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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

distant. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. as shown in Fig. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. as shown in Fig. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. with the hollow side away from you. apart. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. until it is bound as shown in Fig. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. Toronto. To throw a boomerang. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. Noble. 1. 2 -. It is held in this curve until dry. wide and 2 ft. The pieces are then dressed round. long will make six boomerangs. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. 2.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis.Fig. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. --Contributed by J. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. grasp it and hold the same as a club. Ontario. E. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. 1. 1. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. A piece of plank 12 in. Fig. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. away. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. 2.

First. dry snow will not pack easily. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. A very light. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. or rather no bottom at all. which makes the building simpler and easier. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. thick. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. A wall. it is not essential to the support of the walls. long. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. but about 12 in. 6 in. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. If the snow is of the right consistency. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. blocks . and it may be necessary to use a little water. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. high and 4 or 5 in. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. made of 6-in. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. forcing it down closely. and with a movable bottom. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. minus the top. one inside of the circle and the other outside. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. however.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. the block will drop out.

The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. The piece of wood. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. A nail. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. Fig. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. It also keeps them out. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. is 6 or 8 in. D. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. wide. Fig. Fig. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. long and 1 in. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. There is no outward thrust. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. a. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. 1. which can be made of wood. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. Ore. and the young architect can imitate them. above the ground. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. 2. 3. Union. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. 2. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. Goodbrod. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. 3 -. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. or an old safe dial will do.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. C. 1. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. which is about 1 ft. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Geo. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig.

Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight.When taking hot dishes from the stove. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. S. says the Sphinx. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. New York. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. the box locked . Merrill. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. one pair of special hinges. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. --Contributed by R. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. as the weight always draws them back to place. If ordinary butts are used. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. Syracuse. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes.

A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No.and the performer steps out in view. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. With the metal shears. proceed as follows: First. one for each corner. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. Augusta. Fig. smooth surface. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. as shown. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Alberta Norrell. To make a design similar to the one shown. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. 1. Ga. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. If the measuring has been done properly. Place the piece in a vise. about 1-32 of an inch. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. as shown in Fig. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. It remains to bend the flaps. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. If they do not. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. 2. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. as shown in Fig. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. When the sieve is shaken. 3. on drawing paper. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. All . -Contributed by L. draw one-half of it. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. allowing each coat time to dry. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther.

To keep the metal from tarnishing. H. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. long. --Contributed by R. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. in diameter. which is about 6 in. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. heats the strip of German-silver wire. In boring through rubber corks. as shown at AA. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. about 6 in. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. C. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. If a touch of color is desired. A piece of porcelain tube. Colo. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. R. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. if rolled under the shoe sole. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. Denver. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. After this has dried. Galbreath. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. is fitted tightly in the third hole. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. A resistance. used for insulation. The current. should be in the line. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. 25 gauge German-silver wire. B. in passing through the lamp. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. 25 German-silver wire. The common cork. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. When the current is turned off. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft.the edges should be left smooth. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. and in the positions shown in the sketch. from the back end. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. of No. causing it to expand.

. leaving a space of 4 in. Kansas City. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. --Contributed by David Brown. 2. with thin strips of wood. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Fig. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Mo. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. between them as shown in Fig. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. 1. Purchase two long book straps. as shown in Fig.bottom ring. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. 3.

Syracuse. are mounted on the outside of the box. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. 1. in diameter. Doylestown. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. N. Kane. Fig. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. 1. The folds are made over the string. A. Y. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. having a gong 2-1/2 in. to form a handle. The string is then tied. Place three paving bricks inside of the box... Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. 2. 1. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. Fig. and a pocket battery. --Contributed by Katharine D. C. which is the right weight for family use. Morse. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. as . The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. 36 in. 4. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package.An ordinary electric bell. Pa. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. These are shown in Fig. When the aeroplane tips. long. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. 3. Fig. --Contributed by James M. just the right weight for a woman to use. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. and one weighing 25 lb. one weighing 15 lb. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Two strips of brass. and tack smoothly. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box.

machine screws. 1. N. --Contributed by Louis J. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. two 1/8 -in. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. 3/32 or 1/4 in. Frame Made of a Rod . The saw. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. in diameter. 2. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. four washers and four square nuts. Day. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. 2. long. and many fancy knick-knacks. bent as shown in Fig. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. if once used. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. Y. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. AA. Floral Park. such as brackets. bookracks and shelves can be made with one.

Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. Scranton. Rub off the highlights. it has the correct strength. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. of course. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. Watch Fob For coloring silver. green and browns are the most popular. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. be covered the same as the back. of water. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. In the design shown. though almost any color may be obtained. Drying will cause this to change to purple. An Austrian Top [12] . as well as the depth of etching desired. if copper or brass. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt.may be made of either brass. allowing each time to dry. Of the leathers. If it colors the metal red. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. therefore. A. 1 part nitric acid. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. 1 part sulphuric acid. use them in place of the outside nuts. as well as brass and copper. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. copper. The buckle is to be purchased. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. For etching. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. or silver. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. using a swab and an old stiff brush. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. the most expensive. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. treat it with color. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Michigan. of water in which dissolve. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. File these edges. after breaking up. Silver is the most desirable but.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Apply two coats. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. --Contributed by W.. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. Detroit.

The handle is a piece of pine. long. in diameter. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. long. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. 5-1/4 in. --Contributed by J. When the shank is covered. 3/4 in. set the top in the 3/4 -in. A handle. Parts of the Top To spin the top. A 1/16-in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. pass one end through the 1/16-in. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. wide and 3/4 in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. Ypsilanti. Michigan. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. . allowing only 1-1/4 in. Bore a 3/4-in. starting at the bottom and winding upward. hole. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way.F. hole in this end for the top. is formed on one end. 1-1/4 in. Tholl. thick.

A. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. --Contributed by Miss L. . Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Augusta. Houghton. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. having no sides. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Ga. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. --A. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. tarts or similar pastry. Mich. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Northville. The baking surface. For black leathers. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Alberta Norrell. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle.

and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. the same as shown in the illustration. Centralia. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . Mo. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. Stringing Wires [13] A. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. When you desire to work by white light. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. glass fruit jar. says Studio Light. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. two turns will remove the jar. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. then solder cover and socket together.

4 Vertical pieces. . 1-1/4 in. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. square by 62 in. Janesville. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. as shown in the cross-section sketch. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. square by 12 in. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. 16 Horizontal bars. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. and not tip over. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in.for loading and development. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. Wis. 4 Braces. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. They are fastened. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. so it can be folded up. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. 1-1/4 in.

--Contributed by Dr. Rosenthal. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. After rounding the ends of the studs. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. after filling the pail with water. O. -Contributed by Charles Stem. If the loop is tied at the proper place. The front can be covered . These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. from scrap material. The whole. and a loop made in the end. New York. H. Cincinnati. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. Phillipsburg. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. C. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured.

I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. either for contact printing or enlargements. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. 1 FIG. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. thoroughly fix. and. the mouth of which rests against a. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Develop them into strong prints. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. Wehr. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. you are. The results will be poor. In my own practice.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. if you try to tone them afterward. FIG. principally mayonnaise dressing. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. Md. --Contributed by Gilbert A. By using the following method. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. the color will be an undesirable. The . If the gate is raised slightly. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. Baltimore. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. by all rules of the game. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. sickly one.

... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. 2 oz.. When the desired reduction has taken place.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. in this solution.. without previous wetting. It will bleach slowly and evenly. 20 gr. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table... --Contributed by T. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes..... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. where it will continue to bleach..... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. 16 oz. preferably the colored kind. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder... when it starts to bleach.... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. The blotting paper can .. etc..." Cyanide of potassium ... With a little practice... 2. Gray. Iodide of potassium . 1 and again as in Fig. 5 by 15 in.. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper... this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.. Cal... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. in size.. Place the dry print. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. but.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.... A good final washing completes the process.... three times....... An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. L. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig... Water . wide and 4 in. to make it 5 by 5 in.... long to admit the angle support. as it will appear clean much longer than the white..... transfer it to a tray of water.. San Francisco..

Wilson Aldred Toronto. having a width of 2-1/4 in. 3. --Contributed by L. and a length of 5 in. Monahan. Corners complete are shown in Fig.J. Canada. wide below the . Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. the shaft 1 in. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. 20 gauge. the head of which is 2 in. Make a design similar to that shown. Oshkosh. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. --Contributed by J. Wisconsin. wide.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments.

Make one-half of the design. using carbon paper. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. For coloring olive green. then put on a second coat. . With the metal shears. but use a swab on a stick. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. Allow this to dry. 1 part sulphuric acid. The metal must be held firmly. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. which gives the outline of the design Fig. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. 1.FIG. Fig. 2. With files. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. 1 part nitric acid. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. Trace the design on the metal. deep. Do not put the hands in the solution. 1 Fig. Pierce a hole with a small drill. being held perpendicular to the work. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. as shown in Fig. freehand. After this has dried. then trace the other half in the usual way. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. after folding along the center line. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. 3. then coloring. Apply with a small brush. 4. using turpentine. using a small metal saw. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. After the sawing. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water.

the block is split and the pasteboard removed. East Hartford. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. on a chopping board. Syracuse. When this is cold. Richmond. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. --Contributed by Katharine D. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. . A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. M. it does the work rapidly. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. thick. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Morse. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. After the stain has dried. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. Burnett. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. Conn. then stain it a mahogany color. Ii is an ordinary staple. --Contributed by M.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Cal. New York. attach brass handles. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Carl Cramer. as shown. --Contributed by H.

. square. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. thick and 4 in. Cal. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. Jaquythe. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. not over 1/4 in. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. in width at the shank.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. 53 steel pens. one shaft. Fig. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. as shown in Fig. two enameled. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. holes. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. thick.. machine screws. indicating the depth of the slots. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. L. some pieces of brass. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. also locate the drill holes. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. Richmond. 1. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. as shown at A. brass. or tin. Florida. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. about 3/16 in. A. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. 4. Kissimmee. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. WARNECKE Procure some brass. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. H. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. Atwell. saucers or pans. 1/4 in. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. --Contributed by Mrs. and several 1/8-in. --Contributed by W. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots.

long and 5/16 in. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. 2. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. 7. 3. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. lead should be run into the segments. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. long by 3/4 in. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. with a 3/8-in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. and pins inserted. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . Fig. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. Fig. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. A 3/4-in. can be procured. each about 1 in. with 1/8-in. 6. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. 2. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. Fig. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. and the ends filed round for the bearings. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. hole in the center. 1. 3. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. thick. a square shaft used. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw.. thick. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. wide and bend as shown in Fig. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. hole. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. machine screws and nuts. machine screws. supply pipe. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. Bend as shown in Fig. into the hole. as in Fig. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. as shown. with the face of the disk. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. about 1/32 in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. There should be a space of 1/16 in. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. If metal dishes. hole is drilled to run off the water. brass and bolted to the casing. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. wide. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. using two nuts on each screw. 5. in diameter and 1/32 in. If the shaft is square. The shaft hole may also be filed square. These are connected to a 3/8-in. as shown in Fig.

Now you will have the box in two pieces. to make the bottom. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Canada. Ill. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. from the top of the box. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Smith. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. from the bottom end of the legs. or more in diameter. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. 8-1/2 in. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. we will call the basket. V. With a string or tape measure. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. Stain the wood before putting in the . The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. square and 30-1/2 in. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. --Contributed by S. The lower part. Be sure to have the cover. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Fasten with 3/4-in. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. deep and 1-1/4 in. make these seams come between the two back legs. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. screws. high and 15 in. When assembling. long. three of which are in the basket. deep over all. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. --Contributed by F. La Salle. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. Hamilton. using four to each leg. Cooke. The four legs are each 3/4-in. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base.

When making the display. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Fig. The side. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. 1.2 Fig. sewing on the back side. you can. If all the parts are well sandpapered. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. 2. Md. Sew on to the covered cardboards. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. with the crudest of tools and a little practice.lining. -Contributed by Stanley H. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. Mass. and gather it at that point. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. wide. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. as shown in the sketch. Baltimore. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Boston. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Cover them with the cretonne. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Packard. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. wide and four strips 10 in. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. --also the lower edge when necessary.

Cross Timbers. 3. Fig. It is not difficult to . These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Orlando Taylor. --Contributed by H. When through using the pad. saving all the solid part. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. It is cleanly. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Crockett. and. L. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. --Contributed by B. Mo. N. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Gloversville. with slight modifications. Y. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow.

The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Mass. After stirring. or if desired. After this is done. If a file is used. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. are shown in the diagram. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. -Contributed by C. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. across the face. Lane. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. El Paso. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. it should be new and sharp. remove the contents. Both of these methods are wasteful. S. and secure it in place with glue or paste. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Lowell. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. Texas. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. and scrape out the rough parts. Bourne. --Contributed by Edith E.

and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. The insects came to the light. Oregon. A Postcard Rack [25].cooking utensil. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Ill. He captured several pounds in a few hours. circled over the funnel and disappeared. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. As these were single-faced disk records. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. --Contributed by Marion P. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. Oak Park. Iowa. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Turl. Ill. Wheeler. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Des Moines. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Greenleaf. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. After several hours' drying. --Contributed by Loren Ward. F. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. --Contributed by Geo. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. Canton. Those having houses . The process works well and needs no watching. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask.

it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper.. plane and pocket knife. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. will do as well. Both sides can be put together in this way. but for cheapness 3/4 in. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. 6 in. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch.. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. Dobbins. --Contributed by Thomas E. Glenbrook. the best material to use being matched boards. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. and as they are simple in design. Rosenberg. Conn. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. material. The single boards can then be fixed. and both exactly alike. one on each side of what will be the . fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. not even with the boards themselves. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. the bottom being 3/8 in. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Lay the floor next. --Contributed by Wm. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. Worcester. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. boards are preferable. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. thick. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. Mass. and the second one for the developing bench. by 2 ft. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Only three pieces are required. 6 in. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them.

A shelf for bottles and another for plates. which is fixed on as shown . of the top of the door for the same reason. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door.doorway. Fig. In hinging the door. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. and in the middle an opening. wide. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. by screwing to the floor. 8. The developing bench is 18 in. as shown in Figs. 6. 11. is cut. 2 in section. 6 and 9. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. the closing side as at B. 5. The roof boards may next be put on. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. below which is fixed the sink. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. and the top as at C in the same drawing. so that it will fit inside the sink. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. and to the outside board of the sides. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. It is shown in detail in Fig.. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. hinged to it.. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. brown wrapping paper. 10). 7. and act as a trap for the light. nailing them to each other at the ridge. so that the water will drain off into the sink. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. etc. 3 and 4. 9 by 11 in. 6. and should be zinc lined. At the top of the doorway.. 9).

Details of the Dark Rook .

It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. --Contributed by W. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. hole bored in the center for a handle. 15. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. as shown in the sections. as at M. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. if desired. 19. 14. four coats at first is not too many. it is better than anything on the market. preferably maple or ash. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. Fig. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. 1. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob.in Fig. The handle should be at least 12 in. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. 13. after lining with brown paper. or red light as at K. 16. Pennsylvania. 17. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. Karl Hilbrich. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. but not the red glass and frame. as in Fig. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. which makes it possible to have white light. 13. 18. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. 16. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. Fig. Erie. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. 2. as at I. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. 20. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. and a tank stand on it. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. 6. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. these being shown in Fig. A circular piece about 2 in. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. or the room may be made with a flat roof. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. and a 3/8-in. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. mixing flour and water. Fig. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. In use. For beating up an egg in a glass. Fig. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. are fastened in the corners inside. though this is hardly advisable. as shown in Fig. screwing them each way into the boards. The house will be much strengthened if strips.

--Contributed by Wm. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Ark. Mitchell. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. long. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. L. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. G. New York. which. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. D. Smith. -Contributed by E. Kansas City. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . Schweiger. --Contributed by L. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. To operate. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. Mo. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. for a handle. Yonkers. as shown in the sketch. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. when put together properly is a puzzle. Eureka Springs. about 3/8 in.copper should be.

in order to thoroughly preserve it. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. 1. The design shown in Fig. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. the box will require a greater height in front. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. especially for filling-in purposes. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. 3. as is usually the case. the rustic work should be varnished. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. Each cork is cut as in Fig. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. need them. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. The corks in use are shown in Fig. for the moment. After the box is trimmed. as shown in Fig. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. 2. Having completed the bare box. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. as shown in Fig. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. 3. holes should be drilled in the bottom. . which binds them together. as well as improve its appearance. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. to make it set level. If the sill is inclined. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. A number of 1/2-in.

The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. . etc. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. cabbages. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals.. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. When the corn is gone cucumbers. as shown in Fig. F. can't use poison. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. share the same fate. too dangerous. 4. 2. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. Traps do no good. being partly eaten into.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. drilled at right angles. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. life in the summer time is a vexation. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. 3. But I have solved the difficulty. Each long projection represents a leg. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. it's easy. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. and observe results. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. 1. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. The coiled rod is 3/16 in.

Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. Iowa.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. cut some of it off and try again. the coil does not heat sufficiently. -. cut in 1/2-in. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. long. of No. by trial. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. If. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. The solution can be used over and over again. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. About 9-1/2 ft. and made up and kept in large bottles. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. strips. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. .Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in.

is a good size--in this compound. In cleaning silver. Fig 2. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Do not wash them. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. of whiting and 1/2 oz. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Syracuse. it falls to stop G. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. --Contributed by James M. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. coffee pot. --Contributed by Katharine D. of oleic acid with 1 gal. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Doylestown. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. 1) removed. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. of gasoline. as shown in the sketch. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Texas. Y. Morse. Stir and mix thoroughly. C. but with unsatisfactory results. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. hot-water pot. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. and a strip. Kane. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. . The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. N. Pa. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. forks. Knives. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. D. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. to cause the door to swing shut. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. Dallas. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb.

--Contributed by Oliver S. Ill. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. --Contributed by Theodore L. negatives. Pa.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. using the paper dry. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Harrisburg. Sprout. later fixed and washed as usual. La. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Waverly. New Orleans. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. of course. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Fisher. which is. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. but unfixed. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. .

Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. a harmonograph is a good prescription. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. 1. then . the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. metal. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. The harmonograph. To obviate this difficulty. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. In this uncertainty lies the charm. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. Fig. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling.

G. in diameter. or the lines will overlap and blur. and unless the shorter pendulum is. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. A length of 7 ft. A pedestal. 1. is attached as shown at H. Rosemont. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. A small table or platform. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. exactly one-third. is about right for a 10-ft. J. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. Gaffney. A small weight. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. --Contributed by Wm. for instance. Holes up to 3 in. as shown in Fig. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise.. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone.. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. K. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. one-fourth. as long as the other. which can be regulated. provides a means of support for the stylus. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. to prevent any side motion. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. etc. A weight. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. The length of the short pendulum H. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. one-fifth. Punch a hole. Chicago. such as a shoe buttoner. --Contributed by James T. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. ceiling. R. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. Arizona. with a nail set or punch. in the center of the circle to be cut. of about 30 or 40 lb.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. makes respectively 3. Another weight of about 10 lb. as shown in the lower part of Fig. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. that is. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. 1. 1-3/4 by 2 in. Ingham. what is most important. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table.

Fig. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. a correspondent of . The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. The capacity of the vise. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. 2. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. 1. -Contributed by W. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. Chicago. then 3 as in Fig. --Contributed by J. Cruger.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. 4. and 4 as in Fig. 3.H. one for the sender and one for the receiver.J. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. N. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. distributing them over the whole card. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever.J. 5. of course. then put 2 at the top. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. 6. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. Fig. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. Cape May City. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. and proceed as before. dividing them into quarters. Morey. The two key cards are made alike.

and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. To assemble. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. Alberta Norrell. Wind the successive turns of . 30 gr. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. 6 gauge wires shown. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. of ferricyanide of potash. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. deep.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. says Popular Electricity. 1/4 in. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. of 18-per-cent No. citrate of iron and ammonia. 1/2 oz. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. remove the prints. long. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. Augusta. respectively. 22 gauge German-silver wire. If constructed of the former. Ga. Asbestos board is to be preferred. of the uprights. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. Cut through the center. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. of water. After preparing the base and uprights. --Contributed by L. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. acetic acid and 4 oz. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. the portion of the base under the coil. sheet of well made asbestos paper. wood-screws. After securing the tint desired. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. drill 15 holes. from the top and bottom. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished.

as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. The case may be made of 1/2-in. --Contributed by Frederick E. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. square. 16 gauge copper wire. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. Labels of some kind are needed. etc. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. Ward. then fasten the upright in place. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. rivets. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. if one is not a smoker. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration.. screws. as they are usually thrown away when empty. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. but these are not necessary. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. 14 gauge. Small knobs may be added if desired. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. Y. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. which. N. Ampere. cut and dressed 1/2 in. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No.

lead. This is considerable annoyance. Kenosha. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. --Contributed by A. particularly so when the iron has once been used. tinner's acid. Copper. --C. or has become corroded. G. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. the pure muriatic acid should be used. sandpaper or steel wool. E and F. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. S. Wis. as shown in the sketch. Jaquythe. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. zinc. of water. D. The material can be of any wood. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. brass. California.14 oz. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. being careful about the heat. a piece of solder. especially if a large tub is used. Heat it until hot (not red hot). The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. If the soldering copper is an old one. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. C. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. and rub the point of the copper on it. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. galvanized iron. and one made of poplar finished black. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. it must be ground or filed to a point. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. B. --Contributed by W. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. Eureka Springs. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. .. of glycerine to 16 oz. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. Richmond. then to the joint to be soldered. and labeled "Poison. tin. The parts are put together with dowel pins. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. A. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. Ark. Larson. In soldering galvanized iron. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve.

Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Six issues make a well proportioned book. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. The covers of the magazines are removed. Apart from this. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. however. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. Brass rings can be plated when finished. The punch A. Y. The dimensions shown in Fig. This will leave a clear hole. 1. -Contributed by H. Take a 3/4-in. which gives two bound volumes each year. a ring may be made from any metal. B. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. 7/8 in. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. such as copper. Fig. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. This completes the die. in diameter. C. with good results. I bind my magazines at home evenings. wide. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. brass and silver. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . in diameter. Fig. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. Place the band. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. Hankin. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. N. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. The disk will come out pan shaped. D. thick and 1-1/4 in. round iron. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. W. 2. nut. Troy. and drill out the threads.

are made with a saw across the back of the sections. and a third piece. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. is used for the sewing material. 1/8 in. 2. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. . Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. Coarse white thread. 1. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. The sections are then prepared for sewing. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time.4. which is fastened the same as the first. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. C. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. and then to string No. of the ends extending on each side.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. through the notch on the left side of the string No. 1 in Fig. Start with the front of the book. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. 2. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. and place them against the strings in the frame. size 16 or larger. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. threaded double. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. Five cuts. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. then back through the notch on the right side. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. The covering should be cut out 1 in. using . as shown in Fig. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. Place the cardboard covers on the book. 5. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. The covering can be of cloth. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. is nailed across the top. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. on all edges except the back. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. The string No. After drawing the thread tightly. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. allowing about 2 in. 1. 1. deep. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. If started with the January or the July issue.

bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. round iron. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Divine. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. and mark around each one. Cal. and. --Contributed by Clyde E. College View. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. at opposite sides to each other. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Tinplate. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Encanto. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. For the blade an old talking-machine . Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Nebr. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Place the cover on the book in the right position. on which to hook the blade.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back.

and a long thread plug.. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. -Contributed by Willard J. with 10 teeth to the inch. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Then on the board put . nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. as shown. as it is sometimes called. F. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. C. hydraulic pipe. On the upper side. Make the blade 12 in. and 1/4 in. thick.. in order to drill the holes in the ends. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. Miss. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. bore. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. at the same end. Hays. fuse hole at D. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. E. Ohio. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Moorhead. and 1/4 in. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. and another piece (B) 6 in. and file in the teeth. B. long. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. with a steel sleeve. Summitville. by 1 in. by 4-1/2 in. or double extra heavy. thick. A. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood.

Put sides about 1-1/2 in. Philadelphia. using about 8 in. about 5 ft. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. 4 jars.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. of wire to each coil. --Contributed by Chas. A lid may be added if desired. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. If you are going to use a current of low tension. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. of rubber-covered wire. some sheet copper or brass for plates. high around this apparatus. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. the jars need not be very large. Boyd. H. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . as from batteries. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. and some No. Connect up as shown. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. 18 gauge wire for the wiring.

The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. 4 in. by 5 in. by 2 in. Use no screws on the running surface. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. No. Put arm of switch on point No. In proportioning them the points A. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. 27 B. 4) of 3/4-in.. An iron washer. apart. 2. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. as they are not substantial enough. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. 1 and so on for No. First sandpaper all the wood. by 2 in. See Fig. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. The stock required for them is oak. steel rod makes a good steering rod. direct to wire across jars. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. For the brass trimmings use No. long. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. & S.. 5 on switch.. 2. oak boards. Their size also depends on the voltage. on No.. A 3/4-in. above the ground. 2 in. 30 in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. as they "snatch" the ice. with the cushion about 15 in. is used to reduce friction. gives full current and full speed. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. and for the rear runners: A. Use no nails. 1 is connected to point No. 15-1/2 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. two for each jar. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. At the front 24 or 26 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. 1. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. or source of current.. wide and 3/4 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. 4. 3.. Z. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. are important. On the door of the auto front put the . Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. wide. thick. long by 22 in. two pieces 30 in. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. by 1 in. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. beginning at the rear. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. 7 in. . sheet brass 1 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. two pieces 34 in. two pieces 14 in.. and plane it on all edges. 11 in. To wire the apparatus. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. The connection between point No. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. wide and 2 in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. C. 3 and No. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. by 5 in. by 1-1/4 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. The current then will flow through the motor. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. however. 2 is lower down than in No. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. C. long. thick. by 1-1/4 in. Construct the auto front (Fig. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. 16-1/2 in. 1 on switch. A variation of 1/16 in. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. B. Fig. The top disk in jar No. B. 3 in. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. long. making them clear those in the front runner. 34 in. 2 and 3.the way. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. and bolt through. 2. The sled completed should be 15 ft. square by 14 ft. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. long. and four pieces 14 in. The illustration shows how to shape it. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. wide by 3/4 in. B and C. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. by 6 in.

The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. cutting it out of sheet brass. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. a number of boys may share in the ownership. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. may be stowed within. cheap material. to the wheel. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. If desired. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. Then get some upholstery buttons. such as used on automobiles. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. Fasten a horn. to improve the appearance. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. parcels. brass plated. etc. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. The best way is to get some strong. fasten a cord through the loop. overshoes. If the expense is greater than one can afford. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. or with these for $25.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. by 30 in. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. a brake may be added to the sled. long. by 1/2 in. such as burlap. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. If desired. which is somewhat moist. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. lunch. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. Make the cushion for the back in the same way.

.tree and bring. Ill. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Leland. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Lexington. --Contributed by Stewart H. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks.

mild steel or iron. though more difficult. A small clearance space. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. the same diameter as the wheel. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. With no other tools than a hacksaw. Draw a circle on paper. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. the cut will be central on the line. First take the case of a small gearwheel. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. FC. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. say 1 in. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. thick. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. which. sheet metal. The straight-edge. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. with twenty-four teeth. will be over the line FG. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. London. some files. when flat against it.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. E. made from 1/16-in. CD. 1. The Model Engineer. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. 4). a compass. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. 3. This guide should have a beveled edge. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. so that the center of the blade. 2. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. from F to G. outside diameter and 1/16 in. Fig. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. Fig. The first tooth may now be cut. Fig. by drawing diameters. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in.

Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. 1. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. hold in one hand. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. and the other outlet wire. ground it with a large piece of zinc. B. electric lamp. B. or several pieces bound tightly together. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. Make a hole in the other. Then take one outlet wire. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts.Four Photos on One Plate of them. transmitter. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. R. as shown in Fig. 1. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. No shock will be perceptible. some wire and some carbons. Focus the camera in the usual manner. . A bright. as shown in Fig. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. as shown in Fig. either the pencils for arc lamps. If there is no faucet in the house. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. 2. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. each in the center. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground.

A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. a transmitter which induces no current is used. one at the receiver can hear what is said. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. 36 wire around it. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. Ashland. by 1 in. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. and again wind the wire around it. Then set the whole core away to dry. serves admirably. Ohio. or more of the latter has been used. by 12 in. Several battery cells. as shown. at each end for terminals. Slattery. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Dry batteries are most convenient. and about that size. They have screw ends. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. under the gable. Wrenn. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. of course. Pa. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. A is a wooden block. D D are binding posts for electric wires. If desired. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. B. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. leaving about 10 in. For a base use a pine board 10 in. But in this experiment. are also needed. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. One like a loaf of bread. Emsworth. --Contributed by Geo. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. J. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. as indicated by E E. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . and will then burn the string C. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house.

How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. D. run a No. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. and switch.. These should have hollow ends. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. connecting lamp receptacles. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. C. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F.wire. Newark. until the hand points to zero on the scale. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. Fig. as shown. in parallel. B B. From the other set of binding-posts. and the lamps. First make a support. B B. E. in series with bindingpost. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. Place 16-cp. 2. 12 or No. The oven is now ready to be connected. Turn on switch. 14 wire. and one single post switch. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. D. The apparatus is now ready for operation. as shown. the terminal of the coil. The coil will commence to become warm. Connect these three to switch. Fig. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. 1. Jr. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. At one side secure two receptacles. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. while C is open. Ohio. for the . F. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. C.

which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. drill in only to the opening already through. high. 36 magnet wire instead of No. etc. If for 3-way. It is 1 in. 3 amperes. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. 14 wire. 3. C. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. To make one. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. 2. until the scale is full. 1. but if for a 4way. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. 4 in. wind with plenty of No. 14. although copper or steel will do. Montreal. Fig. At a point a little above the center.E. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. The core. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. long and make a loop.. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . remove the valve. and D. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. although brass is better. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. 1/4 in. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. D. inside measurements. The pointer or hand. After drilling.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. Fig. 6. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. a battery. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. Dussault. long. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. A wooden box. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. to prevent it turning on the axle. drill through the entire case and valve. 10 turns to each layer. as shown in the cut. 4. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. wide and 1/8 in. drill a hole as shown at H. a variable resistance. E. This may be made of wood. D. a standard ammeter. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. is made of wire. from the lower end. Mine is wound with two layers of No. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. thick. B. Fig. Fig. deep. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. wide and 1-3/4 in. 7. is made of iron. This is slipped on the pivot. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. The box is 5-1/2 in. long. 1. 5. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. where A is the homemade ammeter. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. --Contributed by J. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work.or 4-way valve or cock. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. 5. is then made and provided with a glass front. 4 amperes. 1/2 in.

and the other connects with the water rheostat. making two holes about 1/4 in.performing electrical experiments. in thickness . C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. and a metal rod. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. high. This stopper should be pierced. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. A. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. as shown. provided with a rubber stopper. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. and the arc light. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. F. B. One wire runs to the switch. E. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. which is used for reducing the current. in diameter. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. D. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. By connecting the motor. To start the light.

Y. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. as shown in C. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Fig. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Fig. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. long. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. As there shown. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. where he is placed in an upright open . and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. 1. N. A piece of wood. 2. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. To insert the lead plate. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. A. Fig. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. 1. Having finished the interrupter. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. Having fixed the lead plate in position. as shown in B. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. If the interrupter does not work at first. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. 2. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. --Contributed by Harold L. Carthage. 1. Jones. Turn on the current and press the button. If all adjustments are correct. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. B. Fig. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel.

from which the gong has been removed. and wave his arms up and down.. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. with the exception of the glass. The model. could expect from a skeleton. high. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. until it is dark there. The glass should be the clearest possible. and can be bought at Japanese stores. as the entire interior. giving a limp. A white shroud is thrown over his body. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. The skeleton is made of papier maché. light-colored garments. If everything is not black. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. the illusion will be spoiled. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. to aid the illusion. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. and must be thoroughly cleansed. loosejointed effect. Its edges should nowhere be visible. All . The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. should be colored a dull black. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. L and M. inside dimensions. especially the joints and background near A. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away.coffin. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. especially L. A. should be miniature electric lamps. figures and lights. is constructed as shown in the drawings. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. If it is desired to place the box lower down. The lights. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. by 7 in. They need to give a fairly strong light. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. by 7-1/2 in. dressed in brilliant. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. which can be run by three dry cells. within the limits of an ordinary room. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes.

--Contributed by Geo. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block.that is necessary is a two-point switch. as shown in the sketch. after which it assumes its normal color. square block. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. placed about a foot apart. W. If a gradual transformation is desired. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. Fry. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. San Jose. fat spark. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. Two finishing nails were driven in. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . Cal. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on.

A (see sketch). Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. If a lighted match . 1 is seen the sending apparatus. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. to make it airtight. and should be separated about 1/8 in. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. F. Cohen. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. One of these plates is connected to metal top. In Fig. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. In Fig. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. This is a wide-mouth bottle. hydrogen gas is generated. B and C. as shown. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. soldered in the top. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. the remaining space will be filled with air. or a solution of sal soda. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. 1. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. New York.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. into the receiver G. by small pieces of wood. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. The plates are separated 6 in. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. -Contributed by Dudley H. with two tubes.

the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . P. copper pipe. and the ends of the tube. Fig. is made by drilling a 1/8in. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. 1-5/16 in. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. which forms the vaporizing coil. A 1/64-in. long. One row is drilled to come directly on top. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. 2 shows the end view. or by direct contact with another magnet. C C. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. of No. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. says the Model Engineer. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. from the bottom. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. which is plugged up at both ends. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. long. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. N. as is shown in the illustration. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. The distance between the nipple. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. Fig. A. N. B. 1. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. then a suitable burner is necessary. in diameter and 6 in. should be only 5/16 of an inch. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. 36 insulated wire. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. A nipple. 1/2 in. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. A. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. If desired. A piece of 1/8-in. by means of the clips. London. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. is then coiled around the brass tube. A. either by passing a current of electricity around it. A. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. copper pipe. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube.

The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . cut to the size of the pages. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. A disk of thin sheet-iron. Turn the book over and paste the other side. smoothly. should be cut to the diameter of the can. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. taking care not to bend the iron. 3. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. longer and 1/4 in. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. fold and cut it 1 in. with a fine saw. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. trim both ends and the front edge. Take two strips of stout cloth. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. larger all around than the book. 1/4 in. 2). Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. boards and all. Cut four pieces of cardboard. Fig. at the front and back for fly leaves. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. 1. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. this makes a much nicer book. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. Fig. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. leaving the folded edge uncut. but if the paper knife cannot be used. Fig. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype).lamp cord. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. about 8 or 10 in. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. duck or linen. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips.

from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. A gas cock. Ont. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. Bedford City. This will cause some air to be enclosed. Another can. or rather the top now. which will just slip inside the little can. and a little can. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. B. pasting them down (Fig. deep. Va. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. C. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. E. is soldered onto tank A. --Contributed by Joseph N. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. but its diameter is a little smaller. in diameter and 30 in. A. In the bottom. is perforated with a number of holes. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. as shown. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. of tank A is cut a hole. is fitted in it and soldered. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by James E. 18 in. Parker. . is turned on it. 4). so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. Noble. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. D. Another tank. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. H. is made the same depth as B. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. without a head. Toronto. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. the joint will be gas tight.

so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. H is a square knot. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. If the back armature. A A. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. long. The armature. as shown at C. making the width. A. The diagonal struts. basswood or white pine. E. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. J. and sewed double to give extra strength. The wiring diagram. D. exactly 12 in. D.. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. should be 1/4 in. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. 1. long. shows how the connections are to be made. The bridle knots. should be cut a little too long. when finished. B. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. square by 42 in. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. tacks. should be 3/8 in. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. S. C. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. to prevent splitting.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. Beverly. by 1/2 in. 2. Bott. -Contributed by H. and about 26 in. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. are shown in detail at H and J. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. and the four diagonal struts. Fig. which may be either spruce. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. The small guards. thus adjusting the . The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. fastened in the bottom. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. Fig. The longitudinal corner spines. which moves to either right or left. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. with an electric-bell magnet. B. If the pushbutton A is closed. N. B. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box.

D. and. E. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Harbert. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. Clay Center. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. and if a strong wind is blowing. however. to prevent slipping. shift toward F. Chicago.lengths of F and G. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. as shown. can be made of a wooden . Kan. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. that refuse to slide easily. for producing electricity direct from heat. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. the batteries do not run down for a long time. --Contributed by A. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. thus shortening G and lengthening F. A bowline knot should be tied at J. with gratifying results. Closing either key will operate both sounders. --Contributed by Edw. If the kite is used in a light wind. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. Stoddard.

F. to the cannon. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. with a number of nails. C. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. 16 single-covered wire.frame. B. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. E. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. and the current may then be detected by means. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. A. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. Fasten a piece of wood. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. C.. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. A and B. with a pocket compass. The wood screw. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. A. E. in position. placed on top. which conducts the current into the cannon. D. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. 14 or No. --Contributed by A. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. spark. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. or parallel with the compass needle. A. When the cannon is loaded. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. by means of machine screws or. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. and also holds the pieces of wood. Then. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . Chicago. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. C.

Chicago. Fig. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. B. --Contributed by Henry Peck. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. within the reach of the magnet. but no weights or strings. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. square and 3/8 in. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Marion. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. A hole for a 1/2 in. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. --Contributed by Joseph B. Fig. 1. L. in this position the door is locked. 1. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. . Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. In Fig. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Mich. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. when in position at A'. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. screw is bored in the block.the current is shut off. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. Bend the strips BB (Fig. with the long arm at L'. Big Rapids. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. where there is a staple. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. requiring a strong magnet. A and S. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Keil. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. press the button. Connect as shown in the illustration. now at A' and S'. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. To lock the door. A. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. H. to receive the screw in the center. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. To unlock the door. To reverse. 1. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. Ohio. A and S.

long.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. about 18 in. gas-pipe. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. and C is a dumbbell. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. and if desired the handles may . When the holes are finished and your lines set. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. The standard and base. When ready for use. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. are enameled a jet black. if enameled white on the concave side. J. --Contributed by C. hole. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. put in the handle. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. Thread the other end of the pipe. and may be made at very slight expense. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. pipe with 1-2-in. West Somerville. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. Mass. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. Rand. or for microscopic work. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and.

as shown at A in the sketch. North Easton. --Contributed by C. Make a cylindrical core of wood.be covered with leather. 1. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Fig. Fig. long and 8 in. with a cover. across. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. high by 1 ft. 8 in. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C.. D. M. Mass. This peculiar property is also found in ice. B. E. 1. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . inside the pail. which shall project at least 2 in. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. A. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. across. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Warren.

. if there is to be any glazing done. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. to hold the clay mixture. Cover with paper and shellac as before. if you have the materials. Line the pail. C. and your kiln is ready for business. Wind about 1/8 in. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. C. hotel china. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. Whatever burner is used. W. layer of the clay mixture. 2 in. or make one yourself. hard porcelain. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. thick. pack this space-top. sand. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning.mixture of clay. L. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this.. If the cover of the pail has no rim. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. It is placed inside the kiln. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. strip of sheet iron. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. After finishing the core. E. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. such . 1330°. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. pipe 2-ft. say 1/4 in. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. long over the lid hole as a chimney. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. and 3/8 in. and with especial caution the first time. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. about 1 in. cutting the hole a little smaller. and graphite. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. which is the hottest part. Fit all the parts together snugly. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. but it will burn a great deal of gas. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. let this dry thoroughly. but will be cheaper in operation. the firing should be gradual. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. and varnish. and cut it 3-1/2 in. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. as dictated by fancy and expense. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. 15%. passing wire nails through and clinching them. Fig. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. 2. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. and 3/4 in. 3) with false top and bottom. 1390°-1410°. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. This done. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. When lighted. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. 1). long.-G. make two wood ends. bottom and sides.. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. After removing all the paper. and on it set the paper wrapped core. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. full length of iron core. 1). diameter. wider than the kiln. the point of the blue flame. projecting from each end (Fig. 25%. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. in diameter. in diameter. pipe. The 2 in. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. C. thick. carefully centering it. of fine wire. Set aside for a few days until well dried. as is shown in the sketch. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. 60%.

every alternate card being the same color. red and black. D. Then take the black cards. Chicago. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. diameter. C.. and divide it into two piles. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. 2. all cards facing the same way. Then. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. as shown in the sketch herewith. and so on. R. Next restore all the cards to one pack. Washington. Take the red cards. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. as in Fig. and plane off about 1/16 in. with a plane. C. leaving long terminals. the next black. 2). as in Fig. procure a new deck. A. Of course. square them up. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. B. overlaps and rests on the body. square them up and place in a vise. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. length of . 8 in. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. C. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. --Contributed by J. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. bind tightly with black silk. T. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. taking care to have the first card red. around the coil. and discharges into the tube. about 1/16 in.53 in. 2. 1. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. . The funnel. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. You can display either color called for. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators.

B. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. 1 gill of litharge. C. The cement. It should be placed in an exposed location. through the holes already drilled. the first thing to decide on is the size. 1 gill of fine white sand. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. The bottom glass should be a good fit. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. Long Branch. D. E. B. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. thus making all the holes coincide. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in.. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. and this is inexpensive to build. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. E. To find the fall of snow. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. F. A. 1.J. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. as the difficulties increase with the size. to form a dovetail joint as shown. Drill all the horizontal pieces. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. When the glass is put in the frame a space.C. N. angle iron for the frame. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. so that when they are assembled. B. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. stove bolts. about 20 in. Fig. The upright pieces. A. and then the frame is ready to assemble. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. of the frame. Let . the same ends will come together again. stove bolts. All the horizontal pieces. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E.

having a swinging connection at C. B. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. a centerpiece (A. Fasten the lever. A. and. D. on the door by means of a metal plate.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. Aquarium Finished If desired. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. to the door knob. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. if desired. Fig. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish.

long. Two short boards 1 in. F. and another. as at E. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. They are shown in Fig. for the top. thus doing away with the spring. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. hoping it may solve the same question for them. showing the paddle-wheel in position. will open the door about 1/2 in. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. from the outside top of the frame. 1 . A small piece of spring brass. B. another. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. to form the slanting part. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. Fig.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass.. D. PAUL S. approximately 1 ft. with a water pressure of 70 lb. Buffalo. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. 3 shows one of the paddles. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. N. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. Cut two of them 4 ft. Fig. C. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. which is 15 in. Y. another. wide by 1 in. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. wide . One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. 6 in. soldered to the end of the cylinder. Fig. long. E. screwed to the door frame. 26 in. 1 is the motor with one side removed. Fig. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. I referred this question to my husband. long. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. 2 ft. 2 is an end view. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. 1. 2 at GG. Do not fasten these boards now. long. White. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. Fig. --Contributed by Orton E. Fig. according to the slant given C. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. but mark their position on the frame. to form the main supports of the frame. Cut two pieces 30 in. AA. and Fig. To make the frame. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. several lengths of scantling 3 in. to keep the frame from spreading. 1.

Fig. in diameter. long and filling it with babbitt metal. that is. Fasten them in their proper position. (I. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Tack one side on. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. Make this hole conical. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. to a full 1/2 in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. by 1-1/2 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. GG. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. after which drill a 5/8 in. Fig. 1. Fig. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. 24 in. hole through its center. 2) form a substantial base. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole.burlap will do -. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. iron. When it has cooled.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. 2) with a 5/8-in. long to the wheel about 8 in. and drill a 1/8-in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. remove the cardboard. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. and a 1/4 -in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. take down the crosspieces. 2) and another 1 in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. hole through them. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. hole from the tops to the 1-in.along the edges under the zinc to form . from one end by means of a key. then drill a 3/16-in. holes. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. steel shaft 12 in. with the wheel and shaft in place. pipe. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. thick. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. and drill a 1-in. hole to form the bearings. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Take the side pieces. tapering from 3/16 in. These are the paddles. thick (HH. Now block the wheel. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. hole through their sides centrally. iron 3 by 4 in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. Next secure a 5/8-in. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Drill 1/8-in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. 4. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely.

but now I put them in the machine. as this makes long exposure necessary. The best plate to use is a very slow one. any window will do. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. Correct exposure depends. shutting out all light from above and the sides. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. Raise the window shade half way. place the outlet over a drain. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. start the motor. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. light and the plate. but as it would have cost several times as much. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Focus the camera carefully. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. as shown in the sketch at B. If sheet-iron is used. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. and as near to it as possible. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. on the lens. It is obvious that. Drill a hole through the zinc. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. and the subject may move. sewing machine. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. drill press. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. and leave them for an hour or so. of course. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. remove any white curtains there may be. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. If the bearings are now oiled. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor.a water-tight joint. or what is called a process plate. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. it would be more durable. Do not stop down the lens. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. . dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. ice-cream freezer. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. Darken the rest of the window.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. says the Photographic Times. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide.

It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. until the core slowly rises. On completing . With a piece of black paper. D. or an empty developer tube. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. A. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. or can be taken from an old magnet. or wood. The current required is very small. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. 2. as a slight current will answer. The glass tube may be a test tube. the core is drawn down out of sight. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. as shown in Fig. and without fog. C. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. 2. without detail in the face. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. The core C. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. and a base. with binding posts as shown. B. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. a glass tube. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. a core. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. full of water. hard rubber. an empty pill bottle may be used. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. which is made of iron and cork. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. by twisting. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom.In developing get all possible density in the high lights.

is Benham's color top. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. white lead. finest graphite. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. 1 lb. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. and make a pinhole in the center. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. The colors appear different to different people. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. according to his control of the current. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. and are changed by reversing the rotation. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . 1 pt. This is a mysterious looking instrument. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. 1. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. water and 3 oz. and one not easy to explain. whale oil. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. the core will obey his command to rise or fall.

fan-like. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced.L. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more.. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. or three spot. In prize games. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. especially if the deck is a new one. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. nearly every time. In making hydrogen. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . and asks an observer to withdraw a card. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. As this device is easily upset. B. deuce. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. -Contributed by D. when the action ceases. C. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles.B. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. thus partly filling bottles A and C. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. before cutting. A. Chicago. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time.

2 is also an enlarged sketch. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. long. Fig. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. (Fig. Detroit. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. . 9 in. Form a cone of heavy paper. long and 3 in. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. Detail of Phonograph Horn . W. Huron. that will fit loosely in the tube A. 1. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. Fig. Bently. --Contributed by F. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Make a 10-sided stick. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack.. S. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 2.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. 10 in. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. 12 in. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. in diameter. Dak. in length and 3 in. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. J. --Contributed by C. as shown in Fig. S. 4. Jr.. 3). making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim.

so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . bend it at right angles throughout its length. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. with a pin driven in each end. long. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. push back the bolt. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. A piece of tin. C. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. but bends toward D. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. --Contributed by Reader. will cause an increased movement of C. and walk in. Fig. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. allowing 1 in. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. it is equally easy to block that trick. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. Fortunately. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. on one side and the top. Remove the form. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. about the size of a leadpencil. 6. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. 4 and temporarily fastened in position.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. E. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. A. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. Denver. A second piece of silk thread. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. Cut out paper sections (Fig. making it three-ply thick.

Fremont Hilscher. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. Minn. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor.. S. By this arrangement one. The reverse switch. B. long. are 7 ft. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. --Contributed by J. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. put together as shown in the sketch. Jr. The feet. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. while the lower switch. B.. posts. 4 ft. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. are made 2 by 4 in. A. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. R. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. S S. Two wood-base switches. is connected each point to a battery. long. West St. W. The upper switch. and rest on a brick placed under each end. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. as shown. will last for several years. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly .strip. S. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. Paul. The 2 by 4-in. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. or left to right.

Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. The steam chest D. which is made of tin. In Fig. with two washers. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. The hose E connects to the boiler. H and K. Fig. the size of the hole in the bearing B. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. E. is an old bicycle pump. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. and a cylindrical . The valve motion is shown in Figs.every house. FF. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. the other parts being used for the bearing B. and the crank bearing C. The piston is made of a stove bolt. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. pulley wheel. and valve crank S. 1. 2. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. 3/8 in. The base is made of wood. 2 and 3. thick. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. either an old sewing-machine wheel. which will be described later. cut in half. Fig. and in Fig. or anything available. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. and has two wood blocks.

of Cuba. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. Fry. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. is cut out of tin. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. and the desired result is obtained.piece of hard wood. Cal. This is wound with soft string. C. This engine was built by W. --Contributed by Geo. The valve crank S. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. as it is merely a trick of photography. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. 3. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. The boiler. G. using the positive wire as a pen. Fig. San Jose. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. G. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. Wis. can be an old oil can. and saturated with thick oil. powder can. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. Fig. Eustice. as shown in Fig. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. First. W. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. to receive the connecting rod H. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. Schuh and A. and a very amusing trick. 4. . J. or galvanized iron. 1. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. at that.

A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. 1 will be seen to rotate. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. When turning. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. Cut half circles out of each stave. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. and Fig. and place a bell on the four ends. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. to cross in the center. as shown. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. as shown at AA. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. The smaller wheel. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. B. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. They may be of any size. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. C. B. and pass ropes around . 1 by covering up Figs. Fig. Fig. diameter. Fig.

When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. From a piece of thin . This in turn will act on the transmitter. procure a wooden spool. long. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. produces a higher magnifying power). A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. St. W. from the transmitter. Mo.G. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. which accounts for the sound. To make this lensless microscope. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end.. such as clothes lines. Louis. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. but not on all. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. --Contributed by H.M. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. A (a short spool. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. as shown in the illustration. which allows the use of small sized ropes.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B.

The lever. E. Viewed through this microscope. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. 3. or 64 times. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. which costs little or nothing to make. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. (The area would appear 64 times as large. in which hay has been soaking for several days. C. and at the center.. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. . B. if the distance is reduced to one-third. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. An innocent-looking drop of water. the diameter will appear three times as large. the object should be of a transparent nature.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. bent as shown. D. i. The pivot. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. if the distance is reduced to one-half. can be made of brass and the armature.. and so on. D. which are pieces of hard wood. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. darting across the field in every direction. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. by means of brads. and look through the hole D. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. held at arm's length. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. H. otherwise the image will be blurred. fastened to a wooden base. B. cut out a small disk.) But an object 3/4-in. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. is made of iron. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. Fig. To use this microscope. A. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. 2. The spring. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. as in all microscopes of any power. e. the diameter will appear twice as large. 1. C. is fastened at each end by pins. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. place a small object on the transparent disk. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand.

wood: F. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. binding posts: H spring The stop. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. E. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. 16 in. Cut the top. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. should be about 22 in. which are made to receive a pivot. A switch. brass or iron soldered to nail. can be made panel as shown. The back. wood: C.SOUNDER-A. wood. F. . The binding posts are like those of the sounder. or a single piece. similar to the one used in the sounder. brass. HH. B. long by 16 in. or taken from a small one-point switch. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. FF. nail soldered on A. DD. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. and are connected to the contacts. K. A. 26 wire: E. wide. soft iron. is cut from a board about 36 in. The binding posts. D. KEY-A. 1. Fig. brass: B. AA. connection of D to nail. wide. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. 16 in. in length and 16 in. B. K. D. D. 2. wide. long. wide. brass: E. The base of the key. C. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. between the armature and the magnet. fastened near the end. Fig. wide and set in between sides AA. The door. C. thick. coils wound with No. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. Each side. wide and about 20 in. long and 14-1/2 in.

Make 12 cleats. Garfield. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. as shown. In operation. E.. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. brads. cut in them. as shown in the sketch. When the electrical waves strike the needle. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. AA. material. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. long. with 3/4-in. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. Ill. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . 2 and made from 1/4-in. 13-1/2 in.

a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. the magnet. and thus decreases the resistance. The cord is also fastened to a lever. Ridgewood. A (see sketch). N. will give a greater speed. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. A fairly stiff spring. Brown. pulls down the armature.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. F. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. in order to increase the surface. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. and. When the pipe is used. Y. A. E. --Contributed by John Koehler. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. Fairport. when used with a motor. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. C. through which a piece of wire is passed. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . when the coil is not provided with a regulator. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. J. N. B. Pushing the wire. filled with water. down into the water increases the surface in contact. A. --Contributed by R.

thus discharging the contents of the hopper. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. if desired. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . B. N. Gachville. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Of course. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Borden. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. --Contributed by Perry A. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated.for the secret contact. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. even those who read this description. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm.

records.whenever the bell rings. long and 5 in. Connect switch to post B. for 6-in. From a piece of brass a switch. Cal. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. H. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. E. apart. . C. wide. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. wide. as shown in Fig. The three shelves are cut 25-in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. wide. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. East Orange. and on both sides of the middle shelf. wide. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. 1. from the bottom. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. With about 9 ft. wide. Nails for stops are placed at DD. as shown in Fig. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. The top board is made 28-in. --Contributed by H. records and 5-5/8 in. thick and 12-in. Mangold. in a semicircle 2 in. long and full 12-in. where the other end of wire is fastened. J. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B.. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. --Contributed by Dr. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. Jr. Washington. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. C. Dobson. D. N. Compton. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. A. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. deep and 3/4 in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. for 10in. 2.

but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. E. 1. B. to which is fastened a cord. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. A. as shown by the dotted lines. Roanoke. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. as shown in Fig. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . Va. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. When the cord is passed over pulley C. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. closed. which in operation is bent. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off.

The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. The crankpin should fit tightly. Fig. as shown in the illustration. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Notice the break (S) in the track. E. 1 in. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Now put all these parts together. CC. long. which should be about 1/2 in. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. D. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. thick (A. through one of these holes. Fig. excepting the crank and tubing. in diameter. 3. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. Bore two 1/4 in. Do not fasten the sides too . 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. they will bind. B. Figs. is compressed by wheels. Cut two grooves. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. apart. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. one in each end. against which the rubber tubing. These wheels should be 3/4 in. to turn on pins of stout wire. 3). or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. in diameter. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. it too loose. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. deep and 1/2 in. 1. 5) when they are placed. E. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. in diameter. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. Fig. Put the rubber tube. In these grooves place wheels. they will let the air through. wide. Figs. wide. in diameter. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. thick. If the wheels fit too tightly. In the sides (Fig. deep. square and 7/8 in.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. 4 shows the wheel-holder. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. holes (HH. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. but a larger one could be built in proportion. 1 in.

from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. For ease in handling the pump. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. Fig. mark for hole and 3 in. and mark for a hole. 15 in. 17-1/2 in. 1. 1. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. Then turn the crank from left to right. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. iron. In the two cross bars 1 in. though a small iron wheel is better. beyond each of these two.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. of material. stands 20 in. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. from each end. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. Fig. from the bottom and 2 in. a platform should be added. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. If the motion of the wheels is regular. and are 30 in. The screen which is shown in Fig. AA. AA. costing 10 cents. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. Cut six pieces. 1. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. because he can . Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. Fig. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. and 3-1/2 in. A in Fig. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. long. the other wheel has reached the bottom. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. 1. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Idana. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. Two feet of 1/4-in. mark again. Take the center of the bar. tubing. from each end. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. Hubbard. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. as it gives steadiness to the motion.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. --Contributed by Dan H. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. from that mark the next hole. as shown in Fig. B. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. the pump will give a steady stream. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. The animal does not fear to enter the box. is all the expense necessary. To use the pump. Kan. 2. from each end. The three legs marked BBB. Fig. 2. 1.

Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. Philadelphia. The battery is now ready for use. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. but if one casts his own zinc. acid 1 part). The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. there is too much liquid in the jar. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. The mercury will adhere. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. however. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. some of it should be poured out. The truncated. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. giving it a bright. dropping. of water dissolve 4 oz. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. or small electric motors. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. silvery appearance. --Contributed by H. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. 14 copper wire. shuts him in. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. 1) must be prepared. add slowly. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. If it is wet. The battery is now complete. rub the zinc well. When through using the battery. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. When the bichromate has all dissolved. 4 oz. stirring constantly. of the top. If the battery has been used before. 2). and touches the bait the lid is released and. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. Meyer. C. sulphuric acid. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. Place the carbon in the jar. and the solution (Fig. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. If the solution touches the zinc. . To cause a flow of electricity. until it is within 3 in. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. potassium bichromate. It is useful for running induction coils.see through it: when he enters. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. or. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. long having two thumb screws.

pressing the pedal closes the door.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. with slight changes. which opens the door.. i. while the coal door is being opened. Wis. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. the battery circuit. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. the jump-spark coil . A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. The price of the coil depends upon its size. e. however. After putting in the coal. --Contributed by Edward Whitney.Fig. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. Madison. If.

and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. as shown in Fig. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. diameter. . in a straight line from top to bottom. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile.described elsewhere in this book. 6. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. apart. which is made of light copper wire. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. while a 12-in. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. 5.7. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". being a 1-in. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. This will make an excellent receiver. coil. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. as shown in Fig. 7. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. This coil. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. 6. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. W W. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. After winding. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. 7). Fig. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. and closer for longer distances. in a partial vacuum. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. 7. Change the coil described. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. the full length of the coil. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. made of No. W W. Now for the receiving apparatus.

suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. A. Figs. but it could be run by foot power if desired. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. For an illustration. No. above the ground. at any point to any metal which is grounded. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. after all. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. A large cone pulley would then be required. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. being vertical. in the air. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). but simply illustrates the above to show that. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. 90°. where A is the headstock.6 stranded. are analogous to the flow of induction. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No.The aerial line. These circles. Run a wire from the other binding post. using an electric motor and countershaft. being at right angles. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. as it matches the color well. may be easily made at very little expense. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. I run my lathe by power. 1 to 4. to the direction of the current. . which will be described later. and hence the aerial line. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. The writer does not claim to be the originator. only. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. 90°. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. B the bed and C the tailstock. 1).

A. Fig. deep. To make these bearings. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. but not hot enough to burn it. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. and it is well to have the shaft hot. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. just touching the shaft. The bolts B (Fig. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. steel tubing about 1/8 in. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. too. thick. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. The bearing is then ready to be poured. Fig. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. 4. The headstock. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. Fig. tapered wooden pin. 4. 6. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. 2 and 3. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. and runs in babbitt bearings. If the bearing has been properly made. pitch and 1/8 in. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . 6 Headstock Details D. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. Fig. which are let into holes FIG.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. B. on the under side of the bed. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. which pass through a piece of wood. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. 5. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. Heat the babbitt well. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. After pouring. 5. and Fig. one of which is shown in Fig.

This prevents corrosion. they may be turned up after assembling. Take up about 5 ft.other machines.J. The tail stock (Fig. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. and a 1/2-in. of the walk . which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. so I had to buy one. Ill. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. If one has a wooden walk. lock nut. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. Oak Park. Newark. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. If not perfectly true. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. FIG. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. N. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. embedded in the wood. A. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. B. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. the alarm is easy to fix up. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue.

(A. to remove all traces of grease. Finally. and the alarm is complete. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. leaving a clear solution. add potassium cyanide again. Jackson. before dipping them in the potash solution. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. S. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. save when a weight is on the trap. clean the articles thoroughly. silver or other metal. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. 2). When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. To avoid touching it. Minneapolis. Do not touch the work with the hands again. water. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. --Contributed by R. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. of water. so that they will not touch. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Connect up an electric bell. hang the articles on the wires. Fig. Then make the solution . Minn.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. to roughen the surface slightly. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. American ash in 1-1/2 pt.

shaking. Fig. which is held by catch B. 3) strikes the bent wire L. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. pewter. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center.5 to 4 volts. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. 1 in. as shown in Fig. 3) directly over the hole. with water. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. as at F. 18 wire. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. Where Bunsen cells are used. With an electric pressure of 3. copper. a circuit is completed. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. Having finished washing the precipitate. of water. If more solution is required. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. piece of broomstick. A 1/4 in. and the larger part (F. and then treated as copper. zinc. make a key and keyhole. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. but opens the door. A (Fig. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. B should be of the same wood. When all this is set up. 1. Fig. 1). If accumulators are used. with the pivot 2 in. 1). the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. On brass. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. an old electric bell or buzzer. saw a piece of wood. The wooden block C. use 2 volts for large articles. German silver. hole in its center. square. lead. which is advised. Can be made of a 2-in. also. a hand scratch brush is good. Then. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. about 25 ft. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. long. Make a somewhat larger block (E. This solution. Fig. long. Before silver plating. To provide the keyhole. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. thick by 3 in. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. The wooden catch. 3. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. Screw the two blocks together. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. nickel and such metals. I. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. --Model Engineer. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. of clothesline rope and some No. 10 in. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. must be about 1 in. Repeat six times.up to 2 qt. Fig. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. such metals as iron. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. light strokes. with water. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. when the point of the key touches the tin. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. 1 not only unlocks. In rigging it to a sliding door. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. Take quick. if one does not possess a buffing machine. which . silver can be plated direct. from the lower end. and 4 volts for very small ones. will serve for the key.

the illumination in front must be arranged. 1. H. between the parlor and the room back of it. and hands its contents round to the audience. shows catch B. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. some black cloth. top. One thing changes to another and back again. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. a few simple tools. with the lights turned low. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. Fig. On either side of the box. One end is removed. and finally lined inside with black cloth. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. Objects appear and disappear. is the cut through which the rope runs. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. Fig. with a switch as in Fig. New Jersey. sides and end. Fig. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. and black art reigns supreme. and a slit. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. Thus. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. Next. the requisites are a large soap box. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. 1. floor. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. so much the better. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. should be cut a hole. which unlocks the door. Fig. or cave. H. To prepare such a magic cave. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. he points with one finger to the box. The interior must be a dead black. . but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. surrounding a perfectly black space. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. some black paint. he tosses it into the cave. H. The magician stands in front of this. heighten the illusion. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. 116 Prospect St. Receiving the bowl again. 2. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. Heavy metal objects. although a little more trouble. B. spoons and jackknives. cut in one side. in his shirt sleeves. Next. --Contributed by E. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. the box should be painted black both inside and out. such as forks. 2. enlarged. one-third of the length from the remaining end. half way from open end to closed end. no painting inside is required. and plenty of candles. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). The box must be altered first. In front of you. to throw the light toward the audience.. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. Klipstein. 3. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. 0. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. East Orange. He removes the bowl from the black box.

The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen.Finally. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. in which are oranges and apples. of course. a screen must be used. Consequently. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. you must have an assistant. which are let down through the slit in the top. into the eyes of him who looks. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. and pours them from the bag into a dish. and if portieres are impossible. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. and several black drop curtains. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. was identical with this. is on a table) so much the better. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. had a big stage. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. The exhibitor should be . which can be made to dance either by strings. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. The audience room should have only low lights. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. the room where the cave is should be dark. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. if. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. one on each side of the box. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. But illusions suggest themselves. his confederate behind inserts his hand. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. The illusion. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. only he. of course. as presented by Hermann.

making contact with them as shown at y. or binding posts. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. b3. and c4 + electricity. 1. b1. On the disk G are two brass strips. terminal c3 will show . held down by another disk F (Fig. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. b2.a boy who can talk. and a common screw. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . Then. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. their one end just slips under the strips b1. respectively. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. when handle K is turned to one side. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. as shown in Fig. c1. A represents a pine board 4 in. square. c4. Finally. 2. with three brass strips. terminal c3 will show +. by 4 in. is shown in the diagram. FIG. 1. respectively. making contact with them. About the center piece H moves a disk. respectively. e1 and e2. b2. 2. vice versa. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. d. so arranged that. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. A. 2).is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. c3. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. if you turn handle K to the right. held down on disk F by two other terminals. held down on it by two terminals. f2. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. c2.. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. b3. by means of two wood screws. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. and c2 to the zinc. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. at L. Fig. or b2. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. and c1 – electricity.

B is a onepoint switch. 5. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. 1. and C and C1 are binding posts. and then hold the receiver to your ear. from three batteries. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. Jr. When switch B is closed and A is on No. --Contributed by Eugene F. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. Joerin. Tuttle. -Contributed by A. 3. you have the current of one battery. when A is on No. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. 4. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. jump spark coil. E. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. thus making the message audible in the receiver. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. Ohio. Newark. from four batteries. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). when on No. . a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. and when on No. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. when on No. from five batteries. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) ..

Thus. as shown in the sketch. traveled by the thread. The device thus arranged. Handy Electric Alarm . per second. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. mark. P. A. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. and placed on the windowsill of the car. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. Wis. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. A. La. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain.. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. When you do not have a graduate at hand. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. over the bent portion of the rule. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. of Burlington. E. New Orleans. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. is the device of H. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. Redmond. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. and supporting the small weight. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. per second for each second. rule. which may be a button or other small object. mark. A. so one can see the time. B. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel.

B. Crafton. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward.which has a piece of metal. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. for a wetting is the inevitable result. which illuminates the face of the clock. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. C. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. Instead. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. S. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. and with the same result. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. When the alarm goes off. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. Lane. wrapping the wire around the can several times. Pa. but may be closed at F any time desired. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. . --C. --Contributed by Gordon T. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. soldered to the alarm winder. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. Then if a mishap comes.

which may. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. battery zincs. 1 . The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. It is possible to make molds without a bench. cannons. Macey. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. whence it is soon tracked into the house. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. ornaments of various kinds. C. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. L. The first thing to make is a molding bench. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. If there is no foundry Fig. when it is being prepared. Two cleats. New York City. A. BE. AA. as shown. models and miniature objects. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. --Contributed by A. small machinery parts. but it is a mistake to try to do this. binding posts. and duplicates of all these. bearings. With the easily made devices about to be described. engines. as shown in Fig. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. and many other interesting and useful articles. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . 1. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required.

If desired the sieve may be homemade. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. is about the right mesh. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. try using sand from other sources. The dowels. as shown. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. and a sieve. which should be nailed in. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use.How to Make a Mold [96] . but this operation will be described more fully later on. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. which can be either aluminum. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. The rammer. is shown more clearly in Fig. makes a very good sieve. H. is filled with coal dust. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. II . A good way to make the flask is to take a box. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. and this. The cloth bag. DD. If the box is not very strong. is nailed to each end of the cope. white metal. CC. CC. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. is made of wood." or upper half. which can be made of a knitted stocking. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. D. by 6 in. A A. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. The flask. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. G. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. A slight shake of the bag Fig. and the "drag. J. 2 . are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. 2.near at hand. E. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. Fig. and saw it in half longitudinally. the "cope. will be required. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. A wedge-shaped piece.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. F. as shown. Fig." or lower part. An old teaspoon. 1. and the lower pieces. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. a little larger than the outside of the flask. previous to sawing. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. by 8 in. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. 1. It is made of wood and is in two halves. high. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. say 12 in.

Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. It is then rammed again as before. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. and then more sand is added until Fig. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. turn the drag other side up. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. and thus judge for himself. where they can watch the molders at work. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. the surface of the sand at . as shown at D. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. as it is much easier to learn by observation. The sand is then ready for molding. as shown at C. In finishing the ramming. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. as shown at E. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. and if water is added. as described. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. and by grasping with both hands. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. or "drag. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. Place another cover board on top." in position. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. or "cope. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. in order to remove the lumps. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. After ramming. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. as shown. and scatter about 1/16 in.

by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. III. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. After drawing the pattern. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. is next cut. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. . In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. in diameter. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. as shown at H. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. to give the air a chance to escape. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick." or pouring-hole. made out of steel rod. and then pour.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. after being poured. place the cope back on the drag. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. as shown at F. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. Place a brick or other flat.E should be covered with coal-dust. The "sprue. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. deep. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. thus holding the crucible securely. as shown at H. thus making a dirty casting. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. as shown in the sketch. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. wide and about 1/4 in. in order to prevent overheating. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. as shown at J. Fig. as shown at G. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. This is done with a spoon. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. it shows that the sand is too wet. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern.

In my own case I used four batteries. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. 15% lead. --Contributed by Harold S. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. Morton. the following device will be found most convenient. but any reasonable number may be used. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. babbitt. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. used only for zinc. or from any adjacent pair of cells. and. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. may be used in either direction. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. and the casting is then ready for finishing. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. is very desirable. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. Referring to the figure. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. battery zincs. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. If a good furnace is available. Minneapolis. Although the effect in the illustration . white metal and other scrap available. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. although somewhat expensive. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently.

it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. A. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. outward. 2. Fig. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. To make it take a sheet-iron band. The bearings. --Contributed by Draughtsman. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. backward. If desired. 3/4 in. By replacing the oars with paddles. Then walk down among the audience. Make one of these pieces for each arm. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. connected by cords to the rudder. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. B. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. which will be sufficient to hold it. Chicago. may be made of hardwood. as shown at A. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . The brass rings also appear distorted. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. Put a sharp needle point. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. as shown in the illustration. shaft made. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. Then replace the table. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. B. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. says a correspondent of the Sphinx.

either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. A. should be made of wood. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. 2. The covers. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. W. The hubs. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. 1. 1. 3. and a weight. 2 and 3. Fig. as shown in Fig.melted babbitt. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. or under pressure. C. as shown in Fig. being simply finely divided ice. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. 1. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. but when in motion. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. E. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. Snow. spoiling its appearance. when it will again return to its original state. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. A block of ice. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. or the paint will come off. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. D. If galvanized iron is used. It may seem strange that ice . If babbitt is used. In the same way.

it will gradually change from the original shape A. in. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. no matter how slow the motion may be. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. --Contributed by Gordon T. Crafton. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. as shown on page 65. B. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. whenever there is any connection made at all. but. P. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. sometimes only one or two feet a day. as per sketch..should flow like water. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . by 1/2 in. by 5 in. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. by 1/4. square. by 2 in. Lane. thus giving a high resistance contact. which resembles ice in this respect. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. brass. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. but by placing it between books. and assume the shape shown at B. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. The rate of flow is often very slow. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. Pressing either push button. or supporting it in some similar way. Pa.

G. as shown. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. alarm clock. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. H. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. B. E. The parts are: A. pulleys. Pa. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. C. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. Ward. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. wooden supports. cord. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. B. furnace. vertical lever. horizontal lever. draft chain. and five dry batteries. and C. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. J. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. I. draft. Wilkinsburg. Indianapolis. In the wiring diagram.000 ft. F. D. as shown. A is the circuit breaker. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. about the size used for automobiles. the induction coil.thumb screws. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. weight. The success depends upon a slow current. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. K . the battery. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. G. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. --Contributed by A.

then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. will fit nicely in them. where house plants are kept in the home. Artistic Window Boxes The top. as well as the bottom. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. The frame (Fig. which will provide a fine place for the plants. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. Mich. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. material framed together as shown in Fig. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. 2 are dressed to the right angle.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. such as used for a storm window. Kalamazoo. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. 3. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months.

If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. so as to increase the current. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. and the instrument will then be complete. S. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. in this connection. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. can be connected up in series. and will give the . A certain number of these. N. in diameter. in any system of lamps. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. Canada. Push the needle into the cork.. 1 each complete with base. multiples of series of three.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. for some time very satisfactorily. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. is something that will interest the average American boy. --Contributed by Wm.. a cork and a needle. W. by connecting them in series. as indicated by Fig. Grant. but maintain the voltage constant. 1. which sells for 25 cents. and a suitable source of power. and cost 27 cents FIG. It must be remembered. after a rest. one can regulate the batteries as required. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. However.. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. where they are glad to have them taken away. i. as if drawn upon for its total output. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. Halifax. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. since a battery is the most popular source of power. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. The 1/2-cp. However. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. e. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. 1 cp. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. This is more economical than dry cells. Thus. this must be done with very great caution.

2 shows the scheme. although the first cost is greater. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. These will give 3 cp. and then lead No. 11 series.proper voltage. . FIG. each. However. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. If wound for 10 volts. if wound for 6 volts. 18 B & S. generates the power for the lights. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. So. lamp. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. double insulated wire wherever needed. Fig. or 22 lights. by the proper combination of these. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. In conclusion. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. as in Fig. to secure light by this method. Thus. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. according to the water pressure obtainable. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. Thus. we simply turn on the water. and diffused light in a room. making. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. Chicago. and running the series in parallel. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. which is the same as that of one battery. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. 1-cp. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance.. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. especially those of low internal resistance. for display of show cases. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. and for Christmas trees. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. lamps. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. lamps. 3. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. where the water pressure is the greatest.

Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. To reverse the motor. are cut just alike. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. Plymouth. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. simply change the switch. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. outside points of switch. AA. CC. as shown in the sketch. Emig. A indicates the ground. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. switch. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. and C. B. A. Cal. and the sides. Ind. brushes of motor. center points of switch. field of motor. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. the letters indicate as follows: FF. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. Parker. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. . or from one pattern. B. thus reversing the machine. --Contributed by F. we were not bothered with them. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. a bait of meat. BB. bars of pole-changing switch.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. or a tempting bone. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. After I connected up my induction coil. --Contributed by Leonard E. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. DD. Santa Clara. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized.

Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. Minn. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. Hutchinson. a hammer. W. attached to the end of the armature B. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. Fry. Melchior. one cell being sufficient. or would remain locked. The experiment works best . the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. which is in the door. and a table or bench. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. When the circuit is broken a weight. The button can be hidden. as it is the key to the lock. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. If it is not. 903 Vine St. a piece of string.. Cal. -Contributed by Claude B. thus locking the door. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. A. San Jose. To unlock the door. merely push the button E.

Culebra. C. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. 18 Gorham St. Madison.Contributed by F. W. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. --Contributed by Geo.. in the ceiling and has a window weight. Schmidt. releasing the weight. Tie the ends of the string together. P. run through a pulley. 3. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. which pulls the draft open. the stick falls away. When the alarm rings in the early morning. the key turns. Crawford Curry. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. I. the current flows with the small arrows. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. as shown in Fig. 3. Ontario. where it will remain suspended as shown. -. A. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Canada. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. forming a loop. D. Wis.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. 4). 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. 2. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. attached at the other end. Brockville. Porto Rico. . 1). On another block of wood fasten two wires.

J.. 6 in. running one direct to the receiver. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. get two pieces of plate glass. Use a barrel to work on. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. Farley. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. and break the corners off to make them round. or from a bed of flowers. including the mouthpiece. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. S. --Contributed by Wm. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. R. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. Camden.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. and then to the receiver. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. thence to a switch. which fasten to the horn. and the other to the battery. thick. J. Jr. First. Connect two wires to the transmitter. or tree. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. D. The cut shows the arrangement. made with his own hands. N. square and 1 in. and .

L. 2. 1. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. in length. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. Use a binger to spread it on with. When polishing the speculum. When dry. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. by the side of the lamp. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. Fasten. wet till soft like paint. also rotate the glass. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. Have ready six large dishes. When done the glass should be semitransparent. wide around the convex glass or tool. and is ready for polishing. spaces.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. while walking around the barrel. twice the focal length away. then 8 minutes. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. A. and spread on the glass. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. with pitch. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. and a large lamp. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. using straight strokes 2 in. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. as in Fig. In a dark room. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. Fig. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. Fig. melt 1 lb. of water. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. a round 4-in. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. or it will not polish evenly.. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. and the under glass or tool convex. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. with 1/4-in. so the light .) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. Then warm and press again with the speculum. or less. the coarse grinding must be continued. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. and label. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. Then take a little of the coarsest powder.. unless a longer focal length is wanted. wetting it to the consistency of cream. set the speculum against the wall. 2. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. then take 2 lb.

Fig. deep. Now add enough of the solution A. Place the speculum S. from the lamp. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin.………………………………. the speculum is ready to be silvered. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. Then add 1 oz... Alcohol (Pure) ……………. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. in the bath and leave until the silver rises.. or hills. long to the back of the speculum. with distilled water. Then add solution B.. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. fill the dish with distilled water. Silver nitrate ……………………………. cement a strip of board 8 in. the speculum will show some dark rings. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. if a hill in the center. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke.. 840 gr. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. Two glass or earthenware dishes. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. 100 gr. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. add the ammonia solution drop by drop.……………………………. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. and pour the rest into the empty dish.…………….100 gr. Place the speculum. Fig.. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). shorter strokes should be used in polishing.. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. then ammonia until bath is clear. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. 25 gr. 4 oz. If not. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. The knife should not be more than 6 in. 39 gr. When dry. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. touched with rouge. 4 oz.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. longer strokes. 2.. With pitch. also how the rays R from a star .. Nitric acid . face down. must be procured. Solution D: Sugar loaf . When the focus is found. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in.. that was set aside. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. The polishing and testing done. 2. as in K. Fig.

and proceed as for any picture. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet.. slightly wider than the lens mount. . is a satisfactory angle. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. Place over lens. with an outlay of only a few dollars. which proves to be easy of execution. long and cost me just $15. My telescope is 64 in. deg. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. About 20. using strawboard and black paper. Thus an excellent 6-in. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. telescope can be made at home. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. Mellish. cover with paper and cloth. stop down well after focusing. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. The flatter they are the less they will distort. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. Then I made the one described. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. Make the tube I of sheet iron. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position.John E. two glass prisms. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube.

The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. as shown in Fig. A. -Contributed by A. or powdered alum. Boody. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. Fig. push the button D. Ill. through the lens of the camera and on the board. 2. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. D. Do not stir it. To unlock. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. and reflect through the negative. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. but will not preserve its hardening. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. The paper is exposed. then add a little sulphate of potash. says the Master Painter. B. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. unobstructed light strike the mirror. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. instead of the contrary. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. complete the arrangement. Zimmerman. 1. The rays of the clear. . as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. add the plaster gradually to the water. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers.

To reverse. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. but will remain suspended without any visible support.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. 1). as in Fig. as shown in the sketch. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. use a string. so that it can rotate about these points. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. Fasten on the switch lever. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. 2. as at A and B. throw . 2. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Then blow through the spool. Fig. also provide them with a handle. 3.

-Contributed by Morris L. rinse in alcohol. L. San Antonio. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. carbons. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. A is the electricbell magnet. Tex. although this is not necessary. the armature. Thomas. Go McVicker. Tex. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. --Contributed by Geo. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. C C. and E E. B. binding posts. San Marcos. Neb. Levy. North Bend. Take out. carbon sockets. wash in running water. --Contributed by R. . and rub dry with linen cloth. as shown in the sketch. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. In the sketch. D. Push one end of the tire into the hole.

Divested of nearly all technical phrases. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. 16 magnet wire. Brooklyn. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. By means of two or more layers of No. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. --Contributed by Joseph B. wound evenly about this core. 14 or No. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. long or more. Bell.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. 36 magnet wire.

large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. which is an important factor of the coil. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. the entire core may be purchased readymade. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. After the core wires are bundled. long and 5 in. coil illustrates the general details of the work. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. In shaping the condenser. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. with room also for a small condenser. No. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. about 6 in. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. as shown in Fig. diameter. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. A 7/8-in. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. The following method of completing a 1-in. but if it is not convenient to do this work. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. which is desirable. or 8 in. 4. 1. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. one piece of the paper is laid down. Beginning half an inch from one end. and the results are often unsatisfactory. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. 2 yd. wide. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. The primary is made of fine annealed No. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. long and 2-5/8 in. then the strip of tin-foil. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. This makes a condenser which may be folded. When cut and laid in one continuous length. and finally the fourth strip of paper. making two layers. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter.which would be better to buy ready-made. hole is bored in the center of one end. at a time. a box like that shown in Fig. as the maker prefers. in diameter. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. The condenser is next wrapped . in length. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound.

whole length. long to key. to the door. forms the other pole or terminal. and the other sheet. shows how the connections are made. 4 in. C. by 12 in. B. ready for assembling. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. D. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. open switch C. 3. which allows wiring at the back. one from bell. Fig. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit.) The wiring diagram. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. and one from battery.securely with bands of paper or tape. shelf for clock. battery . but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. wide. switch. V-shaped copper strip. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. round so that the inside . Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. which is insulated from the first. bell. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. spark. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. B. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. E. go. long and 12 in.. F. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. I. the letters indicate as follows: A. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. A. lines H. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. The alarm key will turn and drop down. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. copper lever with 1-in. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. flange turned on one side. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. G.

as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. Use a glass or metal shade. London. If desired for use immediately. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries.. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in.diameter is 7 in. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. of blue stone. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. of zinc sulphate. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. This is for blowing. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. from the bottom. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. but add 5 or 6 oz. The circuit should also have a high resistance. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. Short-circuit for three hours. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. says the Model Engineer. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. instead of close to it. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. 2 in. Line the furnace. and then rivet the seam. That is what they are for. and the battery is ready for use. . but with the circuit. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. do not shortcircuit.

Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. affects . g. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. Ohio. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. Outside of the scientific side involved. but the thing would not move at all. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. porcelain and paper. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. for others the opposite way. square and about 9 in. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement.. Enlarge the hole slightly. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. or think they can do the same let them try it." which created much merriment. To operate the trick. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. below the bottom of the zinc. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. and then. the second finger along the side. Try it and see. herein I describe a much better trick. oxygen to ozone. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. At least it is amusing. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. for some it will turn one way. while for others it will not revolve at all. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. changes white phosphorus to yellow. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. 1. This type of battery will give about 0. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. and therein is the trick. grip the stick firmly in one hand. 2. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. long. thus producing two different vibrations. If any or your audience presume to dispute. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. as in the other movement. If too low. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. imparting to them a violet tinge. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified.9 of a volt.

a means for holding it vertical. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . To the front board is attached a box. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. insects.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. says the Photographic Times. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. but small flowers. if possible. an old tripod screw. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. earth. chemicals. however. and one of them is photomicrography. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. but not essential. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. and. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. but this is less satisfactory. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. a short-focus lens. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus.

Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. 268 17 lb. 7-1/2 in. in diameter. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 113 7 lb. 9 ft. 6 ft. 8 ft. 1. 65 4 lb. 12 ft. long and 3 ft. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. If the balloon is 10 ft. 179 11 lb. A line. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. Mass. Cap. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 5 in. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 11 ft.--Contributed by George C. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. which is 15 ft. balloon. Fig. Madison. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. CD. while it is not so with the quill. wide from which to cut a pattern. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. or 31 ft. 7-1/2 in. 905 57 lb. AB. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 697 44 lb. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 5 ft. in Cu. and a line. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 7 ft. The following table will give the size. Divide one-quarter of the circle . Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. Boston. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 381 24 lb. or 3 ft.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. Ft Lifting Power.

and after marked is cut the same shape and size. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. The cloth segments are sewed together. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. This pattern is used to mark the cloth.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. Procure 1 gal. 3. of beeswax and boil well together. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. The amounts necessary for a 10- . The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. 4. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. keeping the marked part on the outside. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. and so on. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. of the very best heavy body. Repeat this operation four times. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. using a fine needle and No. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. The pattern is now cut. making a double seam as shown in Fig. This test will show if the bag is airtight. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. 70 thread. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. 2. cutting all four quarters at the same time. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. on the curved line from B to C.

About 15 lb. of iron borings and 125 lb. with water 2 in. or dusting with a dry brush. A. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. . ft. The outlet. A. by fixing. leaving the hand quite clean. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. Fill the other barrel. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. B. ]. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. Vegetable oils should never be used.Green Iron ammonium citrate . a clean white rag. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. of water will make 4 cu. but if any grease remains on the hand. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings.. 5. of gas in one hour. it is not fit to use. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. this should be repeated frequently. of iron. When the clock has dried. capacity and connect them. using a fine brush. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. oil the spindle holes carefully. above the level of the water in barrel A. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. C. A. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. balloon are 125 lb. with the iron borings. of sulphuric acid. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. until no more dirt is seen. C. All FIG. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order.ft. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. Water 1 oz. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. pipe. 1 lb. 5 . B. In the barrel. B. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. with 3/4in. 150 gr. as shown in Fig. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. to the bag. or a fan. should not enter into the water over 8 in. if it is good it will dry off. . 1 lb. After washing a part. The 3/4-in. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. which may sound rather absurd.

A cold. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. The negative pole. to avoid blackened skin. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Printing is done in the sun. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. Exposure. of any make. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Dry the plates in the dark. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. or carbon. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Dry in the dark. The positive pole. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe.Water 1 oz. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. keeping the fingers out of the solution. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. A longer exposure will be necessary.000 ft. says the Moving Picture World. and a vigorous negative must be used. and keep in the dark until used. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. This aerial collector can be made in . 20 to 30 minutes. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. at the time of employment. . or zinc. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. The miniature 16 cp. . Sliver nitrate 50 gr. or battery. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. dry atmosphere will give best results. Port Melbourne. toning first if desired. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. fix in hypo.. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner.

If the waves strike across the needle. lead pipe. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. when left exposed to the air. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end.various ways. long. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. and as less current will flow the short way. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. As the telephone offers a high resistance. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. as described below. lay a needle. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. 5 in. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. the resistance is less. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. both positive and negative. making a ground with one wire. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. The storage cell. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. will soon become dry and useless. If the wave ceases. a positive and a negative. This will complete the receiving station. holes . forming a cup of the pipe. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. and have the other connected with another aerial line. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. in diameter. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air.

of course. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. one to the positive. namely: a square hole. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. except for about 1 in. a round one. When mixing the acid and water. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. This support or block. by soldering the joint. or tube C.as possible. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. The other plate is connected to the zinc. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. B. does not need to be watertight. This. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . and the other to the negative. says the Pathfinder. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. an oblong one and a triangular one. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. This box can be square. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. on each end. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. or tube B. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. D. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. Two binding-posts should be attached. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe.

The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. 1. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. as it is not readily overturned. wide. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. back and under. and match them together. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. as shown in Fig. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. thick cut two pieces alike.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. This punt. Ill. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. all around the edge. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. Chicago. 2. A and B. about 20 in. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. C. as shown in Fig. leaving about 1/16 in. 1. C. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. . How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. is built 15 ft. long. and has plenty of good seating capacity. Only galvanized nails should be used. The third piece of brass. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. 3. deep and 4 ft. in place on the wood. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. were fitted by this one plug. wide. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. 2. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument.

Tacoma. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. A piece of 1/4-in. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. B. Wash. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. In Fig.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. square (Fig 2). Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. gas pipe. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. is cut 1 in. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. thick and 3-1/2 in. A.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light.

Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. lamp. without auxiliary phase. if possible. H. The winding of the armature. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . no more current than a 16-cp." has no connection with the outside circuit. or "rotor. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. with the exception of insulated wire. it had to be borne in mind that. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. says the Model Engineer. In designing. which the writer has made. and to consume. may be of interest to some of our readers. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit.--Contributed by Charles H. no special materials could be obtained. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. Wagner.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. which can be developed in the usual manner. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night.

holes. as shown in Fig. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. or "stator. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. 1. this little machine is not self-starting. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. After assembling a second time. were then drilled and 1/4-in. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. thick.the field-magnet. to be filed out after they are placed together. being used. with the dotted line. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. bolts put in and tightened up. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. 3. no steel being obtainable. B. The stator is wound full with No. and filled with rivets. wrought iron. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. 2. 5. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. also varnished before they were put in. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. 4. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. Holes 5-32 in. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. while the beginnings . about 2-1/2 lb. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. as shown in Fig. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. Unfortunately. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. They are not particularly accurate as it is. and all sparking is avoided. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. A. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. in diameter were drilled in the corners. C.

which will make it appear as shown in Fig. If too late for alcohol to be of use. No starting resistance is needed. McKinney. In making slides by contact. N. and all wound in the same direction. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. The rotor is wound with No. 1. a regulating resistance is not needed. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. The lantern slide is a glass plate.. Jr. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. and as the motor runs at constant speed. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. as shown in Fig. and the other by reduction in the camera. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. and especially of colored ones. film to film. Newark. E. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. having no commutator or brushes. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. it would be very simple to build. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. if applied immediately. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. 2. as before stated. The image should .of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. One is by contact. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. and as each layer of wire was wound. J. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. and would not easily get out of order. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. as a means of illustrating songs. 3-Contributed by C. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. This type of motor has drawbacks.

over the mat. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. If the exposure has been correct. D. they are much used by travelers. It is best. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. a little extra work will be necessary. Select a room with one window. 5. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. the formulas being found in each package of plates. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. as shown in Fig. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. also. except that the binding is different. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. C. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. Fig. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. to use a plain fixing bath. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. and development should be over in three or four minutes. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. 4. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. Draw lines with a pencil. B. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. These can be purchased from any photo material store. if possible.appear in. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. A. 3. as shown in Fig. and then a plain glass. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. Being unbreakable. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. 2. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. 1. about a minute. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing.

long. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. A piece of canvas. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. 1. as shown at A.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. Corinth. Vt. Fig. holes bored in the end pieces. 16 in. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. These longer pieces can be made square. from the end piece of the chair. in diameter and 20 in. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. long. as shown in Fig. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. 1. Hastings. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . from the center of this dot draw a star. from the ends. or other stout cloth. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. in diameter and 40 in. known as rods and cones. long. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. 2. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. wide and 50 in. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. is to be used for the seat. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. as shown at B. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. while the dot will be in front of the other. Fig. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. If the star is in front of the left eye. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together.

which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances.-Contributed by P. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. A belt. O'Gara. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. A disk 1 in. 1. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. in thickness and 10 in. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. 2. as well as to operate other household machines. made from an ordinary sash cord. Auburn. per square inch. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. Cal. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. J. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. as shown in Fig. .The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. as shown in Fig.

then removing the object. it serves a very useful purpose. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. long. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. says the Scientific American. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. A simple. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. wide. or inconvenient to measure. screwing it through the nut.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. square for a support. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. fairly accurate. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. direction. . Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. leaving it shaped like a bench. 3/4 in. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. Bore a 1/4-in. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. thick and 2-1/2 in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. to the top of the bench. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. The part of a rotation of the bolt. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. will be the thickness of the object. divided by the number of threads to the inch. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. Cut out a piece from the block combination. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. and the construction is complete. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. Put the bolt in the hole. with as fine a thread as possible. and counting the threads in an inch of its length.

--Contributed by Lindsay McMillan.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. material 12 ft. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. The wheel should be open . yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Santa Maria. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. long. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. globe that has been thrown away as useless. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. beyond the end of the wood. Place a 3/4-in. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Bore a 3/4-in. Oal. piece of wood 12 ft. bolt in each hole. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. which show up fine at night. long is used for the center pole. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform.

A. A piece of brass 2 in. in diameter. B. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. long. wide and 1/8 in.-Contributed by A. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. Tex. The boards may be nailed or bolted. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. thick is used for the armature.Side and Top View or have spokes. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. long. A cross bar. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. P. thick. made of the same material. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. long. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. C. square and 3 or 4 in. to be operated by the magnet coil. The coil. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. wide and 1/8 in. Graham. L. Fort Worth. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. from the top end. from the ends. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. long. The spool . long with the upper or wider part 4 in. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. which should be 1/4 in. at the top and 4 in. 1/2 in. thick. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. and on its lower end a socket. O. of the ends with boards. C. pieces used for the spokes. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. at the bottom. is soldered. and the lower part 61/2 in. H and J. The width should be about 5-1/4 in.

--Contributed by Arthur D. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. R. for insulating the brass ferrule. which may be had by using German silver wire. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. and directly centering the holes H and J. Bradlev. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S.000 for irrigation work. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. At the bottom end of the frame.is about 2-1/2 in.E. is drilled. do it without any apparent effort. F. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. that holds the lower carbon. one without either rubber or metal end. by soldering. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. and place it against a door or window casing.000. S. This is a very neat trick if performed right. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. or a water rheostat heretofore described. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. and in numerous other like instances.--A. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. then with a firm. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. Mass. A. 2.J. 2 the hat hanging on it. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. Randolph. D and E. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. The armature. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. . S. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. long. C. B. 1. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. This tie can be used on grain sacks. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. A soft piece of iron. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. When you slide the pencil along the casing. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25.

When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. for the primary. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. in diameter and 2 in. hole in the center. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. B. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. about 1/8 in. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. 2. thick. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. The core of the coil. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. 1. mixed with water to form a paste. about 1 in. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. long. in diameter and 1/16 in. long and 1 in. may be made from a 3/8-in. D. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. and then 1. F. The coil ends are made from cardboard. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. from the core and directly opposite. with a 3/16-in. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. is connected to a flash lamp battery. S. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. for adjustment. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. The vibrator. in diameter. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. 1. Experiment with Heat [134] . leaving the projections as shown. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. S. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. about 3/16 in. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. for the secondary. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. in diameter. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. Fig. is constructed in the usual manner. Fig. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. The vibrator B.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. A. wide. C. About 70 turns of No. The switch.500 turns of No.

2 to fit the two holes. board. . An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. which is cut with two holes. brass plate. and then well clinched. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. which seemed to be insufficient. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. between the boards. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. The hasp. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. in an ordinary water glass. The lock. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. as shown in the sketch. The three screws were then put in the hasp. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. and the same distance inside of the new board. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. The tin is 4 in. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. as shown. long and when placed over the board. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. it laps down about 8 in. which is only 3/8-in. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. 1. 1. The knob on the dial extends out too far. lighted. 16 in. thick on the inside. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. with which to operate the dial. Fig. was to be secured by only three brass screws.Place a small piece of paper. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. wide.

but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. When the rear part is illuminated. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . square and 8-1/2 in. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. one in each division. but when the front part is illuminated. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. When making of wood. If the box is made large enough. which completely divides the box into two parts. the glass. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. clear glass as shown. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. not shiny. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. square and 10-1/2 in. black color. or in the larger size mentioned. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. and the back left dark. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. any article placed therein will be reflected in. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. high for use in window displays.

long and 1 ft. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. as shown at A in the sketch. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. . above the top of the tank. as it appears. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. When there is no electric current available. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. and with the proper illumination one is changed. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. When using as a window display. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. into the other. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. wide will be about the right size. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. alternately. a tank 2 ft. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. place the goods in one part and the price in the other..

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

wide. 1 in. each. with a length of 13 in. long. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. one for each side. lines gauged on each side of each. wide. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. however. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. This precipitate is then washed. 6 in. and 6 ft. as shown. then use a red-hot iron to finish. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. Iron sulphate. thick and 3 in. 2 ft. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. hole. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. A small platform. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. This hole must be continued . radius. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. using a 3/4-in. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. If a planing mill is near. and boring two holes with a 1-in. The 13-in. and a solution of iron sulphate added. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. square and 40 in. and a door in front. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. square. bore from each end. gauge for depth. two pieces 1-1/8 in. hole bored the full length through the center. O. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. is the green vitriol. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. high. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. The pieces can then be taken out. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. Three windows are provided. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. Shape the under sides first. dried and mixed with linseed oil. under sides together. is built on the front.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. bit. from the ground. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. Columbus. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. long. 5 ft. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. but with a length of 12 in. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. or ferrous sulphate.

Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. if shade is purchased. square and drawing a diagonal on each." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. For art-glass the metal panels are . Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. Directions will be found on the filler cans. The sketch shows one method of attaching. hole in each block. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. A better way. apply two coats of wax. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Electric globes--two. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Saw the two blocks apart. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. When the filler has hardened. three or four may be attached as shown.through the pieces forming the base. thick and 3 in. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. If the parts are to be riveted. When this is dry.

METAL SHADE . such as copper. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. as brass.The Completed Lamp cut out.Construction of Shade . the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.

The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . as shown in the sketch. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. as in ordinary devices. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. one way and 1/2 in. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. The arms holding the glass. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. Figure 1 shows the side. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. and Fig. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. 2 the front view of this stand. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. the other. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. the object and the background. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings.

Put the ring in place on the base. outside diameter. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. lies exactly in the plane of the coil.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. in diameter for a base. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. If the light becomes dim. thick 5/8-in. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. in diameter. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . and swinging freely. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. wide and 11 in. thus forming a 1/4-in. Cut another circular piece 11 in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. about 1-1/4 in. as shown in the sketch. uncork and recork again. channel in the circumference of the ring. and an inside diameter of 9 in. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. wide and 6-5/16 in. pointing north and south. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. An ordinary pocket compass. long. as shown in the cut. Before mounting the ring on the base. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. as it is very poisonous. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring.

600 . For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .715 . Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi.865 1. black oxide of copper. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. into these cylinders. The results given should be multiplied by 1. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. CC. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. of the top. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. Corresponding mirrors. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. in diameter and 8 in. are mounted on a base. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. from the second to the third. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. and mirrors. EE. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. 1 oz. B. to which a wire has been soldered for connections.182 . Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through.088 . and north of the Ohio river. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye.420 .375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country.500 . An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second.289 . are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. above the half can. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. Place on top the so- . AA.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils.

of pulverized campor. says Metal Worker. alcohol. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. University Park. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. 31 gr. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. the wheel will revolve in one direction. 62 gr. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. When renewing.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. which otherwise remains clear. Colo. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. In Fig. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. Put the solution in a long. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. always remove the oil with a siphon. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. little crystals forming in the liquid. then they will not rust fast. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. slender bottle. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air.

which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. on the under side of the cork. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. A paper-fastener box. Lloyd Enos. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. floating on a solution. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. Solder in the side of the box . The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. will allow the magnet to point north and south. If zinc and carbon are used. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. Attach to the wires. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. --Contributed by C. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. about 1-1/4 in. If two of them are floating on the same solution. If zinc and copper are used. This is used in place of the spoon. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other.

thick. of No. .Contributed by J. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. Put ends. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. B. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. 10 wire about 10 in. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. as shown in Fig. F.in. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. H. Wind evenly about 2 oz. G--No. can be made of oak. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. long. Take a small piece of soft iron. 1. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. long that has about 1/4-in. piece of 1/4-in. If the hose is not a tight fit. A circular piece of cardboard. 14 wire will do. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends.1-in. E. The spring should be about 1 in. of wire on each end extending from the coil. is made from a piece of No. C. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. hole. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. The bottom of the box. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. brass tubing. or made with a little black paint. and then solder on the cover. On one side bend the wire around the tube B.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. and on the other around the glass tube. Thos. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. The standard. C. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. D. Use a board 1/2. 1/2. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. long. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. glass tubing . To this standard solder the supporting wire. wide and 2-1/2 in. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. long for the base and fasten the coil to it.in. A. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. Bore holes for binding-posts.not shorter than 18 in. stained and varnished. D. to it. C. Rhamstine. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. away. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . 3 in. 1-1/4 in. A. E. one on each side of the board. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. The base. D. B. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. wide and 6 in.

The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. D. The iron plunger. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. long. E. long. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. J. N.--Contributed by R. Wis. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. four hinges. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. . Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. 1. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. from the right hand. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. Cuba. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place.of the coil. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft.--Contributed by Edward M. of No. about 1 in. two pieces 2 ft. When the glass becomes soft. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. of mercury will be sufficient. 3. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. 3 in. 2. long are used for the legs. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. 3-in. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. making a support as shown in Fig. 5. canvas. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. is drawn nearer to the coil. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. About 1-1/2 lb. long. long. Milwaukee. Y. long. Teasdale. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. Smith. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. of 8-oz. in diameter. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested.

When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in.. 5. Keys. The tube now must be filled completely. Can. expelling all the air. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. small aperture in the long tube. 3. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. of vacuum at the top.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. holding in the left hand. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. Take 1/2 in. Break off the piece of glass. thus leaving a. 2. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. Seal the remaining 1/2 in.. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. 4. leaving 8 in. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. 6. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. --Contributed by David A. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. Toronto. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. Measure 8 in. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. long. This tube as described will be 8 in. Fig.

All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. with each projection 3-in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. thick. 7. long. 9 in. 6. wide and 12 in. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. 3. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. long. thick. FIG. 1. 2. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. wood screws. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. thick. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. thick. and 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. wide and 5 ft. wide and 5 ft. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. A crosspiece 3/4-in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. as in Fig.6 -. The large pulley is about 14 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. long. thick. 1 in. cut in the shape shown in Fig. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. 4. from the end of same.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. but yellow pine is the best. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. 3 in. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. 3 in. in diameter. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. Four blocks 1/4 in. 1 in. These are bent and nailed. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. long. 4 in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. material 2 in. Fig. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. joint be accurately put together. wide and 3 in. This forms a slot. as shown in Fig. and the single projection 3/4 in. 5. wide and 5 ft.

The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Manhattan. R. . The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. says Photography. Water 1 oz. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. above the runner level. by 1-in. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Welsh. first removing the crank. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Kan. attach runners and use it on the ice. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. --Contributed by C. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string.

Printing is carried rather far. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. Leominster. as shown in Fig. of water. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. also. Treasdale. and very much cheaper.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. --Contributed by Wallace C. from an ordinary clamp skate. 1 oz. 1. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. Newton. Mass. The print is washed. 3. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. 2. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. --Contributed by Edward M. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. . These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. as shown in Fig. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr.

F. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. 1. Then. high for rabbits.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. and to the bottom. wide. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. Fig. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. too. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. A. 2. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. wide and 4 in. hole. Va. and 3 ft. fasten a 2-in. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. high. 1 ft. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. The thread is broken off at the . --Contributed by H. extending the width of the box. with about 1/8-in. Church. from one end. long. Place a 10-in. which represents the back side of the door. Alexandria. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. 1-1/2 ft. say. Fig. as shown in the sketch. Take two glass tubes. square piece. causing the door to swing back and up. about 10 in. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. 1. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. and bend them as shown in the sketch. The swing door B.

On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. in size. plates.. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. high and 12 in. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. camera and wish to use some 4. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. shorter at each end. and go in the holder in the same way. black surfaced if possible. A and B. Jr. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. wide and 5 in.by 7-in. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. shorter. Take two pieces of pasteboard. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. long. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. 1. but cut it 1/4 in. This opening. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. says Camera Craft. long. 10 in. C. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. 1 in. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. as shown in Fig.by 5-in. to be used as a driving pulley. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. being 1/8 in. trolley cars. wide.proper place to make a small hole. from the edge on each side of these openings. D. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. Fig. 3. Paste a piece of strong black paper. and exactly 5 by 7 in. Crilly. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. inside of the opening. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. Fig. -Contributed by William M. B. say 8 in. Out two rectangular holes. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. wide. in size. horses and dogs. Cut an opening in the other piece. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. Chicago. 2. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. automobiles. .

The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. long and 6 in. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. The needle will then point north and south. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. wide will be required. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. in diameter. A cell of this kind can easily be made. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill.. if it has previously been magnetized. into which the dog is harnessed. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. making a .in. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles.

Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. one that will hold about 1 qt. long which are copper plated. in diameter and 6 in. with narrow flanges. beeswax melted together. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. pull out the wire as needed. 1/4 lb. of rosin and 2 oz. filter. under the spool in the paraffin. of water. when the paraffin is melted. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. Form a 1/2-in. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. and a notch between the base and the pan. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. for a connection. sal ammoniac. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. 1 lb. 3/4 lb. Place the pan on the stove. in which P is the pan. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. pine. File the rods to remove the copper plate. fodder. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. of the top. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. F is a spool. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder.in. says Electrician and Mechanic. only the joints. This makes the wire smooth. leaving about 1/2-in. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T.watertight receptacle. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. zinc oxide. Pack the paste in. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. . fuel and packing purposes. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. of the plate at one end. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. plaster of paris. short time. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. A is a block of l-in. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. B is a base of 1 in. Do not paint any surface. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it.

At least it is amusing. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Ohio. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. let them try it. grip the stick firmly in one hand. long. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. but the thing would not move at all. as in the other movement. by the Hindoos in India. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. and one friend tells me that they were . Enlarge the hole slightly. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Toledo. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. while for others it will not revolve at all. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. Make a hole through the center of this one arm.. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. from vexation. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Very few can make it turn both ways at will." which created much merriment. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. g. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. and therein is the trick. square and about 9 in. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Try it and see. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. 2. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. If any of your audience presume to dispute. thus producing two different vibrations. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. and he finally. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. for some it will turn one way. or think they can do the same. and then. for others the opposite way.

A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. by means of a center punch. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. 3. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. A square stick with notches on edge is best. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. no rotation resulted. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. and I think the results may be of interest. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. If the pressure was upon an edge. 2. 5. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. 4. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. m. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. Thus a circular or . that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. and. 6. gave the best results. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. Speeds between 700 and 1. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. To operate. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. secondly. 7. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. p. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. the rotation may be obtained. rotation was obtained. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin.100 r. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. The experiments were as follows: 1. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained.

if the pressure is from the left. --Contributed by G. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. a piece of wire and a candle. forming a handle for carrying. it will be clockwise.D. Washington. at first. Ph. is driven violently away. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. .elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. Sloan. the upper portion is. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. G. so far as can be seen from the photographs. Lloyd. and the height of the fall about 6 in. unwetted by the liquid. Duluth. D. or greasy. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. --Contributed by M. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. Minn. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise.. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. A. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. and the resultant "basket splash. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can.. C. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. A wire is tied around the can. as shown. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. as shown. long. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. 1. Each wheel is 1/4 in." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. axle. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . hole drilled in the center. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. with a 1/16-in. flange and a 1/4-in. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. thick and 1 in. in diameter. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. as shown in Fig. about 2-5/8 in. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin.

In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. The current. and the locomotive is ready for running. or main part of the frame. which must be 110 volt alternating current.brass. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. 4. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. holes 1 in. If the ends are to be soldered. 6. 2. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch.50. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. 2. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. The motor is now bolted. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. is made from a piece of clock spring. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. as shown in Fig. 1 from 1/4-in. bottom side up. is made from brass. wide and 16 in. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. San Antonio. 3. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. --Contributed by Maurice E. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. Fuller. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. 5. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. are shown in Fig. The first piece. Fig. Texas. with cardboard 3 in. each in its proper place. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . long. of No. wood. These ends are fastened together. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. Fig. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. A trolley. This will save buying a track. as shown in Fig. bent as shown. The parts. put together complete. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. 3. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. lamp in series with the coil. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. 3/4 in. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig.

Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. as shown in Fig. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. and as this end . This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Cincinnati. O. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. 2. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. but do not heat the center.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. 1. When cold treat the other end in the same way. The quarter will not go all the way down. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. and holes drilled in them. 3. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Fig. Fig 1. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. then continue to tighten much more. the length of a paper clip. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts.

which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. has finished a cut for a tooth. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. or should the lathe head be raised. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. and adjusted . which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. A pair of centers are fitted. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. When the trick is to be performed. In the sketch. When the cutter A. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. or apparent security of the knot. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. 2 and 1 respectively. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post.

When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. (5. --Contributed by Howard S. swing lathe. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. if four parts are to be alike. 1. (2. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. In this manner gears 3 in. dividing it into as many parts as desired. Bunker. blotter back. holding it in place with the left hand. tea cosey. The frame holding the mandrel. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. above the surface. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously.) Place the paper design on the leather and. gentleman's card case or bill book. twisted around itself and soldered. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick .) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. Y. Second row: -Two book marks.) Make on paper the design wanted. An ordinary machine will do. watch fob ready for fastenings. Bott. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. if but two parts. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. (3. coin purse. (6. tea cosey. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. about 1-1/2 in. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. 2. Brooklyn. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. note book. (1. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. trace the outline. book mark. draw center lines across the required space. Make free-hand one quarter of the design.to run true. long. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. N. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. --Contributed by Samuel C. such as brass or marble. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. and a nut pick. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. at the same time striking light. Fold over along these center lines. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. or one-half of the design. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. When connecting to batteries. lady's belt bag. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. Fig. (4. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks).) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. lady's card case. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use.

some heavy rubber hose.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle. Secure .

pull it through the cork to one side or the other. D.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water.C. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle.. A. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. and push it through a cork. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. B. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. If the needle is not horizontal. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. into which fit a small piece of tube. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. a distance of 900 miles. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. where it condenses. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. from Key West. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. Florida. C. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. The electrodes are made . Thrust a pin. and bore a hole through the center.

In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. wide and 20 ft. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. long. --Contributed by Edwin L. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. use 10-ft. several strips 1/2 in. take the glider to the top of a hill. wide and 3 ft. thick. 2 in. by 3/4 in. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. wide and 4 ft. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. 1. 2 arm sticks 1 in. Powell. long. as shown in Fig. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig.in. The operator can then land safely and . as shown in Fig. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. long. thick. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. 1. 2. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. long for the body of the operator. 1/2. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. free from knots. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. If 20-ft. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. slacken speed and settle. thick. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. C.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. wide and 4 ft long. long. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. both laterally and longitudinally. or flying-machine. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. thick. 16 piano wire. 1-1/4 in. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. thick. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. square and 8 ft long. lumber cannot be procured. 3. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. apart and extend 1 ft. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. 1-1/2 in. 2. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. using a high resistance receiver. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. wide and 4 ft. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. To make a glide. 3/4 in. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. 1. D. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. lengths and splice them. which is tacked to the front edge. as shown in Fig. 12 uprights 1/2 in. and also to keep it steady in its flight. Connect as shown in the illustration. long. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. wide and 3 ft. Four long beams 3/4 in. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. All wiring is done with No. Washington. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires.

gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.gently on his feet. Great care should be . Glides are always made against the wind. but this must be found by experience. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Of course. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly.

exercised in making landings. 1. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. as shown in Fig. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. a creature of Greek mythology. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. When heated a little. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. M. half man and half horse. 2. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. which causes the dip in the line. Olson. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. --Contributed by L. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. Bellingham.

long. at the other. making it 2-1/2 in. outside the box. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. will complete the material list. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. square. about the size of door screen wire. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. of small rubber tubing. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. The light from the . first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. long and about 3/8 in. 14 in. about the size of stove pipe wire. this will cost about 15 cents. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. in diameter. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. a piece of brass or steel wire. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows.

while others will fail time after time. as shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. 1. --Photo by M. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Hunting. M. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. 2. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. . The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. O. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. This is very simple when you know how. as shown in Fig. Dayton. If done properly the card will flyaway. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end.

place the other two. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. closing both hands quickly. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. as described. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. This game is played by five persons. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. as before. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. When the desired shape has been obtained." or the Chinese students' favorite game. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. then put it on the hatpin head. Cool in water and dry. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. If a certain color is to be more prominent. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. as shown. hold the lump over the flame. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick.

