and still revolve. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. per second. in diameter (Fig. A. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. 1) and the other 12 in. --Contributed by Harold H. in diameter (Fig. using powdered pumice with lye. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. per minute. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb.

--Contributed.18 in. Diameter Fig. N. Mass. F. --Contributed by J. Szerlip. Y. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. 2 Fig. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Brooklyn. The effect is surprising. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. 1 Fig. by L. or on a pedestal.3 Fig. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Somerville. Campbell. Diameter 12 in. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use.

This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. and cut out the shape with the shears. using any of the common metal polishes. with other defects.copper of No. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. and the clay . is. Rivet the cup to the base. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. often render it useless after a few months service. with the pliers. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. to keep the metal from tarnishing. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. This compound is impervious to water. as a rule. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. which. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. Polish both of these pieces. and then. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. then by drawing a straightedge over it. the same as removing writing from a slate. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. after which it is ready for use. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. unsatisfactory. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. keeping the center high. which may be of wood or tin. In riveting. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. away from the edge. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. Do not be content merely to bend them over. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them.

the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. It is made of a glass tube. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. . Scotland. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. Shettleston. 1. Northville. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. --Contributed by A. -Contributed by Thos. Grand Rapids. The siphon is made of glass tubes. as shown in Fig. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. --Contributed by John T. DeLoof. in diameter and 5 in. Mich. the device will work for an indefinite time. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. A. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. 2. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below.can be pressed back and leveled. long. 3/4 in. Mich. Dunlop. Houghton. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark.

Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. stilettos and battle-axes. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. long. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. London. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. This sword is 4 ft.1 FIG. put up as ornaments. 1. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. in width and 2 in.FIG. As the handle is to .

Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. wood with a keyhole saw. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. A German poniard is shown in Fig. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. long with a dark handle of wood. Both handle and axe are of steel. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. which is about 2-1/2 ft. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. is shown in Fig. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. This axe is made similar to the one . This weapon is also about 1 ft. This stiletto has a wood handle. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. 6. This sword is about 4 ft. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. Cut two strips of tinfoil. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. small rope and round-headed nails. in length. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. sharp edges on both sides. firmly glued on. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. paint it a dark brown or black. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. the same as used on the end of the handle. the axe is of steel. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade.represent copper. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. In Fig. studded with brass or steel nails. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. in length. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. string. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. The handle is of wood. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. 3 is shown a claymore. The ball is made as described in Fig. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. In Fig. When dry. When the whole is quite dry. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. with wire or string' bound handle. then glued on the blade as shown. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. 20 spike. the upper part iron or steel. The sword shown in Fig. sometimes called cuirass breakers. narrower. glue and put it in place. 5. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. This weapon is about 1 ft. The crossbar and blade are steel. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. These must be cut from pieces of wood. long. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. 7. A German stiletto. In Fig. with both edges of the blade sharp. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. with both edges sharp. in width. Three large. one about 1/2 in. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. 4. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. The lower half of the handle is of wood. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. 9. very broad. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. 8. 11 were used. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece.

If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. Davis. W. so the contents cannot be seen.described in Fig. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. such as braided fishline. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. will pull where other belts slip. Chicago. the ends are tied and cut off. This will make a very good flexible belt. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. . When wrapped all the way around. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. 2. high. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. 10. Old-Time Magic . --Contributed by E. together as shown in Fig.

These wires are put in the jar. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. N. four glass tumblers. some of the liquid. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. held in the right hand. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends.J. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. 2. --Contributed by A. Before the performance. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . apparently. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. There will be no change in color. Calif. with the circle centrally located. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Bridgeton. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. S. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. filled with water. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. causing the flowers to grow. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. The dotted lines in Fig. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. an acid. Oakland. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. 1 and put together as in Fig. in a few seconds' time. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. or using small wedges of wood. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. about one-third the way down from the top. Macdonald. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. As zinc is much lighter than iron.

Cal. not only because of the fact just mentioned. and kept ready for use at any time. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. --Contributed by W. If the size wanted is No. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. and equally worthy of individual treatment. says a correspondent of Photo Era. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. A. Richmond. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. When many slides are to be masked. which are numbered for convenience in working. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. practical and costs nothing. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. This outlines the desired opening. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. Jaquythe. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. unless some special device is used. 4 for width and No.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. 2 for height. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints.

is about right for the No. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. and do not inhale the fumes. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. which is dangerous. not the water into the acid. using the carbon paper. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. This done. or. The one shown is merely suggestive. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. too. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. the paper is folded along the center line. When etched to the desired depth. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. about half and half. the margin and the entire back of the metal. With a stick. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. 16 gauge. The decoration. Draw a design. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. may be changed. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. and the extreme length 7 in. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. or a pair of old tongs. possibly. Secure a sheet of No. paint the design. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. a little less acid than water. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. but they can be easily revived. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out.

R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. Cut out a piece of tin. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. through it. about 8 in. so that when it is pressed down. wide and of the same length as the table. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. Fig. 5. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. and about 2-1/2 ft.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. 5. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. repeat as many times as is necessary. long. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. 1. 4. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. in diameter and 1/4 in. C and D. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. to the table. When the button S is pressed. as at H. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. Fig. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. about 2-1/2 in. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. The connections are simple: I. 0 indicates the batteries. long and 1 ft. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. about 1 in. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. with the wires underneath. It may be either nailed or screwed down. high. 24 parts water. Fig. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 3/8 in. 2. or more wide. A. Fig. Paint the table any color desired. and bore two holes. thick. J is another wire attached in the same way. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. 2. attached to a post at each end. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. 3. about 3 ft. the bell will ring. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. Nail a board. as shown in the illustration. Then get two posts. it will touch post F. as shown in Fig. . wide. 2. Fig. as in Fig. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off.

so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. After the glue is dry. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. long. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in.Imitation Arms and Armor . The circle is marked out with a compass. such as . says the English Mechanic. These rings can be carved out. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. A wood peg about 2 in. The imitation articles are made of wood. This weapon is about 22 in. 2. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. thick. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. handle and all. the wood peg inserted in one of them. 1. is to appear as steel. long serves as the dowel. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in..PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. The entire weapon. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. but they are somewhat difficult to make.

3. etc. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. with a sharp carving tool. as before mentioned. covered with red velvet. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. long. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. is shown in Fig. The lower half of the handle is wood. The spikes are cut out of wood. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. leaves. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. also. The handle is of wood. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. The axe is shown in steel. . 6. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. The upper half of the handle is steel. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. or the amateur cannot use it well. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. 5. If such a tool is not at hand. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. used at the end of the fifteenth century. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. The entire handle should be made of one piece.ornamental scrolls. the hammer and spike. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. This weapon is about 22 in. 8. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. studded with large brass or steel nails. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Its length is about 3 ft. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 2. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. The handle is of steel imitation. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. flowers. as described in Fig. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. All of these axes are about the same length. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. as shown. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet.

The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. Fig. as shown in Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 1. 5. the knife resting on its back. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. 3. Each person plays until three outs have been made. The knife falling on its side (Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. calls for a home run. 6. as in Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. . and so on for nine innings. 7) calls for one out. then the other plays. 2. Chicago. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. a three-base hit. 4).Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. A foul ball is indicated by Fig.

as shown in Fig. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. F. It may be found that the negative is not colored.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. Campbell. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table.-Contributed by J. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. with the rope laced in the cloth. Old-Time Magic . Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. as shown in Fig. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. 1. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. If it is spotted at all. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. of the rope and holds it. Mass. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. of water for an hour or two. while the committee is tying him up. 2. Somerville. This he does. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. 3. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. hypo to 1 pt. one of them burning .

4 oz.brightly.Contributed by Andrew G. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. and. Ky. B. . 4 oz. of sugar. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire.. New York City. The magician walks over to the burning candle. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. thus causing it to light. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. bolt. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. Ky. shades the light for a few seconds. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. the other without a light. He then walks over to the other candle. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. Thome. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. of plumbago. of water and 1 oz. Lebanon. 3/4 in. Evans. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. Drill Gauge screw. --Contributed by C. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. Louisville. invisible to them (the audience). but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. --Contributed by L. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. Brown. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. thick. etc. showing that there is nothing between them. with which he is going to light the other candle. of turpentine. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands.

with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. into a tube of several thicknesses. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . N. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. 5 in. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. Its current strength is about one volt. thick. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. Pulteney. H. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Y. or blotting paper. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. Do not add water to the acid. diameter. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. which will give a strong. about 5 in. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. To make the porous cell. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. steady current. --Contributed by C. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. but is not so good. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. for the material. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. Denniston. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. In making up the solution. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. long. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc.

The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. a positive adjustment was provided. the other holding them apart. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The . any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. long with a bearing at each end. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. steel. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. One hole was bored as well as possible. steel. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame.station. while the other end is attached by two screws. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. one drawing them together. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in.) may be obtained. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. As to thickness. but somewhat lighter. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. To insure this. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. carrying the hour circle at one end. steel. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. After much experimentation with bearings. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. Finally. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace.