A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. passing through neutralizing brushes. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. distribute electric charges . Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. or more in width. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. these sectors. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass.

and of a uniform thickness. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. to which insulating handles . RR. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. The plates are trued up. at the other. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. and pins inserted and soldered. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. The two pieces.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. after they are mounted. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. C C. 1 in. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. 2. Fig. and this should be done before cutting the circle. 3. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. Two solid glass rods. and 4 in. in diameter. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. as shown in Fig. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. material 7 in. turned wood pieces. The drive wheels. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. in diameter. 3/4 in. 1-1/2 in. long. D. in diameter and 15 in. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. are made from solid. 3. long. The fork part is 6 in. in diameter. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. free from wrinkles. from about 1/4-in. and the outer end 11/2 in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. or teeth. GG. wide. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. as shown in Fig. long and the shank 4 in. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. in diameter. The plates. long and the standards 3 in. 1. in diameter. The collectors are made. brass tubing and the discharging rods. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. EE. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. Fig. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. 4. in diameter. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. the side pieces being 24 in. are made from 7/8-in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. These pins. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. Two pieces of 1-in. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. wide at one end. close grained wood turned in the shape shown.

The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. Lloyd Enos. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. in diameter. Colo. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. and the work was done by themselves. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. 12 ft. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. D. wide and 22 ft.. Colorado City. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. one having a 2-in. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . KK. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. which are bent as shown. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. long. ball and the other one 3/4 in. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates.are attached. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. --Contributed by C.

Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. deep. pens . Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. string together. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. yet such a thing can be done. and bore a hole 1/2 in. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. using a 1-in. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. bit. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. The key will drop from the string. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand.is a good one. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. as at A.

and pencils. 23 gauge. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. 9.. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. 3. 5. also trace the decorative design. stamp the background promiscuously. 2. using a nail filed to chisel edge. etc. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. flat and round-nosed pliers. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. and the third one 1/4 in. 7. Inside this oblong. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. extra metal on each of the four sides. above the metal. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. about 3/4-in. sharp division between background and design. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. When the stamping is completed. slim screw. two spikes. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. etc. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. Having determined the size of the tray. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. Use . then the other side. they make attractive little pieces to have about. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. Raise the ends. inside the first on all. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. very rapid progress can be made. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. They are easily made. 8. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. unless it would be the metal shears. 6. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. file. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. above the work and striking it with the hammer. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. 4. This is to make a clean. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. or cigar ashes.. Proceed as follows: 1. The second oblong was 3/4 in. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. inside the second on all. Draw one-half the design free hand.

Bradley All machinists use mathematics. 6. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. 7. second fingers. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. The eyes. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. In the first numbering. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . 8. 9. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. third fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. and the effect will be most pleasing. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. first fingers.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. 10. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. and fourth fingers.

or the product of 6 times 6. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. .. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. above 20 times 20. there are no fingers above. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. Still. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. thumbs. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. the product of 12 times 12. and the six lower fingers as six tens. 12. viz. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. At a glance you see four tens or 40. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. 2 times 2 equals 4. or numbers above 10. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. 600.. above 15 times 15 it is 200. etc. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. or 60. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12.. first fingers. which would be 16. as high as you want to go. 400. renumber your fingers.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. etc. Put your thumbs together. or the product of 8 times 9. etc. but being simple it saves time and trouble. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. 25 times 25. which would be 70. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. 11. In the second numbering. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. which tens are added. if we wish. Let us multiply 12 by 12. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. Two times one are two. or 80.

Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. . Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. the inversion takes place against his will. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. first finger 17. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. lastly. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. etc. the lump sum to add. being 80). Take For example 18 times 18. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. or from above or from below. further. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. the value which the upper fingers have. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. in the case of a nearsighted person. And the lump sum to add. and. first fingers 22.. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. 3. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. adding 400 instead of 100. however. The inversion and reversion did not take place. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. about a vertical axis. which is the half-way point between the two fives. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. the value of the upper fingers being 20. the revolution seems to reverse. whether the one described in second or third numbering. 75 and 85. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. 21. It takes place also. beginning the thumbs with 16. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. 8. For example. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. Proceed as in the second lumbering. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. 7. 2. or what. and so on. thirties. when he removes his spectacles. as one might suppose. For figures ending in 6.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. thumbs. not rotation. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. forties. at the will of the observer. any two figures between 45 and 55. twenties.

when he knows which direction is right. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. A flat slide valve was used. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. The ports were not easy to make. as . The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. the other appearance asserts itself. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. tee. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. sometimes the point towards him. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. Looking at it in semidarkness. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. and putting a cork on the point. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances.

The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. pipe 10 in. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. Ill. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. across and 1/2 in. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. if continued too long without proper treatment. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. saw off a section of a broom handle. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. and make in one end a hollow. deep. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. bottom side up. in diameter. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. . Fasten the block solidly. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. about 2 in. apart. secure a piece of No. as in a vise. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. pipe. The steam chest is round. H. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. across the head. such as is shown in the illustration. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in.. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. While this engine does not give much power. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. Beating copper tends to harden it and. If nothing better is at hand.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. The eccentric is constructed of washers. Next take a block of wood. Kutscher. -Contributed by W. it is easily built. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. inexpensive. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. The tools are simple and can be made easily. Springfield.

is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. To produce color effects on copper. and. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. Hay. especially when the object is near to the observer. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. C. the other to the left. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. S. O. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. This process is called annealing. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat.will cause the metal to break. Camden. as it softens the metal. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. To overcome this hardness. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. --Contributed by W. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. Vinegar.

with the stereograph. and lies to the right on the picture. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. diameter. however. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. So with the stereograph. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. disappears fully." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. although they pass through the screen. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. not two mounted side by side. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. that for the right. the left eye sees through a blue screen. as for instance red and green.stereoscope. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. because. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. The red portions of the picture are not seen. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. they must be a very trifle apart. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. But they seem black. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. and without any picture. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. because of the rays coming from them. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. In order to make them appear before the card. the one for the left eye being blue. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. only the orange rays may pass through. It is just as though they were not there. orange. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. from the stereograph. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. the further from the card will the composite image appear. in the proper choice of colors. would serve the same purpose. The further apart the pictures are. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. while both eyes together see a white background. . it.

Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. or the middle of the bottle. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. in diameter. San Francisco. thick. etc. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. A No. 12 gauge wire. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. Cal.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. Place a NO. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. in the shape of a crank. wireless. wide and 1 in. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. 1/4 in. The weight of the air in round . This should only be bored about half way through the block. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. long and a hole drilled in each end. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol.

The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. a glass tube 1/8 in. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. and a slow fall. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. The 4 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. if you choose. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. square. but before attempting to put in the mercury. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. square. inside diameter and 2 in. Only redistilled mercury should be used.. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. long. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather.6) 1 in. wide and 4 in. But if a standard barometer is not available. high. . In general. if accurately constructed. thick. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. or a column of mercury (density 13. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. long. will calibrate itself. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. pine 3 in. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. long. high. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. Before fastening the scale. 34 ft. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. wide and 40 in. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. or. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch.numbers is 15 lb. high. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. the instrument. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. 30 in. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. the contrary. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. a bottle 1 in. internal diameter and about 34 in.

the size of the outside of the bottle. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. 5. which is slipped quickly over the end. Number the pieces 1. 1. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. a cover from a baking powder can will do. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. 2. wide and 10 in. Mark out seven 1-in. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . long. 3. 6 and 7. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. Procure a metal can cover. and place them as shown in Fig. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. thick.

3. 2 over No. 3 over No. Cape May Point. To make such a tent. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. Move 8-Jump No. shaped like Fig. 6 into No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 2 over No. procure unbleached tent duck. Move 7-Jump No. in diameter. 6 in. 2. Woolson. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. each 10 ft. 1 into No. Move 13-Move No. 3. Move 12-Jump No. 1. 2's place. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 6. 5 over No. 1 to No. 2. 7 over No. Move 14-Jump No. 7. 5 over No. 6 over No. 7's place. 5's place. L. 6 to No. l over No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 3 to the center. Move 9-Jump No. 7 over No. 5. Move 15-Move No. using checkers for men. 5's place. Move 5-Jump No. 6.-Contributed by W. 3. Move 3-Move No. N. which is the very best material for the purpose. long and 2 ft. 2 . Move 4-Jump No. as shown in Fig. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. Move ll-Jump No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 1. 3 into No. This can be done on a checker board. Move 2-Jump No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. Move 6-Move No.J. Make 22 sections. Move 10-Move No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 2's place.

Fig. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. Use blocks. Pa. 5) stuck in the ground. fill with canvas edging. as in Fig. Have the tent pole 3 in. wide by 12 in. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Emsworth. Punch holes in the brass in . 5. about 9 in. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. in diameter.J. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. In raising the tent. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. --Contributed by G. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. from the top. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. 2. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. round galvanized iron. high. to a smooth board of soft wood. 6-in. diameter. long. 6. These are ventilators. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Fig. will do. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. leaving the rest for an opening. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. 3 in. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. As shown in the sketch. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. long and 4 in.in. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. made in two sections. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. wide at the bottom. Tress. added. Nail a thin sheet of brass. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass.. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. 9 by 12 in. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. After transferring the design to the brass. wide at the bottom. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. 2 in.

remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. . then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. The pattern is traced as before. cut out the brass on the outside lines. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. but before punching the holes. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. excepting the 1/4-in. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. apart. around the outside of the pattern. It will not. bend into shape. Corr. When the edges are brought together by bending. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped.the spaces around the outlined figures. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. Chicago. When all the holes are punched. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty.

so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. partially filled with cream. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. or. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. Stevens. allowing 2 ft. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. --Contributed by Geo. A 6-in. better still. Que. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. If a wheel is selected. between which is placed the fruit jar. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. or less. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. A cast-iron ring.however. Oregon. --Contributed by H. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft.. or center on which the frame swings. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. These pipes are . Dunham. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. Badger. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. pipe. pipe is used for the hub. Mayger. G. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. E.

and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. bent to the desired circle. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe clamps. pipe. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. An extra wheel 18 in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in.

and dropped on the table. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. and the guide withdrawn. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. as shown in Fig. 1. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. The performer. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. 3. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. which was placed in an upright position. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. while doing this. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated.

Mo. Colo. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. in diameter on another piece of tin. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. it requires no expensive condensing lens. --Contributed by H. F. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. Denver. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. -Contributed by C. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. 2. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. D. The box can be made of selected oak or .make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Harkins. Louis. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. 1. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. first. St. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. and second. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. White. in a half circle. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig.

The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. represented by the dotted line in Fig. high and must . 2. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. An open space 4 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. fit into the runners. 3-1/2 in. and. wide and 5 in. from each end of the outside of the box. but not tight. wide and 6-1/2 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. 1. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. Two or three holes about 1 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. This will be 3/4 in.mahogany. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. If a camera lens is used. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. as shown in Fig. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. focal length. high and 11 in. long and should be placed vertically. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. wide. wide by 5 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. from each end. The door covering this hole in the back. long. and 2 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. wide and 6-1/2 in. AA. 5-1/2 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. long. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in.

or any other metal receptacle of good proportions." etc. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. West Toledo. C. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. Ohio. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. the article may be propped up . Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. provided it is airtight. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. calling this February. and so on. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. Bradley. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia.. then the second knuckle will be March. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. and extending the whole height of the lantern. as it requires an airtight case. April. 1.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. calling that knuckle January. --Contributed by Chas. June and November. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. This process is rather a difficult one. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens.

. Pour in a little turpentine. Schenectady. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. and set aside for half a day. but waxed. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. Crawford. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. 1 and 2. running small motors and lighting small lamps. fruit jars are required. H. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. Y. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. and the lead 24 sq. --Contributed by J. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. 2. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. one of lead and one of aluminum. In each place two electrodes. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. In both Fig. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. in. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. N. 1. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. The top of a table will do. in. giving it an occasional stir. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. or suspended by a string. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. taking care to have all the edges closed. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. the lid or cover closed.with small sticks. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush.

Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. Cleveland. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. you remove the glass. He. This trick is very simple. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. which you warm with your hands. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . You have an understanding with some one in the company. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. he throws the other. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. as well as others. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. After a few seconds' time.. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. as you have held it all the time. O.

it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. in diameter in the center. J. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Crocker. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. but in making one. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. . Victor. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. put it under the glass. Be sure that this is the right one. if any snags are encountered.take the handiest one. Pull the ends quickly.-Contributed by E. near a partition or curtain. on a table. but by being careful at shores. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Colo.

and is removed after the ribs are in place. wide and 12 ft. one 6 in. wide unbleached muslin.. long. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. by 15 ft. Both ends are mortised. 50 ft. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 1 in. by 16 ft. is 14 ft. for the bow. 4 outwales. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. wide 12-oz. are as follows: 1 keelson. 3 in. from the bow and the large one. for cockpit frame. of 1-yd. 2 and braced with an iron band. 9 ft. 2 gunwales. 1/4 in. 8 yd. 2 in. 1. wide. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. 3 in. for the stern piece. wide and 12 ft. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . drilled and fastened with screws. 11 yd. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. by 2 in. 3 and 4. of rope. 1 in.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. long. Paint. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. clear pine. 8 in. ducking. 1 piece. 1 piece. selected pine. by 10 ft. 1 mast.. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. Fig. square by 16 ft. and fastened with screws. 14 rib bands. 1 in. 7 ft. by 8 in. by 16 ft. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. by 12 in. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. 1/8 in. and the other 12 in. the smaller is placed 3 ft. from each end to 1 in. screws and cleats. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. from the stern. and. by 2 in. as illustrated in the engraving. at the ends. 1 in. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. long. long. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. apart. thick and 3/4 in. The keelson. of 1-1/2-yd. for center deck braces. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds.

but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. long is well soaked in water. length of canvas is cut in the center. 1 in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. A piece of oak. is cut to fit under the top boards. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. in diameter through the block. thick and 1/2 in. 1 in. Before making the deck. A seam should be made along the center piece. A 6-in. The block is fastened to the keelson. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. 3-1/2 ft. 1/4 in. from the bow.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. They are 1 in. Fig. 9. A block of pine. Fig. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. 5. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. apart. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. gunwales and keelson. and fastened to them with bolts. also. long. wide and 14 in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. wide and 3 ft. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. thick. 4 in. Braces. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. a piece 1/4 in. The deck is not so hard to do. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. Figs. long. is a cube having sides 6 in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. screws. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. thick 1-1/2 in. wide. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. doubled. wood screws. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. The 11-yd. wide and 24 in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. This block. 7 and 8. These are put in 6 in. long. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. . 6. corner braces. 6 in. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. The trimming is wood. thick. 6 and 7. wide. thick and 12 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces.

A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. is 6 in. 11. The house will accommodate 20 families. --Contributed by O. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. thick by 2 in. wide at one end and 12 in. Tronnes. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. at the other. 10 with a movable handle. in diameter and 10 ft. long. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. wide. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. long. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. each 1 in. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. E. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. apart in the muslin. A strip 1 in. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. . The mast has two side and one front stay. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The sail is a triangle. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. Fig. Wilmette. 12. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. Ill. The keel.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. are used for the boom and gaff.

into two 14-in. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. Wilmette. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. long. thick. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. 2 in. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. wide. as shown in Fig.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. and the other 18 in. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. wide and 30 in. 2-1/2 in. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. 1. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. 4. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. 1 yd. five 1/2-in. 2-1/2 in. 3. Bevel both sides of the pieces. flat-headed screws. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. square. flat headed screws. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. with the ends and the other side rounding. thick. E. wide. Ill. Fig. one 11-1/2 in. Tronnes. thick. 5. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. 2. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. and 3 ft. --Contributed by O. wide and 2 ft. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. long. about 5/16 in. Take this and fold it over . flat on one side. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. long. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. Cut the maple. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. long and five 1/2-in.

Make a double stitch all around the edge. After the glue. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. C. thick. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. wide and 5 in. B. leaving a small opening at one corner. --Contributed by W. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. The bag is then turned inside out. long. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. wide . St. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. Figs. The front. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. and the four outside edges. C. long. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. 1. 5 from 1/16-in. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. are rounded. Another piece. long. is set. square. of each end unwound for connections. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. as well as the edges around the opening. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. 3/8 in. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. long. soaked with water and blown up. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. wide and 2-3/4 in. then centered. and make a turn in each end of the wires. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. E. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. 3 in. 1-1/4 in. The sides are 3-1/4 in. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. long. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. wide and 4-1/2 in. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. wide and 3 ft. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. long. the mechanical parts can be put together. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. About 1/2 in. If carefully and neatly made. D. thick and 3 in. Glue a three cornered piece. Cut another piece of board. but can be governed by circumstances. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. Wind three layers of about No. this square box is well sandpapered. wide and 2-1/2 in. A. about 3/8 in.once. F. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. Fig. Bliss. 6-1/2 in. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. square. 3-1/4 in. A. When the glue is set. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. wide and 6-3/4 in. the top and bottom. pieces 2-5/8 in. long. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. thick. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. and take care that the pieces are all square. forming an eye for a screw. wide and 6-1/2 in. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. 2 and 3. long. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. Louis. Mo. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in.

This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. C. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. Fig. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. I. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. L. in diameter. The base is a board 5 in. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. the same size as the first. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. 5-1/2 in. 1/16 in. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. long. and as the part Fig. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. 4. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. wide and 2-1/2 in. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. board. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. hole is fastened to the pointer. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. F. long. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. and fasten in place. 4 is not movable. Fig. showing a greater defection of the pointer. The end of the polar axis B. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply.S. so it will just clear the tin. the part carrying the pointer moves away. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. Yorkshire. The resistance is now adjusted to show . When the current flows through the coil. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. Place the tin. 1/4 in. Chapman. G. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center .R.and 2-5/8 in. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. from one end. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling.A. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. R. --Contributed by George Heimroth. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. Another strip of tin. bored in the back. Like poles repel each other. 4. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. Richmond Hill. from the spindle. thick. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. These wires should be about 1 in. A pointer 12 in. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. W. Austwick Hall. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. that has the end turned with a shoulder. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. 5. and the farther apart they will be forced. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. wide and 9 in. long. The stronger the current.

To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. The following formula will show how this may be found.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. 30 min. 1881. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. and vice . mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. A. shows mean siderial. 10 min. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. say Venus at the date of observation. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. M. at 9 hr. thus: 9 hr. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. 10 min.

The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. . or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. New Haven. or. Hall. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. owing to the low internal resistance.f. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Conn. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances.m. if one of these cannot be had. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. and then verify its correctness by measurement. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. --Contributed by Robert W.

consisted of an old shaft with a hole . of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. especially for cooking fish. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. 1.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. of alum and 4 oz. 3/8 in. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. put the fish among the ashes. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. leaves or bark. 1-3/4 in. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. fresh grass. long. as shown in the accompanying picture. arsenic to every 20 lb. thick. and heap the glowing coals on top. Fig. Wet paper will answer. When the follower is screwed down. cover up with the same. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. inside diameter and about 5 in. Then. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. The boring bar. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in.

The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . Two pieces of 3/4 -in. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. pipe. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. when they were turned in. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. and threaded on both ends. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. fastened with a pin. thick. pipe.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. about 1/2 in. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel.

The rough frame. was then finished on an emery wheel. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. Iowa. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. Fig. labor and time. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. This plate also supports the rocker arms. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated.valve stems. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. Fig. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. bent in the shape of a U. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. square iron. Clermont. Fig. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. long. 5. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. the float is too high. wide. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. a jump spark would be much better. 2. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. 4. as the one illustrated herewith. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. then it should be ground to a fit. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. however. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. and which gave such satisfactory results. If the valve keeps dripping. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. It . A 1-in. 30 in. 3. but never one which required so little material. thick and 3 in.

A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. 3/4 in. in fact. with no trees or buildings in the way. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. so it must be strong enough. --Contributed by C. square and 5 ft. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. in the ground with 8 ft. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. W. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. strong clear material only should be employed. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in." little and big. This makes an easy adjustment. long. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. square. square and 2 ft. The seats are regular swing boards. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. being held in position by spikes as shown. and. strengthened by a piece 4 in. hole bored in the post. no matter what your age or size may be. long. It looks like a toy. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. Nieman. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. and a little junk. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. in diameter and 15 in. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. If it is to be used for adults. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. The crosspiece is 2 in. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. Use a heavy washer at the head. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. long. butting against short stakes. The illustration largely explains itself. from the center. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. 12 ft. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. A malleable iron bolt. long is the pivot." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. completes the merry-go-round. timber. extending above. A 3/4 -in. from all over the neighborhood. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. set 3 ft. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. for the "motive power" to grasp. As there is no bracing. rope is not too heavy. The upright is a 4 by 4-in.

The backbone is flat. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. Both have large reels full of . light and strong. Having placed the backbone in position. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. 2. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. To wind the string upon the reel. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. square. A reel is next made.the fingers. 4. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. 1/4 by 3/32 in. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. a wreck. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. and sent to earth. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. and 18 in. These ends are placed about 14 in.2 emery. The bow is now bent. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. long. away. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. then it is securely fastened. as shown in Fig. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. 1. if nothing better is at hand. one for the backbone and one for the bow. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel.

Bunker. the balance.string. or glass-covered string. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. First. Brooklyn. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. common packing thread. Y. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. he pays out a large amount of string. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Newburyport. Moody. Mass. N. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string.-Contributed by S. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The handle end is held down with a staple. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. C. often several hundred yards of it. --Contributed' by Harry S. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. If the second kite is close enough. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw.

Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Vt. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Hastings. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. then a dust protector. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. such as mill men use. lengths (Fig. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. make the pad as shown in the illustration. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. cutting the circular piece into quarters. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. square (Fig. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Corinth. If the table is round. then draw the string up tight. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. --Contributed by Earl R. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. length of 2-in. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. must be attached to a 3-ft. each the size of half the table top. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought.

Moisten the . from E to F. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. trace the design carefully on the leather. Wharton. G to H. Oakland.. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Use a smooth. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. Calif. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side..-Contributed by H. 16-1/4 in. which spoils the leather effect. from C to D.9-1/4 in. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. . not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. hard pencil. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. 17-1/2 in. 2-1/4 in. trace this or some other appropriate design on it..Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. E. 6-1/4 in. and E to G. Make the other half circular disk in the same way.

get something with which to make a lining. Cut it the same size as the bag. with the rounded sides of the tools. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. and lace through the holes. also lines A-G. apart. wide. and E-G. if not more than 1 in. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Trace the openings for the handles. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. about 1/8 in. place both together and with a leather punch. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. and corresponding lines on the other side. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. I made this motor . Now cut narrow thongs. To complete the bag. G-J. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. is taken off at a time. H-B.

--Contributed by J. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. 1. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. 2-1/4 in. 24 gauge magnet wire. Pasadena. B. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. Shannon. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. each being a half circle. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. Calif. . in length. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. D. long. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. 1. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. of No. 2. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. as shown in Fig.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. iron.M.

pasted in alternately. 1. from the bottom end. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . The widest part of each gore is 16 in. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. and the gores cut from these. near the center. are the best kind to make.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. The gores for a 6-ft. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. balloon should be about 8 ft. high. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far.

The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. somewhat larger in size. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. after which the paint will adhere permanently. The boat soon attains considerable speed. so it will hang as shown in Fig. As the boat is driven forward by this force. in diameter. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . 3. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. The steam. using about 1/2-in.widest point. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. as shown in Fig. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. --Contributed by R. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. 4. lap on the edges. Staunton. leaving a long wake behind. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. A. Fig. 1. After washing. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. as shown in Fig. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. B. In starting the balloon on its flight. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. 2. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. saturating it thoroughly. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. If the gores have been put together right. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. coming through the small pipe A. 5. These are to hold the wick ball. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. In removing grease from wood. E. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. leaving the solution on over night.

The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. wide by 6 in. if you have several copies of the photograph. as is shown in Fig. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. Second. apart on these lines. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . Third. long. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. In using either of the two methods described.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. high and 8 in. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. long and each provided with a handle. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The blocks are about 6 in. in bowling form. There are three ways of doing this: First. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. 1.

The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. 2. N. Y. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. thick. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . --Contributed by John A. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. Hellwig. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. not pointed down at the road at an angle. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Fig.Fig. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. being careful not to dent the metal. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Albany. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Rinse the plate in cold water.

A. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. with a set screw. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . through which passes the set screw S. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. B. A circular piece of wood. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. These corner irons are also screwed to. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. 1 Fig. 6 in. Corner irons. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Va. Richmond. and not produce the right sound. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. 5 in. S. and Fig. --Contributed by R. Break off the frame. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. A. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. Paine. in diameter. CC. 2 the front view. With this device. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. is fastened to a common camera tripod. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. thick.upon any particular object. and. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. are screwed to the circular piece. wide and of any desired height. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. which is 4 in. long for the base. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. In Fig. wide and 8 in.

S. thus producing sound waves. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. I made a wheel 26 in. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Lake Preston. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. in diameter of some 1-in. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. La Salle. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. as only the can is visible. This will make a very compact electric horn. . The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. D. This horn. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. Ill. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. -1. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. R. pine boards. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. Kidder. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine.

Fig. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Kane. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. The frame is made of a heavy card. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Doylestown. --Contributed by James R. If the collection consists of only a few coins. 1. O. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. thick and 12 in. 1. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. B. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. square. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. 2. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Purdy. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . A. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. the same thickness as the coins. Ghent. --Contributed by C. If there is a large collection of coins.

several large nails. thick. --Contributed by August T. Milwaukee. Wis. A lead pencil. and then glued together as indicated. plus a 3/8-in. The material required is a sheet of No. melted and applied with a brush. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. Toronto. a hammer or mallet. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. Cal.J. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. If desired. It will hold 4 oz. border all around. though not absolutely necessary. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. into which to place the screws . 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. cut and grooved. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. Smith. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. Neyer. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch.E. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. --Contributed by R. for after the slides have been shown a few times. A rivet punch is desirable. Canada.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. of developer. --Contributed by J. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. One Cloud. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. they become uninteresting. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. Noble. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom.

Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Remove the screws. screws placed about 1 in. There are several ways of working up the design. both outline and decoration. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. using 1/2-in. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. and file it to a chisel edge. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Punch rivet holes in holder and band. Take the nail. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. never upon the metal directly.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. like the one shown. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. draw one part. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth.

is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. each 1 in. 2. 3. Rivet the band to the holder. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. square and 181/2 in. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. using a 1/2in. Provide four lengths for the legs. . for the top. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. long. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. square and 11 in. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. square. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. long. two lengths. 3/4 in. long. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. in the other. About 1/2 yd. being ball bearing. 1. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. of 11-in.wall. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. and two lengths. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. l-1/8 in. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. for the lower rails. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. as shown in Fig. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. up from the lower end. The pedal. Do not bend it over or flatten it. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern.

--Contributed by John Shahan. New York City. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. Ala. Attalla. --Contributed by W.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . Quackenbush. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. F. having quite a length of threads. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut.

The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. wide and 8-1/4 in. Purchase a 1/2-in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. Two pieces of felt. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. wide and 4-1/4 in. --Contributed by C. D. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. from one end. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. college or lodge colors. the end of the other piece is folded over. one about 1 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. Mich. long. and 3/8 in. using class. Assemble as shown in the sketch. from the end.. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. and the other 2-3/4 in. something that is carbonated. Ironwood. and two holes in the other. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. long. in depth. each 1-1/4 in. Luther. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. making a lap of about 1 in. initial. long. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. The desired emblem.

in the cover and the bottom. from the center and opposite each other. A piece of lead. Indianapolis. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. or a pasteboard box. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. or more in height. 1. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. This method allows a wide range of designs. Schatz. and the cork will be driven out. if desired by the operator. Fig. 2. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. as shown at B.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. which can be procured from a plumber. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. 1/4 in. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by John H. about 2 in. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. Ind. in diameter and 2 in. Punch two holes A.

5. 3. allowing the two ends to be free. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. it winds up the rubber band. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. and the ends of the bands looped over them. The pieces of tin between the holes A. 1. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. 4. putting in the design. are turned up as in Fig. on both top and bottom. . or marble will serve. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. as shown in Fig. When the can is rolled away from you. metal. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. Columbus. O.Rolling Can Toy lead. A piece of thick glass. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. Fig.

A pencil may be used the first time over. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. 3 in. face up. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. 1 in. The edges should be about 1/8 in. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. from each end. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. hole through it. or more thick on each side. long and bored a 1/2-in. wide and 20 in. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . and. If it is desired to "line" the inside. deep in its face. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. I secured a board 3/4 in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. Next place the leather on the glass. mark over the design. New York City. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. thick. thicker than the pinion. After this has been done. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand.

Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 1 top board. Make the lower frame first. Rice. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. in diameter. 1 top board. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. and fit it in place for the side vise. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 3 by 3 by 36. Cut the 2-in. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . Now fit up the two clamps. Fig. M. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 2 by 12 by 77 in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. New York. --Contributed by A. N. thick top board. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 4 guides. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 2. 1 by 12 by 77 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 1 piece for clamp. countersinking the heads of the vise end. 2 crosspieces. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 1 piece. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 1 piece for clamp. Y. 2 side rails. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 1 screw block. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 1.in the board into the bench top. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. pieces for the vise slides. lag screws as shown. 1 back board. Syracuse. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Brooklyn. 2 end rails. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker.

1 pair dividers. 3 and 6 in. 1 set chisels. rule.. 1 2-ft. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 24 in.. 1 cross cut saw. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 claw hammer. in diameter. 1 bench plane or jointer. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. Only the long run. 1 jack plane or smoother. as well as the pattern maker. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 monkey wrench. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 nail set. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 rip saw. 1 pocket level. it can be easily found when wanted. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 pair pliers. 1 marking gauge. The bench is now complete. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. . 24 in.screws. 1 set gimlets. 1 compass saw. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 countersink. 2 screwdrivers. They can be purchased at a hardware store. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. The amateur workman. 1 wood scraper. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view..

2. Fig. The calf skin. will be easier to work. will sink into the handle as shown at D. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. 1. 3. after constant use. 1. try square. 2 and 00 sandpaper. Kane. Fig.1 6-in. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. being softer. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. 1 oilstone. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. Fig. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. but will not make .1. ---Contributed by James M. becomes like A. Doylestown. the projecting point A. Fig. Pa. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. No.

Two pieces will be required of this size. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. After the outlines are traced. The form can be made of a stick of wood. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish.as rigid a case as the cow skin. water or heat will not affect. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. such as copper or brass. If cow hide is preferred. . First draw the design on paper. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. -Contributed by Julia A. Turn the leather. and the length 6-5/8 in. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. New York City. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. lay the design on the face. cover it completely with water enamel and. then prepare the leather. but a V-shaped nut pick. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. the same method of treatment is used. White. which steam. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. If calf skin is to be used. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. Having prepared the two sides. when dry. will do just as well. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. secure a piece of modeling calf.

On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Jaquythe. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Maine. --Contributed by Chester L. New York City. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. --Contributed by Chas. --Contributed by W. Portland. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. A. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. as shown in the sketch. Richmond. Cobb. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Cal. . Herrman. C. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B.

Middletown. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. Mass. . Roberts. This was very difficult. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. was marked out as shown. --Contributed by Wm. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. for instance. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. --Contributed by Geo. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. or anyone that can shape tin and solder.. Wright. A thick piece of tin. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. B. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. an inverted stewpan. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. Cambridge. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. Conn. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg.

Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. Illinois. . Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. F. L. but not running over. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. face down. on a clear piece of glass. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. Herbert. Bone. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. used as part of furniture. such as chair seats. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. which has been tried out several times with success. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. and quite new. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. so some bones were quickly calcined. --Contributed by C. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. of boiling water. A beautifully bound book. apply powdered calcined magnesia. When dry. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. well calcined and powdered. Ind. and the grease will disappear.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. as shown. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. but only an odor which soon vanished. --Contributed by Paul Keller. If any traces of the grease are left. If the article is highly polished. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. pulverized and applied. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. Indianapolis.. There was no quicklime to be had. Chicago. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. The next morning there was no trace of oil.

The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. Howe. deep and 5 in. wide and 12 in. long. This coaster is simple and easy to make.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. New York. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle.. If properly adjusted. 6 in. 2 in. soft steel with the opening 6 in. The pieces marked S are single. A. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. high and are bolted to a block of wood. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. the pieces .. Tarrytown. set and thumbscrews. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. --Contributed by Geo. says Scientific American. thick.

double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Their size depends on the plate used. says Camera Craft. E. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. albums and the like. A sharp knife. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. to the underside of which is a block. no doubt. If the letters are all cut the same height. The seat is a board. they will look remarkably uniform. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . for sending to friends. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months.

to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. and. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. In cutting out an 0. The puzzle is to get . mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. pasting the prints on some thin card. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. So arranged. using care to get it in the right position. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. So made. photographing them down to the desired size. mount them on short pieces of corks. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. after. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. for example.

-Contributed by I. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. snow or anything to hide it. squeezes along past the center of the tube. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in.J. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. Old-Time Magic . G. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. Bayley. so they will lie horizontal. of its top. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. hung on pivots. N. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. Cape May Point. with the longest end outside.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. long that will just fit are set in. He smells the bait. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. says the American Thresherman. A hole 6 or 7 in.

then spread the string. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Rhode Island. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before.faced up. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Parker. then expose again. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Pawtucket. --Contributed by L. --Contributed by L. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. E. Pocatello. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Y. Szerlip. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. N. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Idaho. Brooklyn. or rub the hands a little before doing so. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Press the hands together. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole.

they will look very much like the genuine article. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. 3 Fig. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. says the English Mechanic. long. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. full size.. 1 Fig. near the point end. end of the blade. wide and 2 in. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. dark red. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The blade should be about 27 in. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. The pieces. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. and if carefully made. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. The handle is next made. 1. When the whole is quite dry. 4 on the blade. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. thick. wipe the blade . Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. in width. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. in building up his work from the illustrations. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. Glue the other side of the blade. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. or a complete suit of armor. When the glue is thoroughly dry. 2 Fig.. using a straightedge and a pencil.Genuine antique swords and armor. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. narrower. or green oil paint. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. if any. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. whether he requires a single sword only. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.

The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. This sword is about 68 in. shows only two sides. thick and 5 in. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. The length of the handle. the other is flat or half-round. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. 3. 2. 1. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig.. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. the illustration.with light strokes up and down several times. the length of the blade 28 in.. the other is flat or halfround. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. 1. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. 4. of course. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. preferably of contrasting colors. not for use only in cases of tableaux. In the finished piece. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. 3. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. as it is . wind it around in a continuous line closely together. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. Fig. 1. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. 2. allowing for a good hold with both hands. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. should be about 9 in. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. square and of any length desired. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. and 3 in. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. about 1-1/2 in. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. in the widest part at the lower end. Both edges of the blade are sharp. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. the other two are identical. In making this scimitar. 1. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. long. 1/8 in. follow the directions as for Fig. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. In making. take two pieces of wood. in diameter.

long. each about 1 ft. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. A cold . in an attempt to remove it. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. It is made of a plank. 2 in. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. N. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. Syracuse. Morse. The thinness of the plank. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. about 3/8 in. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. Both can be made easily. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. and. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. piping and jackets by hard water. A piece of mild steel. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. as shown in the sketch. as can the pitch bed or block. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. at the lower end. On each edge of the board. --Contributed by Katharine D. as there was some at hand. Franklin. and if so. Y. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. Doctors probed for the button without success. Mass. --Contributed by John Blake. however. square. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. or an insecure fastening.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened.

See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. To remedy this. secure a piece of brass of about No. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. 18 gauge. using a small metal saw. When this has been done. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. Trim up the edges and file them . With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. a file to reduce the ends to shape. design down. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. When the desired form has been obtained.. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. tallow. 5 lb. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. 5 lb. To put it in another way.. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. on the pitch. plaster of Paris. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees.

Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Clean the metal thoroughly. in diameter (Fig. one 18 in. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. to keep it from floating. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. make an unusual show window attraction. it may be well to know what horsepower means. in one second. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. This in turn divided by 33. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. 2). A. Fig. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. space between the vessels with water. and still revolve. lb. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. 30 ft.000 ft. and hang a bird swing. lb. living together in what seems like one receptacle. . 1) and the other 12 in. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. The smaller is placed within the larger. per second. over the smaller vessel.smooth. That is lifting 33. or fraction of a horsepower. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. per minute. in diameter (Fig. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen.000 lb. in the center. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. --Contributed by Harold H. 3. Cutter. Fill the 3-in. in one minute or 550 lb. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Before giving the description. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. using powdered pumice with lye. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. or 550 ft. 1 ft. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. but not to stop it. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. 1 ft.

N. Campbell. Diameter Fig. Szerlip. 1 Fig. The effect is surprising. or on a pedestal. --Contributed by J. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. F. Somerville.18 in. Y.3 Fig. Diameter 12 in. --Contributed. 2 Fig.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Mass. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Brooklyn. by L.

keeping the center high. In riveting. with the pliers. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. as a rule. away from the edge. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. Rivet the cup to the base. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. Do not be content merely to bend them over. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. with other defects.copper of No. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. often render it useless after a few months service. using any of the common metal polishes. which. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Polish both of these pieces. unsatisfactory. This compound is impervious to water. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. to keep the metal from tarnishing. and the clay . which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. which may be of wood or tin. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. then by drawing a straightedge over it. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. the same as removing writing from a slate. is. and cut out the shape with the shears. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. and then. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. after which it is ready for use. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch.

The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. Dunlop. in diameter and 5 in. Northville. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. --Contributed by A. . The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by John T. 3/4 in. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. 2. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. long. -Contributed by Thos. 1. Grand Rapids. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. Scotland. Shettleston. as shown in Fig. The siphon is made of glass tubes. It is made of a glass tube. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air.can be pressed back and leveled. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. the device will work for an indefinite time. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. Mich. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. A. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. DeLoof. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Mich. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. Houghton.

1. stilettos and battle-axes. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. long. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in.1 FIG. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. As the handle is to . will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. This sword is 4 ft. in width and 2 in. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. put up as ornaments. London.FIG. long with the crossguard and blade of steel.

The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. narrower. long. studded with brass or steel nails. The lower half of the handle is of wood. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. 8. one about 1/2 in. The ball is made as described in Fig. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. This weapon is about 1 ft. the upper part iron or steel. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. the same as used on the end of the handle. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. paint it a dark brown or black. sometimes called cuirass breakers. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. When dry. In Fig. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. This sword is about 4 ft. When the glue is thoroughly dry. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. glue and put it in place.represent copper. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. A German poniard is shown in Fig. in width. small rope and round-headed nails. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. This weapon is also about 1 ft. wood with a keyhole saw. These must be cut from pieces of wood. 11 were used. which is about 2-1/2 ft. in length. with both edges sharp. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. firmly glued on. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. The crossbar and blade are steel. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. is shown in Fig. A German stiletto. 20 spike. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. Cut two strips of tinfoil. This stiletto has a wood handle. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. with both edges of the blade sharp. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. in length. 5. sharp edges on both sides. When the whole is quite dry. This axe is made similar to the one . Three large. 6. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. the axe is of steel. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The sword shown in Fig. 3 is shown a claymore. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. 4. string. very broad. The handle is of wood. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. Both handle and axe are of steel. long with a dark handle of wood. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. In Fig. In Fig. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. 9. then glued on the blade as shown. 7. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. with wire or string' bound handle.

This will make a very good flexible belt. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. When wrapped all the way around. high. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. the ends are tied and cut off. --Contributed by E. together as shown in Fig. Chicago. 2.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. 10. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. W. . such as braided fishline. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. so the contents cannot be seen. will pull where other belts slip. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened.described in Fig. Davis. Old-Time Magic .

--Contributed by A. Before the performance. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. These wires are put in the jar. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. an acid. As zinc is much lighter than iron. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. with the circle centrally located. 2. filled with water. There will be no change in color. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. held in the right hand. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. some of the liquid. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . S. Bridgeton. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. apparently. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Calif. 1 and put together as in Fig. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. N. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Macdonald. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. The dotted lines in Fig. in a few seconds' time. Oakland. causing the flowers to grow. or using small wedges of wood. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. about one-third the way down from the top.J. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. four glass tumblers.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig.

Cal. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. 4 for width and No. which are numbered for convenience in working. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. unless some special device is used. Jaquythe. When many slides are to be masked. This outlines the desired opening. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. says a correspondent of Photo Era. Richmond.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. not only because of the fact just mentioned. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. practical and costs nothing. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. If the size wanted is No. and equally worthy of individual treatment. 2 for height. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. and kept ready for use at any time. --Contributed by W. A.

Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. which is dangerous. paint the design. The decoration. or a pair of old tongs. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. using the carbon paper. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. Draw a design. 16 gauge. but they can be easily revived. the paper is folded along the center line. With a stick. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. possibly. is about right for the No. When etched to the desired depth. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. the margin and the entire back of the metal. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. and the extreme length 7 in. about half and half. too. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. Secure a sheet of No. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. not the water into the acid. and do not inhale the fumes. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. This done. a little less acid than water. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. The one shown is merely suggestive. or. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. may be changed. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer.

3 parts ammonia carbonate. . 4. as shown in Fig. 0 indicates the batteries. wide and of the same length as the table. Nail a board. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. C and D. about 3 ft. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. It may be either nailed or screwed down. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. and bore two holes. wide. as at H. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. long and 1 ft. Fig. 3/8 in. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. Fig. as shown in the illustration. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. Cut out a piece of tin. 1. to the table. long. the bell will ring. about 1 in. J is another wire attached in the same way. Fig. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. and about 2-1/2 ft. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. 3. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. A. 2.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. Then get two posts. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. about 8 in. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. attached to a post at each end. 24 parts water. The connections are simple: I. When the button S is pressed. thick. through it. so that when it is pressed down. Fig. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. 5. 2. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. Fig. or more wide. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. 5. it will touch post F. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. in diameter and 1/4 in. as in Fig. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. with the wires underneath. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. about 2-1/2 in. repeat as many times as is necessary. Paint the table any color desired. high. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. 2. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button.

Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. long serves as the dowel. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. thick. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. long.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den.Imitation Arms and Armor . 2. is to appear as steel. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. 1. but they are somewhat difficult to make. This weapon is about 22 in. A wood peg about 2 in. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. handle and all. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. says the English Mechanic. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. The circle is marked out with a compass. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. These rings can be carved out. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. the wood peg inserted in one of them. The entire weapon. After the glue is dry. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. The imitation articles are made of wood. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. such as ..

6. The spikes are cut out of wood. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. All of these axes are about the same length. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. as described in Fig. with a sharp carving tool. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The axe is shown in steel. The lower half of the handle is wood. as before mentioned. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. or the amateur cannot use it well. 8. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. also. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. 3. flowers. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The handle is of steel imitation. is shown in Fig. used at the end of the fifteenth century. leaves. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. long. 5. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The entire handle should be made of one piece. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. the hammer and spike. as shown. covered with red velvet. studded with large brass or steel nails. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The upper half of the handle is steel. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. 2. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The handle is of wood. . etc. This weapon is about 22 in. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. Its length is about 3 ft. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. If such a tool is not at hand. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used.ornamental scrolls. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth.

2. Each person plays until three outs have been made. and so on for nine innings. calls for a home run. as in Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. the knife resting on its back. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. The knife falling on its side (Fig.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. 6. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. 7) calls for one out. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. Chicago. as shown in Fig. 4). and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. 5. then the other plays. a three-base hit. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. Fig. 1. 3. .

2. as shown in Fig. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. 3. It may be found that the negative is not colored. Campbell. Mass. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. hypo to 1 pt.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. of water for an hour or two. of the rope and holds it. as shown in Fig. This he does. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. 1. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. while the committee is tying him up. with the rope laced in the cloth. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. If it is spotted at all. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. Old-Time Magic . one of them burning . The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. Somerville. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. F.-Contributed by J.

the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. He then walks over to the other candle. Brown. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Evans. of sugar.. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. New York City. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. Ky. with which he is going to light the other candle. --Contributed by C. bolt. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. etc. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. Ky. Louisville. invisible to them (the audience). showing that there is nothing between them. Drill Gauge screw. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. The magician walks over to the burning candle. the other without a light. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. . of plumbago. Thome. --Contributed by L. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. thick. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. 4 oz. shades the light for a few seconds. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. of water and 1 oz. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire.brightly. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. 3/4 in. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. B. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. thus causing it to light. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. Lebanon. of turpentine.Contributed by Andrew G. and. 4 oz. and the audience gaze on and see nothing.

Y. Do not add water to the acid. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. which will give a strong. H. --Contributed by C. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. for the material. N. thick. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. To make the porous cell. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. In making up the solution. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. or blotting paper. long. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. steady current. add the acid to the water with constant stirring.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. Its current strength is about one volt. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. into a tube of several thicknesses. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. diameter. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. Pulteney. 5 in. but is not so good. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Denniston. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. about 5 in. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts.

A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. As to thickness. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. thus saving much work in fitting up joints.) may be obtained. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. carrying the hour circle at one end. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. steel.station. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. After much experimentation with bearings. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. one drawing them together. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. a positive adjustment was provided. One hole was bored as well as possible. long with a bearing at each end. while the other end is attached by two screws. To insure this. Finally. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The . The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. the other holding them apart. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. but somewhat lighter. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. steel. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. steel.

once carefully made. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. in each direction from two points 180 deg. Cassiopiae. The pointer is directed to Alpha. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. Each shaft. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. and 15 min. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. Set the declination circle to its reading. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. turn the pointer to the star. Instead. The aperture should be 1/4 in. and if it is not again directed to the same point. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. It is. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. save the one in the pipe. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. Point it approximately to the north star. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar..axis is adjusted by turning these screws." When this is done. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. Declination is read directly. All these adjustments. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. subtract 24." Only a rough setting is necessary. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. need not be changed. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. To locate a known star on the map. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. The pole is 1 deg. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. To find a star in the heavens. is provided with this adjustment. apart. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. All set screws. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. 45 min. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. If the result is more than 24 hours.. When properly set it will describe a great circle. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. are tightened. excepting those on the declination axis. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up.

3 or 4 in. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. a great effect will be produced. La. is folded several times. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. benzole. the others . Plain City. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. add a little more benzole. Strosnider. taking care not to add too much. which is the one examined. -Contributed by Ray E. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. New Orleans. as shown in the sketch. cannon balls. of ether. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian.. If this will be too transparent. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. The ball is found to be the genuine article. The dance will begin. is the real cannon ball. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. Ohio. long. then add 1 2-3 dr. In reality the first ball. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.

A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. Somerville. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. Cal. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. small brooches. as shown in the illustration. Campbell. 1). --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. Milwaukee.. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. Wis. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. Return the card to the pack. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. 2. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . In boxes having a sliding cover. --Contributed by J. Mass.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. F. without taking up any great amount of space. taps. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. etc. Fig. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. San Francisco.

Connecticut. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. This box has done good service. Beller. as shown in the illustration. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. from the bottom of the box. prints. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. Hartford. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. slides and extra brushes. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. thus giving ample store room for colors. .The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. round pieces 2-1/4 in. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B.

holes in the bottom of one. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. will answer the purpose. 2). or placed against a wall. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. West Lynn. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. . When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. -Contributed by C. O. Darke. When the ends are turned under. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. tacking the gauze well at the corners. Fill the upper tub. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. with well packed horse manure. FIG.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. 1). Mass. costing 5 cents. about threefourths full.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. and pour water on it until it is well soaked.

oil or other fluid. If the following directions are carried out. Chicago. they should be knocked out. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. and each bundle contains . If plugs are found in any of the holes. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. when they are raised from the pan. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. cutting the cane between the holes. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. M. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. if this is not available. Eifel. --Contributed by L. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors.

a square pointed wedge. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. as it must be removed again. as shown in Fig. after having been pulled tight. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. In addition to the cane. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. 1. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. No plugs . it should be held by a plug. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. put about 3 or 4 in. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. and. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. held there by inserting another plug. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. then across and down. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs.

Michigan. D. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. and the one we shall describe in this article. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. During the weaving. 5 in. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. is the base (5 in. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . Detroit. 1 lat.2 in. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. in this case) times the . One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. It consists of a flat circular table. If you have a table of natural functions. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. 1.075 in. lat. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. R. From table No. as shown in Fig. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used.42 in. -Contributed by E. it is 4.075 in. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. the height of which is taken from table No. stretch the third one. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. the next smallest. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. All added to the lesser or 40°. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. called the gnomon.15+. as for example.3 in.= 4. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. trim off the surplus rosin. When cool. Their difference is . can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. No weaving has been done up to this time. There are several different designs of sundials. and for 1° it would be . If handled with a little care.5 in. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. 41 °-30'. for 2°. is the horizontal dial. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. This will make three layers. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. --Contributed by M. W. as shown in Fig. 1. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer.2+. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. as the height of the line BC for lat.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. 3. the height of the line BC. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. 5. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. Fig. 4. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. After completing the second layer.15 in. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. 41°-30'. but the most common. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. 3. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. Patrick. or the style. using the same holes as for the first layer. we have 4. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. Even with this lubrication. 1. 40°. The style or gnomon. 42° is 4. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. and for lat. Fig. as it always equals the latitude of the place.

57 1.16 40 . For latitudes not given. 2 for given latitudes. Chords in inches for a 10 in.81 4.32 6. 2.28 .11 3. an inch or two.50 26° 2. base. circle Sundial.30 1.26 4.07 4.91 58° 8. which will represent the base in length and thickness.33 42° 4.82 2.42 1. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.66 48° 5.49 30 . interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.30 2. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.76 1.99 2.77 2. or if of stone.00 40° 4.06 2.85 1. Fig.42 .56 . and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.14 5.87 4.27 2.57 3.02 1.89 50° 5.79 4.40 34° 3. Table NO.63 56° 7. To layout the hour circle.10 6.40 1. if of metal.16 1. using the points A and C as centers.37 5.55 5.03 3. gives the 6 o'clock points.38 . or more. according to the size of the dial.94 1.66 1.82 5. Draw the line AD. Its thickness.87 1. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.39 .97 5 7 4.tangent of the degree of latitude.55 4.33 . and for this size dial (10 in.59 2.93 2. 2.96 32° 3. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.64 4 8 3.68 5-30 6-30 5.46 3. . Draw two semi-circles. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.12 52° 6. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.29 4-30 7-30 3.66 latitude.23 6.55 46° 5. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.20 60° 8.19 1.82 3. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.46 .42 45 .55 30° 2. and intersecting the semicircles. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .41 38° 3.49 3.93 6. with a radius of 5 in. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.85 35 .37 54° 6. and perpendicular to the base or style. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. 1.44 44° 4.18 28° 2.88 36° 3.83 27° 2. long.

The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .68 3. adding to each piece interest and value. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. Sept. 2 and Dec.82 3.from Sundial lime.50 . then the watch is slower. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.01 1. says the English Mechanic. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.46 4.53 1. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.means that the dial is faster than the sun.add those marked + subtract those Marked . reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. it will be faster.52 Table No. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. June 15.54 60 . and for the difference between standard and local time. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.98 4. April 16. An ordinary compass. 3.57 1. --Contributed by J. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. E. 900 Chicago. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. 25.30 2.77 3.08 1.49 5.79 6.46 5.37 2. and the . Mitchell. Sioux City.89 3.63 1.72 5. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.71 2. Sun time to local mean time.12 5.06 2.34 5.21 2. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. after allowing for the declination. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.10 4. will enable one to set the dial. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. As they are the genuine reproductions. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. London.87 6. each article can be labelled with the name. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. Iowa. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position.60 4. if west.93 6..14 1. The + means that the clock is faster.50 55 . 3. Each weapon is cut from wood.19 2.49 3.24 5. This correction can be added to the values in table No.

swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle.. 1. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 3. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. the length of which is about 5 ft. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. When putting on the tinfoil. . The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. Partisan. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century.

The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. is shown in Fig.. about 4 in. The edges are sharp. . The spear is steel. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. 7. The extreme length is 9 ft. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood.which is square. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The length of this bar is about 5 in. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. 6 ft. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. press it well into the carved depressions. used about the seventeenth century. It is about 6 ft. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. 8. This weapon is about 6 ft. 5. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. long. in diameter. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. long with a round wooden handle. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. long. which are a part of the axe. the holes being about 1/4 in. A gisarm or glaive. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. long with a round staff or handle. sharp on the outer edges. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.

Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. The twisted cross cords should . It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. Loudonville. In Figs. B. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. are less durable and will quickly show wear. 2 and 3. used for spacing and binding the whole together. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. Ohio. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. the cross cords.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. Workman. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. They can be made of various materials. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. the most durable being bamboo. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. or in holes punched in a leather strap. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. 5. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. Cut all the cords the same length. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. Substances such as straw. apart. are put in place. This is important to secure neatness. as shown in Fig. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. 1.-Contributed by R. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. H. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. 4.

and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place.be of such material. La. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. A slit was cut in the bottom. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. below the top to within 1/4 in. To remedy this. wide. as shown at B. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. in which was placed a piece of glass. 3 in. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . shaped as shown at C. Lockport. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. New York. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. Four V-shaped notches were cut. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. of the bottom. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. -Contributed by Geo. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. New Orleans. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. for a length extending from a point 2 in. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. Harrer. The first design shown is for using bamboo. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. bamboo or rolled paper. This was turned over the top of the other can. M. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned.

A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. --Contributed by Joseph H. Sanford. This should be done gradually. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. Schaffner. the brass is loosened from the block. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. Maywood. After this is finished. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. Newburgh. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. turned over but not fastened. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. H. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. It would be well to polish the brass at first. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. is shown in the accompanying sketch. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. --Contributed by Chas. Pasadena. about 1/16 in. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves.tape from sticking to the carpet. wide. Shay. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. --Contributed by W. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Cal. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. Ill. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. giving the appearance of hammered brass. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. do not throw away the gloves. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. This plank. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. N. and two along the side for attaching the staff. Y.

Cal. bent as shown.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Richmond. K. --E. in diameter. Jaquythe. Marshall. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. -Contributed by W. the pendulum swings . Unlike most clocks. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. A. Ill. Oak Park. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water.