The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. Cassiopiae. Instead. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. in each direction from two points 180 deg. need not be changed. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture.. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. All these adjustments.. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. If the result is more than 24 hours. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. 45 min. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. Set the declination circle to its reading. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. Point it approximately to the north star. turn the pointer to the star. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. Declination is read directly. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. When properly set it will describe a great circle. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. and if it is not again directed to the same point. Each shaft. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. once carefully made. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. The pointer is directed to Alpha." When this is done. and 15 min. All set screws. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. The aperture should be 1/4 in. To locate a known star on the map. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. It is." Only a rough setting is necessary. save the one in the pipe. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. apart. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. The pole is 1 deg.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. To find a star in the heavens. subtract 24. is provided with this adjustment. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. are tightened. excepting those on the declination axis.

Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. Ohio. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 3 or 4 in. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. New Orleans. taking care not to add too much. a great effect will be produced. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. the others . benzole. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr.. is the real cannon ball. Plain City. of ether. The ball is found to be the genuine article. add a little more benzole. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. as shown in the sketch. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. long. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. -Contributed by Ray E. If this will be too transparent. The dance will begin. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. cannon balls. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. La. Strosnider. which is the one examined. then add 1 2-3 dr. is folded several times. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. In reality the first ball.

drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. taps. as shown in the illustration. Mass. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. --Contributed by J. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. Cal. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first.. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. etc. without taking up any great amount of space. Wis. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. Milwaukee. Campbell. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. Somerville. Fig. San Francisco. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. Return the card to the pack. small brooches. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. F. 2. In boxes having a sliding cover. 1). Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card.

but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. as shown in the illustration. from the bottom of the box. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. Hartford. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. Beller. . This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. This box has done good service. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. slides and extra brushes. Connecticut. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. thus giving ample store room for colors. round pieces 2-1/4 in. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. prints. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them.

a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. holes in the bottom of one. will answer the purpose. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. about threefourths full. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. When the ends are turned under. . This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. -Contributed by C. O. or placed against a wall. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. Mass. tacking the gauze well at the corners. Fill the upper tub. West Lynn. costing 5 cents.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. FIG. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. 2). 1). Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. Darke. with well packed horse manure. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. and especially are the end pieces objectionable.

if this is not available. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. Chicago. If plugs are found in any of the holes. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. --Contributed by L. they should be knocked out. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. Eifel. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. M. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. when they are raised from the pan. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. If the following directions are carried out. and each bundle contains . How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. oil or other fluid. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. cutting the cane between the holes. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured.

and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. put about 3 or 4 in. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. as it must be removed again. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. No plugs . after having been pulled tight.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. as shown in Fig. then across and down. a square pointed wedge. In addition to the cane. it should be held by a plug. 1. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. held there by inserting another plug. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. and.

Start at one corner and weave diagonally. 1. The style or gnomon. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. using the same holes as for the first layer. No weaving has been done up to this time. 5.075 in. called the gnomon. 1. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. 5 in. -Contributed by E. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. and the one we shall describe in this article. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time.2 in. for 2°. D. When cool. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. it is 4. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. 41°-30'. Patrick. as shown in Fig.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. 1 lat. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired.3 in. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. Fig. the height of the line BC. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. If handled with a little care. W. Even with this lubrication.5 in. Michigan. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. the next smallest. After completing the second layer. 42° is 4.15+. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction.15 in. 3. It consists of a flat circular table. in this case) times the . The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand.42 in.= 4. 1. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . as the height of the line BC for lat. stretch the third one.075 in. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. 4.2+. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. All added to the lesser or 40°. or the style. During the weaving. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. trim off the surplus rosin. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. is the horizontal dial. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. Their difference is . is the base (5 in. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. 41 °-30'. but the most common. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. 3. the height of which is taken from table No. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. and for 1° it would be . as for example. 40°. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. and for lat. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. If you have a table of natural functions. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. as it always equals the latitude of the place. --Contributed by M. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. lat. This will make three layers. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. From table No. we have 4. There are several different designs of sundials. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. as shown in Fig. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. Detroit. Fig. R. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude.

To layout the hour circle.11 3.91 58° 8. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. or more. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. an inch or two.76 1.83 27° 2. and perpendicular to the base or style.79 4.26 4.00 40° 4.18 28° 2. with a radius of 5 in.88 36° 3. according to the size of the dial. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.57 3.10 6. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.87 4.03 3. .82 5.32 6. Draw the line AD.33 42° 4.30 1.55 46° 5.94 1.14 5.28 .56 .42 1.40 34° 3.85 1. 2 for given latitudes. and intersecting the semicircles.87 1.96 32° 3.66 latitude. Chords in inches for a 10 in. circle Sundial.77 2.66 48° 5. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.42 .06 2. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.46 3.42 45 .63 56° 7.40 1.12 52° 6. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. Draw two semi-circles.23 6.27 2.38 .41 38° 3.99 2. Fig. if of metal. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.55 5. or if of stone.55 30° 2.37 5.19 1.93 6.82 3. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. which will represent the base in length and thickness.20 60° 8.30 2.93 2. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. Its thickness.37 54° 6. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.64 4 8 3.50 26° 2. and for this size dial (10 in.33 .66 1.44 44° 4.85 35 . using the points A and C as centers. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.tangent of the degree of latitude. 2. long. 1.97 5 7 4. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.49 3. gives the 6 o'clock points.68 5-30 6-30 5. For latitudes not given.16 40 .16 1.49 30 .02 1. Table NO.57 1. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. 2.46 .82 2.55 4. base.59 2.89 50° 5.29 4-30 7-30 3.39 .81 4.07 4. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .

The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.54 60 .93 6.19 2.57 1. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. after allowing for the declination. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. The + means that the clock is faster. June 15. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.49 5.21 2.50 . As they are the genuine reproductions.46 5.77 3. if west. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.01 1. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.68 3. E.10 4. then the watch is slower. 2 and Dec. Sioux City. April 16. will enable one to set the dial.24 5. Sept.34 5.add those marked + subtract those Marked . An ordinary compass. 25.37 2. each article can be labelled with the name. and for the difference between standard and local time.means that the dial is faster than the sun.71 2.89 3. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.30 2.from Sundial lime. 3. London. and the .08 1. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.50 55 . Sun time to local mean time. 3. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.63 1. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. says the English Mechanic. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.06 2. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. adding to each piece interest and value. --Contributed by J. Mitchell.53 1. 900 Chicago. Iowa. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. This correction can be added to the values in table No.60 4.12 5. Each weapon is cut from wood.79 6. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.87 6. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.46 4. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.98 4. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position..49 3. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.52 Table No.82 3. it will be faster.72 5.14 1. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.

The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. When putting on the tinfoil.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. . 1. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. 3.. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. the length of which is about 5 ft. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. Partisan. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle.

covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. . This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. in diameter. It is about 6 ft. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. A gisarm or glaive. The spear is steel. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. 5. long. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on.which is square. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. used about the seventeenth century. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The edges are sharp. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The length of this bar is about 5 in. long. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. about 4 in. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. long with a round wooden handle. the holes being about 1/4 in. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. long with a round staff or handle. sharp on the outer edges. 8. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. This weapon is about 6 ft. The extreme length is 9 ft. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. press it well into the carved depressions. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. 7. is shown in Fig. which are a part of the axe. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. 6 ft. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown.

Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. used for spacing and binding the whole together. are less durable and will quickly show wear. 5. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. Cut all the cords the same length. 4. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. This is important to secure neatness. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. Loudonville. as shown in Fig. B. They can be made of various materials. 2 and 3. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. In Figs.-Contributed by R. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. Ohio. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. apart. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. are put in place. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. Substances such as straw. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. H. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. the most durable being bamboo. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. or in holes punched in a leather strap. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. the cross cords. Workman. The twisted cross cords should . One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. 1.

A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. M. below the top to within 1/4 in. -Contributed by Geo. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. for a length extending from a point 2 in. wide. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . 3 in. of the bottom. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place.be of such material. New Orleans. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. New York. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. bamboo or rolled paper. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. Harrer. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. A slit was cut in the bottom. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. To remedy this. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. Four V-shaped notches were cut. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. The first design shown is for using bamboo. Lockport. This was turned over the top of the other can. in which was placed a piece of glass. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. shaped as shown at C. as shown at B. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. La. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper.

is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. After this is finished. This should be done gradually. is shown in the accompanying sketch. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . Newburgh. Schaffner. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. the brass is loosened from the block. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. Cal. Y. Shay. --Contributed by W. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. It would be well to polish the brass at first. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. giving the appearance of hammered brass. wide. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch.tape from sticking to the carpet. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. do not throw away the gloves. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. turned over but not fastened. --Contributed by Joseph H. --Contributed by Chas. Ill. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. and two along the side for attaching the staff. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. N. Maywood. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. about 1/16 in. Pasadena. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. H. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. Sanford. This plank.

Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Marshall. Jaquythe. -Contributed by W. in diameter. Unlike most clocks. bent as shown. Ill.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Richmond. --E. A. Oak Park. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. the pendulum swings . K. Cal. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob.

These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. --Contributed by V. high. only have the opposite side up. long and at each side of this. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. to the first one with screws or glue. B. wide. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. In using this method. high. are secured in the base bar. such as this one. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. 6 in. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. in diameter. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. 7-1/2 in. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. about 6 in. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. Secure a board. A. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. Chicago. on the board B. C.. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. high and 1/4 in. about 12 in. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. 3/4 in. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. away.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. Two uprights. wide that is perfectly flat. . thick. says the Scientific American. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. is an electromagnet. Metzech. bar. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. by 1-5/16 in. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. 5/16 in. bearing on the latter. Now place the board to be joined. high. The construction is very simple. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. and the other two 2-5/8 in. the center one being 2-3/4 in. Fasten another board. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses.

1. Pa. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. Vanderslice. . The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. whose dimensions are given in Fig. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. Fig.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. square. Phoenixville. The trigger. square inside. plates should be made 8 in. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. Fig. 1. wide and 1 in. by driving a pin through the wood. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. wide and 5 in. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. is fastened in the hole A. 4. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. long. --Contributed by Elmer A. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. 3. from one end. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. 2. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. 1. as shown at A. or more.

when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. by weight. 5 parts of black filler. square. which allows 1/4 in. if only two bands are put in the . Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. as shown in the illustration. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down.A. -Contributed by J. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. 2 parts of whiting. rubbing varnish and turpentine. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. Fostoria. Ohio. one-half the length of the side pieces. Simonis. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed.

remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. Michigan. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. Grand Rapids. and it may be made as a model or full sized. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. A double convex lens. A piece of metal. keeps the strong light out when sketching. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. wide and about 1 ft. is set at an angle of 45 deg. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. In constructing helmets. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. deep. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. II. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. as shown in Fig. -Contributed by Abner B. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. 8 in. No. says the English Mechanic. long. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. and the picture can be drawn as described. There is no limit to the size of the helmet.lower strings. Mass. G. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. It must be kept moist and well . preferably copper. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. is necessary. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. Dartmouth. place tracing paper on its surface. 1. Shaw. London. in the opposite end of the box. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. --Contributed by Thos. A mirror. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. which may be either of ground or plain glass. DeLoof. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. If a plain glass is used. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. In use.

and the deft use of the fingers. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. All being ready. as shown in Fig. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand.kneaded. on which to place the clay. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. take. Scraps of thin. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. 3. joined closely together. will be necessary. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. After the clay model is finished. shown in Fig. The clay. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. 1. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. and over the crest on top. with a keyhole saw. the clay model oiled. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . as in bas-relief. 2. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. and continue until the clay is completely covered. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. 1. or some thin glue. brown. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. a few clay-modeling tools. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. and left over night to soak. This being done. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand.

In Fig. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. should be modeled and made in one piece. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. --Contributed by Paul Keller. the piecing could not be detected. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. The band is decorated with brass studs. Indianapolis. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. or. 7. which should be no difficult matter. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. the skullcap. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. When dry. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. as seen in the other part of the sketch. The center of the ear guards are perforated. a few lines running down. a crest on top. 1. one for each side. 5. as shown: in the design. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. and the ear guards in two pieces. will make it look neat. owing to the clay being oiled. The whole helmet. Before taking it off the model. They are all covered with tinfoil. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. When perfectly dry. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. then another coating of glue. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. When the helmet is off the model.as possible. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. and so on. 9. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. with the exception of the vizor. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. Indiana. In Fig. square in shape. This contrivance should be made of wood. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up.

The mineral wool. 1. The holes B and C are about 3 in. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. as shown in Fig. 22 gauge resistance wire. Fig. is shown in Fig. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. wide and 15 in. one small switch. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. This will make an open space between the plates. which can be bought from a local druggist. 4. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. 4. above the collar. A round collar of galvanized iron. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. 2. Fig. as it stands a higher temperature. Fig. The reverse side of the base. if this cannot be obtained. long. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. 4. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. JJ. of mineral wool. of the top. as shown in Fig. If asbestos is used. This will allow the plate. Fig. the fuse block. 4 lb. E and F. 2. Fig. thick. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. screws. and. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. AA. and two large 3in. 4. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. to receive screws for holding it to the base. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. 3. 2. Fig. about 1/4 in. with slits cut for the wires. long. of No. one glass tube. AA. Fig. AA. The plate. German-silver wire is better. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. for connections. GG. also the switch B and the fuse block C. 1. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. 4. Fig.same size. Fig. FF. should extend about 1/4 in. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. 3 in. Fig. or. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. the holes leading to the switch. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. if the measurements are correct. until it is within 1 in. about 80 ft. long. 1. are allowed to project about 1 in. one oblong piece of wood. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. is then packed down inside the collar. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. Fig. 4. 12 in. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. of fire clay. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. If a neat appearance is desired. 1. one fuse block. Fig. 1 in. Fig. The two holes. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . 1. and C. high. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. when they are placed in opposite positions. two ordinary binding posts. as shown in Fig. in diameter and 9 in. each 4-1/2 in. 4. thick sheet asbestos. about 1 lb. 1.

steam will form when the current is applied. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. --Contributed by R. While the clay is damp. KK. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. causing a short circuit. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. Fig. and pressed into it. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. Richmond. will slip and come in contact with each other. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. A. II. above the rim. The clay. 4. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. This completes the stove. Fig. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . Jaquythe. H. then. deep. Cnonyn. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. It should not be left heated in this condition. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. when heated. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. Cover over about 1 in. apart. When the tile is in place. St. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. as the turns of the wires. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. It should not be set on end. As these connections cannot be soldered. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. If it is not thoroughly dry. A file can be used to remove any rough places. Can. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. Cal. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. so that the circuit will not become broken. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. If this is the case. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. more wire should be added. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. using care not to get it too wet. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. Cut a 1/2-in. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. This point marks the proper length to cut it. --Contributed by W. Next. Catherines.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. allowing a space between each turn. when cool. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. it leaves a gate for the metal. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. When this is done. 2. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket.

If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. but 12 by 24 in. says the Photographic Times. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. Louisville. as shown. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. square material in any size. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. is large enough. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. and the prints will dry rapidly. --Contributed by Andrew G. and the frame set near a window. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Thorne. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Then clip a little off the . constructed of 3/4-in. the pie will be damaged. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. Ky. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle.

An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. Figs. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. -Contributed by S. in diameter. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. which gives the shaft a half turn. thick and 3 in. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. The driving arm D. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. 1 and 3. 1. 1. The connections are made as shown in Fig. Fig. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. thereby saving time and washing. long. thick and 3 in. 4 in. for the crank. wide and 3 in. The upright B. slip on two cardboard washers. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. each 1 in. each 1/2 in. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. Fig. Fig. As the shaft revolves. allowing each end to project for connections. long. The board can be raised to place . The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. as shown. 2-1/2 in. Iowa. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. 1/2 in. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. 3. high. 2. high. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt.Paper Funnel point. The connecting rod E. Two supports. 1. W. in diameter and about 4 in. An offset is bent in the center. 1. open out. A 1/8-in. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. 1/2 in. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. 22 gauge magnet wire. wide and 7 in. Herron. Le Mars. causing a break in the current. which are fastened to the base. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. thick. 14 in. at GG. long. wide. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. high. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. long. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F.

In designing the roost. Stecher. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. Dorchester. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. as shown in the sketch. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. on a board. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Mass. . bottom side up. making a framework suitable for a roost. Place the pot. in height. --Contributed by William F. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. One or more pots may be used. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. 3 in.

grills and gratings for doors. paraffin and paint or varnish. F. Fig. will produce the pattern desired. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. shelves. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. and give it time to dry. etc. ordinary glue. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. F. without any corresponding benefit. preferably. 1. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg.. 1. odd corners. if it is other than straight lines. as shown in Fig. Wind the . If the meter is warmed 10 deg.. adopt the method described. when combined. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. The materials required are rope or. windows. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. in diameter. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. that it is heated. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. The bottom part of the sketch.

These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. N. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . six designs are shown. -Contributed by Geo. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Harrer. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Lockport. 2.Fig. M. cut and glue them together. Y. Fig.

. will be retained by the cotton. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. 1. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. This piece of horse armor. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. when it will be observed that any organic matter. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. says the English Mechanic. etc. which was used in front of a horse's head. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. chips of iron rust. and the sides do not cover the jaws. London.. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in..Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. As the . makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. etc. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. but no farther.

There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. In Fig. This being done. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. which can be made in any size. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. the same as in Fig. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. but the back is not necessary. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. This triangularshaped support. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. 4. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. but for . The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. the rougher the better. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. The armor is now removed from the model. and the clay model oiled. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. 6 and 7. and therefore it is not described. with the exception of the thumb shield. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. then another coat of glue. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. and will require less clay. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. This can be made in one piece. All being ready. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. except the thumb and fingers. as shown in the sketch. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. as the surface will hold the clay. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. 2. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. This will make the model light and easy to move around. which is separate. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. An arrangement is shown in Fig. 8. 2.

A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. are glued to it. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. but 3-1/2 in. 1/2 in. La Rue. two in each jaw. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. running down the plate. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. If it does not hold a charge. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. . wide and 1/2 in. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. Buxton. long. will be about right. Calif. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. the foils will not move. When locating the place for the screw eyes. the two pieces of foil will draw together. in depth. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Y. fastened to the rod. Redondo Beach. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. N. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. and the instrument is ready for use. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. 2.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. The two pieces of foil. cut into the shape shown in Fig. are better shown in Fig. each about 1/4 in. A piece of board. --Contributed by Ralph L. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. two for the jaws and one a wedge. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. --Contributed by John G. 9. the top of the rod. Goshen.

A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. Bryan. silvered. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. about 15 in. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. from the smaller end. pine board. 2-1/2 in. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. long. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. hole bored through it. A. Texas. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. as indicated in the . as this will cut under the water without splashing. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. M. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. is made of a 1/4-in. The can may be bronzed. Corsicana. When a fish is hooked. enameled or otherwise decorated. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. At a point 6 in. as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Mrs. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines.

punch the holes. Polish the metal. A good size is 5 in. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. using powdered pumice and lye. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. then with a nail. as shown. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. wide by 6 in.Match Holder accompanying sketch. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. 3/8 or 1/4 in. or even pine. When it has dried over night. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. Next prepare the metal holder. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. If soft wood." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. put a coat or two of wax and polish . will do as well as the more expensive woods. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Any kind of wood will do. and trace upon it the design and outline. 22 is plenty heavy enough. Basswood or butternut. take a piece of thin wood. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. using a piece of carbon paper. long over all. thick. such as basswood or pine was used. Having completed the drawing.

thick. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. the whole being finished in linseed oil. Instead of the usual two short ropes. If carving is contemplated. . Richmond. long.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. each 1 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. 2 in. A. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. 1/2 in. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. are used for the cores of the magnets. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. of pure olive oil. can be made on the same standards. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. long. Two wire nails. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. Jaquythe. If one has some insight in carving. wide and 5 in. Cal. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. --Contributed by W. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. It is useful for photographers. is used for the base of this instrument.

Lynas. 1. .Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. at A. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. cut in the shape of the letter T. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. 3. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. similar to that used in electric bells. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. leaving about 1/4 in. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. except that for the legs. the paper covering put on. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. in the shape shown in the sketch. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. About 1 in. All of the parts for the armor have been described. about No. says the English Mechanic. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. cloth or baize to represent the legs. as shown by the dotted lines. then covered with red. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. London. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. H. A piece of tin. acts as a spring to keep the key open. 25 gauge. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. A rubber band. when the key is pushed down. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. --Contributed by W. as shown in Fig. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel.

hole in the center. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. Cut them to a length or 40 in. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. and eight small holes. for the sake of lightness. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. one to another . a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. Instead of using brass headed nails. at each end. completes the equipment. 3 in. can be made in a few minutes' time. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. Take the piece shown in Fig. about 1 in. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. drill six 1/4-in. or ordinary plaster laths will do. 2. apart. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. 1 and drill a 1/4in.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. Silver paper will do very well. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish.. says Camera Craft. Fig. These can be purchased at a stationery store. 1 in. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. A 1/4-in. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. Secure two strips of wood. holes. make the same series of eight small holes and. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. not too tight. In one end of the piece. flat headed carriage bolt. long. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. The two pieces are bolted together. So set up. apart. By moving the position of the bolt from. in the other end.

4. Then take B and lay it over A. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. then B over C and the end stuck under A.of the larger holes in the strip. Start with one end. D over A and C. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. In this sketch. Then draw all four ends up snugly. lay Cover B and the one under D. 2. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. Fig. 2. but instead of reversing . The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. doubled and run through the web of A. A round fob is made in a similar way. long. the one marked A. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. taking the same start as for the square fob. and the one beneath C. of the ends remain unwoven. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. A is the first string and B is the second. as shown in Fig. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. 2. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. 1. in Fig. as in portraiture and the like. and lay it over the one to the right. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. C over D and B. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. for instance.

--Contributed by John P. is to be made of leather. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. over the one to its right. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. always lap one string. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. A loop. 5. 3. as in making the square fob. Monroeville. long. especially if silk strings are used. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. The round fob is shown in Fig.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. as B. Other designs can be made in the same manner. as at A in Fig. Rupp. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. is left out at the center before starting on one side. Ohio. the design of which is shown herewith. 1-1/2 in.

Northville. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. door facing or door panel. -Contributed by A. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. . Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. Any smooth piece of steel. such as a nut pick. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. A. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. it can be easily renewed. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. beeswax or paraffin. When the supply of wax is exhausted. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. using the reverse side. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. filling them with wax. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. pressing it against the wood.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. Houghton. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. Mich. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face.

place it face down in the dish. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. Ill. The tacks should be about 1 in. Y. Enough plaster should. if blueprints are used. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. remaining above the surface of the board. and about 12 in. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. long. Select the print you wish to mount. . J. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. Fold together on lines C. although tin ones can be used with good success. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. Thompson. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. New York. apart and driven in only part way. Petersburg. and after wetting. --Contributed by O. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. N. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. D. E and F. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. leaving about 1/4 in. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. but any kind that will not stick may be used. those on matte paper will work best. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. says Photographic Times. it is best to leave a plain white margin. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. thick. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick.

The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool.. without mixing the solutions. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. filling the same about onehalf full. as shown in the right of the sketch. violets. as shown at the left in the sketch.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. Lower into the test tube a wire. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. bell flowers. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. roses. will be rendered perfectly white. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. One of the . etc. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water.

Shabino. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. is about 2-1/2 in. A rod that will fit the brass tube. South Dakota. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. not too tightly. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. to keep the core from coming off in turning. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in.. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. thick. or delicate tints of the egg. shading. should be soldered to the box. 1-7/8 in. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. but which will not wobble loose. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. The diaphragm. made of heavy tin. about 1/8s in. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. in diameter and 1 in. Fig. L. as shown in the sketch. The first point should be ground blunt. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. 2. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. --Contributed by L. 3. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. and at the larger end. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . When soldering these parts together. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. as shown. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. turned a little tapering. Millstown. The tin horn can be easily made. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. long and made of wood. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. 1.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. long. The sound box.

Victor. and weighted it with a heavy stone. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle.Contributed by E. E. wondering what it was. mice in the bottom. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. Ill. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Jr. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. and. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Colo. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Chicago. put a board on top. Gold. says the Iowa Homestead. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand.

N. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Pereira. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. Y. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. Can. --Contributed by Lyndwode. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. . Ottawa. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Buffalo. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers.

on the side and at the lower edge of the box. by means of a flatheaded tack.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Grand Rapids. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . --Contributed by W. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. Jaquythe. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. De Loof. through which several holes have been punched. and at one end of the stick fasten. --Contributed by Thos. cut round. a piece of tin. A. above the end of the dasher. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. as shown. Richmond. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Cal. Mich. Put a small nail 2 in. This cart has no axle. longer than the length of the can. as it can be made quickly in any size.

although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. board. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. New Orleans.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. I reversed a door gong. 1/4 in.1. 1. Notches 1/8 in. were below the level of the bullseye. wide. thick. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. A wedge-shaped piece of . --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2 in. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. 1-1/2 in. 2. 1 ft. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. screwed it on the inside of a store box. apart. 2. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. wide and 3 ft. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. long. wide and 1/8 in. as shown. The candles. cut in the center of the rounding edge. of course. deep and 3 in. Pa. The baseboard and top are separable. Kane. 2. Doylestown. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. wide and as long as the box. La. --Contributed by James M. Fig. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock.

3. will. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. Mass. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. West Union. After the glue has dried. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. This device is very convenient for invalids. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. as shown in Fig. Cover the block with rubber.. when placed as in Fig. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. For the handle. to prevent its scratching the desk top. --Contributed by G. stone or wood. it can be removed without marring the casing. Worcester. the blade is put back into the groove . The block can also be used as a paperweight. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it.Book Back Holders metal. 1. dressing one surface of each piece. Needles. take two pieces of hard wood. scissors. can be picked up without any trouble. wide into each side of the casing. Ia. the shelf could not be put on the window. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. wide rubber bands or felt. by cutting away the ends. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. Wood. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. A. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. the reason being that if both were solid. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. etc. When not in use. After completing the handle.

--Contributed by H. If desired. Hutchins. 1. -Contributed by W. Erie. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Pa. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Cleveland. Ohio. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. thus carrying the car up the incline. . square and 4 in. Malden. A. --Contributed by Maud McKee. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. as shown in Fig. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Mass. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. as shown in Fig. to fit a mortise cut in the bench.and sharpened to a cutting edge. 2. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Jacobs. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. long. S. A notch is cut in one side. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. 1 in.

N. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. 6 by 9-1/2 in. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first.. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. and an awl and hammer. Prepare a design for the front. If one such as is shown is to be used. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. This will insure having all parts alike. The letters can be put on afterward.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. One sheet of metal. Cape May Point.J. will be needed. . Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. a board on which to work it.

Fasten the metal to the board. that can be worked in your own parlor. paste the paper design right on the metal. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. applied by means of a brush. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. 3/4 part. to right angles. or. On the back." In all appearance. . The stick may be placed by the side of. Remove the metal. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. flat brush. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. turpentine. says Master Painter. If any polishing is required. varnish. 1 part. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. only the marginal line is to be pierced. 2 parts white vitriol. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. behind or through the center of a table leg. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. placed on a table. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. in the waste metal. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. as shown. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. which is desirable. but weird and distant. One coat will do. 1/4 part. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. The music will not sound natural. So impressive are the results. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. mandolin or guitar. a violin. if desired. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. it may be effected by an application of potash lye.

round-head machine screws. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. is bent square so as to form two uprights. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. each 6 in. it might be difficult. 3. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. thick by 1/2 in. square bar iron. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. With proper tools this is easy. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. apart. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. long. 2. wide. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. long and spread about 8 in. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. without them. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. London. each 28 in. One thing is always at hand and that is wood.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. across the top. Two pairs of feet. The longest piece. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. and is easy to construct. . Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. long and measuring 26 in. are shaped as shown in Fig. says Work.

This method is pursued until the glass is complete. A. 5. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. B. While the piece of lead D. 7. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. Fig. C. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. better still. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. is held by the brads. lead. and the base border. on it as shown. or. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. After the joints are soldered. special flux purchased for this purpose. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The glass. 4. The brads are then removed. as shown in Fig. the latter being tapped to . After the glass is cut. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. Place the corner piece of glass. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. cut a long piece of lead. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. in the grooves of the borders. 5. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. 6. The design is formed in the lead. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. Fig. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. D. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. using rosin as a flux. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered.

long. and round the corners of one end for a ring. The center pin is 3/4-in. as shown in Fig. square and of the length given in the drawing. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. plank about 12 ft. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. then drill a 3/4-in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. J. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Make three washers 3-in. thick and drill 3/4-in. in diameter and 1/4 in. Bore a 5/8-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. holes through their centers. then flatten its end on the under side. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. A and B. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. Two styles of hand holds are shown. H. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. not less than 4 in. Camden. Secure a post. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. rounded at the top as shown. long. --Contributed by W. plates. and two wood blocks. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. bolt. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. Bore a 3/4-in. wood screws in each washer. rocker bolt. Jr.the base of the clip. This . bolt. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. one on each side and central with the hole. Concrete is much better if it can be secured.. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. Dreier. long. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. 8. This ring can be made of 1-in. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. in diameter and about 9 in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. N. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Fasten the plates to the block B.

square by 9-1/2 ft. long. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. long. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. boards along the side of each from end to end. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. and some one can swing an axe. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. in diameter and 7 in. 4 filler pieces. The four 7-in. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. long. long. 50 ft. 7 in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. 4 in. maple. To substitute small. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. can make a first class gymnasium. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. long and 1 piece. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. straight-grained hickory. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. shanks. 1 by 7 in. because it will not stand the weather. 2-1/2 in. If trees are convenient. 4 pieces. La. 16 screws. long. from one edge. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. 1. 4 pieces. 3 in. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. by 3 ft. long. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. Draw a line on the four 7-in. 4 in. 1-1/4in. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. screws. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. bolts and rope. by 2 ft. 1/2 in. New Orleans. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. horse and rings. square by 5 ft. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. 9 in. 2 by 4 in. 3/4 by 3 in. by 6-1/2 ft. of 1/4-in. bit.will make an excellent cover for a pot. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. chestnut or ash. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . hickory. the money outlay will be almost nothing. apart for a distance of 3 ft.

8 in. apart. then buried to a depth of 2 ft.. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post.. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. 2. boards coincide. each 3 ft.bored. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. apart. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. from the end. deep and remove all loose dirt. so the 1/2-in. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. Bore a 9/16-in. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. at each end. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. piece of wood. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle.

passing through a screweye at either end. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. disappearing only to reappear again. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. which at once gathered. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. about 100 ft. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous." which skimmed along the distant horizon. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. not much to look at in daytime. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. just visible against the dark evening sky. but most deceptive at dusk. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. the effect is very striking. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. was at its height. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. it is taken to the edge of the foot. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. and then passes in a curve across the base. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. and ascends the stem. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. not even the tumbler. If the tumbler is rotated. and materially heightened the illusion. apart. When the interest of the crowd. He stretched the thread between two buildings. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed.. in an endless belt. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. it follows the edge for about 1 in. W. And all he used was a black thread. .

Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 4 bolts. 2 cross braces. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. beginning at a point 9 in. long. 4 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. long. long and 1 doz. 8 in. long. and turned in a spiral D. 2 by 4 in. New Orleans. by 7 ft. long. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 2 by 4 in. 4 wood screws. by 10 ft. 8 in. To make the apparatus. Bevel the ends of . long. preferably cedar. 8 in. 2 by 3 in. 4 knee braces. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 7 in. by 2 ft. 4 in. deep. Chisel out two notches 4 in. square and 6 ft. The cork will come out easily.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. La. 8 bolts. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. long. 2 base pieces. Fig. by 3 ft. from either side of the center. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 2 side braces. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 6 in. 1. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. so the point will be on top. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. long. long. 2 in. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. large spikes. square and 51/2 ft. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. A wire about No. wide and 1 in. 2 by 4 in.

from the bottom of the base up along the posts. Jaquythe. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. If using mill-cut lumber. The wood so treated will last for years. which face each other. of 7 ft. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. leaving the strainer always in position. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. except the bars. screws. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. and countersinking the heads. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. A large sized ladle. equipped with a strainer.. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. as shown in the diagram. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. Cal. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. additional long.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. using four of the 7-in bolts. etc. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. before burying the lower part of the end pieces.the knee braces. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. A. leave it undressed. so the bolts in both will not meet. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. but even unpainted they are very durable. These will allow the ladle to be turned. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. . jellies. After the trenches are dug. ( To be Continued. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. Richmond. save the bars. Two endpieces must be made. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. --Contributed by W.

Oil. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. which seems impossible. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. milling machine. partly a barrier for jumps. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. thus holding the pail as shown. of sufficient 1ength. In order to accomplish this experiment. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. A. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. drill press or planer. it is necessary to place a stick. .Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. or various cutting compounds of oil.

projections and splinters. stud cut rounding on one edge. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. by 3 ft. square by 5-1/2 ft. square by 5 ft. The round part of this log must be planed. long. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. Procure from a saw mill. to fasten the knee braces at the top. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. 2 by 4 in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. beginning 1-1/2 in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. 4 knee braces. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. wood yard or from the woods. long. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. in the ground. but 5 ft. 2 bases. long.. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 2 by 4 in. 2 by 4 in. long. These are placed 18 in.. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. apart in a central position on the horse. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. 1 cross brace. These are well nailed in place. long. bolts. and free from knots. 7 in. in diameter--the larger the better. To construct. from each end. 4-1/2 in. long. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. bolts. long. 1 in. 4 in. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. by 3 ft. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. apart.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. Hand holds must be provided next. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. bolt. bolts. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . ten 1/2-in. two 1/2-in. The material required is as follows: Two posts. by 3 ft. 2 adjusting pieces. 4 in. piece of 2 by 4-in. is a good length. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. 4 in. long. 3 in. layout the bases as shown in the drawing.

pipe and fittings. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. snow. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Cal.--Contributed by W. Richmond. no one is responsible but himself. water. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Such a hand sled can be made in a . etc. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. then bending to the shape desired. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. Also. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. A. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through.horse top. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. but nevertheless. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. it is caused by some obstruction. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. over and around. it is caused by an overloaded shell. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. such as a dent. Jaquythe. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height.

are all the tools necessary. 1/4 or 3/16 in. Paris. will give the length. These. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. --Contributed by J. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. The end elevation. when complete. is much better than a wood sled. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. which. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. France. Ontario. then run a string over each part. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. in width and 1/32 in. when straightened out. Boston. W. Noble. at E and F. . 2. thick. Toronto. 1. --Contributed by Arthur E. Vener. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Mass. Joerin. --Contributed by James E. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack.

nor that which is partly oxidized. AA and BB. 3. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. 4. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The method shown in Figs. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. . A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. are nailed. It is best to use soft water.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver.

Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. as shown in Fig. 2. 8 and 9. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 2. 4. The materials used are: backbone. . If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. Percy Ashley in Rudder. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. 3. or various rulings may be made. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. as shown in Fig. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 1). Broad lines can be made. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. class ice-yacht. or unequal widths as in Fig.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

out from the collar. The headstock is made of two tees. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. bent and drilled as shown. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. A good and substantial homemade lathe. It can be made longer or shorter. long. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch.Fig. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. pipe. Both the lower . about 30 in. but if it is made much longer. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. pins to keep them from turning. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. 1. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The point should extend about 11/2 in. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. a larger size of pipe should be used. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. 1-Details of Lathe sort. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. a tee and a forging.

2. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. Indiana. but also their insulating properties. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. Laporte. 1. Cal. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. --Contributed by W. thick as desired. UpDeGraff. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. 2. . --Contributed by M. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. It is about 1 in. W. a corresponding line made on this. as shown in Fig. Fruitvale. Musgrove. and will answer for a great variety of work. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. or a key can be used as well. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. as shown in Fig. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. 2. Held. --Contributed by W. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. Boissevain. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. To do this. else taper turning will result. 3/4 or 1 in. Man. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. M. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. a straight line should be scratched Fig.

The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. To obviate this. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. In use. long. The handle is of pine about 18 in.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. Cline. as shown. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. J. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. Smith. Ft. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. Ark. --Contributed by E.

--Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. the drill does not need the tool. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. on starting the lathe. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. New Orleans. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. if this method is followed: First.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. Denver. Colo. take . Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. --Contributed by Walter W. After being entered. centering is just one operation too many. and when once in true up to its size. This prevents the drill from wobbling. White. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. which should be backed out of contact. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. face off the end of the piece. La. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions.

is put into the paper tube A. It can be used in a great number of tricks. a long piece of glass tubing. shorter t h a n the wand. unknown to the spectators. by applying caustic soda or . the cap is placed over the paper tube. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. After the wand is removed. shown at C. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. after being shown empty. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. and can be varied to suit the performer. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. vanishing wand. In doing this. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. The glass tube B. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. as shown in D. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. a bout 1/2 in. The handkerchief rod.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. all the better. says the Sphinx. and this given to someone to hold.

preferably hard maple. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. Cut a piece of hard wood. End. The sides. with the back side rounding. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. Glue strips of soft wood. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. 1. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. by 14 by 17 in. As the cement softens. and if care is taken in selecting the material. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. cut to any shape desired. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. 3/16. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. 1/4 in. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. The brace at D is 1 in. can be made by the home mechanic. 1 End. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. This dimension and those for the frets . square and 1-7/8 in. and glue it to the neck at F. thick. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper.potash around the edges of the letters. Glue the neck to the box. long. as shown by K. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. 1 Bottom. 2 Sides. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. across the front and back to strengthen them. With care and patience. 1 Neck. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in.

but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. H. in diameter. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. long is used for a keel. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. Carbondale. Norwalk. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. A board 1 in. Stoddard. thick and about 1 ft. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. Frary. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. or backbone. O. --Contributed by Chas. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. 1) on which to stretch the paper. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat.Pa. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. and beveled . Six holes. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. wide and 11-1/2 ft. toward each end. 3/16 in. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol.should be made accurately. but it is not. -Contributed by J. E. When it is completed you will have a canoe.

Green wood is preferable. Fig. . Fig. 1 and 2. in such cases. twigs 5 or 6 ft. 3. long are required. and. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. B. 3). as shown in Fig. long. such as is used for making chairbottoms. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. The cross-boards (B. as they are apt to do. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. some tight strips of ash. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. will answer nearly as well. b. but before doing this. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. Any tough. as shown in Fig. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. Fig. These are better. 2). when made of green elm. with long stout screws. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. Osiers probably make the best ribs. Fig. two strips of wood (b. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. Fig. and notched at the end to receive them (B. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. Fig. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. by means of a string or wire. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. In drying. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. 2). 2. 13 in. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. 4). and are not fastened. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. For the gunwales (a. The ribs. 3). the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. are next put in. a. two twigs may be used to make one rib. buy some split cane or rattan. such as hazel or birch. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. but twigs of some other trees. in thickness and should be cut. 3. Fig. b. 3/8 in. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. Shape these as shown by A. the loose strips of ash (b. thick.) in notches. wide by 26 in. Fig.. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. or other place. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. and so. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. apart. 4. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. as before described. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. procure at a carriage factory. C. C. or similar material. thick. probably. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. b. 1. which are easily made of long. slender switches of osier willow. Fig.

sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. 5). and light oars. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. It should be smooth on the surface. if it has been properly constructed of good material. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. tacking it to the bottom-board. If not. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. of very strong wrapping-paper. If the paper be 1 yd. apply a second coat of the same varnish. however. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. and very tough. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. and held in place by means of small clamps. Then take some of the split rattan and. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. When the paper is dry. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. It should be drawn tight along the edges. When thoroughly dry. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. wide. and as soon as that has soaked in. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. You may put in . fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. preferably iron. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. The paper is then trimmed. Being made in long rolls. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. after wetting it. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. B. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. and steady in the water. but with less turpentine. but neither stiff nor very thick. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. Fig. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint.

5). Fig.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. Fig. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. 1. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. and if driven as shown in the cut. and make a movable seat (A. Fig. they will support very heavy weights. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. Drive the lower nail first. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. 1 and the end in .Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. 2. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. We procured a box and made a frame. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. to fit it easily. fore and aft. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. 5. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders.

3. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. Pittsburg. Pa. A good way to handle this work. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. being softer where the flame has been applied. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. This is an easy . this makes the tube airtight. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. 4. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing.Fig. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. 5. This way has its drawbacks. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. and the glass. and the result is. Close the other end with the same operation. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame.

By holding the nail about 1/4 in. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in.way to make a thermometer tube. The candle holders may have two. above the metal. -Contributed by A. four. Seventh. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. or six arms. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. Oswald. metal shears. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Sixth. file. thin screw. also trace the decorative design. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. extra metal all around. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. rivet punch. with a piece of carbon paper. three. 23 gauge. third. then reverse. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. very rapid progress can be made. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. After the bulb is formed. fourth. fifth. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. second. flat and round-nosed pliers. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Give the metal a circular motion. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass.

Small copper rivets are used. and holder. Having pierced the bracket. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. drip cup. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Metal polish of any kind will do.

and in a week . deep. A saw.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. F. winding the ends where they came together with wire. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. I steer with the front wheel. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. Shiloh. Heat 6-1/2 oz. Soak 1 oz. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. thus it was utilized. is a broomstick. The boom. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. using a steel pen. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. Mother let me have a sheet. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. and brace and bit were the tools used. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. of glycerine to about 200 deg. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. and water 24 parts. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. alcohol 2 parts. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. on a water bath. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. J. N. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. and other things as they were needed. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. sugar 1 part. all the rest I found. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. except they had wheels instead of runners. and it will be ready for future use. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. they were like an ice boat with a sail. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. Fifty. smooth it down and then remove as before. when it will be ready for use. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. The gaff. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. and add the gelatine. the stick at the bottom of the sail. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. Twenty cents was all I spent. glycerine 4 parts. hammer. if it has not absorbed too much ink. It will bear a perfect copy of the original.

Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. a projecting lens .

8 in. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. A and B. and the lens slide. H. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. The board is centered both ways. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard.. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. wide and 15 in. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. 3. and. above the center. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. and a projecting lens 2 in. are . wide. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. E. or glue. high. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. 1/2 to 3/4 in. describe a 9-in. Fig. as desired. DD. G. A table. slide to about 6 ft. wire brads. or a lens of 12-in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. at a distance of 24 ft. If a small saw is used. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. This ring is made up from two rings. but if such a box is not found. 1. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. long. at a point 1 in. focus enlarging a 3-in. and 14 in. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. about 2 ft. The slide support. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. well seasoned pine. and the work carefully done. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. thick. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. provided the material is of metal.

All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. the water at once extinguishes the flame.constructed to slip easily on the table. of safe. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. To reach the water. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. should the glass happen to upset. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. but not long enough. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. JJ. St. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. apply two coats of shellac varnish. Minn. the strips II serving as guides. Paul.-Contributed by G. The arrangement is quite safe as. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. and when the right position is found for each. E. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. P. placed on the water. B. light burning oil. Small strips of tin. A sheet .

4. 3. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. from a tent company. to cover the mattresses. 1. 12 ft. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . 3 in. N. then the corners on one end are doubled over. I ordered a canvas bag.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. Fig. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 9 in. 3. 2. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart.H. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. Fig.. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. form a piece of wire in the same shape. by 12 ft. Y. If one of these clips is not at hand. Crawford. Schenectady. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. --Contributed by J.

D. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. apart. Colo. first mark the binding-post A. A Film Washing Trough [331] . Fold two strips of light cardboard. Do not use too strong a rubber. holes in the edge. wide. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. long and 3/16 in. C. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. 1. Warren. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. 3/4 in. so as to form two oblong boxes. V. 2. 3/4 in.each edge. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. through which the indicator works. and insert two binding-posts. to the coil of small wire for volts. for amperes and the other post. To calibrate the instrument. long. A rubber band. insulating them from the case with cardboard. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. 1/2 in. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. drill two 3/16 in. 3 to swing freely on the tack. Pa. in the center coil. Fasten the wire with gummed label. An arc is cut in the paper. 1. Fig. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Teasdale. 1/2 in. thick. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. --Contributed by Walter W. to keep it from unwinding. open on the edges. Denver. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. as shown in Fig. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. 2. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. Attach a piece of steel rod. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. Fig. White. --Contributed by Edward M. 2.

with the large hole up. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Wood Burning [331] . M. Hunting. Dayton. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Place this can on one end of the trough. as shown. O. --Contributed by M. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Cut a 1/4-in. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width.

draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . mouth downward. then into this bottle place. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle.

Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . Whitehouse.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. This will make a very pretty ornament. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. 2. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. 1. wide and 4 in. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. --Contributed by Fred W. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. long. 3/4 in. provided the bottle is wide. If the cork is adjusted properly. many puzzling effects may be obtained. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. but not very thick. Place the small bottle in as before. If the small bottle used is opaque. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will.Y. Auburn. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. N. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by John Shahan. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. thick. Ala. Upper Troy. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle.

high without the upper half. Fig. which extended to the ground. wide. long. sugar pine on account of its softness. The wire L was put . I. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. thick. 1. 3. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. G. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. The shaft C.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. thick. Fig. which was nailed to the face plate. by the method shown in Fig. --Contributed by D. W. such as blades and pulleys. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. A staple. Fig. If a transmitter is used. pulley. 1 in. as shown in Fig. Its smaller parts. 2 ft. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. Fig. The 21/2-in. were constructed of 1-in. 2. 4. 1. to the shaft. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. 1. even in a light breeze. thick and 3 in. was 1/4in. On a 1000-ft. pulley F. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. 1. which gave considerable power for its size. Both bearings were made in this manner. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. in diameter and 1 in. The bearing blocks were 3 in. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. iron rod. was keyed to shaft C. or ordinary telephone transmitters. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. Milter. line. B. Fig. K. which was 6 in. 1. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone.

Cut a piece of tin 2 in. and was cut the shape shown. 6. in the center of the board P. pine 18 by 12 in. for instance. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. was tacked. long and bend it as . 0. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. a 1/2-in. Fig. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. 6. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. with all parts in place. was 2 ft. long and bend it as shown at A. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. 1. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. Fig. Two washers were placed on shaft C. long and 1/2 in. H. long. with brass headed furniture tacks. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. hole was bored for it. square to the board P at the top of the tower. There a 1/4-in. G. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. washers were placed under pulley F. The other lid. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. The power was put to various uses. This fan was made of 1/4-in. 5. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. when the windmill needed oiling. Fig. 1. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. The bed plate D. 1.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. across the thin edge of a board. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. apart in the tower. long. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. wide and 1 in. so that the 1/4-in. hole for the shaft G was in the center. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. 1) 4 in. as. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. 1. To make the key. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. 2. cut out another piece of tin (X. long and 3 in. strips. 25 ft. Fig. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. top down also. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. If you have no bell. This completes the receiver or sounder. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. R. Fig. The smaller one. through the latter. Fig. Fig. providing one has a few old materials on hand. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. This board was 12 in. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. 3 in. in diameter. To lessen the friction here.

leaving the other wire as it is. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. using cleats to hold the board frame. By adjusting the coils. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. McConnell. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. causing a buzzing sound. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. like many another device boys make. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. -Contributed by John R. Thus a center drive is made. as indicated. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Now. although it can be made with but two. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Going back to Fig. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Before tacking it to the board. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . at the front. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. and. fitted with paddles as at M. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. The rear barrels are. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. 2. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels.shown. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. When tired of this instrument. 1. as shown at Water. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B.

feet on the pedals. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. If the journals thus made are well oiled. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. 1. There is no danger. can be built. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . To propel it. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. there will not be much friction. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. The speed is slow at first. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. which will give any amount of pleasure. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. 3. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. or even a little houseboat. as shown in Fig. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. copper piping and brass tubing for base. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig.

A. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. 1. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. then the glass disc and then the other ring. Fig. 1. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. Then melt out the rosin or lead. Fig. 1. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. and so creating a false circuit. 2. Fig. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. 2. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. B. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. Fig. D. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. If it is desired to make the light very complete. 2. Turn a small circle of wood. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . Shape small blocks of boxwood.of pleasure for a little work. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. or it may be put to other uses if desired. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. Place one brass ring in cylinder. C. If magnifying glass cannot be had. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder.

wide and 1/16 in. brass rod. J. 3/8 in. wire from light to switch. set alarm key as shown in diagram. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. --Contributed by C. thick. T. Brinkerhoff. To operate this. Utah. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . 4-1/2 in. B.india rubber tubing. long. near the bed. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. F. Ogden. 4 in. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. I. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. key of alarm clock. Pa. X. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. which stops bell ringing. bell. bracket. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. some glue will secure them. contact post. switch. In placing clock on shelf. C. --Contributed by Geo. while lying in bed. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. To get the cylinder into its carriage. or 1/4in. by having the switch on the baseboard. wire from batteries to switch. C. brass strip. shelf. When alarm goes off. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. such as is used for cycle valves. 5-1/4 by 10 in. To throw on light throw levers to the left. E. after two turns have been made on the key. Swissvale. Throw lever off from the right to center. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. Chatland. H. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. The parts indicated are as follows: A. long. S. copper tubing. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . G.. dry batteries. if too small. D. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. after setting alarm. wire from bell to switch. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. and pulled tight. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes.

Lanesboro. All that is required is a tin covering. Fig. wide. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. from one end. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. as at A. a bed warmer. Chapman. A small lamp of about 5 cp. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. --Contributed by Chas. Pull out the nail and stick. place stick and all in a pail of sand. 1. Minn. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. in diameter. as . beyond the end of the spindle. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. 1/4 in. about 3-1/2 in. 3. A flannel bag. letting it extend 3/4 in. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. Make a shoulder. This is to form the fuse hole. which can be made of an old can. Fig. as at B. gives the heater a more finished appearance. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. about 6 in. as in Fig. making it as true and smooth as possible. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. Make the spindle as in Fig. being careful not to get the sand in it. Fig. 4 in. 2. 1. will do the heating. as at A. long. 2. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Having finished this. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. for instance. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. S. in diameter.

deep. 1 in. wide and 3 ft. 1. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. will be sufficient to make the trigger. thick. long. Joerin. 6 in. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. 11/2 in. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Arthur E. or hickory. spring and arrows. wide and 3/8 in. long. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. long. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. The illustration shows how this is done. A piece of tin. A piece of oak. good straight-grained pine will do. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. thick. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. this is to keep the edges from splitting.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. 3/8 in. 5/8 in. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. ash. thick. The material must be 1-1/2 in. but if this wood cannot be procured. wide and 6 ft.

and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. Fig. --Contributed by O. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. Ill. 7. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. Trownes. The bow is not fastened in the stock. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. 9. E. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. and one for the trigger 12 in. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. it lifts the spring up. The trigger. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. When the trigger is pulled. 8. having the latter swing quite freely. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. To shoot the crossbow. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. Such a temporary safe light may be . Fig. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. The stick for the bow. from the end of the stock. Fig. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. To throw the arrow. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. or through the necessity of. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. place the arrow in the groove. 6. as shown in Fig. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. 3. wide at each end. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. from the opposite end. A spring. 2. thick. Wilmette. better still. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. which is 1/4 in. in diameter. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. as shown in Fig. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. 4.

and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. from the ground. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. or only as a camp on a short excursion. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. making lighting and trimming convenient. and replace as shown at B. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. the bark lean-to is a . This lamp is safe. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. By chopping the trunk almost through. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. C. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. is used as a door. Remove one end.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. The cut should be about 5 ft. The hinged cover E. respectively. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. Remove the bottom of the box. and nail it in position as shown at A. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. says Photo Era. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. since the flame of the candle is above A. Moreover. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. make the frame of the wigwam. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. from the ground. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. it is the easiest camp to make. apart. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another.

and split the tops with an ax. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. and when the camp is pitched. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. long and 2 or 3 ft. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. makes a good pair of tongs. and cedar. . Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. For a foot in the middle of the stick. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. 3 ft. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. are a convenient size for camp construction. In the early summer. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. wide and 6 ft. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. thick. 6 ft. A piece of elm or hickory. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. selecting a site for a camp. a 2-in. will dry flat. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. long and 1-1/2 in. Tongs are very useful in camp. nails are necessary to hold it in place. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. spruce. wide. deep and covered with blankets. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. make the best kind of a camp bed. Where bark is used. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. For a permanent camp. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. Sheets of bark. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. long. piled 2 or 3 ft.

and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. . or even a rough lock for the camp larder. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. and affording accommodation for several persons. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. hinges. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried.

Kane. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. deep and 4 in. Pa. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. wide. to another . the interior can. Fig. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth.. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. about 4 in. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. B. changing the water both morning and night. 1. B. I drove a small cork. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. Doylestown. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. --Contributed by James M. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. connected by means of a very small lead pipe.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. and provide a cover or door. A. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner.

shows how the connections to the supply current are made. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. 2. E. a liquid. The diagram. fused into one side. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. 3. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw.glass tube. for instance. if necessary. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. This makes . the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. limit. for instance. 2. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. until. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. to pass through an increasing resistance. The current is thus compelled. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. which project inside and outside of the tube. such as ether. C. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. Fig. 4 and 5). Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1.

thicker. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. or pattern. After the template is marked out. making it 1/16 in. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. Alpena. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. as shown in the left-hand sketch. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. when several pieces are placed together. two holes. Then the field can be finished to these marks. A 5/8in. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. cannot be used so often. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. A. in diameter. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. assemble and rivet them solidly. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. tap. larger than the dimensions given. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. drill the four rivet holes. set at 1/8 in. bent at right angles as shown. The bearing studs are now made. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. clamp the template. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. and for the outside of the frame. brass or iron. by turning the lathe with the hand. which may be of any thickness so that. 1. screws. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. which will make it uniform in size. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. brass. Fig. in diameter. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. 3-3/8 in. 3-3/8 in. hole is . These holes are for the bearing studs. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. Fig. thick. If the thickness is sufficient. as shown in Fig. 2. Michigan. or even 1/16 in. on a lathe. is composed of wrought sheet iron. 3. 4-1/2 in. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. After cleaning them with the solution. When the frame is finished so far. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. therefore. they will make a frame 3/4 in. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. between centers. thick. Before removing the field from the lathe. but merely discolored. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. to allow for finishing. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. mark off a space.

and drilled to receive the armature shaft. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. soldered into place. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. 4. Fig. When the bearings are located. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. brass rod is inserted. or otherwise finished. solder them to the supports. The shaft of the armature. is turned up from machine steel. and build up the solder well. into which a piece of 5/8-in. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. file them out to make the proper adjustment. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point.

and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. being formed for the ends. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. After they . as shown in Fig. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. brass rod. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. deep and 7/16 in. hole and tap it for a pin. then drill a 1/8-in. and held with a setscrew. thick. 3. The pins are made of brass. 1-1/8 in. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. 8. When this is accomplished. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. by 1-1/2 in. thick. 3/4 in. washers. thick are cut like the pattern. sheet fiber. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. Find the centers of each segment at one end. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. to allow for finishing to size. and then they are soaked in warm water. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. 1/8 in. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. Procure 12 strips of mica. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. When annealed. 7. The sides are also faced off and finished. or segments. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. 3/4 in. 6. wide. wide. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. Rivet them together. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. 3. threaded. inside diameter. 6. as shown in Fig.. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. Make the core 3/4 in. Armature-Ring Core. 5. 9. as shown m Fig. holes through them for rivets.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. After the pieces are cut out. thick and 1/4 in. thick.

In starting to wind. To connect the wires. the two ends of the wire. of the wire. and wind on four layers. After one coil. shown at B. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. and bring the end of the wire out at B. The two ends are joined at B. long. or side. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. of the end to protrude. they are glued to the core insulation. being required. wide and 1 in. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. 1. thick. The winding is started at A. Fig. by bending the end around one of the projections. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire.have dried. sheet fiber. 5. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. The field is wound with No. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. are soldered together. When the glue is set. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. yet it shows a series of . Fig. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. shown at A. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. This winding is for a series motor. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. 6 in. The source of current is connected to the terminals. after the motor is on the stand. All connections should be securely soldered. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Run one end of the field wire. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. which will take 50 ft. until the 12 slots are filled. 8 in. of No. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. about 100 ft. 1. sheet fiber.

as in the case of a spiral. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. or. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. Nine wires run from the timer. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. still more simply. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. A 1/2-in. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. which serves as the ground wire. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. one from each of the eight contacts. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. and one.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. is fastened to the metallic body.

These magnets are placed in a 10-in. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. Covering these is a thin. long. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center.The Wind Vane. circle. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. board. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. thus giving 16 different directions. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. of the dial. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. It should be . 6 in. Without this attachment. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. 45 deg. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button.

How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. if not too high. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. and securely nail on the top of the box. Place the leather on some level. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. Blackmer. will be sufficient. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. however. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. and about 6 in. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. called a chip carving knife. though a special knife. Cut 3-in. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. according to who is going to use it. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in.about 6 ft. long to give the best results. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. To work these outlines. will be enough for the two sides. Buffalo. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. high. thus making a universal joint. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. or. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. N. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. . Y. Fill the box with any handy ballast. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. is most satisfactory. also a piece of new carpet. making it heavy or light. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. will answer the purpose just as well. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. 14 by 18 in. Before tacking the fourth side. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. -Contributed by James L. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. To make it. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together.

being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. An ordinary sewing-machine . A good leather paste will be required. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown.

The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. temporary lameness. Y. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. away from it. and fasten the feathers inside of it. a needle and some feathers. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. of common salt and 10 lb. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. can be thrown away when no longer needed. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. as in cases of a sprained ankle. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. If a fire breaks out. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. of water. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. or a hip that has been wrenched. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Syracuse. rather than the smooth side. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. B. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used.will do if a good stout needle is used. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Morse. and tie them together securely at the bottom. square and tying a piece of . Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. --Contributed by Katharine D. N.

-Contributed by Ben Grebin. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. G. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. F. setting traps. high. Albany. but not sharp. etc. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. E. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. Y. Hellwig. thus helping the rats to enter. wound on the head end. N. letting it go at arm's length. Gordon Dempsey. B. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. and a coil of wire. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. made up of four layers of No. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. One end is removed entirely. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. N. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. the corners being wired. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. A. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. Ashland. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. which is the essential part of the instrument. and tacked it to the boards. and the receiver is ready for use. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. deep. cut to the length of the spool. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool.. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. board all around the bottom on the inside. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. --Contributed by John A. Paterson. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. The strings should be about 15 in. The diaphragm C. Wis. A small wooden or fiber end. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. is cut on the wood. The end is filed to an edge. commonly called tintype tin.J. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. The body of the receiver. There is a 1-in. as shown. long. --Contributed by J.string to each corner. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. laying poisoned meat and meal. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. long. The coil is 1 in. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. This not only keeps the rats out. 1/8 in. . Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. wide and 1/16 in.

placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. to . Take a piece of string or. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. and bend each strip in shape. better still. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. A single line will be sufficient. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. gold. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. The vase is to have three supports. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. To clean small articles. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. wide. begin with the smallest scrolls. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. a piece of small wire.

and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. from the lines EF on the piece. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. 6-3/8 in. Press or model down the leather all around the design. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol.. and does not require coloring. After taking off the pattern. through which to slip the fly AGH. using a duller point of the tool.. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. 4-1/4 in. as shown in the sketch. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. from E to F. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. wide when stitching up the purse. 3-1/4 in. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. Fold the leather on the line EF. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Work down the outside line of the design. from C to D. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. . sharp pencil. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. Trace also the line around the purse. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. About 1 in. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse.which the supports are fastened with rivets. thus raising it. 3-1/2 in.

all the way around. the "open" side. with the open side down. 2. and. 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. long. and tack the other piece slightly. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. by 12 ft. When it is finished. and the projections B. and cut it out as shown in Fig. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. around the wheel. leaving the lug a. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. 1 was cut. and cut out a wheel. First. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. This also should be slightly beveled. then nail it. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. and a model for speed and power. It is neat and efficient. Cut off six pieces 12 in. 3. as well as useful. square. following the dotted lines. deep. then place the square piece out of which Fig. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. and which will be very interesting. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. Then nail the wheel down firmly. with pins or small nails. It can be made without the use of a lathe. deep. with the largest side down. Fit this to the two . Make the lug 1/4 in. Now take another piece of wood. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. with a compass saw. being cast in wooden molds. thick.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. b. 1.

Now take another of the 12-in.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. and lay it away to dry. then bolt it together. as shown by the . with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. holes through it. square pieces of wood. slightly beveled. in the center of it. place it between two of the 12-in. 4. and bore six 1/4-in. hole 1/4 in. 1. deep. hole entirely through at the same place. After it is finished. one of which should have a 3/8-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and clean all the shavings out of it. bolts. and boring a 3/8-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part.pieces just finished. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. hole bored through its center. square pieces of wood. Now put mold No. Take the mold apart.

holes. This will cast a paddle-wheel.2.black dots in Fig.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. Put this together in mold No. This is the same as Fig. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. and drill them in the same manner. over the defective part. so that it will turn easily. where the casting did not fill out. and two 1/4-in. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. fasten a 3/8-in. long. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. put the top of the brace through this hole. see that the bolts are all tight. from the one end. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. and pour babbitt metal into it. and drill it entirely through.1. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. instead of the right-handed piece. as shown in illustration.2. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. lay it on a level place. as shown by the black dots in Fig. holes at d. Using the Brace . Fig. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. and the exhaust hole in projection b. Now take mold No. and the other in the base. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. and run in babbitt metal again. This is mold No. and bore three 1/4-in. long. drill in it. one in the projections. place it under the drill. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. one in the lug. B. Now cut out one of the 12-in. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. Let it stand for half an hour. true it up with a square. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. place the entire machine in a vise. 5. only the one is left-handed. Then bolt the castings together. This is for a shaft. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. until it is full. Pour metal into mold No. and connect to the boiler. the other right-handed. in diameter must now be obtained. and 3/8-in. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. screw down.1. and lay it away to dry. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. d. wide and 16 in. take an ordinary brace. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. 6. A piece of mild steel 5 in. and pouring metal in to fill it up. After it is fitted in. Commencing 1-1/2 in. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. 1. 4. 6. b.

The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. turn the wheel to the shape desired. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. and with three small screw holes around the edge. while it is running at full speed. will do good service. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. and if instructions have been carefully followed. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. and. and the other 8 ft. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. one 6 ft. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate.. with a boss and a set screw. long. Then take a knife or a chisel. At each end of the 6ft. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. piece and at right angles to it. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. Plan of Ice Boat . Your turbine engine is now ready for work.

as the runners were fastened. long. The tiller. leaving 1 ft. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. Make your runners as long as possible. Run the seam on a machine. long. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. 8 a reef point knot. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. at the butt and 1 in. which may come in handy in heavy winds. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. 1. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. Over the middle of the 6-ft. 3. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. Fig. long and 2-1/2 in. in diameter at the base. should be of hardwood. at the top. plank. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. 2 by 3 in. Fig. boards to make the platform. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. bolt the 8-ft. distant. projecting as in Fig. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. so much the better will be your boat. 1. plank nail 8-in. and about 8 in. in front of