Chicago. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. are secured in the base bar. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. high. on the board B. wide that is perfectly flat. away.. A. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. Now place the board to be joined. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. 6 in. --Contributed by V. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. long and at each side of this. about 6 in. says the Scientific American. Secure a board. thick. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. In using this method. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. wide. Metzech. such as this one. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. B. Two uprights. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. high. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. only have the opposite side up. in diameter. C. high and 1/4 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. The construction is very simple. and the other two 2-5/8 in. by 1-5/16 in. 5/16 in. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. bearing on the latter. . bar. 3/4 in. 7-1/2 in. the center one being 2-3/4 in. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. is an electromagnet. Fasten another board. about 12 in. to the first one with screws or glue. high. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight.

as shown at A. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. square inside. long. --Contributed by Elmer A. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. by driving a pin through the wood. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. . Fig. Pa.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. from one end. 1. 3. 1. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. 4. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. 1. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. Phoenixville. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. plates should be made 8 in. is fastened in the hole A. The trigger. 2. or more. Vanderslice. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. wide and 5 in. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. square. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. whose dimensions are given in Fig. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. Fig. wide and 1 in.

Ohio. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. 2 parts of whiting. -Contributed by J. as shown in the illustration. Simonis. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. 5 parts of black filler. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take.A. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. Fostoria. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. square. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. one-half the length of the side pieces. by weight.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. which allows 1/4 in. if only two bands are put in the . Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. rubbing varnish and turpentine. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position.

The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. Grand Rapids. as shown in Fig. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. A piece of metal. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. A double convex lens. place tracing paper on its surface. deep. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. Mass. G. London. 1. in the opposite end of the box. keeps the strong light out when sketching. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. Shaw. and it may be made as a model or full sized. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. -Contributed by Abner B. says the English Mechanic. and the picture can be drawn as described. If a plain glass is used. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. It must be kept moist and well . wide and about 1 ft. long.lower strings. II. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. A mirror. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. In use. 8 in. preferably copper. DeLoof. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. Michigan. No. is set at an angle of 45 deg. --Contributed by Thos. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. which may be either of ground or plain glass. In constructing helmets. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. is necessary. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. Dartmouth.

shown in Fig. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. The clay. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. and left over night to soak.kneaded. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. 2. joined closely together. the clay model oiled. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. and over the crest on top. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . will be necessary. All being ready. After the clay model is finished. brown. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. Scraps of thin. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. and continue until the clay is completely covered. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. take. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. or some thin glue. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. and the deft use of the fingers. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. a few clay-modeling tools. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. This being done. 1. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. as in bas-relief. 3. as shown in Fig. 1. on which to place the clay. with a keyhole saw. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks.

--Contributed by Paul Keller. with the exception of the vizor. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. The band is decorated with brass studs. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. and so on. or. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. owing to the clay being oiled. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. which should be no difficult matter. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. The whole helmet.as possible. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. as shown: in the design. will make it look neat. a few lines running down. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. Indianapolis. When dry. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. When the helmet is off the model. the piecing could not be detected. The center of the ear guards are perforated. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. 1. a crest on top. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. They are all covered with tinfoil. then another coating of glue. as seen in the other part of the sketch. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 9. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. In Fig. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. 5. the skullcap. Before taking it off the model. In Fig. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. Indiana. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. When perfectly dry. and the ear guards in two pieces. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. should be modeled and made in one piece. one for each side. square in shape. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. 7. This contrivance should be made of wood. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward.

This will allow the plate. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. 1. about 1 lb. 2. Fig.same size. Fig. as it stands a higher temperature. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. German-silver wire is better. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. This will make an open space between the plates. The reverse side of the base. each 4-1/2 in. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. Fig. if this cannot be obtained. should extend about 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. wide and 15 in. is then packed down inside the collar. 12 in. 1. Fig. with slits cut for the wires. A round collar of galvanized iron. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. 2. of No. long. Fig. 2. 1. about 80 ft. 4. above the collar. 4. or. The mineral wool. for connections. in diameter and 9 in. one oblong piece of wood. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. when they are placed in opposite positions. JJ. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. 4 lb. of mineral wool. The two holes. The plate. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. until it is within 1 in. 3. The holes B and C are about 3 in. AA. GG. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. Fig. one fuse block. the holes leading to the switch. E and F. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. and two large 3in. 4. also the switch B and the fuse block C. Fig. FF. and C. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. thick sheet asbestos. thick. as shown in Fig. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. 22 gauge resistance wire. is shown in Fig. are allowed to project about 1 in. Fig. Fig. about 1/4 in. two ordinary binding posts. If asbestos is used. Fig. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. AA. 1. 1 in. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . the fuse block. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. of the top. if the measurements are correct. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. 3 in. 4. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. of fire clay. 1. If a neat appearance is desired. Fig. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. 4. one small switch. as shown in Fig. which can be bought from a local druggist. AA. Fig. high. long. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. and. Fig. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. 4. one glass tube. to receive screws for holding it to the base. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. 4. 1. screws. long.

Richmond. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. deep. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. The clay.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. will slip and come in contact with each other. H. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. and pressed into it. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. KK. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. --Contributed by R. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. It should not be left heated in this condition. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. more wire should be added. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. above the rim. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. then. allowing a space between each turn. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. Cut a 1/2-in. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. causing a short circuit. when heated. using care not to get it too wet. II. When the tile is in place. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. As these connections cannot be soldered. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. If it is not thoroughly dry. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . Cnonyn. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. Fig. Cover over about 1 in. it leaves a gate for the metal. apart. when cool. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. 2. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. Jaquythe. While the clay is damp. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. If this is the case. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. as the turns of the wires. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. so that the circuit will not become broken. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. A file can be used to remove any rough places. Can. --Contributed by W. 4. It should not be set on end. When this is done. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. This completes the stove. Catherines. Next. This point marks the proper length to cut it. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. steam will form when the current is applied. A. Cal. St. Fig. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration.

The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. Thorne. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. says the Photographic Times. Then clip a little off the . but 12 by 24 in. constructed of 3/4-in. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. the pie will be damaged. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. Ky. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. and the prints will dry rapidly. is large enough. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. --Contributed by Andrew G. as shown. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Louisville. and the frame set near a window. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. square material in any size. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit.

A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. Fig. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. The connecting rod E. A 1/8-in. An offset is bent in the center. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. As the shaft revolves. long. wide and 7 in. Figs. as shown. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. wide and 3 in. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. The board can be raised to place . The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. slip on two cardboard washers. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. high. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. Two supports. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. The upright B. Le Mars. which are fastened to the base. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. 1. long. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. The driving arm D. in diameter and about 4 in. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. 1/2 in. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. 1 and 3. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. 3. 1. long. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration.Paper Funnel point. 2-1/2 in. 2. -Contributed by S. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. each 1 in. which gives the shaft a half turn. Fig. thick and 3 in. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. high. Herron. 14 in. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. Fig. for the crank. thick and 3 in. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. The connections are made as shown in Fig. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. Iowa. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. open out. high. 4 in. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. allowing each end to project for connections. long. causing a break in the current. in diameter. 1/2 in. thereby saving time and washing. each 1/2 in. thick. 1. W. at GG. 1. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. 22 gauge magnet wire. wide.

3 in. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. in height. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. on a board. Dorchester. Mass. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. bottom side up. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. making a framework suitable for a roost. --Contributed by William F. In designing the roost. Stecher. Place the pot. One or more pots may be used. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. . as shown in the sketch.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft.

etc.. Wind the .Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. 1. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. windows. without any corresponding benefit. preferably. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. odd corners. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. as shown in Fig. will produce the pattern desired. paraffin and paint or varnish. The materials required are rope or. and give it time to dry. shelves. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. that it is heated. F. ordinary glue. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. grills and gratings for doors. Fig. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. in diameter.. F. 1. adopt the method described. when combined. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. The bottom part of the sketch. if it is other than straight lines.

I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig.Fig. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. cut and glue them together. M. -Contributed by Geo. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Fig. N. six designs are shown. Lockport. 2. Y. Harrer. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] .

A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. London. This piece of horse armor. As the . makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. which was used in front of a horse's head. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. but no farther. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. chips of iron rust. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made.. 1. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in.. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. when it will be observed that any organic matter. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. etc. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. will be retained by the cotton. and the sides do not cover the jaws.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. says the English Mechanic. etc. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure..

the rougher the better. This triangularshaped support. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. In Fig. with the exception of the thumb shield. 4. An arrangement is shown in Fig. then another coat of glue. and the clay model oiled. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. and will require less clay. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. except the thumb and fingers. which is separate. but for . and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. This being done. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. This will make the model light and easy to move around. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. This can be made in one piece. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. as shown in the sketch. All being ready. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. The armor is now removed from the model. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. 2. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. 8. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. but the back is not necessary. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. as the surface will hold the clay. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. and therefore it is not described. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. 2. the same as in Fig. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. which can be made in any size. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. 6 and 7.

cut into the shape shown in Fig. 9. and the instrument is ready for use. La Rue. A piece of board. in depth. are glued to it. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. The two pieces of foil. the top of the rod. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. When locating the place for the screw eyes. Buxton. the two pieces of foil will draw together. two for the jaws and one a wedge. 1/2 in. Goshen. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. Y. each about 1/4 in. fastened to the rod. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. Calif. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. running down the plate. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. If it does not hold a charge. --Contributed by Ralph L. are better shown in Fig. two in each jaw. --Contributed by John G. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. N. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. Fasten a polished brass ball to. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. long. . but 3-1/2 in. 2. Redondo Beach. wide and 1/2 in. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. the foils will not move. will be about right.

thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. When a fish is hooked. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. pine board. is made of a 1/4-in. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. --Contributed by Mrs. The can may be bronzed. 2-1/2 in. about 15 in. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. hole bored through it. as this will cut under the water without splashing. Bryan. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. enameled or otherwise decorated. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. from the smaller end. long. M. as indicated in the . as shown in the illustration. A. At a point 6 in. Texas. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. silvered. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. Corsicana.

and trace upon it the design and outline. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. When it has dried over night. using a piece of carbon paper. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. Next prepare the metal holder. 3/8 or 1/4 in. put a coat or two of wax and polish . Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. then with a nail. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. Having completed the drawing. take a piece of thin wood. such as basswood or pine was used. using powdered pumice and lye. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. If soft wood. as shown. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. A good size is 5 in. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. punch the holes. thick.Match Holder accompanying sketch. will do as well as the more expensive woods. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. Any kind of wood will do. 22 is plenty heavy enough. long over all. wide by 6 in. Basswood or butternut. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. Polish the metal. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. or even pine.

If carving is contemplated. thick. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. . At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. are used for the cores of the magnets. is used for the base of this instrument. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. can be made on the same standards. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. 2 in. Two wire nails. Richmond. wide and 5 in. the whole being finished in linseed oil. A. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. It is useful for photographers. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. of pure olive oil. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. If one has some insight in carving. Cal. long. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. --Contributed by W. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. long. Jaquythe. each 1 in. Instead of the usual two short ropes. 1/2 in. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr.

in the shape shown in the sketch. . The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. About 1 in. acts as a spring to keep the key open. --Contributed by W. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. as shown in Fig. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. about No. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. leaving about 1/4 in. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. says the English Mechanic. as shown by the dotted lines. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. 25 gauge. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. 1. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. A piece of tin. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. London. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. A rubber band. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. Lynas. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. then covered with red. 3. cloth or baize to represent the legs. cut in the shape of the letter T. the paper covering put on. H. similar to that used in electric bells. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. except that for the legs. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. at A. when the key is pushed down. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. All of the parts for the armor have been described. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base.

at each end.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. in the other end. Take the piece shown in Fig. for the sake of lightness. In one end of the piece. A 1/4-in. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. drill six 1/4-in. Fig. apart. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. The two pieces are bolted together. and eight small holes. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. 1 and drill a 1/4in. So set up. make the same series of eight small holes and. about 1 in. can be made in a few minutes' time. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in.. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. flat headed carriage bolt. holes. long. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. completes the equipment. or ordinary plaster laths will do. Secure two strips of wood. By moving the position of the bolt from. These can be purchased at a stationery store. says Camera Craft. Instead of using brass headed nails. hole in the center. Cut them to a length or 40 in. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. 1 in. 3 in. 2. not too tight. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. Silver paper will do very well. one to another . apart.

taking the same start as for the square fob. the one marked A. lay Cover B and the one under D. 1. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. A is the first string and B is the second. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. then B over C and the end stuck under A. in Fig. as in portraiture and the like. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. Then take B and lay it over A. A round fob is made in a similar way. D over A and C. for instance. but instead of reversing . and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. Start with one end. 2. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. Then draw all four ends up snugly. long. of the ends remain unwoven. 2. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. 4. and lay it over the one to the right. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D.of the larger holes in the strip. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. C over D and B. In this sketch. Fig. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. 2. doubled and run through the web of A. and the one beneath C. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions.

is to be made of leather. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. as at A in Fig. as B. Ohio. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. Other designs can be made in the same manner.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. 5. Monroeville. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . --Contributed by John P. always lap one string. A loop. as in making the square fob. 1-1/2 in. is left out at the center before starting on one side. the design of which is shown herewith. long. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. over the one to its right. The round fob is shown in Fig. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. especially if silk strings are used. 3. Rupp.

Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. Mich. beeswax or paraffin. Any smooth piece of steel. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. Houghton. using the reverse side. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. A. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. -Contributed by A. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. . filling them with wax. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. door facing or door panel. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. such as a nut pick. pressing it against the wood. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. it can be easily renewed. When the supply of wax is exhausted. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. Northville. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin.

any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. The tacks should be about 1 in. but any kind that will not stick may be used. --Contributed by O. and about 12 in. New York. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. it is best to leave a plain white margin. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. J. if blueprints are used. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. place it face down in the dish. N. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. . Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. Enough plaster should. E and F. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. those on matte paper will work best. remaining above the surface of the board. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. Y. and after wetting. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. Fold together on lines C. Petersburg. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. leaving about 1/4 in. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. although tin ones can be used with good success. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Ill. Select the print you wish to mount. D. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. apart and driven in only part way. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. Thompson. says Photographic Times. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. long. thick. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch.

How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. violets. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. etc. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution.. filling the same about onehalf full. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. without mixing the solutions. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. bell flowers. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. as shown in the right of the sketch. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. One of the . as shown at the left in the sketch. will be rendered perfectly white. roses. Lower into the test tube a wire.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer.

most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. turned a little tapering. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. 1-7/8 in. Shabino. not too tightly. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. is about 2-1/2 in. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. When soldering these parts together. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. long. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. in diameter and 1 in. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. --Contributed by L. long and made of wood. South Dakota. A rod that will fit the brass tube. and at the larger end. Millstown. thick. about 1/8s in. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. as shown in the sketch. 1. 3. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. The sound box. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. should be soldered to the box. Fig. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. to keep the core from coming off in turning. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. The diaphragm.. The tin horn can be easily made. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. made of heavy tin. L. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. or delicate tints of the egg. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. 2. shading. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The first point should be ground blunt. as shown. but which will not wobble loose.

Chicago. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Ill. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. wondering what it was. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. Gold.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. and.Contributed by E. E. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. Colo. Victor. says the Iowa Homestead. mice in the bottom. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. put a board on top. Jr.

A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. N. Y. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. Ottawa. Buffalo. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Pereira. . Can. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. --Contributed by Lyndwode. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb.

which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. This cart has no axle. A.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. Jaquythe. Grand Rapids. --Contributed by Thos. above the end of the dasher. through which several holes have been punched. Mich. as it can be made quickly in any size. Richmond. Cal. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. De Loof. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. cut round. and at one end of the stick fasten. longer than the length of the can. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. as shown. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. a piece of tin. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. by means of a flatheaded tack. Put a small nail 2 in. --Contributed by W.

deep and 3 in. Doylestown. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. --Contributed by James M. cut in the center of the rounding edge. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. The strip of wood is 1/4 in.1. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. long. I reversed a door gong. 1/4 in. were below the level of the bullseye. 2. wide and 1/8 in. The candles. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. La. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. New Orleans. 1. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. apart. screwed it on the inside of a store box. Notches 1/8 in. 1-1/2 in. 2 in. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. of course. 2. 2. wide. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. Pa. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. board. as shown. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. A wedge-shaped piece of . The base may be made of a 1/2-in. wide and as long as the box. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. 1 ft. Kane. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. wide and 3 ft. thick. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. Fig. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The baseboard and top are separable. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle.

I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade.Book Back Holders metal. the shelf could not be put on the window. the blade is put back into the groove . stone or wood. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. the reason being that if both were solid. For the handle. After completing the handle. dressing one surface of each piece. West Union. it can be removed without marring the casing. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. can be picked up without any trouble. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. Worcester. etc. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. Wood. take two pieces of hard wood. Cover the block with rubber. scissors. This device is very convenient for invalids. A. as shown in Fig. 1. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. when placed as in Fig. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. to prevent its scratching the desk top. --Contributed by G. 3. The block can also be used as a paperweight. will. by cutting away the ends. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. When not in use. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Ia. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. After the glue has dried.. Mass. Needles. wide rubber bands or felt. wide into each side of the casing.

Each one is made of a hardwood block. If desired. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. . to fit a mortise cut in the bench. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Cleveland. Pa. --Contributed by H. is shown in the accompanying sketch. 2. Erie. Malden.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. long. Mass. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. as shown in Fig. A. 1 in. -Contributed by W. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Hutchins. as shown in Fig. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. thus carrying the car up the incline. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. S. A notch is cut in one side. Ohio. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. 1. square and 4 in. Jacobs. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles.

A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. If one such as is shown is to be used. and an awl and hammer. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material.. One sheet of metal. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. The letters can be put on afterward. Cape May Point. .The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. 6 by 9-1/2 in. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. Prepare a design for the front. N. This will insure having all parts alike.J. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. will be needed. a board on which to work it.

or. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. The stick may be placed by the side of. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. behind or through the center of a table leg. If any polishing is required. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. paste the paper design right on the metal. varnish. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. turpentine. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. says Master Painter. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. One coat will do. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. which is desirable. that can be worked in your own parlor. as shown. Remove the metal. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it." In all appearance. applied by means of a brush. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. placed on a table. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. The music will not sound natural. mandolin or guitar. 3/4 part. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. but weird and distant. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. 2 parts white vitriol. in the waste metal. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. if desired. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. 1 part. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. . only the marginal line is to be pierced. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. 1/4 part. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise.Fasten the metal to the board. a violin. On the back. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. flat brush. to right angles. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. So impressive are the results.

The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. With proper tools this is easy. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. and is easy to construct. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. it might be difficult. apart. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. thick by 1/2 in. 3. are shaped as shown in Fig. each 28 in. across the top. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. Two pairs of feet. . round-head machine screws. is bent square so as to form two uprights. without them. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. square bar iron. long and spread about 8 in. The longest piece. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. says Work. long. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. 2. long and measuring 26 in. London. wide. each 6 in.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it.

and the base border. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. The brads are then removed. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. C. Fig. The design is formed in the lead. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. lead. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. 7. cut a long piece of lead. While the piece of lead D. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. After the glass is cut. 4. using rosin as a flux. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. B. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. D. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. the latter being tapped to . border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. The glass. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. Place the corner piece of glass. 6. as shown in Fig. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. or. is held by the brads. on it as shown. special flux purchased for this purpose. After the joints are soldered. in the grooves of the borders. 5.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. Fig. better still. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. 5. A.

It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. square and of the length given in the drawing. in diameter and 1/4 in. Bore a 5/8-in. Jr.. long. A and B. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. 8. long. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. H. This ring can be made of 1-in. and round the corners of one end for a ring.the base of the clip. Dreier. wood screws in each washer. then drill a 3/4-in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. J. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. rocker bolt. Bore a 3/4-in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. plates. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. as shown in Fig. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. The center pin is 3/4-in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. This . then flatten its end on the under side. Make three washers 3-in. one on each side and central with the hole. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. N. long. thick and drill 3/4-in. not less than 4 in. Secure a post. Camden. and two wood blocks. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. plank about 12 ft. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. rounded at the top as shown. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. in diameter and about 9 in. Two styles of hand holds are shown. Fasten the plates to the block B. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. bolt. bolt. holes through their centers. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. --Contributed by W.

Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. If trees are convenient. 1-1/4in. 9 in. of 1/4-in. 1/2 in. 4 pieces. long. from one edge. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. horse and rings. To substitute small. 2-1/2 in. 4 pieces. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. in diameter and 7 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. 1 by 7 in. long. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. straight-grained hickory. chestnut or ash. New Orleans. and some one can swing an axe. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work.will make an excellent cover for a pot. 50 ft. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. long. screws. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. square by 9-1/2 ft. boards along the side of each from end to end. 4 in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. square by 5 ft. bit. 2 by 4 in. 3/4 by 3 in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. 1. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. maple. 4 filler pieces. by 2 ft. 16 screws. by 3 ft. 3 in. hickory. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. Draw a line on the four 7-in. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. by 6-1/2 ft. apart for a distance of 3 ft. shanks. because it will not stand the weather. 4 in. The four 7-in. La. can make a first class gymnasium. long. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 7 in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. long. bolts and rope. long and 1 piece.

Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. boards coincide. Bore a 9/16-in. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. apart. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar.bored. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. 8 in. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. 2. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. so the 1/2-in. at each end. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. each 3 ft.. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. piece of wood. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. apart.. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . from the end. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. deep and remove all loose dirt.

in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. which at once gathered. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. it is taken to the edge of the foot. just visible against the dark evening sky. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. He stretched the thread between two buildings. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. the effect is very striking. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. apart. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus.. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. it follows the edge for about 1 in. about 100 ft. but most deceptive at dusk. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. in an endless belt. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. W. and then passes in a curve across the base. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. not even the tumbler. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. disappearing only to reappear again. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. was at its height. When the interest of the crowd. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. . a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. If the tumbler is rotated. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. and ascends the stem. and materially heightened the illusion. passing through a screweye at either end." which skimmed along the distant horizon. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. And all he used was a black thread. not much to look at in daytime.

long. square and 51/2 ft. 2 base pieces. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 4 bolts. long. 7 in. To make the apparatus. 2 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. long. The cork will come out easily.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. long. by 7 ft. and turned in a spiral D. Fig. New Orleans. long. long. 8 in. La. from either side of the center. 2 by 4 in. 4 knee braces. Bevel the ends of . deep. beginning at a point 9 in. 2 by 4 in. by 10 ft. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. long. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 4 in. 1. 4 in. 6 in. by 2 ft. A wire about No. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. so the point will be on top. 2 by 4 in. wide and 1 in. by 3 ft. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 2 cross braces. 8 bolts. long and 1 doz. 4 wood screws. square and 6 ft. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 8 in. 2 by 3 in. preferably cedar. Chisel out two notches 4 in. large spikes. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. long. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 8 in. 2 side braces.

screws. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. additional long. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. --Contributed by W. except the bars. equipped with a strainer. A large sized ladle. leaving the strainer always in position. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. It is well to paint the entire apparatus.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. as shown in the diagram. from the bottom of the base up along the posts.the knee braces. Two endpieces must be made. save the bars. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. leave it undressed. . These will allow the ladle to be turned. of 7 ft. Richmond. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. ( To be Continued. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. If using mill-cut lumber. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. The wood so treated will last for years. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. and countersinking the heads.. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. which face each other. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. but even unpainted they are very durable. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. so the bolts in both will not meet. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. A. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. Jaquythe. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. jellies. Cal. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. etc. using four of the 7-in bolts. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. After the trenches are dug. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint.

partly a barrier for jumps. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. Oil. In order to accomplish this experiment. .Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. milling machine. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. thus holding the pail as shown. of sufficient 1ength. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. A. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. drill press or planer. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. which seems impossible. or various cutting compounds of oil. it is necessary to place a stick. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface.

Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . bolts. but 5 ft. 4 in. 4 knee braces. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. Hand holds must be provided next.. long. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. bolt. long. stud cut rounding on one edge. 2 by 4 in. 1 in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. to fasten the knee braces at the top. long. by 3 ft. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. piece of 2 by 4-in. in the ground. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. beginning 1-1/2 in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. To construct. apart. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. long. 4-1/2 in. ten 1/2-in. 4 in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. 2 adjusting pieces. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant.. square by 5-1/2 ft. long. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. long. by 3 ft. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. 2 bases. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. is a good length. two 1/2-in. The round part of this log must be planed. 7 in. 2 by 4 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. Procure from a saw mill. wood yard or from the woods. 4 in. The material required is as follows: Two posts. long. These are placed 18 in. 1 cross brace. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. apart in a central position on the horse. bolts. and free from knots. square by 5 ft. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. projections and splinters. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. by 3 ft. bolts. 3 in. 2 by 4 in. These are well nailed in place. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. from each end. in diameter--the larger the better.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. long.

Richmond. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. over and around. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. it is caused by an overloaded shell. no one is responsible but himself. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating.--Contributed by W. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. A. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. Such a hand sled can be made in a . The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. it is caused by some obstruction. Cal. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. then bending to the shape desired. water. such as a dent. Jaquythe. Also. snow. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. but nevertheless. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. etc. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. pipe and fittings.horse top. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way.

are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Mass. --Contributed by J. W. will give the length. Joerin. 1. Paris. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. --Contributed by James E. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. These. France. Vener. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. 2. thick. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. The end elevation. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. which. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. --Contributed by Arthur E. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. when complete. at E and F. when straightened out. 1/4 or 3/16 in. . Boston. is much better than a wood sled. are all the tools necessary. then run a string over each part. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Toronto. Ontario. Noble. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. in width and 1/32 in.

Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. AA and BB. . nor that which is partly oxidized. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. It is best to use soft water. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The method shown in Figs. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. 3. are nailed. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. 4. and the latter will take on a bright luster.

or unequal widths as in Fig. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 4. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. 8 and 9. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 2. as shown in Fig. 3. The materials used are: backbone. Broad lines can be made. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. as shown in Fig. 1). If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. Percy Ashley in Rudder. class ice-yacht. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. or various rulings may be made. . the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 2. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. pipe. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. a larger size of pipe should be used. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. a tee and a forging. but if it is made much longer. out from the collar. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. long. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. 1. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig.Fig. pins to keep them from turning. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The headstock is made of two tees. A good and substantial homemade lathe. Both the lower . The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. It can be made longer or shorter. bent and drilled as shown. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. about 30 in. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work.

tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. . Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. thick as desired. Fruitvale. It is about 1 in. W. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. --Contributed by W. To do this. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. Musgrove. 3/4 or 1 in. 1. --Contributed by M. UpDeGraff. else taper turning will result. as shown in Fig. Held. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. Cal. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. a straight line should be scratched Fig. Man. a corresponding line made on this. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. --Contributed by W. 2. Laporte. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. 2. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. and will answer for a great variety of work. or a key can be used as well. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. as shown in Fig. 2. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. but also their insulating properties. M. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Boissevain. Indiana. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line.

The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. Ark. Ft. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. Cline. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. To obviate this. Smith. J. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. In use.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. --Contributed by E. The handle is of pine about 18 in. long. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. as shown. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates.

Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. This prevents the drill from wobbling. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Denver. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Colo. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. on starting the lathe. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. La. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. which should be backed out of contact. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. --Contributed by Walter W. After being entered. White. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. and when once in true up to its size. take . if this method is followed: First. New Orleans. the drill does not need the tool. centering is just one operation too many. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. face off the end of the piece. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs.

The glass tube B. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. It can be used in a great number of tricks. by applying caustic soda or . vanishing wand. unknown to the spectators. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. and can be varied to suit the performer. shorter t h a n the wand. is put into the paper tube A. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. In doing this. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. and this given to someone to hold. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. the cap is placed over the paper tube. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. a long piece of glass tubing. after being shown empty. a bout 1/2 in. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. as shown in D. The handkerchief rod. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. shown at C. all the better. After the wand is removed. says the Sphinx.

Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 1/4 in. The sides. square and 1-7/8 in. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. cut to any shape desired. 1 End. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. 2 Sides. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. with the back side rounding. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. across the front and back to strengthen them. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. long. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. The brace at D is 1 in. Cut a piece of hard wood. 1 Bottom. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. by 14 by 17 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. 1. As the cement softens. preferably hard maple. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. Glue the neck to the box. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. Glue strips of soft wood. This dimension and those for the frets . as shown by K. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. can be made by the home mechanic. End. With care and patience. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. 3/16. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 1 Neck. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. ends and bottom are made of hard wood.potash around the edges of the letters. and glue it to the neck at F. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. thick.

Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. --Contributed by Chas. When it is completed you will have a canoe. toward each end.Pa. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. Frary. A board 1 in. H. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. wide and 11-1/2 ft.should be made accurately. 3/16 in. -Contributed by J. in diameter. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. but it is not. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Norwalk. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. Carbondale. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. and beveled . and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. or backbone. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. O. Stoddard. thick and about 1 ft. long is used for a keel. 1) on which to stretch the paper. Six holes. E. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat.

They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. Osiers probably make the best ribs. Green wood is preferable. in thickness and should be cut. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable.) in notches. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. buy some split cane or rattan. by means of a string or wire. 3.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. long. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. as they are apt to do. Fig. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. and. slender switches of osier willow. 3). and are not fastened. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. 3). long are required. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. 3/8 in. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. apart. These are better. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. The ribs. Fig. C. 1 and 2. Shape these as shown by A. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. 3. For the gunwales (a. Fig. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. a. but twigs of some other trees. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. and so. Fig. or other place. b. thick. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. the loose strips of ash (b. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. In drying. are next put in. 2). Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. C. some tight strips of ash. The cross-boards (B. b. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. Fig. Any tough. 4). B. twigs 5 or 6 ft. wide by 26 in. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. . or similar material. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. which are easily made of long. two strips of wood (b. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. 2. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. will answer nearly as well. such as hazel or birch. Fig. 1. in such cases. as shown in Fig. b. procure at a carriage factory. two twigs may be used to make one rib. Fig. but before doing this. Fig. as shown in Fig. with long stout screws. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. such as is used for making chairbottoms. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. 2).. thick. Fig. 13 in. and notched at the end to receive them (B. when made of green elm. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. as before described. 4. probably. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff.

The paper is then trimmed. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. after wetting it. of very strong wrapping-paper. but with less turpentine. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. Being made in long rolls. Then take some of the split rattan and. apply a second coat of the same varnish. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. It should be drawn tight along the edges. tacking it to the bottom-board. B. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. Fig. if it has been properly constructed of good material. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. however. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. You may put in . it can be obtained in almost any length desired. It should be smooth on the surface. When the paper is dry. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. If the paper be 1 yd. and very tough.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. and light oars. and steady in the water. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. and as soon as that has soaked in. When thoroughly dry. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. and held in place by means of small clamps. preferably iron. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. but neither stiff nor very thick. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. wide. If not. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. 5).

and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. Fig. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. 5). Drive the lower nail first. and make a movable seat (A. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. 1 and the end in . 2. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. fore and aft. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. Fig. We procured a box and made a frame. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. 5. Fig. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. to fit it easily. 1. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. and if driven as shown in the cut. they will support very heavy weights. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked.

This way has its drawbacks. Close the other end with the same operation. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. being softer where the flame has been applied. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. 5. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed.Fig. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. 4. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. 3. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. A good way to handle this work. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. This is an easy . and the glass. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. Pittsburg. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. Pa. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. this makes the tube airtight. and the result is. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb.

Work from the center along concentric rings outward.way to make a thermometer tube. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. -Contributed by A. fourth. extra metal all around. second. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. Give the metal a circular motion. then reverse. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. very rapid progress can be made. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. above the metal. 23 gauge. third. Seventh. Sixth. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. flat and round-nosed pliers. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. with a piece of carbon paper. metal shears. Oswald. The candle holders may have two. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . four. fifth. three. After the bulb is formed. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. above the work and striking it with the hammer. file. or six arms. also trace the decorative design. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. rivet punch. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. thin screw. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in.

Metal polish of any kind will do. drip cup. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. Small copper rivets are used. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. Having pierced the bracket. and holder. How To Make a Hectograph [326] .

I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. they were like an ice boat with a sail. A saw. smooth it down and then remove as before. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. and water 24 parts. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. I steer with the front wheel. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. and it will be ready for future use. and in a week . of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Shiloh. all the rest I found. J. Mother let me have a sheet. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. deep. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. of glycerine to about 200 deg. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. The gaff. winding the ends where they came together with wire. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. except they had wheels instead of runners. using a steel pen. alcohol 2 parts. and other things as they were needed. on a water bath. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. Heat 6-1/2 oz. hammer. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. The boom. is a broomstick. thus it was utilized.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. if it has not absorbed too much ink. Fifty. when it will be ready for use. the stick at the bottom of the sail. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. sugar 1 part. and brace and bit were the tools used. Twenty cents was all I spent. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. glycerine 4 parts. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. F. and add the gelatine. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. N. Soak 1 oz. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription.

A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. a projecting lens .

at a point 1 in. above the center. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. A and B. focus enlarging a 3-in. and a projecting lens 2 in. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. but if such a box is not found. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. at a distance of 24 ft. A table. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. well seasoned pine. wide and 15 in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. describe a 9-in. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. and 14 in. DD. and. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. 8 in. and the work carefully done. slide to about 6 ft. The board is centered both ways. 3. wire brads. as desired. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. 1. H. This ring is made up from two rings. or a lens of 12-in. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. If a small saw is used. The slide support. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other.. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. G. provided the material is of metal. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. wide. or glue. E. 1/2 to 3/4 in. high. long. and the lens slide. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. are . The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. thick. about 2 ft. Fig. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw.

The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. The arrangement is quite safe as. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. placed on the water. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. Minn. St. apply two coats of shellac varnish. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. the strips II serving as guides. To reach the water. and when the right position is found for each. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. should the glass happen to upset.constructed to slip easily on the table. Small strips of tin. light burning oil. JJ. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. E. of safe. A sheet . but not long enough. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed.-Contributed by G. Paul. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. P. B. the water at once extinguishes the flame.

The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. If one of these clips is not at hand. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. 9 in. Fig..Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. --Contributed by J. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. 12 ft. 4. 2. then the corners on one end are doubled over. 3 in. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. I ordered a canvas bag. N. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. Schenectady. form a piece of wire in the same shape. 3. Y. to cover the mattresses. by 12 ft. Fig. from a tent company. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 3. 1.H. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. Crawford.

On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. first mark the binding-post A. long and 3/16 in. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. A Film Washing Trough [331] . through which the indicator works. as shown in Fig. 1/2 in. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. 2. Attach a piece of steel rod. for amperes and the other post. Fig. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. Fig. D. 3 to swing freely on the tack. Warren. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. to the coil of small wire for volts. C. A rubber band. --Contributed by Walter W. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. thick. Fasten the wire with gummed label. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. Do not use too strong a rubber. Pa. Denver. 3/4 in. wide. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. and insert two binding-posts. To calibrate the instrument. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. White. in the center coil. Teasdale. drill two 3/16 in. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. long. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. insulating them from the case with cardboard. 2. 1. 2. Colo. Fold two strips of light cardboard. open on the edges. to keep it from unwinding. An arc is cut in the paper.each edge. apart. 3/4 in. so as to form two oblong boxes. 1. holes in the edge. V. 1/2 in. --Contributed by Edward M.

A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. --Contributed by M. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. as shown. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Wood Burning [331] .Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Cut a 1/4-in. M. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. with the large hole up. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. O. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Dayton. Hunting. Place this can on one end of the trough.

When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . mouth downward. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. then into this bottle place. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays.

the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. Auburn.Y. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. Place the small bottle in as before. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. Upper Troy. 2. provided the bottle is wide. long. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. thick. Whitehouse. but not very thick. many puzzling effects may be obtained. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . Ala. This will make a very pretty ornament. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. 3/4 in. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. If the small bottle used is opaque. wide and 4 in. as shown in the sketch. If the cork is adjusted properly. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. N. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. --Contributed by John Shahan. 1. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. --Contributed by Fred W. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A.

thick. I. 3. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. thick and 3 in. was keyed to shaft C. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. such as blades and pulleys. 1. line. 2. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. pulley. Milter. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. 1. Fig. 1. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. Fig. Fig. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. W. The 21/2-in. wide. high without the upper half. 1. long. --Contributed by D. The bearing blocks were 3 in. B. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. thick. pulley F. which was nailed to the face plate. which was 6 in. was 1/4in. Fig. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. which gave considerable power for its size. 2 ft. sugar pine on account of its softness. The wire L was put . as shown in Fig. 1 in. iron rod. 1. Both bearings were made in this manner. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. Its smaller parts. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. If a transmitter is used. even in a light breeze. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. or ordinary telephone transmitters. K. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. A staple. which extended to the ground. Fig. were constructed of 1-in. On a 1000-ft. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. in diameter and 1 in. The shaft C. by the method shown in Fig. G. to the shaft. 4.

in the center of the board P. long and bend it as . Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. long. so that the 1/4-in. The bed plate D. pine 18 by 12 in. 25 ft. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. providing one has a few old materials on hand. was 2 ft. 6. 6. 5. with all parts in place. This completes the receiver or sounder. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. There a 1/4-in. G. square to the board P at the top of the tower. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. If you have no bell. 1. 0. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. long and 1/2 in. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. 1. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. Fig. washers were placed under pulley F. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. 1. long. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. Fig. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. Fig. Fig. top down also. hole was bored for it. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. apart in the tower. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. 2. when the windmill needed oiling. wide and 1 in. 1. Fig. a 1/2-in. The other lid. long and bend it as shown at A. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. cut out another piece of tin (X. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. across the thin edge of a board. 1) 4 in. 3 in. The power was put to various uses. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. hole for the shaft G was in the center. was tacked. This board was 12 in. and was cut the shape shown. in diameter. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. H. R. The smaller one. for instance. through the latter. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. long and 3 in. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. To lessen the friction here. Fig. This fan was made of 1/4-in. Fig. To make the key. strips. Two washers were placed on shaft C. as. with brass headed furniture tacks. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum.

The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. as shown at Water. although it can be made with but two. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. When tired of this instrument. By adjusting the coils.shown. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. leaving the other wire as it is. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. as indicated. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. causing a buzzing sound. Thus a center drive is made. 2. and. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Now. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. after the manner of bicycle wheels. -Contributed by John R. using cleats to hold the board frame. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. like many another device boys make. 1. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. fitted with paddles as at M. Going back to Fig. at the front. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. McConnell. The rear barrels are. Before tacking it to the board. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him.

When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . feet on the pedals. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. 3. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. which will give any amount of pleasure. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. The speed is slow at first. If the journals thus made are well oiled. copper piping and brass tubing for base. There is no danger. as shown in Fig. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. 1. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. To propel it. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. there will not be much friction. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. or even a little houseboat. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. can be built. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond.

It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Fig. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . Turn a small circle of wood. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. If it is desired to make the light very complete. then the glass disc and then the other ring. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down.of pleasure for a little work. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. or it may be put to other uses if desired. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Fig. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. C. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. 2. Then melt out the rosin or lead. A. 1. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. and so creating a false circuit. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. Fig. 2. 1. 2. 1. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. If magnifying glass cannot be had. B. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Fig. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Place one brass ring in cylinder. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. D. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector.

The contact post may be of 1/4-in. X. such as is used for cycle valves. dry batteries. after two turns have been made on the key. by having the switch on the baseboard. To get the cylinder into its carriage. wire from batteries to switch. Chatland. and pulled tight. brass rod. some glue will secure them. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. When alarm goes off. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . Pa. set alarm key as shown in diagram. contact post. key of alarm clock. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. wide and 1/16 in. Utah. C. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. 4-1/2 in. Ogden. switch. bell. --Contributed by Geo. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. long. J. Brinkerhoff. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. while lying in bed. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . G. shelf. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring.. F. or 1/4in. which stops bell ringing. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. copper tubing. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. Swissvale. after setting alarm. 4 in. wire from light to switch. if too small. In placing clock on shelf.india rubber tubing. near the bed. I. long. T. E. H. brass strip. The parts indicated are as follows: A. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. To throw on light throw levers to the left. D. 3/8 in. bracket. --Contributed by C. B. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. C. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. 5-1/4 by 10 in. wire from bell to switch. To operate this. Throw lever off from the right to center. thick. S.

The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. as in Fig. Make a shoulder. --Contributed by Chas. which can be made of an old can. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. 3. beyond the end of the spindle.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. about 6 in. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. 1. a bed warmer. This is to form the fuse hole. 2. will do the heating. Lanesboro. in diameter. 1/4 in. A flannel bag. wide. from one end. Fig. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. 2. Pull out the nail and stick. gives the heater a more finished appearance. for instance. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. being careful not to get the sand in it. Fig. S. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Chapman. Fig. letting it extend 3/4 in. Having finished this. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. as at A. Minn. in diameter. 1. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. long. as at A. All that is required is a tin covering. 4 in. about 3-1/2 in. Make the spindle as in Fig. making it as true and smooth as possible. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. A small lamp of about 5 cp. place stick and all in a pail of sand. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. as . as at B.

3/8 in. wide and 6 ft. thick. 5/8 in. will be sufficient to make the trigger. The material must be 1-1/2 in. 11/2 in. A piece of tin. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. 6 in. good straight-grained pine will do. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. wide and 3 ft. or hickory. but if this wood cannot be procured. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . this is to keep the edges from splitting. ash. 1. Joerin. long. 1 in. spring and arrows. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. wide and 3/8 in. long. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. deep. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. --Contributed by Arthur E. thick. A piece of oak. long. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. thick. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. The illustration shows how this is done. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow.

A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. and one for the trigger 12 in. E. thick. The stick for the bow. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. 4. it lifts the spring up. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. --Contributed by O. 6. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. When the trigger is pulled. To shoot the crossbow. A spring. 8. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. The bow is not fastened in the stock. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. Trownes. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. as shown in Fig. Ill. which is 1/4 in. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Wilmette. Such a temporary safe light may be . A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. Fig. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. Fig. 9. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. 3. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. or through the necessity of. Fig. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. as shown in Fig. To throw the arrow. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. wide at each end. 2. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. having the latter swing quite freely. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. from the opposite end. in diameter. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. place the arrow in the groove. 7. The trigger. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. from the end of the stock. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. better still. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines.

The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. since the flame of the candle is above A. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. the bark lean-to is a . and replace as shown at B. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. Moreover. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. This lamp is safe. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. from the ground. and nail it in position as shown at A. apart. Remove the bottom of the box. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. respectively. says Photo Era. is used as a door. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. making lighting and trimming convenient. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. it is the easiest camp to make. Remove one end. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. By chopping the trunk almost through. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. from the ground. The cut should be about 5 ft. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. make the frame of the wigwam. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. The hinged cover E. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. C. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice.made from an empty cigar box in a short time.

Sheets of bark. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. nails are necessary to hold it in place. a 2-in. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. makes a good pair of tongs. For a permanent camp. spruce. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. wide and 6 ft. make the best kind of a camp bed. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. long and 1-1/2 in. wide. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. piled 2 or 3 ft. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. long. 6 ft. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. and split the tops with an ax. and cedar. long and 2 or 3 ft. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. In the early summer. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. and when the camp is pitched. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. deep and covered with blankets. For a foot in the middle of the stick. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. 3 ft. will dry flat. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. selecting a site for a camp. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. Where bark is used. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. thick.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. . A piece of elm or hickory. are a convenient size for camp construction. Tongs are very useful in camp. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only.

Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. hinges. .Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. and affording accommodation for several persons. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves.

into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. I drove a small cork. 1. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. about 4 in.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. --Contributed by James M. to another . and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. B. deep and 4 in. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Pa. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. wide. Kane. the interior can. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. B.. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. and provide a cover or door. Fig. A. Doylestown. changing the water both morning and night. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge.

a liquid. fused into one side.glass tube. The diagram. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. for instance. for instance. limit. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. 2. 3. to pass through an increasing resistance. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. which project inside and outside of the tube. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. The current is thus compelled. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. This makes . Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. if necessary. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. 4 and 5). as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. E. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. Fig. such as ether. C. 2. until. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered.

hole is . in diameter. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. which may be of any thickness so that. screws. thick. therefore. thick. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. These holes are for the bearing studs. mark off a space. 3-3/8 in. After cleaning them with the solution. A. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. in diameter. 4-1/2 in. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. assemble and rivet them solidly. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. Fig. 1. Alpena. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. which will make it uniform in size. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. or even 1/16 in. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. bent at right angles as shown. Then the field can be finished to these marks. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. larger than the dimensions given. is composed of wrought sheet iron. The bearing studs are now made. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. thicker. brass. tap. and for the outside of the frame. If the thickness is sufficient. set at 1/8 in. Fig. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. Michigan. 3. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. as shown in the left-hand sketch. When the frame is finished so far. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. 2. brass or iron. but merely discolored. or pattern. to allow for finishing. two holes. when several pieces are placed together. on a lathe. cannot be used so often. drill the four rivet holes. as shown in Fig. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. A 5/8in. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. clamp the template. between centers. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. by turning the lathe with the hand. they will make a frame 3/4 in. 3-3/8 in. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. Before removing the field from the lathe. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. After the template is marked out. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. making it 1/16 in.

The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. is turned up from machine steel. The shaft of the armature. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. file them out to make the proper adjustment. When the bearings are located. into which a piece of 5/8-in. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. and build up the solder well. solder them to the supports. brass rod is inserted. or otherwise finished. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. Fig. soldered into place. 4.

The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. to allow for finishing to size. as shown in Fig. The sides are also faced off and finished.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. wide. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. thick are cut like the pattern. holes through them for rivets. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. Rivet them together. 8. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. 1/8 in. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. Find the centers of each segment at one end. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. Armature-Ring Core. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. being formed for the ends. 5. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. then drill a 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. hole and tap it for a pin. When this is accomplished. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. by 1-1/2 in. brass rod. 3/4 in. The pins are made of brass. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. thick. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. Make the core 3/4 in. 6. sheet fiber. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. thick. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. 7. as shown in Fig. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. washers. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. and held with a setscrew. 1-1/8 in. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. as shown m Fig. deep and 7/16 in. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. After they . 3. thick. wide. inside diameter. threaded. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. 9. and then they are soaked in warm water. Procure 12 strips of mica. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. When annealed. or segments. as shown in Fig. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. 3. thick and 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. 6.. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. After the pieces are cut out.

wide and 1 in. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. yet it shows a series of . Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. 8 in. To connect the wires. and wind on four layers. of the end to protrude. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. sheet fiber. Fig. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Run one end of the field wire. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. and bring the end of the wire out at B. they are glued to the core insulation. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. 5. 1. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. Fig. long. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. This winding is for a series motor. about 100 ft. In starting to wind. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. The two ends are joined at B. 1. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. of the wire. shown at B. of No. thick. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. After one coil.have dried. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. The source of current is connected to the terminals. When the glue is set. being required. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. by bending the end around one of the projections. the two ends of the wire. All connections should be securely soldered. sheet fiber. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. or side. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. shown at A. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. after the motor is on the stand. The field is wound with No. which will take 50 ft. until the 12 slots are filled. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. are soldered together. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. The winding is started at A. 6 in.

You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. and one. or. A 1/2-in. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . which serves as the ground wire.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. still more simply. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. as in the case of a spiral. is fastened to the metallic body. one from each of the eight contacts. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. Nine wires run from the timer. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle.

The pointer end of the needle is painted black. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. 6 in. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. long. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing.The Wind Vane. Without this attachment. of the dial. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. It should be . 45 deg. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. board. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. thus giving 16 different directions. circle. Covering these is a thin.

high. Fill the box with any handy ballast. if not too high. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. To work these outlines. called a chip carving knife. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. 14 by 18 in. . long to give the best results. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. making it heavy or light. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. will be sufficient. though a special knife. and securely nail on the top of the box. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap.about 6 ft. -Contributed by James L. and about 6 in. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. will be enough for the two sides. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. however. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. or. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. Before tacking the fourth side. Cut 3-in. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. thus making a universal joint. also a piece of new carpet. Buffalo. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. will answer the purpose just as well. N. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. Place the leather on some level. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. Y. To make it. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. Blackmer. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. is most satisfactory. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. according to who is going to use it.

A good leather paste will be required. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. An ordinary sewing-machine .

can be thrown away when no longer needed. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. N. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. of water. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. Y. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. --Contributed by Katharine D. or a hip that has been wrenched. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. B. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. and tie them together securely at the bottom. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. of common salt and 10 lb. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. Syracuse. rather than the smooth side. a needle and some feathers. square and tying a piece of .will do if a good stout needle is used. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. temporary lameness. away from it. If a fire breaks out. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. Morse. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. as in cases of a sprained ankle. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. and fasten the feathers inside of it.

Gordon Dempsey. etc. 1/8 in. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. wide and 1/16 in. long. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. B. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. --Contributed by John A. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. letting it go at arm's length. which is the essential part of the instrument. and tacked it to the boards. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. deep. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. Y. F. There is a 1-in. Ashland. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. cut to the length of the spool. but not sharp. board all around the bottom on the inside. made up of four layers of No. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. wound on the head end. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. E. long. N. The coil is 1 in.. laying poisoned meat and meal. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. The end is filed to an edge. Hellwig. The diaphragm C. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. . and a coil of wire. Paterson. One end is removed entirely. A. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. as shown. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind.string to each corner. thus helping the rats to enter. high. the corners being wired. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. and the receiver is ready for use. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. N. commonly called tintype tin. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. G. Wis. --Contributed by J. The strings should be about 15 in. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. setting traps. This not only keeps the rats out. is cut on the wood. A small wooden or fiber end. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. The body of the receiver. Albany.J. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool.

The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. To clean small articles. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. and bend each strip in shape. better still. to . and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. A single line will be sufficient. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. Take a piece of string or. The vase is to have three supports. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. begin with the smallest scrolls. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. wide. gold. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. a piece of small wire. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution.

sharp pencil. After taking off the pattern.. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Fold the leather on the line EF. 3-1/4 in. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. from C to D. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. Press or model down the leather all around the design. using a duller point of the tool. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. from the lines EF on the piece. as shown in the sketch. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. 4-1/4 in. thus raising it. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. through which to slip the fly AGH. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. from E to F. 6-3/8 in. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. About 1 in.. .which the supports are fastened with rivets. Trace also the line around the purse. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. and does not require coloring. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. 3-1/2 in. wide when stitching up the purse. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. Work down the outside line of the design.

1 was cut. Make the lug 1/4 in. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. as shown in Fig. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. First. and a model for speed and power. and cut out a wheel. leaving the lug a. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. being cast in wooden molds. deep. long. This also should be slightly beveled.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. then nail it. 2. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. and the projections B. by 12 ft. and which will be very interesting. then place the square piece out of which Fig. with the open side down. 1. Cut off six pieces 12 in. thick.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. Fit this to the two . place it on one of the square pieces of wood. all the way around. and cut it out as shown in Fig. When it is finished. square. and tack the other piece slightly. 1/2 in. b. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. Now take another piece of wood. following the dotted lines. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. with pins or small nails. deep. It can be made without the use of a lathe. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. as well as useful. 3. and. with the largest side down. It is neat and efficient. around the wheel. Then nail the wheel down firmly. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. the "open" side. with a compass saw.

4. hole 1/4 in. Take the mold apart. hole entirely through at the same place. as shown by the . as shown by the black dots in Fig. in the center of it.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. Now put mold No. then bolt it together. and clean all the shavings out of it. 1. and cut it out as shown in Fig. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. and bore six 1/4-in. hole bored through its center. and lay it away to dry. one of which should have a 3/8-in. holes through it. square pieces of wood. bolts. deep. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. Now take another of the 12-in. slightly beveled. place it between two of the 12-in.pieces just finished. square pieces of wood. After it is finished. and boring a 3/8-in.

drill in it. Let it stand for half an hour. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. and drill it entirely through. so that it will turn easily. and pouring metal in to fill it up. from the one end. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and run in babbitt metal again. long. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. as shown in illustration. screw down. and two 1/4-in. and connect to the boiler. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. and the other in the base. one in the lug. only the one is left-handed. fasten a 3/8-in. This will cast a paddle-wheel. d. Pour metal into mold No. and 3/8-in. Put this together in mold No. where the casting did not fill out. b. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. until it is full. one in the projections. A piece of mild steel 5 in. place it under the drill. long.black dots in Fig. After it is fitted in. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. Commencing 1-1/2 in. and pour babbitt metal into it. over the defective part. 5. Using the Brace . 1. 4. and bore three 1/4-in. Fig. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. Then bolt the castings together.2. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. Now take mold No. Now cut out one of the 12-in. true it up with a square.1. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. the other right-handed. This is mold No. holes at d. 6. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. put the top of the brace through this hole. lay it on a level place. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. place the entire machine in a vise. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. instead of the right-handed piece. take an ordinary brace. This is for a shaft. in diameter must now be obtained. and the exhaust hole in projection b.1. B. and lay it away to dry. holes. see that the bolts are all tight. wide and 16 in. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. 6. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. This is the same as Fig.2. and drill them in the same manner.

Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. and. piece and at right angles to it. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. one 6 ft. while it is running at full speed. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. will do good service. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Then take a knife or a chisel. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. and the other 8 ft. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. At each end of the 6ft. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. and with three small screw holes around the edge. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. and if instructions have been carefully followed.. long. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Plan of Ice Boat . with a boss and a set screw. turn the wheel to the shape desired.

put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. in diameter. in diameter at the base. should be of hardwood. at the top. tapering to 1-1/2 in.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. where they often did considerable damage. long. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. Fig. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. plank nail 8-in. 1. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. 8 a reef point knot. Over the middle of the 6-ft. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. in diameter in the center. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. at the butt and 1 in. distant. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. This fits in the square hole. Run the seam on a machine. 1. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. bolt the 8-ft. long. 3. as the runners were fastened. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. piece and at right angles to it. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. which may come in handy in heavy winds. in front of the rudder block. Fig. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. projecting as in Fig. and about 8 in. long and 2-1/2 in. boards to make the platform. at the end. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. Make your runners as long as possible. plank. in the top before the skate is put on. The spar should be 9 ft. so much the better will be your boat. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. leaving 1 ft. 2 by 3 in. To the under side of the 8-ft. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. The tiller.

W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by J. so that they come in contact at C. Its parts are as follows: A. The arrangement proved quite too effective. B. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. and place it behind a stove. small piece of wood. Mechanicsburg. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. The . that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. Phoenix. block of wood nailed to A. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. P. bent into a hook at each end. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. P. S S. allowing the springs to contact at C. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. Pa. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. wide. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. Adams. to block B. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. --Contributed by John D. Ariz. R. Comstock. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. and the alarm bell will ring.

Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. high.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. Gild the pan all over. The seat arms may be any length desired. and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. 6 in. 1. in diameter. The center pole should be 10 ft. says the American Boy. Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flanges or washers having a slight concave to their face. The stump makes the best support. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands.