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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. Practice first at some object about 25 ft.Fig.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. The pieces are then dressed round. until it is bound as shown in Fig. Fig. 2 -. 2. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . --Contributed by J. It is held in this curve until dry. To throw a boomerang. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. Noble. Ontario. E. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. 1. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. grasp it and hold the same as a club. apart. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. as shown in Fig. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. long will make six boomerangs. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. as shown in Fig. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. 1. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. 1. away. with the hollow side away from you. A piece of plank 12 in. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. distant. wide and 2 ft. Toronto. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. 2.

A very light. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. which makes the building simpler and easier. or rather no bottom at all. thick. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. however. made of 6-in. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. one inside of the circle and the other outside. high and 4 or 5 in. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. the block will drop out. The top will then have a uniform inward slant.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. it is not essential to the support of the walls. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. 6 in. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. and it may be necessary to use a little water. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. dry snow will not pack easily. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. blocks . but about 12 in. First. A wall. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. minus the top. and with a movable bottom. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. long. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. If the snow is of the right consistency. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. forcing it down closely. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle.

long and 1 in. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. Fig. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. is 6 or 8 in. C. It also keeps them out. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. 1. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. The piece of wood. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. There is no outward thrust. A nail. 1. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. which can be made of wood. and the young architect can imitate them. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. 3 -. Fig. D. Union. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. wide. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. above the ground. Ore. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. Fig. a. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. 2. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. --Contributed by Geo. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. 2.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. or an old safe dial will do. which is about 1 ft. 3. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. Goodbrod. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates.

When taking hot dishes from the stove. Syracuse. says the Sphinx. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. one pair of special hinges. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. Merrill. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. the box locked . Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. --Contributed by R. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. New York. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. If ordinary butts are used. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. as the weight always draws them back to place. S. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling.

the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. Alberta Norrell. 2. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. 1. as shown. Place the piece in a vise. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. Augusta. Ga. allowing each coat time to dry. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. When the sieve is shaken. It remains to bend the flaps. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. With the metal shears. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. on drawing paper. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. If the measuring has been done properly. 3. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. To make a design similar to the one shown. draw one-half of it. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. smooth surface. proceed as follows: First. All . Fig. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. If they do not. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. one for each corner. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. about 1-32 of an inch. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. -Contributed by L.and the performer steps out in view.

Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. A piece of porcelain tube. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. of No. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. 25 German-silver wire. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. To keep the metal from tarnishing. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. should be in the line. C. When the current is turned off. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. as shown at AA.the edges should be left smooth. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. in passing through the lamp. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. long. is fitted tightly in the third hole. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. The current. from the back end. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. about 6 in. R. If a touch of color is desired. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. heats the strip of German-silver wire. used for insulation. H. in diameter. After this has dried. Colo. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. and in the positions shown in the sketch. --Contributed by R. A resistance. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. Denver. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. 25 gauge German-silver wire. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. which is about 6 in. The common cork. Galbreath. In boring through rubber corks. B. causing it to expand. if rolled under the shoe sole. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube.

A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Mo. as shown in Fig. 1. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. 3. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. with thin strips of wood. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. leaving a space of 4 in. between them as shown in Fig. Fig. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. 2. . Kansas City. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. Purchase two long book straps. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. --Contributed by David Brown. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely.bottom ring. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip.

and a pocket battery. Fig. 36 in. and one weighing 25 lb. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. one weighing 15 lb. which is the right weight for family use. Pa. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box.. --Contributed by Katharine D. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. just the right weight for a woman to use. to form a handle. as . These are shown in Fig. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. --Contributed by James M. The folds are made over the string.An ordinary electric bell. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. N. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. Doylestown. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. Two strips of brass. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. Y. 1. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. long. When the aeroplane tips. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. C. having a gong 2-1/2 in.. Morse. Fig. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. 4. Kane. Syracuse. in diameter. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. The string is then tied. 1. and tack smoothly. 2. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. A. are mounted on the outside of the box. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. 3. Fig. 1.

two 1/8 -in. if once used. Frame Made of a Rod . which can be purchased at a local hardware store. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. Y. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. --Contributed by Louis J. and many fancy knick-knacks. 3/32 or 1/4 in. four washers and four square nuts. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. Floral Park. bent as shown in Fig. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. N.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. such as brackets. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. AA. 1. 2. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. machine screws. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. Day. 2. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. in diameter. The saw. long.

five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. copper. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. Silver is the most desirable but. If it colors the metal red. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. In the design shown. A. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. For etching. Michigan. using a swab and an old stiff brush. --Contributed by W. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available.may be made of either brass. of water in which dissolve. as well as brass and copper. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Scranton. it has the correct strength. though almost any color may be obtained. The buckle is to be purchased. of water. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. 1 part nitric acid. green and browns are the most popular. Detroit. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. therefore. of course. Of the leathers. after breaking up. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. Rub off the highlights. use them in place of the outside nuts. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. allowing each time to dry. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. be covered the same as the back. 1 part sulphuric acid.. the most expensive. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. File these edges. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. Drying will cause this to change to purple. Watch Fob For coloring silver. if copper or brass. treat it with color. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. An Austrian Top [12] . Apply two coats. or silver. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. as well as the depth of etching desired.

When the shank is covered. long. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. Parts of the Top To spin the top. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. wide and 3/4 in. 5-1/4 in. Michigan. 1-1/4 in. Tholl. set the top in the 3/4 -in. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. The handle is a piece of pine. pass one end through the 1/16-in. hole. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. Ypsilanti. starting at the bottom and winding upward. hole in this end for the top. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. . in diameter. Bore a 3/4-in. is formed on one end. allowing only 1-1/4 in. --Contributed by J. 3/4 in. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. thick. A handle.F. A 1/16-in. long.

Alberta Norrell. tarts or similar pastry. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Northville. Mich. For black leathers. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. The baking surface. Ga. . Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. --Contributed by Miss L. having no sides. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Houghton. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. A. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Augusta. --A.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center.

A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. then solder cover and socket together. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. says Studio Light. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. the same as shown in the illustration. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. Mo. glass fruit jar. two turns will remove the jar. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. Centralia. Stringing Wires [13] A. When you desire to work by white light.

1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. They are fastened. 16 Horizontal bars. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. square by 62 in. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. 4 Braces. 4 Vertical pieces. Wis. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. so it can be folded up. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. square by 12 in. 1-1/4 in. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. and not tip over.for loading and development. as shown in the cross-section sketch. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. Janesville. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. 1-1/4 in. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. .

Rosenthal. -Contributed by Charles Stem. after filling the pail with water. H. Phillipsburg. After rounding the ends of the studs. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. The front can be covered . A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. and a loop made in the end. O. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. The whole.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. --Contributed by Dr. C. Cincinnati. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. If the loop is tied at the proper place. from scrap material. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. New York.

--Contributed by Gilbert A. and. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. principally mayonnaise dressing. The . 1 FIG. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. If the gate is raised slightly. Md. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. In my own practice. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. FIG.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. By using the following method. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. Baltimore. the color will be an undesirable. Develop them into strong prints. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. by all rules of the game. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. either for contact printing or enlargements. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. thoroughly fix. sickly one. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. if you try to tone them afterward. you are. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. Wehr. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. the mouth of which rests against a. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. The results will be poor.

.. in this solution. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder... --Contributed by T. The blotting paper can . Place the dry print. It will bleach slowly and evenly... The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper.. as it will appear clean much longer than the white.... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax... Iodide of potassium .bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. where it will continue to bleach... San Francisco. etc. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.... Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. preferably the colored kind. three times..... this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. Water .. With a little practice......... 2 oz. long to admit the angle support.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. without previous wetting.. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper..... An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in.. 5 by 15 in.. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.. when it starts to bleach. to make it 5 by 5 in.. transfer it to a tray of water..." Cyanide of potassium .. but. Cal.. 20 gr.. Gray. A good final washing completes the process. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.. wide and 4 in.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone..... 2. 1 and again as in Fig. 16 oz.. L.... When the desired reduction has taken place.... in size.. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.

the head of which is 2 in.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. --Contributed by L. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. wide below the . Corners complete are shown in Fig. the shaft 1 in. Monahan. wide. Wilson Aldred Toronto. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Wisconsin. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. having a width of 2-1/4 in. and a length of 5 in. Oshkosh. Canada. 3. Make a design similar to that shown. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use.J. 20 gauge. --Contributed by J.

FIG. 1 Fig. After this has dried. 3. which gives the outline of the design Fig. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. deep. Apply with a small brush. Make one-half of the design. then put on a second coat. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. . For coloring olive green. using carbon paper. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. Trace the design on the metal. using a small metal saw. being held perpendicular to the work. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. 1. 1 part sulphuric acid. using turpentine. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. With files. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. Fig. after folding along the center line. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. 4. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. then coloring. freehand. but use a swab on a stick. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. Do not put the hands in the solution. as shown in Fig. With the metal shears. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. 2. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. After the sawing. 1 part nitric acid. The metal must be held firmly. Allow this to dry. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. then trace the other half in the usual way. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. Pierce a hole with a small drill.

The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Ii is an ordinary staple. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. Cal. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. M. East Hartford. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. When this is cold. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. --Contributed by Katharine D. Richmond. Conn. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. then stain it a mahogany color. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. thick. Carl Cramer. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Morse. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. it does the work rapidly. --Contributed by H. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. attach brass handles. on a chopping board. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. New York. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. . as shown. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. Burnett. --Contributed by M. After the stain has dried. Syracuse. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared.

sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. --Contributed by Mrs. as shown in Fig. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. thick and 4 in. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. 1/4 in. 1. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. L.. brass. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. Fig. or tin. machine screws. Florida. A. as shown at A. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. in width at the shank. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. square. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. Atwell. not over 1/4 in. and several 1/8-in. Jaquythe. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. Richmond. some pieces of brass. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. Kissimmee. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. 4. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. --Contributed by W. Cal. holes. also locate the drill holes. one shaft. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. two enameled. H. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. saucers or pans. indicating the depth of the slots. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. about 3/16 in. 53 steel pens. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. thick. . Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. WARNECKE Procure some brass.

using two nuts on each screw. If the shaft is square. Fig. with 1/8-in. 3. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. about 1/32 in. wide. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. 5. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. into the hole. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. long and 5/16 in. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. thick. 1. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. with the face of the disk. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. machine screws. a square shaft used. each about 1 in. in diameter and 1/32 in. can be procured. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. and the ends filed round for the bearings. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. hole. long by 3/4 in. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. Fig. A 3/4-in. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together.. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. with a 3/8-in. 3. wide and bend as shown in Fig. lead should be run into the segments. supply pipe. Bend as shown in Fig. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. and pins inserted. The shaft hole may also be filed square. 2. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. 7. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. thick. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. as in Fig. There should be a space of 1/16 in. hole in the center. machine screws and nuts. hole is drilled to run off the water. These are connected to a 3/8-in. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. 2. If metal dishes. Fig. 6. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. brass and bolted to the casing. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. as shown. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin.

Be sure to have the cover. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. La Salle. Fasten with 3/4-in. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. --Contributed by S. long. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Canada. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. Stain the wood before putting in the . The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. deep and 1-1/4 in. high and 15 in. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. deep over all. three of which are in the basket. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. from the bottom end of the legs. make these seams come between the two back legs. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. --Contributed by F. When assembling. 8-1/2 in. Ill. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. we will call the basket. The lower part. Cooke. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. square and 30-1/2 in. With a string or tape measure. Now you will have the box in two pieces. Hamilton. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. screws. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. to make the bottom. The four legs are each 3/4-in. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. using four to each leg. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. from the top of the box. or more in diameter. Smith. V. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box.

Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . wide and four strips 10 in. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. wide. 1. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. When making the display. Cover them with the cretonne. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. Packard. Md. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. If all the parts are well sandpapered. as shown in the sketch. and gather it at that point. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. Fig. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. sewing on the back side. --also the lower edge when necessary. Mass. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Boston. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Baltimore.2 Fig. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. you can. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. 2. -Contributed by Stanley H. Sew on to the covered cardboards.lining. The side. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig.

Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. It is cleanly. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Fig. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. with slight modifications. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Orlando Taylor. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. --Contributed by H. Cross Timbers. It is not difficult to . These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Gloversville. and. saving all the solid part. 3. --Contributed by B. Mo. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Crockett. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. L. N. Y. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. When through using the pad. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home.

some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Both of these methods are wasteful. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. Bourne. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. are shown in the diagram. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. and secure it in place with glue or paste.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. it should be new and sharp. -Contributed by C. or if desired. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. across the face. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. --Contributed by Edith E. After stirring. and scrape out the rough parts. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. El Paso. Texas. remove the contents. S. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Mass. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. After this is done. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . If a file is used. Lane. Lowell.

Turl. Iowa. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Oregon. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. circled over the funnel and disappeared. The process works well and needs no watching. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. As these were single-faced disk records.cooking utensil. Ill. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. --Contributed by Geo. F. --Contributed by Loren Ward. He captured several pounds in a few hours. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. A Postcard Rack [25]. The insects came to the light. After several hours' drying. Those having houses . These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Oak Park. Canton. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Wheeler. Des Moines. Greenleaf. Ill. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. --Contributed by Marion P. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle.

and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Both sides can be put together in this way. --Contributed by Wm. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. Worcester. the bottom being 3/8 in. by 2 ft. the best material to use being matched boards. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. but for cheapness 3/4 in.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. material. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. and the second one for the developing bench. not even with the boards themselves. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Lay the floor next. The single boards can then be fixed. thick. Dobbins. Only three pieces are required. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. 6 in. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. 6 in.. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. --Contributed by Thomas E. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. one on each side of what will be the . plane and pocket knife. will do as well. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. and both exactly alike. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight.. Conn. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Rosenberg. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. Glenbrook. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. Mass. and as they are simple in design. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. boards are preferable.

That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. and to the outside board of the sides. 5. and the top as at C in the same drawing.. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. The developing bench is 18 in. 11. 9 by 11 in. The roof boards may next be put on. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. In hinging the door. 9). 3 and 4. as shown in Figs.. and in the middle an opening. 8. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. so that the water will drain off into the sink. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. Fig. 6. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. the closing side as at B. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. hinged to it. and act as a trap for the light. wide. 7. and should be zinc lined.. 6 and 9. is cut. It is shown in detail in Fig. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. so that it will fit inside the sink. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. brown wrapping paper. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door.doorway. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. 2 in section. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. of the top of the door for the same reason. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. 10). etc. which is fixed on as shown . below which is fixed the sink. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. by screwing to the floor. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. 6. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. At the top of the doorway. nailing them to each other at the ridge. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig.

Details of the Dark Rook .

The house will be much strengthened if strips. which makes it possible to have white light. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. 18. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. or the room may be made with a flat roof. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. Fig. Fig. 16. 13. For beating up an egg in a glass. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . Karl Hilbrich. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. Fig. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. --Contributed by W. Pennsylvania. The handle should be at least 12 in. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. preferably maple or ash.in Fig. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. as at I. as at M. 1. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. if desired. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. Erie. 20. 16. after lining with brown paper. are fastened in the corners inside. 14. as in Fig. 15. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. and a tank stand on it. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. though this is hardly advisable. Fig. but not the red glass and frame. as shown in the sections. A circular piece about 2 in. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. 2. hole bored in the center for a handle. it is better than anything on the market. these being shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. and a 3/8-in. mixing flour and water. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. 17. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. screwing them each way into the boards. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. In use. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. 19. four coats at first is not too many. 6. or red light as at K. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. 13.

Smith. G. Mo. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. which. --Contributed by Wm.copper should be. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Mitchell. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. -Contributed by E. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. D. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Ark. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Schweiger. about 3/8 in. long. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Kansas City. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. when put together properly is a puzzle. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. To operate. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. for a handle. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. --Contributed by L. Yonkers. Eureka Springs. as shown in the sketch. New York. L.

as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. which binds them together. 3. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. for the moment. 3. the rustic work should be varnished. to make it set level. as shown in Fig. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. Having completed the bare box. as shown in Fig. the box will require a greater height in front. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. as is usually the case. .Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. holes should be drilled in the bottom. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. need them. The design shown in Fig. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. If the sill is inclined. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. 1. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. Each cork is cut as in Fig. The corks in use are shown in Fig. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. especially for filling-in purposes. A number of 1/2-in. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. in order to thoroughly preserve it. After the box is trimmed. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. 2. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. as well as improve its appearance.

drilled at right angles. and observe results. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. 2. Traps do no good. But I have solved the difficulty. 3. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. . The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. Each long projection represents a leg. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. as shown in Fig. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. When the corn is gone cucumbers. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. 1. too dangerous. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. being partly eaten into. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. etc. cabbages. life in the summer time is a vexation. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. 4. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. it's easy. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. F. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill.. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. share the same fate. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. can't use poison.

To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. of No. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. -. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. About 9-1/2 ft. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. cut in 1/2-in. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. by trial.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. cut some of it off and try again. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. If. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. The solution can be used over and over again. long. . so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. the coil does not heat sufficiently. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. and made up and kept in large bottles. Iowa. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. strips.

spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Do not wash them. C. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. 1) removed. Knives. --Contributed by Victor Labadie.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. Pa. Fig 2. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. D. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. but with unsatisfactory results. Doylestown. Stir and mix thoroughly. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Kane. Dallas. to cause the door to swing shut. it falls to stop G. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. of oleic acid with 1 gal. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. forks. is a good size--in this compound. as shown in the sketch. hot-water pot. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. coffee pot. Syracuse. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. and a strip. In cleaning silver. Y. Texas. N. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. --Contributed by Katharine D. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. of gasoline. . The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. Morse. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. --Contributed by James M.

The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. New Orleans. La. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Fisher.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . but unfixed. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Harrisburg. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. using the paper dry. of course. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. which is. later fixed and washed as usual. negatives. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. Ill. Waverly. --Contributed by Oliver S. Pa. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. . --Contributed by Theodore L. Sprout. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand.

No two hamonograms are exactly alike. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. 1. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. To obviate this difficulty. The harmonograph. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. a harmonograph is a good prescription. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. metal. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. Fig. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. then . The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. In this uncertainty lies the charm. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. graceful sweep of the long pendulum.

Rosemont. to prevent any side motion. A small weight. 1. as shown in the lower part of Fig. with a nail set or punch. of about 30 or 40 lb. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. A pedestal.. Gaffney. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. A small table or platform. one-fourth. A length of 7 ft. The length of the short pendulum H. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. in the center of the circle to be cut. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. etc. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. is about right for a 10-ft. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. ceiling. exactly one-third. makes respectively 3. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. and unless the shorter pendulum is. or the lines will overlap and blur. Chicago. 1-3/4 by 2 in. R. provides a means of support for the stylus. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. --Contributed by Wm. Arizona. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. --Contributed by James T. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. Holes up to 3 in. in diameter. for instance. 1. as shown in Fig. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . K. Punch a hole. G. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. what is most important. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. one-fifth. is attached as shown at H.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups.. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. A weight. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. that is. J. Ingham. Another weight of about 10 lb. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. as long as the other. which can be regulated. such as a shoe buttoner. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in.

1.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. Cruger.J. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. Cape May City. 5. Chicago. of course.J. then 3 as in Fig. N. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. and proceed as before. 3. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. The capacity of the vise. 6. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. -Contributed by W. Fig. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. 2. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. then put 2 at the top. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. Fig. The two key cards are made alike. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. one for the sender and one for the receiver.H. and 4 as in Fig. a correspondent of . dividing them into quarters. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. distributing them over the whole card. --Contributed by J. 4. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. Morey.

30 gr. remove the prints. 6 gauge wires shown. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. Cut through the center. 1/2 oz. of ferricyanide of potash. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. After preparing the base and uprights. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. Wind the successive turns of . --Contributed by L. long. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. sheet of well made asbestos paper. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. of water. wood-screws. citrate of iron and ammonia. Alberta Norrell. If constructed of the former. drill 15 holes. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. Augusta. of 18-per-cent No. deep. To assemble. from the top and bottom.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. says Popular Electricity. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. Asbestos board is to be preferred. Ga. the portion of the base under the coil. After securing the tint desired. acetic acid and 4 oz. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. respectively. 1/4 in. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. 22 gauge German-silver wire. of the uprights. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. The two cut surfaces can be placed together.

such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. screws. cut and dressed 1/2 in. Small knobs may be added if desired. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. then fasten the upright in place. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. rivets. 16 gauge copper wire.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. etc. N. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry.. Ward. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. if one is not a smoker. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Ampere. Y. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. which. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. square. 14 gauge. as they are usually thrown away when empty. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. but these are not necessary. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. --Contributed by Frederick E. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. Labels of some kind are needed. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size.

Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. This is considerable annoyance. galvanized iron. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. A. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. then to the joint to be soldered. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. Jaquythe. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. Larson. B. . particularly so when the iron has once been used. zinc. In soldering galvanized iron. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap.. of glycerine to 16 oz. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. lead. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. California. brass. Copper. G. sandpaper or steel wool. tin. and rub the point of the copper on it. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. of water. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. Heat it until hot (not red hot).14 oz. If the soldering copper is an old one. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. or has become corroded. as shown in the sketch. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. being careful about the heat. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. --Contributed by W. it must be ground or filed to a point. The parts are put together with dowel pins. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. E and F. The material can be of any wood. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. especially if a large tub is used. Eureka Springs. and labeled "Poison. Richmond. tinner's acid. --Contributed by A. a piece of solder. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. Wis. Kenosha. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. D. --C. Ark. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. C. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. the pure muriatic acid should be used. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. S. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. and one made of poplar finished black.

Place the band. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. This will leave a clear hole. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. The punch A. in diameter. brass and silver. B. 7/8 in. and drill out the threads. a ring may be made from any metal. nut. C. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. D. W. The dimensions shown in Fig. which gives two bound volumes each year. -Contributed by H. Troy. The covers of the magazines are removed. 2. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. Fig. Six issues make a well proportioned book. This completes the die. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. Brass rings can be plated when finished. however. I bind my magazines at home evenings. wide. Fig. 1. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. Hankin. N. with good results. The disk will come out pan shaped. Apart from this. thick and 1-1/4 in. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. Y. such as copper. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. Take a 3/4-in. The metal used should be about 1/16 in.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. round iron. in diameter.

1. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. The covering can be of cloth. which is fastened the same as the first. The covering should be cut out 1 in. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. After drawing the thread tightly. on all edges except the back. through the notch on the left side of the string No. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. The sections are then prepared for sewing. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge.4. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. as shown in Fig. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. using . and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. 1/8 in. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. and a third piece. and then to string No. is used for the sewing material. of the ends extending on each side. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. threaded double. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. 1. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. . each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. C. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. Coarse white thread. If started with the January or the July issue. then back through the notch on the right side. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. 1 in Fig. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. deep. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. is nailed across the top. 2. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. The string No. 5. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. 1. and place them against the strings in the frame. Start with the front of the book. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. Five cuts. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. allowing about 2 in. 2. size 16 or larger. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. Place the cardboard covers on the book. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides.

College View. Divine. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. and mark around each one. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. at opposite sides to each other. Cal.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. --Contributed by Clyde E. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Tinplate. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. on which to hook the blade. Encanto. Nebr. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. and. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. For the blade an old talking-machine . then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. round iron. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Place the cover on the book in the right position.

as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. as shown. and 1/4 in. Make the blade 12 in. Summitville. bore. Then on the board put . C. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. with 10 teeth to the inch. On the upper side. and 1/4 in. and a long thread plug. with a steel sleeve. fuse hole at D. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. by 1 in. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. by 4-1/2 in. Ohio. at the same end.. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. -Contributed by Willard J. and file in the teeth. thick. E.. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. A. Miss. Moorhead. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. hydraulic pipe. and another piece (B) 6 in. thick. F.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. B. long. as it is sometimes called. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. in order to drill the holes in the ends. or double extra heavy. Hays.

Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. Philadelphia. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. high around this apparatus. If you are going to use a current of low tension. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. of wire to each coil. about 5 ft. and some No. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Boyd. of rubber-covered wire. 4 jars. the jars need not be very large. Connect up as shown. using about 8 in. --Contributed by Chas. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. as from batteries. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. A lid may be added if desired. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. some sheet copper or brass for plates. H. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . The size of the jars depends on the voltage.

above the ground. 4 in. 27 B. For the brass trimmings use No. wide and 2 in. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. A 3/4-in. and bolt through.. then apply a coat of thin enamel. 2. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. B.the way. two pieces 14 in. wide.. Equip block X with screw eyes. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. making them clear those in the front runner. by 1 in. 16-1/2 in. wide by 3/4 in. square by 14 ft. by 2 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. B. No. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. 2 in. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. long. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. 1 on switch. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. 5 on switch. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. by 5 in. and four pieces 14 in. 3 and No. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. The illustration shows how to shape it. thick. 2. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. 1 and so on for No. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig.. wide and 3/4 in. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. C. Put arm of switch on point No. 1 is connected to point No. by 5 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. as they are not substantial enough. The sled completed should be 15 ft. gives full current and full speed. on No. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. The stock required for them is oak. Use no screws on the running surface. Construct the auto front (Fig. beginning at the rear. Fig. by 6 in. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. is used to reduce friction. by 1-1/4 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. First sandpaper all the wood. . and for the rear runners: A. by 1-1/4 in. 3. 1. two for each jar. An iron washer. 11 in. two pieces 34 in. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. 30 in. long. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. On the door of the auto front put the . Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. 4) of 3/4-in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. are important. however. 2. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. long by 22 in. 2 is lower down than in No. direct to wire across jars.. sheet brass 1 in. with the cushion about 15 in. 2 and 3. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. by 2 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. To wire the apparatus. long. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. 34 in. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. C. two pieces 30 in. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. or source of current. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. as they "snatch" the ice. & S. Z.. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. In proportioning them the points A. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair.. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white.. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. steel rod makes a good steering rod. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. long. apart. 4. 7 in. A variation of 1/16 in. oak boards. 15-1/2 in. thick. Use no nails. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. At the front 24 or 26 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. and plane it on all edges. B and C. The current then will flow through the motor. Their size also depends on the voltage. 3 in. See Fig. The connection between point No. The top disk in jar No.

If desired. by 1/2 in. Fasten a horn. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. parcels. to the wheel. which is somewhat moist. lunch. etc. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. cheap material. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. overshoes. long. a brake may be added to the sled. fasten a cord through the loop. The best way is to get some strong. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. or with these for $25. such as burlap. a number of boys may share in the ownership. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. brass plated. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. Then get some upholstery buttons. If desired. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. to improve the appearance. may be stowed within. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . cutting it out of sheet brass. such as used on automobiles. If the expense is greater than one can afford. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. by 30 in. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled.

the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks.tree and bring. Leland. Ill. . the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. --Contributed by Stewart H. Lexington.

which. outside diameter and 1/16 in. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. CD.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . will be over the line FG. made from 1/16-in. some files. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. 1. E. thick. when flat against it. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. so that the center of the blade. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. The first tooth may now be cut. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. This guide should have a beveled edge. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. the same diameter as the wheel. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. though more difficult. Draw a circle on paper. With no other tools than a hacksaw. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. FC. 2. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. say 1 in. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. 3. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. A small clearance space. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. Fig. mild steel or iron. First take the case of a small gearwheel. by drawing diameters. with twenty-four teeth. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. Fig. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. from F to G. The Model Engineer. a compass. sheet metal. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. London. 4). The straight-edge. the cut will be central on the line. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. Fig. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side.

No shock will be perceptible. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. B. either the pencils for arc lamps. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. electric lamp. as shown in Fig. 1. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. R. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. 2.Four Photos on One Plate of them. Make a hole in the other. as shown in Fig. hold in one hand. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. If there is no faucet in the house. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. transmitter. ground it with a large piece of zinc. each in the center. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. and the other outlet wire. A bright. Focus the camera in the usual manner. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. 1. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. . Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. some wire and some carbons. or several pieces bound tightly together. B. Then take one outlet wire. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal.

leaving about 10 in. Ashland. Dry batteries are most convenient. A is a wooden block. one at the receiver can hear what is said. by 12 in. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. and about that size. at each end for terminals. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. But in this experiment. serves admirably. are also needed. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. They have screw ends. B. by 1 in. of course. If desired. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. as shown. One like a loaf of bread. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. Several battery cells. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. --Contributed by Geo. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. as indicated by E E. Pa. and again wind the wire around it. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. under the gable. or more of the latter has been used. J. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. For a base use a pine board 10 in. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. 36 wire around it. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Emsworth. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . and will then burn the string C. a transmitter which induces no current is used. Wrenn.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Ohio. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. D D are binding posts for electric wires. Then set the whole core away to dry. Slattery.

the terminal of the coil. From the other set of binding-posts. and one single post switch. E. At one side secure two receptacles. and the lamps. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. The apparatus is now ready for operation. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. Newark. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board.. in parallel. The coil will commence to become warm. run a No. 2. F. and switch. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. C. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. while C is open. D. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. B B. These should have hollow ends. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F.wire. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. First make a support. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. until the hand points to zero on the scale. Turn on switch. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. The oven is now ready to be connected. connecting lamp receptacles. 1. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. Connect these three to switch. for the . --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. 12 or No. D. 14 wire. Ohio. as shown. Jr. Fig. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. B B. Place 16-cp. Fig. in series with bindingpost. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. as shown. C.

This may be made of wood. Montreal. 36 magnet wire instead of No. After drilling. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. 4 in.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire.. and D. 1/2 in. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. etc. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. a battery. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. to prevent it turning on the axle. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. The core. is then made and provided with a glass front. 10 turns to each layer. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . remove the valve. from the lower end. 4. long and make a loop. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. a standard ammeter. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. 5. 5. drill through the entire case and valve.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. 4 amperes. wide and 1/8 in. A wooden box. drill a hole as shown at H. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. Mine is wound with two layers of No. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. 14. C. The pointer or hand. To make one. 1. Fig. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. This is slipped on the pivot. E. D. Dussault. where A is the homemade ammeter. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. B. thick. 3. 3 amperes. 1/4 in. is made of iron. 14 wire. long. 1. At a point a little above the center. although copper or steel will do. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. Fig. The box is 5-1/2 in. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. until the scale is full. Fig. Fig. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. wide and 1-3/4 in. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. a variable resistance. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. 7. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. high. although brass is better. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. but if for a 4way. If for 3-way. 2. 6. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. is made of wire. drill in only to the opening already through.or 4-way valve or cock. It is 1 in. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. as shown in the cut. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. D. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. inside measurements. --Contributed by J. deep. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes.E. wind with plenty of No. long.

in thickness . C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. and the other connects with the water rheostat. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. in diameter. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. This stopper should be pierced. provided with a rubber stopper. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. F. making two holes about 1/4 in. as shown. E. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. and the arc light. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. B. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. One wire runs to the switch. D. high.performing electrical experiments. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. By connecting the motor. and a metal rod. To start the light. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. A. which is used for reducing the current.

N. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Y. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. A piece of wood. 2. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. As there shown. Fig. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. 1. long. 1. If all adjustments are correct. --Contributed by Harold L. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. A. where he is placed in an upright open . B. as shown in B. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. 1. Fig. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. To insert the lead plate. Turn on the current and press the button. as shown in C. Having fixed the lead plate in position. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. 2. Fig. Having finished the interrupter. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. If the interrupter does not work at first. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Carthage. Jones. Fig. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D.

the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. the illusion will be spoiled. especially the joints and background near A. and wave his arms up and down. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. They need to give a fairly strong light. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. as the entire interior. by 7 in. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. figures and lights. until it is dark there. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. Its edges should nowhere be visible. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. The glass should be the clearest possible. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. to aid the illusion. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. loosejointed effect. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. If it is desired to place the box lower down. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. The lights. should be miniature electric lamps. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. which can be run by three dry cells.coffin. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. A white shroud is thrown over his body. light-colored garments. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. by 7-1/2 in.. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. is constructed as shown in the drawings. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. could expect from a skeleton. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. high. If everything is not black. All . with the exception of the glass. especially L. should be colored a dull black. and must be thoroughly cleansed. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. inside dimensions. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. from which the gong has been removed. L and M. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. A. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. and can be bought at Japanese stores. dressed in brilliant. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. within the limits of an ordinary room. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. giving a limp. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. The skeleton is made of papier maché. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. The model. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again.

Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. San Jose. W. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. --Contributed by Geo. as shown in the sketch. after which it assumes its normal color. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. If a gradual transformation is desired. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. Fry. fat spark. Two finishing nails were driven in.that is necessary is a two-point switch. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. square block. placed about a foot apart. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. Cal.

the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. Cohen. hydrogen gas is generated. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. 1. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. B and C. The plates are separated 6 in. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. into the receiver G. In Fig. by a piece of hard rubber at each end.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. soldered in the top. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. This is a wide-mouth bottle. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. A (see sketch). In Fig. with two tubes. F. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. New York. and should be separated about 1/8 in. -Contributed by Dudley H. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. by small pieces of wood. the remaining space will be filled with air. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. as shown. One of these plates is connected to metal top. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. or a solution of sal soda. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. If a lighted match . to make it airtight. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron.

A. should be only 5/16 of an inch. and the ends of the tube. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. B. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. is made by drilling a 1/8in. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. 2 shows the end view. which is plugged up at both ends. Fig. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. by means of the clips. 1/2 in. says the Model Engineer. 1. either by passing a current of electricity around it. or by direct contact with another magnet. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. in diameter and 6 in. P. A piece of 1/8-in. One row is drilled to come directly on top. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. A. N. 1-5/16 in. Fig. If desired. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. 36 insulated wire.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. A nipple. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. A. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. long. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. from the bottom. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. as is shown in the illustration. of No. which forms the vaporizing coil. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. N. A. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. The distance between the nipple. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. London. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. long. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. C C. is then coiled around the brass tube. then a suitable burner is necessary. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. copper pipe. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. A 1/64-in. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. copper pipe. in diameter and 2-1/2 in.

Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. duck or linen. Fig. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. longer and 1/4 in. taking care not to bend the iron. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. about 8 or 10 in.lamp cord. cut to the size of the pages. Fig. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. at the front and back for fly leaves. with a fine saw. should be cut to the diameter of the can. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. smoothly. but if the paper knife cannot be used. trim both ends and the front edge. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. Turn the book over and paste the other side. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. boards and all. A disk of thin sheet-iron. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. 3. fold and cut it 1 in. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. this makes a much nicer book. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. larger all around than the book. 1. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Fig. Cut four pieces of cardboard. 1/4 in. Take two strips of stout cloth. leaving the folded edge uncut. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). 2).

but its diameter is a little smaller. deep. --Contributed by James E. Another tank. and a little can. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. C. B. E. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. Ont. is turned on it. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. without a head. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. as shown in the sketch. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. of tank A is cut a hole. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. is perforated with a number of holes. which will just slip inside the little can. is made the same depth as B. pasting them down (Fig. --Contributed by Joseph N. H. is fitted in it and soldered. Noble. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. Parker. D. Another can. or rather the top now. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. 18 in. Va. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. in diameter and 30 in. A gas cock. . 4). the joint will be gas tight. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. In the bottom. Toronto.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. is soldered onto tank A. This will cause some air to be enclosed. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. as shown. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. A. Bedford City. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw.

as shown at C. If the pushbutton A is closed. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. E. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. Bott.. shows how the connections are to be made. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. B. when finished. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. Fig. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. D. 2. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. should be cut a little too long. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. B. to prevent splitting. N. which moves to either right or left. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. D. long. B. with an electric-bell magnet. making the width. The armature. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. Beverly. basswood or white pine. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. The wiring diagram. H is a square knot. -Contributed by H. tacks. J. thus adjusting the . How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. A. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. square by 42 in. are shown in detail at H and J. The diagonal struts. should be 1/4 in. S.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. The longitudinal corner spines. and about 26 in. long. If the back armature. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. Fig. The small guards. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. and sewed double to give extra strength. 1. and the four diagonal struts. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. by 1/2 in. which may be either spruce. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. should be 3/8 in. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. exactly 12 in. fastened in the bottom. A A. C. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. The bridle knots.

Kan. Closing either key will operate both sounders. If the kite is used in a light wind. for producing electricity direct from heat. shift toward F. however. --Contributed by Edw. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. D. E. as shown. the batteries do not run down for a long time. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. to prevent slipping. can be made of a wooden . thereby lengthening G and making F shorter.lengths of F and G. A bowline knot should be tied at J. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. Stoddard. Clay Center. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Harbert. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. and if a strong wind is blowing. Chicago. and. --Contributed by A. that refuse to slide easily. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. with gratifying results. thus shortening G and lengthening F.

with a number of nails. C. When the cannon is loaded. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. which conducts the current into the cannon. by means of machine screws or. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. E. A. The wood screw. 14 or No. with a pocket compass. and also holds the pieces of wood. placed on top. Chicago. C. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. and the current may then be detected by means. spark. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. --Contributed by A. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. to the cannon. Fasten a piece of wood. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. C. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . A. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. F. D. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil.frame. A. in position. Then. E. 16 single-covered wire.. A and B. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. or parallel with the compass needle. B. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries.

Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. in this position the door is locked. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. A. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. --Contributed by Henry Peck. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. In Fig. Keil. Fig. when in position at A'. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. Connect as shown in the illustration. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. press the button. To unlock the door. Mich. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. with the long arm at L'. Big Rapids. square and 3/8 in. Bend the strips BB (Fig. Marion. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. 1. within the reach of the magnet. A and S. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. but no weights or strings. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. 1. now at A' and S'. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Chicago.the current is shut off. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. To lock the door. where there is a staple. requiring a strong magnet. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. A hole for a 1/2 in. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. To reverse. . Ohio. 1. H. B. to receive the screw in the center. Fig. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. L. A and S. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. screw is bored in the block. --Contributed by Joseph B. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block.

a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. Rand. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. When ready for use. The standard and base.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. Mass. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. if enameled white on the concave side. and if desired the handles may . The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. --Contributed by C. put in the handle. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. When the holes are finished and your lines set. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. hole. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. Thread the other end of the pipe. or for microscopic work. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. and C is a dumbbell. and may be made at very slight expense. long. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. J. are enameled a jet black. about 18 in. gas-pipe. pipe with 1-2-in. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. West Somerville. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black.

Warren. as shown at A in the sketch. E. Mass. Make a cylindrical core of wood. long and 8 in. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. which shall project at least 2 in. 1. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. A. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. inside the pail. across. B.. M. Fig. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. --Contributed by C. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. across.be covered with leather. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Fig. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. D. with a cover. North Easton. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. 1. 8 in. high by 1 ft.

. carefully centering it. but will be cheaper in operation. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. if you have the materials. and cut it 3-1/2 in. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. Line the pail. strip of sheet iron. cutting the hole a little smaller. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. the point of the blue flame. such . After finishing the core. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in.-G. Fig. Fit all the parts together snugly. 1). which is the hottest part. 2. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. Set aside for a few days until well dried. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. C. say 1/4 in. wider than the kiln. if there is to be any glazing done. or make one yourself.. 25%. passing wire nails through and clinching them. and graphite. Wind about 1/8 in. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. long over the lid hole as a chimney. as is shown in the sketch. long. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. pipe. the firing should be gradual. make two wood ends. sand. 2 in. If the cover of the pail has no rim. and 3/4 in. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. 1390°-1410°. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. W. hard porcelain. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. thick. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. let this dry thoroughly. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. 60%. projecting from each end (Fig. diameter. 3) with false top and bottom. E. of fine wire. 15%. full length of iron core. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. 1330°. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. thick. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. in diameter. Whatever burner is used. and 3/8 in. about 1 in. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. bottom and sides. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. This done. hotel china. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. C. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. pack this space-top.. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. It is placed inside the kiln. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. Cover with paper and shellac as before. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. When lighted. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. and on it set the paper wrapped core. as dictated by fancy and expense. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. The 2 in. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. and with especial caution the first time. and varnish. and your kiln is ready for business. layer of the clay mixture. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried.mixture of clay. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. After removing all the paper. 1). to hold the clay mixture. L. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. but it will burn a great deal of gas. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. in diameter. pipe 2-ft. C.

A. 2. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. C. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. B. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. Washington. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. square them up and place in a vise. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. as in Fig. C. and divide it into two piles. around the coil. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. procure a new deck. all cards facing the same way. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. R. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. overlaps and rests on the body. and plane off about 1/16 in.. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. red and black. Then take the black cards. about 1/16 in. T. C. 2. Of course. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. bind tightly with black silk.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. a regulator must be had for the vibrator.53 in. Take the red cards. length of . diameter. You can display either color called for. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. with a plane. 8 in. square them up. 1. as in Fig. leaving long terminals. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. Next restore all the cards to one pack. taking care to have the first card red. and so on. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. every alternate card being the same color. as shown in the sketch herewith. The funnel. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. --Contributed by J. D. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. the next black. and discharges into the tube. 2). Then. . Chicago.

N. Fig.J. When the glass is put in the frame a space. 1 gill of fine white sand. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. the same ends will come together again. through the holes already drilled. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. C. to form a dovetail joint as shown. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. Let . the first thing to decide on is the size. F. stove bolts.C. of the frame. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. All the horizontal pieces. B. The bottom glass should be a good fit. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. stove bolts. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. A. B. E. and then the frame is ready to assemble. Drill all the horizontal pieces. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. D. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. angle iron for the frame. 1. The upright pieces. The cement. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. and this is inexpensive to build. To find the fall of snow. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. about 20 in. It should be placed in an exposed location.. as the difficulties increase with the size. B. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. Long Branch. 1 gill of litharge. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. so that when they are assembled. A. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. thus making all the holes coincide. E.

Aquarium Finished If desired. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. Fasten the lever. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . if desired. on the door by means of a metal plate. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. a centerpiece (A. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. having a swinging connection at C.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. Fig. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. B. and. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. D. A. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. to the door knob.

1. 2 at GG. 26 in. Cut two of them 4 ft. with a water pressure of 70 lb. Cut two pieces 30 in. and another. several lengths of scantling 3 in. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. N. Do not fasten these boards now. 6 in. Fig. showing the paddle-wheel in position. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. Buffalo. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. D. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. B. To make the frame. Y. E. Fig. and Fig. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. from the outside top of the frame. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. to form the slanting part. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. another. 1. White. AA.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. long. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. 1 . 2 ft. 1 is the motor with one side removed. as at E. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. to form the main supports of the frame. screwed to the door frame. Fig. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. Fig. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. another. according to the slant given C. for the top. which is 15 in. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. Fig. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. wide . A small piece of spring brass. will open the door about 1/2 in. C. soldered to the end of the cylinder. to keep the frame from spreading. long. long. long. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. They are shown in Fig. approximately 1 ft. 2 is an end view. Fig. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. but mark their position on the frame. PAUL S.. I referred this question to my husband. hoping it may solve the same question for them. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. Two short boards 1 in. F. thus doing away with the spring. wide by 1 in. --Contributed by Orton E. 3 shows one of the paddles.

Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. 2) with a 5/8-in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. steel shaft 12 in. iron 3 by 4 in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. holes. hole through the exact center of the wheel. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right.burlap will do -. and drill a 1/8-in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. and drill a 1-in. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. (I. Fig. with the wheel and shaft in place. iron. Make this hole conical. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. 2) form a substantial base. hole from the tops to the 1-in. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. hole through its center. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. and a 1/4 -in. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. pipe. that is. 24 in. Fig. Next secure a 5/8-in. take down the crosspieces. hole through them. 4. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Drill 1/8-in. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. as shown in Fig. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Now block the wheel. Fasten them in their proper position. GG. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. Fig. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. When it has cooled. 1. after which drill a 5/8 in.along the edges under the zinc to form . from one end by means of a key. long and filling it with babbitt metal. thick (HH. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). in diameter. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. Tack one side on. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. These are the paddles. hole through their sides centrally. by 1-1/2 in. tapering from 3/16 in. Take the side pieces. hole to form the bearings. long to the wheel about 8 in. thick. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. 2) and another 1 in. remove the cardboard. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. to a full 1/2 in. then drill a 3/16-in. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK.

We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. sewing machine. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. of course. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. and the subject may move.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. shutting out all light from above and the sides. Focus the camera carefully. drill press. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. and as near to it as possible. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. Raise the window shade half way. place the outlet over a drain. The best plate to use is a very slow one. on the lens. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. as shown in the sketch at B. but as it would have cost several times as much. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. Darken the rest of the window. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. Drill a hole through the zinc. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. If sheet-iron is used. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. start the motor. says the Photographic Times. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. it would be more durable. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. or what is called a process plate. If the bearings are now oiled. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. but now I put them in the machine. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. Correct exposure depends. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. light and the plate. Do not stop down the lens. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. and leave them for an hour or so. . remove any white curtains there may be. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. any window will do. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation.a water-tight joint. ice-cream freezer. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. as this makes long exposure necessary. It is obvious that.

with binding posts as shown. 2. by twisting. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. A. The glass tube may be a test tube. a glass tube. and without fog. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. hard rubber. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. the core is drawn down out of sight. which is made of iron and cork. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. full of water. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. D. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. or wood. On completing . The current required is very small. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. and a base. as a slight current will answer. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. without detail in the face. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. or an empty developer tube. The core C. an empty pill bottle may be used. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. C. until the core slowly rises. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. With a piece of black paper. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. 2. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. a core. or can be taken from an old magnet. B.

This is a mysterious looking instrument. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . water and 3 oz. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. 1. and are changed by reversing the rotation. and one not easy to explain. 1 pt. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. 1 lb. is Benham's color top. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. whale oil. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. white lead. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. and make a pinhole in the center. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. The colors appear different to different people. according to his control of the current. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. finest graphite.

and asks an observer to withdraw a card. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. As this device is easily upset. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. especially if the deck is a new one. or three spot. when the action ceases. -Contributed by D. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. B. nearly every time.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. before cutting. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. thus partly filling bottles A and C. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. C. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. In making hydrogen. deuce. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. Chicago. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. A. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner.. fan-like. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. In prize games. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words.B.L. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc.

Dak. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. that will fit loosely in the tube A. 3). S. Fig. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Fig. 12 in. 2. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. W. in length and 3 in.. Bently. 4. Jr.. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. long and 3 in. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. long. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Huron. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. as shown in Fig. S. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. J. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. 10 in. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. 9 in. (Fig. --Contributed by C. Make a 10-sided stick. Detroit.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. 1. in diameter. Form a cone of heavy paper. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. Detail of Phonograph Horn . . long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. --Contributed by F. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw.

Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. but bends toward D. with a pin driven in each end. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. and walk in. Denver. --Contributed by Reader. allowing 1 in. Cut out paper sections (Fig. making it three-ply thick. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. C. it is equally easy to block that trick. push back the bolt. Fig. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. will cause an increased movement of C. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. about the size of a leadpencil. A second piece of silk thread. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. on one side and the top. A piece of tin. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. 6. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. long. A. Remove the form. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. E. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. bend it at right angles throughout its length. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. Fortunately.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock.

. Paul. Jr. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. long. The upper switch. B.strip. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. A. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. or left to right. are made 2 by 4 in. The reverse switch. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. and rest on a brick placed under each end. Minn. R. The feet. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. West St. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . posts. Two wood-base switches. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. is connected each point to a battery. put together as shown in the sketch. The 2 by 4-in. 4 ft. S. --Contributed by J. as shown. long. while the lower switch. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. are 7 ft. S. By this arrangement one. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor.. B. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. Fremont Hilscher. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. S S. W. will last for several years.

The hose E connects to the boiler. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. FF. cut in half. which will be described later. is an old bicycle pump. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. Fig. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. and in Fig. The steam chest D. or anything available. pulley wheel. 2. thick. The valve motion is shown in Figs. The piston is made of a stove bolt. 2 and 3. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. the other parts being used for the bearing B. and the crank bearing C. E. which is made of tin. with two washers. and a cylindrical . and has two wood blocks.every house. the size of the hole in the bearing B. In Fig. and valve crank S. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. The base is made of wood. either an old sewing-machine wheel. Fig. 1. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. H and K. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. 3/8 in. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base.

The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. or galvanized iron. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. as it is merely a trick of photography. Fry. Cal. 3. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. Eustice. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. San Jose. Fig. Wis. as shown in Fig. powder can. 4. J. . Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. The boiler. and saturated with thick oil. First. Fig. G. --Contributed by Geo. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. The valve crank S. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. at that. is cut out of tin. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. This engine was built by W. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. This is wound with soft string. 1. G. W. can be an old oil can. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. of Cuba. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. C. and the desired result is obtained. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. and a very amusing trick. to receive the connecting rod H. Schuh and A. using the positive wire as a pen.piece of hard wood.

3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. B. Cut half circles out of each stave. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. Fig. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. diameter. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. The smaller wheel.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. C. as shown at AA. to cross in the center. 1 by covering up Figs. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. and Fig. Fig. Fig. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. and pass ropes around . and place a bell on the four ends. 1 will be seen to rotate. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. B. When turning. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. They may be of any size. as shown.

procure a wooden spool.M. produces a higher magnifying power). The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. W.G. A (a short spool. which allows the use of small sized ropes. Mo.. which accounts for the sound. long. St. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. but not on all. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. Louis. as shown in the illustration. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. This in turn will act on the transmitter. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. from the transmitter. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. To make this lensless microscope. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. From a piece of thin . thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. --Contributed by H. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. such as clothes lines. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry.

An innocent-looking drop of water. the object should be of a transparent nature. the diameter will appear twice as large. H. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. E. 2. reveals hundreds of little infusoria.. which costs little or nothing to make. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. To use this microscope.. can be made of brass and the armature. in which hay has been soaking for several days. is made of iron. is fastened at each end by pins. C. darting across the field in every direction. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. and look through the hole D. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. as in all microscopes of any power. and at the center. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. . by means of brads. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. (The area would appear 64 times as large. e. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. place a small object on the transparent disk. The lever. held at arm's length. The spring. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. Viewed through this microscope. and so on.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. B. if the distance is reduced to one-half. cut out a small disk. B. which are pieces of hard wood. A. fastened to a wooden base. i. The pivot. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. the diameter will appear three times as large. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. or 64 times. 1. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. Fig. C. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings.) But an object 3/4-in. if the distance is reduced to one-third. D. bent as shown. 3. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. otherwise the image will be blurred. D.

wide. . fastened near the end. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. The back. brass: B. HH. Cut the top. K. D. 26 wire: E. long and 14-1/2 in. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. in length and 16 in. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. thick. and are connected to the contacts. long. is cut from a board about 36 in. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. F. FF. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. K. wood: F. Fig. E. Each side. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. or a single piece. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. A switch. KEY-A. 1. 16 in. wide and about 20 in. The base of the key. A. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. coils wound with No. between the armature and the magnet. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. wide. brass: E. wood: C. The door. 2. should be about 22 in. brass or iron soldered to nail. B. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. Fig. The binding posts. D.SOUNDER-A. DD. wood. C. long by 16 in. wide. nail soldered on A. similar to the one used in the sounder. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. brass. which are made to receive a pivot. soft iron. wide. B. connection of D to nail. 16 in. C. AA. can be made panel as shown. or taken from a small one-point switch. wide and set in between sides AA. binding posts: H spring The stop. D.

brads. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. E. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. as shown in the sketch. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. with 3/4-in. Garfield. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. cut in them. Ill.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. material. 13-1/2 in. long. When the electrical waves strike the needle. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. Make 12 cleats. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. AA. 2 and made from 1/4-in.. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. In operation. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. as shown.

The cord is also fastened to a lever. will give a greater speed. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. pulls down the armature. A. through which a piece of wire is passed. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. N. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. N. Ridgewood. A. A fairly stiff spring. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. Pushing the wire. and. --Contributed by R. B. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . C. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. Fairport. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. in order to increase the surface. Brown. A (see sketch). Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. the magnet. F. when used with a motor. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. --Contributed by John Koehler. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. When the pipe is used. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. filled with water. E. down into the water increases the surface in contact. Y. and thus decreases the resistance. J.

Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. --Contributed by Perry A. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Of course. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Borden. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two.for the secret contact. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. Gachville. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. if desired. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. even those who read this description. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. N. B. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7.

records. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. The top board is made 28-in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. records and 5-5/8 in.. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. wide. The three shelves are cut 25-in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. --Contributed by Dr. Dobson. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. Jr. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. E. J. as shown in Fig. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. Compton. C. 2. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. Washington. Two drawers are fitted in this space. C. wide. for 6-in. from the bottom. as shown in Fig. N. long and 5 in.whenever the bell rings. for 10in. With about 9 ft. wide. in a semicircle 2 in. Connect switch to post B. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. wide. 1. where the other end of wire is fastened. A. Cal. deep and 3/4 in. apart. long and full 12-in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. thick and 12-in. H. East Orange. From a piece of brass a switch. and on both sides of the middle shelf. Mangold. D. wide. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. --Contributed by H. .

closed. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. as shown in Fig. 1. to which is fastened a cord. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] .Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. Va. A. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. Roanoke. B. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. which in operation is bent. E. as shown by the dotted lines. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. When the cord is passed over pulley C.

1. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. long. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. apart. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. it too loose. Cut two grooves. B. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. as shown in the illustration. having the same center as the first circle (Fig.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. In the sides (Fig. Now put all these parts together. The crankpin should fit tightly. in diameter. square and 7/8 in. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. through one of these holes. holes (HH. Notice the break (S) in the track. which should be about 1/2 in. E. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. 5) when they are placed. In these grooves place wheels. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. Fig. 3. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. wide. excepting the crank and tubing. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. D. they will let the air through. to turn on pins of stout wire. deep. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. Figs. 1 in. CC. 4 shows the wheel-holder. but a larger one could be built in proportion. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. 3). Bore two 1/4 in. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. E. Put the rubber tube. thick (A. These wheels should be 3/4 in. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. If the wheels fit too tightly. in diameter. Figs. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. wide. Fig. in diameter. in diameter. 1 in. Fig. they will bind. deep and 1/2 in. thick. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. Do not fasten the sides too . one in each end. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. against which the rubber tubing. is compressed by wheels.

For ease in handling the pump. from each end. though a small iron wheel is better. as shown in Fig. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. 1. 17-1/2 in. mark again. The animal does not fear to enter the box. Take the center of the bar. Cut six pieces. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. If the motion of the wheels is regular. Idana. and are 30 in. and mark for a hole. Fig. Fig. 2. costing 10 cents. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. from each end. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. from the bottom and 2 in. The screen which is shown in Fig. Hubbard. beyond each of these two. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. a platform should be added. Fig. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. is all the expense necessary. the pump will give a steady stream. The three legs marked BBB. Two feet of 1/4-in. of material. To use the pump. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. as it gives steadiness to the motion. because he can . AA. 1. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. Kan. iron. 1. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. Fig. --Contributed by Dan H. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. B. mark for hole and 3 in. Then turn the crank from left to right. 15 in.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. A in Fig. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. tubing. the other wheel has reached the bottom. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. AA. 1. 1. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. In the two cross bars 1 in. from that mark the next hole. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. stands 20 in. long. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. and 3-1/2 in. from each end. 2. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube.

Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. The mercury will adhere.see through it: when he enters. however. of the top. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. of water dissolve 4 oz. . potassium bichromate. but if one casts his own zinc. Place the carbon in the jar. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. shuts him in. When through using the battery. Meyer. 1) must be prepared. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. It is useful for running induction coils. dropping. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. If the solution touches the zinc. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. --Contributed by H. until it is within 3 in. or small electric motors. The truncated. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. If it is wet. and touches the bait the lid is released and. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. Philadelphia. or. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. and the solution (Fig. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. some of it should be poured out. sulphuric acid. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. stirring constantly. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. acid 1 part). 4 oz. 14 copper wire. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. The battery is now complete. long having two thumb screws. giving it a bright. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. To cause a flow of electricity. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. C. If the battery has been used before. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. The battery is now ready for use. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. there is too much liquid in the jar. When the bichromate has all dissolved. rub the zinc well. 2). silvery appearance. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. add slowly.

. the battery circuit. while the coal door is being opened. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. The price of the coil depends upon its size. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. After putting in the coal. which opens the door. e.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. Wis. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. pressing the pedal closes the door. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. the jump-spark coil . The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. with slight changes.Fig. i. If. however. Madison.

by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". coil. being a 1-in. 7. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. diameter. Now for the receiving apparatus. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. W W. apart. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. 6. Fig. This coil. 6. 7. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. which is made of light copper wire. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig.described elsewhere in this book. made of No. W W. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. as shown in Fig. in a straight line from top to bottom. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. This will make an excellent receiver. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. as shown in Fig. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. Change the coil described. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. 5.7. while a 12-in. in a partial vacuum. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. the full length of the coil. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. and closer for longer distances. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. 7). This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. After winding. .

to the direction of the force that caused the circles. wireless is very simple when it is once understood.The aerial line. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. A large cone pulley would then be required. The writer does not claim to be the originator. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. but simply illustrates the above to show that. B the bed and C the tailstock. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. in the air. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. to the direction of the current. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. above the ground. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. For an illustration. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. A. but it could be run by foot power if desired. 1 to 4.6 stranded. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. No. only. being vertical. using an electric motor and countershaft. are analogous to the flow of induction. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. which will be described later. after all. may be easily made at very little expense. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. and hence the aerial line. 90°. where A is the headstock. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. as it matches the color well. Figs. at any point to any metal which is grounded. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. . 90°. I run my lathe by power. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. These circles. 1). Run a wire from the other binding post. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. being at right angles.

4. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. and runs in babbitt bearings. just touching the shaft. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. deep. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . 5. To make these bearings. 4. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. steel tubing about 1/8 in. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. but not hot enough to burn it. too. thick. tapered wooden pin. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. Heat the babbitt well. 5. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. pitch and 1/8 in. The bolts B (Fig. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. Fig. 2 and 3. Fig. and Fig. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. 6. If the bearing has been properly made. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. A. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. B. on the under side of the bed. one of which is shown in Fig. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. which are let into holes FIG. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. After pouring. which pass through a piece of wood. 6 Headstock Details D. The bearing is then ready to be poured. Fig. Fig. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. and it is well to have the shaft hot. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. The headstock.

I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. A. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. If one has a wooden walk. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. FIG. and a 1/2-in. the alarm is easy to fix up. they may be turned up after assembling. lock nut.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. Newark. This prevents corrosion. If not perfectly true. so I had to buy one. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. B.J. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. Ill. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. Take up about 5 ft. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. The tail stock (Fig. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. of the walk .other machines. N. Oak Park. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. embedded in the wood.

Jackson. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. to roughen the surface slightly. clean the articles thoroughly. S. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Minn. and the alarm is complete. To avoid touching it. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. to remove all traces of grease. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. Minneapolis. Fig. leaving a clear solution. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. of water. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. silver or other metal. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Finally.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. water. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. (A. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. add potassium cyanide again. save when a weight is on the trap. Connect up an electric bell. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. so that they will not touch. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. before dipping them in the potash solution. Then make the solution . --Contributed by R. hang the articles on the wires. 2).

about 25 ft. 10 in. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. On brass. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. as shown in Fig. --Model Engineer. saw a piece of wood. nickel and such metals. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. Then. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. long. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. light strokes. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. a hand scratch brush is good. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. lead. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. which . 3) directly over the hole. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. B should be of the same wood. 1). 3) strikes the bent wire L. Fig. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. must be about 1 in. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. such metals as iron. The wooden block C. In rigging it to a sliding door. zinc. Having finished washing the precipitate.5 to 4 volts. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. I. Where Bunsen cells are used. also. when the point of the key touches the tin. When all this is set up. square. If more solution is required.up to 2 qt. A 1/4 in. with water. a circuit is completed. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. Before silver plating. piece of broomstick. This solution. shaking. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. Fig. with the pivot 2 in. 1. with water. silver can be plated direct. hole in its center. of clothesline rope and some No. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. an old electric bell or buzzer. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. Can be made of a 2-in. Take quick. To provide the keyhole. Repeat six times. but opens the door. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. The wooden catch. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. A (Fig. which is advised. as at F. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. use 2 volts for large articles. If accumulators are used. 18 wire. if one does not possess a buffing machine. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. will serve for the key. copper. 1 not only unlocks. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. long. 3. and then treated as copper. Screw the two blocks together. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. and 4 volts for very small ones. Make a somewhat larger block (E. 1 in. of water. from the lower end. German silver. 1). Fig. Fig. make a key and keyhole. which is held by catch B. and the larger part (F. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. With an electric pressure of 3. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. pewter. thick by 3 in. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated.

with the lights turned low. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. To prepare such a magic cave. Thus. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. and a slit. in his shirt sleeves. Objects appear and disappear. enlarged. --Contributed by E. The magician stands in front of this. H. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. although a little more trouble. the box should be painted black both inside and out. floor. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. Next. surrounding a perfectly black space.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. top. One thing changes to another and back again. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. or cave. The box must be altered first. Fig. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. sides and end. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. Fig. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. Fig. so much the better. one-third of the length from the remaining end. B. and black art reigns supreme. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. he points with one finger to the box. 116 Prospect St. He removes the bowl from the black box. Next. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. H. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. some black cloth. 2. half way from open end to closed end. Receiving the bowl again. In front of you. with a switch as in Fig. The interior must be a dead black. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. cut in one side. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. to throw the light toward the audience. heighten the illusion. such as forks. Fig. he tosses it into the cave. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. 1. On either side of the box. 0. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. 2. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. 1. is the cut through which the rope runs. . New Jersey. spoons and jackknives. a few simple tools. should be cut a hole. and plenty of candles. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. no painting inside is required. the illumination in front must be arranged. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. East Orange. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. Heavy metal objects. shows catch B. H.. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. between the parlor and the room back of it. and finally lined inside with black cloth. some black paint. One end is removed. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. Klipstein. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. and hands its contents round to the audience. which unlocks the door. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. the requisites are a large soap box. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. 3.

the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. is on a table) so much the better. The illusion. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. you must have an assistant. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. and several black drop curtains. in which are oranges and apples. into the eyes of him who looks. The audience room should have only low lights. his confederate behind inserts his hand. had a big stage. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. was identical with this. one on each side of the box. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. a screen must be used. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. Consequently. as presented by Hermann. of course. the room where the cave is should be dark. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. if. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which.Finally. The exhibitor should be . while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. and pours them from the bag into a dish. which can be made to dance either by strings. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. only he. But illusions suggest themselves. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. and if portieres are impossible. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. of course. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. which are let down through the slit in the top.

and a common screw. b2. making contact with them as shown at y. Then. and c2 to the zinc. as shown in Fig. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. b3. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. c2. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. b2. held down by another disk F (Fig. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. held down on it by two terminals. 2). 2. c3. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. respectively.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. respectively. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. d. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. their one end just slips under the strips b1. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. 2. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . vice versa. Fig. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. by 4 in. by means of two wood screws. with three brass strips. b1. On the disk G are two brass strips. terminal c3 will show . It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. square. is shown in the diagram.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. or b2. Finally. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). f2.a boy who can talk. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. at L. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. respectively. or binding posts. 1. so arranged that. FIG. A represents a pine board 4 in. if you turn handle K to the right. e1 and e2. making contact with them. and c1 – electricity. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. held down on disk F by two other terminals.. c4. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. b3. c1. 1. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. About the center piece H moves a disk. terminal c3 will show +. when handle K is turned to one side. and c4 + electricity. A.

and when on No. B is a onepoint switch. from three batteries. from five batteries. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Ohio. and then hold the receiver to your ear. thus making the message audible in the receiver. jump spark coil. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. E. 1. Tuttle. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. . The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. Jr. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. When switch B is closed and A is on No. 5. you have the current of one battery. -Contributed by A. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. 4. Newark. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. when on No. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving.. 3. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. and C and C1 are binding posts. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. --Contributed by Eugene F. when A is on No. from four batteries. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) .in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. when on No. Joerin.

with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. mark. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. and supporting the small weight. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of Burlington. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. A. so one can see the time. A. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. over the bent portion of the rule. The device thus arranged. If the thread is tied at the 17-in.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. B. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. When you do not have a graduate at hand. La. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. rule. traveled by the thread. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. Thus. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. A. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. P.. E. Wis. Handy Electric Alarm . is the device of H. per second. per second for each second. which may be a button or other small object. as shown in the sketch. and placed on the windowsill of the car. New Orleans. Redmond. mark. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in.

which has a piece of metal. wrapping the wire around the can several times. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. soldered to the alarm winder. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. which illuminates the face of the clock. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. Instead. Crafton. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. --Contributed by Gordon T. and with the same result. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. B. Lane. S. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. . To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. When the alarm goes off. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. C. Then if a mishap comes. --C. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. Pa. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. for a wetting is the inevitable result. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. but may be closed at F any time desired. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood.

Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. With the easily made devices about to be described. L. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. bearings. models and miniature objects. and many other interesting and useful articles. ornaments of various kinds. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. but it is a mistake to try to do this. whence it is soon tracked into the house. as shown. 1. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. BE. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . New York City. It is possible to make molds without a bench. which may. engines. A. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. If there is no foundry Fig. AA. cannons. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. --Contributed by A. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. binding posts. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. battery zincs. Two cleats. 1 . Macey. The first thing to make is a molding bench. C. as shown in Fig. small machinery parts. and duplicates of all these. when it is being prepared. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders.

CC. is about the right mesh." or upper half. D. An old teaspoon. try using sand from other sources. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. 2. The rammer. which can be made of a knitted stocking.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. by 6 in. 1. F. The flask. is nailed to each end of the cope.near at hand. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. Fig. 1. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. but this operation will be described more fully later on. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. say 12 in. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. and a sieve. is filled with coal dust. is made of wood. makes a very good sieve. high. and this. which can be either aluminum. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. E. If the box is not very strong. and saw it in half longitudinally. as shown. A wedge-shaped piece. H. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. The dowels. CC. previous to sawing. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. and the "drag. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. If desired the sieve may be homemade. The cloth bag. Fig. which should be nailed in. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. the "cope. II .How to Make a Mold [96] . The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. will be required. and the lower pieces. a little larger than the outside of the flask. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. white metal. as shown. A slight shake of the bag Fig. is shown more clearly in Fig. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. by 8 in. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. A A. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. It is made of wood and is in two halves. 2 ." or lower part. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. DD. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. G. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. J.

Having finished making the flask and other equipment. and if water is added. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. or "cope. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. In finishing the ramming. and thus judge for himself. The sand is then ready for molding. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. and scatter about 1/16 in. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. the surface of the sand at . which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. where they can watch the molders at work. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. as it is much easier to learn by observation. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask." in position. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. as shown at D. and by grasping with both hands. as shown at E. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. in order to remove the lumps. After ramming. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. and then more sand is added until Fig. as shown. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. It is then rammed again as before. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. as described. as shown at C. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. turn the drag other side up. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. or "drag. Place another cover board on top. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry.

striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. as shown at J. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. After drawing the pattern. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. . The "sprue. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. place the cope back on the drag. deep. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. thus making a dirty casting." or pouring-hole. as shown in the sketch. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. in diameter. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. thus holding the crucible securely. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. as shown at H. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. as shown at H. as shown at G. it shows that the sand is too wet. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. is next cut. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. in order to prevent overheating. after being poured.E should be covered with coal-dust. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. as shown at F. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. Place a brick or other flat. to give the air a chance to escape. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. and then pour. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. wide and about 1/4 in. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. Fig. III. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. made out of steel rod. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. This is done with a spoon.

--Contributed by Harold S. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. may be used in either direction. Minneapolis. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. If a good furnace is available. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. and the casting is then ready for finishing. used only for zinc. although somewhat expensive. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. In my own case I used four batteries. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. white metal and other scrap available.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. 15% lead. Although the effect in the illustration . but any reasonable number may be used. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. babbitt. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. the following device will be found most convenient. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. battery zincs. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. is very desirable. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. or from any adjacent pair of cells. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. and. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. Referring to the figure. Morton.

The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. --Contributed by Draughtsman. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. outward. B. may be made of hardwood. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. Put a sharp needle point. which will be sufficient to hold it. Then walk down among the audience. shaft made. To make it take a sheet-iron band. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. Chicago. If desired. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . The brass rings also appear distorted. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. 3/4 in. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. as shown in the illustration. A. B. Fig. backward. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. The bearings. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. Then replace the table. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. 2. connected by cords to the rudder. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. as shown at A. Make one of these pieces for each arm.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. By replacing the oars with paddles. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent.

but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. when it will again return to its original state. 2 and 3. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. and a weight. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. Snow. 3. If babbitt is used. A block of ice. 1. It may seem strange that ice . This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure.melted babbitt. being simply finely divided ice. as shown in Fig. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. The hubs. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. 2. or under pressure. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. as shown in Fig. 1. E. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. A. W. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. 1. should be made of wood. In the same way. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. C. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. The covers. If galvanized iron is used. Fig. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. D. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. but when in motion. or the paint will come off. spoiling its appearance.

The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. and assume the shape shown at B. thus giving a high resistance contact. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. whenever there is any connection made at all. but by placing it between books. Pa. using a closed circuit or gravity battery.. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. as shown on page 65. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. it will gradually change from the original shape A. by 1/4. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. which resembles ice in this respect. P. --Contributed by Gordon T. square. B. no matter how slow the motion may be. Crafton. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. but. brass. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. sometimes only one or two feet a day. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . the large body of ice has to bend in moving. by 5 in. as per sketch. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. by 2 in. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. or supporting it in some similar way. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. Lane. by 1/2 in.should flow like water. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. The rate of flow is often very slow. in. Pressing either push button. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening.

alarm clock. --Contributed by A. Pa. The parts are: A. J. C. Ward. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. cord. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. B. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. A is the circuit breaker. In the wiring diagram.000 ft. B. as shown. D. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. and five dry batteries.thumb screws. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. F. draft chain. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. vertical lever. Wilkinsburg. weight. H. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. about the size used for automobiles. G. E. as shown. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. K . horizontal lever. and C. draft. pulleys. Indianapolis. G. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. I. the battery. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. The success depends upon a slow current. wooden supports. furnace. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. the induction coil.

such as used for a storm window. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. as well as the bottom. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. The frame (Fig. which will provide a fine place for the plants. material framed together as shown in Fig. where house plants are kept in the home. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. Artistic Window Boxes The top. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. will fit nicely in them. 3. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. 2 are dressed to the right angle. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. Mich. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. Kalamazoo.

Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. where they are glad to have them taken away. 1 each complete with base. W. A certain number of these.. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. However. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. since a battery is the most popular source of power. after a rest.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. The 1/2-cp. 1 cp. --Contributed by Wm. by connecting them in series. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. Canada. but maintain the voltage constant. 1. as indicated by Fig. can be connected up in series. which sells for 25 cents.. is something that will interest the average American boy. and cost 27 cents FIG. a cork and a needle. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes.. i. It must be remembered. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. Halifax. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. Thus. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. Push the needle into the cork. e. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. multiples of series of three. N. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. in diameter. This is more economical than dry cells. S. for some time very satisfactorily. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. one can regulate the batteries as required. as if drawn upon for its total output. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. and will give the . and the instrument will then be complete. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. this must be done with very great caution. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. Grant. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. in any system of lamps. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. However. in this connection. so as to increase the current. and a suitable source of power.

Chicago. Thus. we simply turn on the water. although the first cost is greater. 3. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. 11 series. and then lead No. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. Fig. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. to secure light by this method. .2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. 2 shows the scheme. 1-cp. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. especially those of low internal resistance. each. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. In conclusion. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. 18 B & S. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. However. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. Thus. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. if wound for 6 volts. double insulated wire wherever needed. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. for display of show cases. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. and diffused light in a room. which is the same as that of one battery. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. FIG. making. where the water pressure is the greatest. So. by the proper combination of these. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. and running the series in parallel. or 22 lights. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. lamps. lamp. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. and for Christmas trees. lamps. as in Fig. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. These will give 3 cp. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage.proper voltage. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. If wound for 10 volts. generates the power for the lights. according to the water pressure obtainable. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps..

or a tempting bone. simply change the switch. A. B. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. center points of switch. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. a bait of meat. BB. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. A indicates the ground. we were not bothered with them. --Contributed by F. Emig. brushes of motor. and C. field of motor. bars of pole-changing switch. the letters indicate as follows: FF. . Remove the belt and replace with a longer one.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. CC. and the sides. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. Cal. switch. Plymouth. outside points of switch. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. DD. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. AA. B. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. Santa Clara. Ind. or from one pattern. --Contributed by Leonard E. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. Parker. are cut just alike. as shown in the sketch. To reverse the motor. After I connected up my induction coil. thus reversing the machine. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves.

as it is the key to the lock.. which is in the door. The button can be hidden. When the circuit is broken a weight. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. -Contributed by Claude B. thus locking the door. Hutchinson. If it is not. The experiment works best . a hammer. a piece of string. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. and a table or bench. Fry. attached to the end of the armature B. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. Minn. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. merely push the button E. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. San Jose. or would remain locked. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. To unlock the door. Melchior. one cell being sufficient. 903 Vine St. W. Cal. A.

W. -. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Ontario. in the ceiling and has a window weight. --Contributed by Geo. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. which pulls the draft open. 1).An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. P. Culebra. where it will remain suspended as shown. I. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. Madison. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. attached at the other end. the current flows with the small arrows. Tie the ends of the string together. run through a pulley. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. On another block of wood fasten two wires. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. . the stick falls away. 2. releasing the weight. Wis. 3. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. D. as shown in Fig. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. 18 Gorham St.. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Schmidt. forming a loop. 4). C. A. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Crawford Curry.Contributed by F. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. 3. Porto Rico. Brockville. Canada. the key turns. When the alarm rings in the early morning.

J. and break the corners off to make them round. made with his own hands. and . Camden. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. square and 1 in. Jr. or tree. and then to the receiver. get two pieces of plate glass. Farley. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. S. --Contributed by Wm. Connect two wires to the transmitter. including the mouthpiece. or from a bed of flowers. 6 in. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. The cut shows the arrangement. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. which fasten to the horn. and the other to the battery. thick. N. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver.. D. thence to a switch. R. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. Use a barrel to work on. First. J. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. running one direct to the receiver.

Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. while walking around the barrel. or it will not polish evenly. using straight strokes 2 in. Fig. melt 1 lb. Use a binger to spread it on with.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. wetting it to the consistency of cream. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. with pitch. of water.. Then warm and press again with the speculum. and a large lamp. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. with 1/4-in. wide around the convex glass or tool. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. and label. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. When dry. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. and the under glass or tool convex.. 1. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. set the speculum against the wall. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. as in Fig. 2. in length. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. also rotate the glass. a round 4-in. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. L. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. spaces. and spread on the glass. When polishing the speculum. then 8 minutes. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. then take 2 lb. Fasten. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. When done the glass should be semitransparent. 2. In a dark room. A. wet till soft like paint. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. by the side of the lamp. Fig. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. so the light . Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. the coarse grinding must be continued. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. Have ready six large dishes. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. or less. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. unless a longer focal length is wanted. twice the focal length away. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. and is ready for polishing. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light.

must be procured. and pour the rest into the empty dish. from the lamp.……………………………. long to the back of the speculum. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. 2.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke.. When dry. Place the speculum S. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. fill the dish with distilled water. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. Then add solution B. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. Fig. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. also how the rays R from a star . shorter strokes should be used in polishing. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. that was set aside.………………………………. 39 gr. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark.……………. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. With pitch. longer strokes. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. Solution D: Sugar loaf . If not. face down. then ammonia until bath is clear. 4 oz. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). Place the speculum. The knife should not be more than 6 in. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film.. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. touched with rouge.. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. cement a strip of board 8 in.. 840 gr.. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. 2. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. the speculum will show some dark rings. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Nitric acid . The polishing and testing done. or hills. When the focus is found. the speculum is ready to be silvered... if a hill in the center. deep. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. 4 oz. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. add the ammonia solution drop by drop... 100 gr. Two glass or earthenware dishes. Fig. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. Then add 1 oz. as in K. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. 25 gr. Fig. Silver nitrate …………………………….100 gr. in the bath and leave until the silver rises.. with distilled water. Now add enough of the solution A.

but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. . When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. and proceed as for any picture. stop down well after focusing. My telescope is 64 in. Then I made the one described. Thus an excellent 6-in.. which proves to be easy of execution. cover with paper and cloth. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. with an outlay of only a few dollars. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. Place over lens. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. long and cost me just $15. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. slightly wider than the lens mount. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. two glass prisms. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. is a satisfactory angle. About 20. Make the tube I of sheet iron. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. The flatter they are the less they will distort. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. Mellish. using strawboard and black paper. deg.John E. telescope can be made at home.

Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. unobstructed light strike the mirror. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. The paper is exposed. -Contributed by A. then add a little sulphate of potash. D. B. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. Zimmerman. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. through the lens of the camera and on the board. . developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. To unlock. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. but will not preserve its hardening. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. 1. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. A. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. add the plaster gradually to the water. complete the arrangement. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. Ill. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. 2. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. The rays of the clear. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. as shown in Fig. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. says the Master Painter. Fig. and reflect through the negative. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. instead of the contrary. or powdered alum. Boody. push the button D. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. Do not stir it.

1). but will remain suspended without any visible support. as shown in the sketch. also provide them with a handle. as in Fig. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. Fasten on the switch lever. 3. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. use a string. as at A and B. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. so that it can rotate about these points. throw . To reverse. Fig. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. 2. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. Then blow through the spool. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. 2.

Levy. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. Go McVicker. although this is not necessary. Tex. B. the armature. Neb. San Marcos. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. --Contributed by R. carbon sockets. and rub dry with linen cloth. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. A is the electricbell magnet. Thomas. Take out. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. --Contributed by Geo. L. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. D. wash in running water. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Tex.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. San Antonio. In the sketch. -Contributed by Morris L. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. as shown in the sketch. carbons. Push one end of the tire into the hole. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. and E E. rinse in alcohol. . binding posts. North Bend. C C.

today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. By means of two or more layers of No. 36 magnet wire. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. Brooklyn. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. 14 or No. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. wound evenly about this core. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. 16 magnet wire. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. long or more.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. Bell. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. --Contributed by Joseph B. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity.

at a time. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. and the results are often unsatisfactory. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. wide. 1. This makes a condenser which may be folded. with room also for a small condenser. in length. No. Beginning half an inch from one end. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. A 7/8-in. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. 4. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. then the strip of tin-foil. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. After the core wires are bundled. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. In shaping the condenser. The following method of completing a 1-in. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. the entire core may be purchased readymade. diameter. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. or 8 in. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. hole is bored in the center of one end. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. 2 yd. a box like that shown in Fig. When cut and laid in one continuous length. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. about 6 in.which would be better to buy ready-made. in diameter. The primary is made of fine annealed No. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. as the maker prefers. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. making two layers. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. which is an important factor of the coil. long and 2-5/8 in. which is desirable. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. and finally the fourth strip of paper. long and 5 in. coil illustrates the general details of the work. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. but if it is not convenient to do this work. The condenser is next wrapped . one piece of the paper is laid down. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. as shown in Fig. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood.

flange turned on one side. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. bell. B. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. A. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. which allows wiring at the back. shows how the connections are made. shelf for clock. copper lever with 1-in. G. and one from battery. lines H. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. V-shaped copper strip. battery . I. F. the letters indicate as follows: A. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. forms the other pole or terminal. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types.securely with bands of paper or tape. 3. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. B. go. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. switch. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. Fig. round so that the inside . so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. long to key. and the other sheet. by 12 in. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. to the door. 4 in. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. spark. D. long and 12 in. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. open switch C. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. one from bell. which is insulated from the first. ready for assembling. The alarm key will turn and drop down.) The wiring diagram.. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. C. whole length. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. wide. E. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily.

do not shortcircuit. Use a glass or metal shade. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. This is for blowing. Line the furnace. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself.diameter is 7 in. London. from the bottom. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. of zinc sulphate. The circuit should also have a high resistance. That is what they are for.. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. Short-circuit for three hours. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. but with the circuit. says the Model Engineer. If desired for use immediately. but add 5 or 6 oz. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. instead of close to it. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. and the battery is ready for use. 2 in. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. of blue stone. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. and then rivet the seam. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. . A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed.

the thumb and second finger changing places: e. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction.. while for others it will not revolve at all. thus producing two different vibrations. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. long. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. 1. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. and then. for others the opposite way. To operate the trick. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. g. If any or your audience presume to dispute. oxygen to ozone.9 of a volt. porcelain and paper. At least it is amusing. changes white phosphorus to yellow. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. square and about 9 in. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. the second finger along the side. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. or think they can do the same let them try it. affects . below the bottom of the zinc. as in the other movement. Enlarge the hole slightly. and therein is the trick. 2. Outside of the scientific side involved. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. imparting to them a violet tinge.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Ohio. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. but the thing would not move at all. for some it will turn one way. If too low. Try it and see. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. herein I describe a much better trick. This type of battery will give about 0. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made." which created much merriment. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in.

carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. a means for holding it vertical. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. insects. a short-focus lens. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. earth. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. and one of them is photomicrography. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. To the front board is attached a box. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. an old tripod screw. but small flowers. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. says the Photographic Times. but this is less satisfactory. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. however. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. and. but not essential. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . if possible. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. chemicals.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined.

Get a piece of paper 15 ft. Fig. A line. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. Cap. 10 ft 523 33 lb. Boston.--Contributed by George C. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. 1. 7-1/2 in. 905 57 lb. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 11 ft. 9 ft. 113 7 lb. CD. 65 4 lb. 5 ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 6 ft. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 8 ft. 7-1/2 in. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. and a line. AB. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. while it is not so with the quill. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 5 in. in diameter. 268 17 lb. 7 ft. 179 11 lb. wide from which to cut a pattern. 12 ft. Madison. The following table will give the size. Divide one-quarter of the circle . long and 3 ft. in Cu. 381 24 lb. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. Ft Lifting Power. balloon. or 3 ft. Mass. If the balloon is 10 ft. which is 15 ft. or 31 ft. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 697 44 lb.

Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. Repeat this operation four times. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. and so on. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. 2. using a fine needle and No. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. of the very best heavy body. The amounts necessary for a 10- . When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. of beeswax and boil well together. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. The pattern is now cut. and after marked is cut the same shape and size.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. 70 thread. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. Procure 1 gal. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. making a double seam as shown in Fig. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. This test will show if the bag is airtight. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. 3. keeping the marked part on the outside. on the curved line from B to C. 4. The cloth segments are sewed together. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. cutting all four quarters at the same time.

to the bag. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. or dusting with a dry brush. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. with 3/4in. 5. as shown in Fig. of iron. until no more dirt is seen. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. C. balloon are 125 lb. The 3/4-in. should not enter into the water over 8 in. Fill the other barrel. of sulphuric acid. with the iron borings. if it is good it will dry off. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. pipe. In the barrel. Water 1 oz. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. A. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. ft. A. ]. B. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. by fixing. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. above the level of the water in barrel A. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. A. 150 gr.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. or a fan. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. B. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. . which may sound rather absurd. oil the spindle holes carefully. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. All FIG. of iron borings and 125 lb. About 15 lb. with water 2 in. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. a clean white rag. using a fine brush. C. of gas in one hour. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. 5 . of water will make 4 cu. this should be repeated frequently.ft.Green Iron ammonium citrate . capacity and connect them.. B. The outlet. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. but if any grease remains on the hand. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. After washing a part. it is not fit to use. leaving the hand quite clean. 1 lb. When the clock has dried. . Vegetable oils should never be used. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. 1 lb.

This aerial collector can be made in . Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. or battery. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. The miniature 16 cp. Exposure. to avoid blackened skin. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. 20 to 30 minutes. keeping the fingers out of the solution. . Port Melbourne. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. Dry in the dark. or zinc. toning first if desired. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. and keep in the dark until used. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1.000 ft. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Dry the plates in the dark. The positive pole. fix in hypo. or carbon. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe.. Printing is done in the sun. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. dry atmosphere will give best results. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. at the time of employment. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. A cold. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. of any make. The negative pole.Water 1 oz. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. . says the Moving Picture World. A longer exposure will be necessary. and a vigorous negative must be used. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band.

and as less current will flow the short way. a positive and a negative. will soon become dry and useless. 5 in. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. As the telephone offers a high resistance. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. long. when left exposed to the air. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. If the wave ceases. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. both positive and negative. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. The storage cell. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water.various ways. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. the resistance is less. This will complete the receiving station. as described below. If the waves strike across the needle. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. making a ground with one wire. holes . Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. in diameter. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. and have the other connected with another aerial line. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. forming a cup of the pipe. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. lead pipe. lay a needle.

Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. This support or block. a round one. an oblong one and a triangular one. does not need to be watertight. D. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. The other plate is connected to the zinc. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. or tube C. This. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. of course. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. except for about 1 in. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. B. by soldering the joint. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. Two binding-posts should be attached. namely: a square hole. When mixing the acid and water. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. or tube B. and the other to the negative. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. one to the positive. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block.as possible. says the Pathfinder. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. This box can be square. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. on each end. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current.

as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The third piece of brass. A and B. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. were fitted by this one plug. wide. 1. and match them together. 1. long. . Chicago. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. thick cut two pieces alike. --Contributed by Edwin Walker.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. 3. as it is not readily overturned. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. C. 2. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. back and under. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. all around the edge. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. Ill. This punt. in place on the wood. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. about 20 in. Only galvanized nails should be used. leaving about 1/16 in. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. 2. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. and has plenty of good seating capacity. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. deep and 4 ft. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. C. is built 15 ft. wide.

In Fig.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. square (Fig 2). Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. B. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. thick and 3-1/2 in. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. A piece of 1/4-in. Tacoma. is cut 1 in. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Wash. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. A. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. gas pipe.

The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. lamp. In designing. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. may be of interest to some of our readers. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . with the exception of insulated wire. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. if possible. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. H. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. The winding of the armature." has no connection with the outside circuit. it had to be borne in mind that. without auxiliary phase. no more current than a 16-cp. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. which the writer has made. which can be developed in the usual manner. Wagner.--Contributed by Charles H. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. no special materials could be obtained. and to consume. says the Model Engineer. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. or "rotor.

while the beginnings . which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way.the field-magnet. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. or "stator. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. A. about 2-1/2 lb. The stator is wound full with No. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. 1. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. Unfortunately. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. Holes 5-32 in. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. wrought iron. being used. in diameter were drilled in the corners. 3. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. were then drilled and 1/4-in. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. bolts put in and tightened up. 4. After assembling a second time. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. to be filed out after they are placed together. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. also varnished before they were put in. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. this little machine is not self-starting. B. as shown in Fig. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. thick. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. with the dotted line. and filled with rivets. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. as shown in Fig. no steel being obtainable. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. They are not particularly accurate as it is. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. 5. holes. and all sparking is avoided. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. C. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. 2.

All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. The rotor is wound with No. a regulating resistance is not needed. 3-Contributed by C. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. and especially of colored ones. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. McKinney. it would be very simple to build. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. if applied immediately. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. If too late for alcohol to be of use. N. In making slides by contact. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. as before stated. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. having no commutator or brushes.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. Newark. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. No starting resistance is needed. The lantern slide is a glass plate. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. and all wound in the same direction. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. as shown in Fig. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. 1. Jr. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. E. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. This type of motor has drawbacks. One is by contact. and the other by reduction in the camera. J. film to film. and as each layer of wire was wound. and as the motor runs at constant speed. as a means of illustrating songs. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. The image should . 2. and would not easily get out of order. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper.. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides.

Contrasty negatives make the best slides. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. if possible. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. A. Select a room with one window. to use a plain fixing bath. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. D. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. C. about a minute. except that the binding is different. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. 3. It is best.appear in. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. and then a plain glass. and development should be over in three or four minutes. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. 4. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. they are much used by travelers. as shown in Fig. B. 2. also. Draw lines with a pencil. These can be purchased from any photo material store. a little extra work will be necessary. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. 1. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. Being unbreakable. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. Fig. 5. as shown in Fig. over the mat. the formulas being found in each package of plates. If the exposure has been correct. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera.

Hastings. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. Vt. or other stout cloth. as shown in Fig. as shown at A. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. wide and 50 in. from the center of this dot draw a star. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. from the end piece of the chair.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. as shown at B. A piece of canvas. 1. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. is to be used for the seat. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. long. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. Fig. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. holes bored in the end pieces. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. from the ends. Fig. 1. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. while the dot will be in front of the other. Corinth. If the star is in front of the left eye. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. 16 in. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . in diameter and 40 in. long. These longer pieces can be made square. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. in diameter and 20 in. 2. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. known as rods and cones. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. long. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end.

J. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. made from an ordinary sash cord. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. as well as to operate other household machines. Auburn. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. A pitman was attached to the large pulley.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. per square inch. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. as shown in Fig. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. as shown in Fig. 2. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. Cal. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. A belt. A disk 1 in. O'Gara. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. in thickness and 10 in. 1.-Contributed by P. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. . Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye.

fairly accurate. with as fine a thread as possible. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. then removing the object. divided by the number of threads to the inch. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. Bore a 1/4-in. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. it serves a very useful purpose. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. screwing it through the nut. or inconvenient to measure. and the construction is complete. Cut out a piece from the block combination. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. wide. leaving it shaped like a bench. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. says the Scientific American. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. long. The part of a rotation of the bolt. will be the thickness of the object. 3/4 in. square for a support. thick and 2-1/2 in. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. to the top of the bench. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. A simple. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. direction. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. .Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. Put the bolt in the hole. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in.

Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. The wheel should be open . How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. long is used for the center pole. material 12 ft. Place a 3/4-in. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. long. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. beyond the end of the wood. Bore a 3/4-in. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. bolt in each hole. Oal. which show up fine at night. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. globe that has been thrown away as useless. Santa Maria. piece of wood 12 ft.

Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft.-Contributed by A. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. H and J. long. The coil. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. and on its lower end a socket. A. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. to be operated by the magnet coil. wide and 1/8 in. C. thick. in diameter. Fort Worth. wide and 1/8 in. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. square and 3 or 4 in. from the top end. A cross bar. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. of the ends with boards. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. A piece of brass 2 in. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. from the ends. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. made of the same material. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. thick. thick is used for the armature. which should be 1/4 in. P. 1/2 in. Graham.Side and Top View or have spokes. at the bottom. and the lower part 61/2 in. C. The spool . Tex. at the top and 4 in. B. long. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. is soldered. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. pieces used for the spokes. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. long. long. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. L. O. The boards may be nailed or bolted.

--Contributed by Arthur D. B. one without either rubber or metal end. long. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil.--A. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. R. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. S. 1. which may be had by using German silver wire. A soft piece of iron. and in numerous other like instances. 2 the hat hanging on it. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. D and E. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. by soldering. is drilled. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. and place it against a door or window casing. At the bottom end of the frame. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. and directly centering the holes H and J. The armature. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. C. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig.000. .E. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. This is a very neat trick if performed right. and it will stay as if glued to the casing.is about 2-1/2 in. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. or a water rheostat heretofore described. When you slide the pencil along the casing. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. This tie can be used on grain sacks. Bradlev. Randolph. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. 2. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. for insulating the brass ferrule. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25.J. that holds the lower carbon. F.000 for irrigation work. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. S. A. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. then with a firm. do it without any apparent effort. Mass. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core.

wide. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. Fig. The vibrator B. for the secondary. in diameter. leaving the projections as shown. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. in diameter and 2 in. about 1/8 in. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. in diameter and 1/16 in. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. The coil ends are made from cardboard. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. in diameter. long. from the core and directly opposite. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. 2. S. and then 1. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. F.500 turns of No. C. about 3/16 in. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. for adjustment. The vibrator. Experiment with Heat [134] . When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. is constructed in the usual manner. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. mixed with water to form a paste. B. A. 1. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. for the primary. About 70 turns of No. hole in the center. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. thick. is connected to a flash lamp battery. may be made from a 3/8-in. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. The core of the coil. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. about 1 in. D.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. with a 3/16-in. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. The switch. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. long and 1 in. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. S. 1. Fig. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in.

The tin is 4 in. in an ordinary water glass. which seemed to be insufficient. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. lighted. it laps down about 8 in. and the same distance inside of the new board. 1. . therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. as shown in the sketch. Fig. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. The knob on the dial extends out too far. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. which is only 3/8-in. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. was to be secured by only three brass screws. board. thick on the inside. 1. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in.Place a small piece of paper. The three screws were then put in the hasp. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. long and when placed over the board. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. The hasp. 16 in. wide. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. 2 to fit the two holes. between the boards. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. brass plate. as shown. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. The lock. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. with which to operate the dial. and then well clinched. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. which is cut with two holes. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together.

high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. not shiny. which completely divides the box into two parts. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. one in each division. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. high for use in window displays. black color. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. the glass. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. and the back left dark. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. or in the larger size mentioned. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. but when the front part is illuminated. When making of wood. clear glass as shown. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. any article placed therein will be reflected in. square and 8-1/2 in. If the box is made large enough. square and 10-1/2 in. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. When the rear part is illuminated. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose.

Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. a tank 2 ft. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. wide will be about the right size. long and 1 ft. and with the proper illumination one is changed.. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. When there is no electric current available. as it appears. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. above the top of the tank. alternately. When using as a window display. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. as shown in the sketch. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. . as shown at A in the sketch. into the other. place the goods in one part and the price in the other.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. is the green vitriol. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. from the ground. 2 ft. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. Columbus. square. high. or ferrous sulphate. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. square and 40 in. hole. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. then use a red-hot iron to finish. Shape the under sides first. long. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. but with a length of 12 in. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. two pieces 1-1/8 in. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. This precipitate is then washed. The 13-in. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. under sides together. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. long. each. however. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. lines gauged on each side of each. Iron sulphate. and a solution of iron sulphate added. 1 in. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. bore from each end. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. radius. If a planing mill is near. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. wide. using a 3/4-in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. with a length of 13 in. bit. is built on the front. 5 ft. hole bored the full length through the center. This hole must be continued . as shown. one for each side. O. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. and a door in front. and boring two holes with a 1-in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. dried and mixed with linseed oil. Three windows are provided. 6 in. The pieces can then be taken out. gauge for depth. and 6 ft. placed to either side of the 1/2-in.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. thick and 3 in. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. wide. A small platform.

The sketch shows one method of attaching. When this is dry." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Electric globes--two. Directions will be found on the filler cans.through the pieces forming the base. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. When the filler has hardened. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. square and drawing a diagonal on each. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. if shade is purchased. three or four may be attached as shown. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. hole in each block. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. thick and 3 in. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. apply two coats of wax. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Saw the two blocks apart. If the parts are to be riveted. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. A better way. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. For art-glass the metal panels are . Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain.

and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. METAL SHADE .Construction of Shade .The Completed Lamp cut out. such as copper. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. as brass.

Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. as in ordinary devices. as shown in the sketch. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. the object and the background. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. The arms holding the glass. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. and Fig. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. one way and 1/2 in. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. 2 the front view of this stand. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . the other. Figure 1 shows the side.

as it is very poisonous. Cut another circular piece 11 in. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. in diameter. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. outside diameter. thus forming a 1/4-in. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. and an inside diameter of 9 in. long. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. wide and 6-5/16 in. uncork and recork again. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. as shown in the cut. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. as shown in the sketch. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. pointing north and south. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. An ordinary pocket compass. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Before mounting the ring on the base. about 1-1/4 in. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. wide and 11 in. thick 5/8-in. If the light becomes dim. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. and swinging freely. channel in the circumference of the ring. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. in diameter for a base. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. Put the ring in place on the base.

black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. EE.600 .088 . from the second to the third. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. Corresponding mirrors. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. 1 oz. AA. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. black oxide of copper. CC. B. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. The results given should be multiplied by 1. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. of the top. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in.715 .500 . the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere.289 . but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. into these cylinders. in diameter and 8 in.865 1. Place on top the so- . How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. and mirrors. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. are mounted on a base. and north of the Ohio river.420 .3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. above the half can.182 .

1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. which otherwise remains clear. of pulverized campor. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. Colo. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. slender bottle. When renewing. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. 62 gr. University Park.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. says Metal Worker. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. Put the solution in a long. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. always remove the oil with a siphon. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. little crystals forming in the liquid. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. In Fig. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. then they will not rust fast. alcohol. 31 gr. the wheel will revolve in one direction.

Lloyd Enos. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. A paper-fastener box. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. --Contributed by C. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. will allow the magnet to point north and south. If zinc and copper are used. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. If zinc and carbon are used. Attach to the wires. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. If two of them are floating on the same solution. about 1-1/4 in. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. This is used in place of the spoon. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. floating on a solution. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. Solder in the side of the box . on the under side of the cork.

A. Bore holes for binding-posts.not shorter than 18 in. Thos.1-in. and on the other around the glass tube. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. as shown in Fig. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. piece of 1/4-in. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. away. 14 wire will do. long. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. C. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. C. 3 in. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. Wind evenly about 2 oz. A circular piece of cardboard. A. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. long that has about 1/4-in. of wire on each end extending from the coil. D. H. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. C. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. Put ends. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. Use a board 1/2. or made with a little black paint. is made from a piece of No. 1/2. brass tubing. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. 1-1/4 in. F. Take a small piece of soft iron. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. . 10 wire about 10 in. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. B. can be made of oak. B. Rhamstine. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. The bottom of the box. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. of No. E. D. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. glass tubing . The spring should be about 1 in. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. E.in. and then solder on the cover. 1. G--No. wide and 2-1/2 in. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . To this standard solder the supporting wire.in. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. to it.Contributed by J. wide and 6 in. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. hole. D. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. one on each side of the board. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. The standard. long.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. The base. thick. If the hose is not a tight fit. stained and varnished.

of the coil. long. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. four hinges. Milwaukee. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long.--Contributed by Edward M. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. Wis. E. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. When the glass becomes soft. Y. canvas. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. About 1-1/2 lb. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. The iron plunger. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. N. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. long. 3 in. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. 2. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. in diameter. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. 3. as shown in Fig. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. about 1 in. 5. of mercury will be sufficient.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. 1. long. . Teasdale. of No. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. from the right hand. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. J. Cuba. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. is drawn nearer to the coil. of 8-oz. pieces of wood as shown in Fig.--Contributed by R. two pieces 2 ft. Smith. long are used for the legs. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. 3-in. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. D. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. long. making a support as shown in Fig. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work.

holding in the left hand. Measure 8 in. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. expelling all the air. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. small aperture in the long tube. --Contributed by David A. 4. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. leaving 8 in. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. This tube as described will be 8 in. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. Break off the piece of glass. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . of vacuum at the top.. 3. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. Fig. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. 5. Take 1/2 in. Toronto.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. Can. The tube now must be filled completely. long. thus leaving a. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. 2. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. 6. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode.. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. Keys.

The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. thick. The large pulley is about 14 in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. 3 in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. 4. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. cut in the shape shown in Fig. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. with each projection 3-in. long. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. joint be accurately put together. 9 in. Fig. FIG. but yellow pine is the best. from the end of same. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. long. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. wide and 5 ft.6 -. 1 in. 5. This forms a slot. thick. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. thick. wide and 5 ft. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. as shown in Fig. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. and 1/4 in. 4 in. Four blocks 1/4 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. long. as shown in Fig. long. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. 1. material 2 in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. 7.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. as in Fig. wide and 3 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. 3. wood screws. These are bent and nailed. 2. A crosspiece 3/4-in. 1 in. wide and 12 in. wide and 5 ft. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. in diameter. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. thick. 6. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . thick. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. 3 in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in.

Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Welsh. Kan. . The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Manhattan.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. --Contributed by C. R. first removing the crank. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. says Photography. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. attach runners and use it on the ice. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Water 1 oz. above the runner level. by 1-in. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch.

The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. 1. 3. . Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. Newton. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. Treasdale. Printing is carried rather far. also. and very much cheaper. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. 2. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. from an ordinary clamp skate. Leominster. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. --Contributed by Edward M. --Contributed by Wallace C. as shown in Fig. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. 1 oz. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Mass. of water. The print is washed. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. as shown in Fig. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. This is done with a camel's hair brush.

1. causing the door to swing back and up. 1-1/2 ft. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. and bend them as shown in the sketch. Fig. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. long. say. Alexandria. hole. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. 1. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. A. wide. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. 2. The thread is broken off at the . fasten a 2-in. extending the width of the box. about 10 in. with about 1/8-in. high for rabbits. Church. Fig. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. which represents the back side of the door. from one end. and to the bottom.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. wide and 4 in. Then. high. Take two glass tubes. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. Va. too. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. F. square piece. and 3 ft. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. as shown in the sketch. Place a 10-in. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. The swing door B. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. 1 ft. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. --Contributed by H.

will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. camera and wish to use some 4.. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. Cut an opening in the other piece. 10 in. inside of the opening. wide. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. Chicago. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. as shown in Fig. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. Jr. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. says Camera Craft. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. Paste a piece of strong black paper.by 7-in. automobiles. A and B. 3. to be used as a driving pulley. -Contributed by William M. Take two pieces of pasteboard. and exactly 5 by 7 in. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. trolley cars. B. black surfaced if possible. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. in size. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. Out two rectangular holes. 2. being 1/8 in.proper place to make a small hole. wide and 5 in. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. Fig. D. long. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. 1 in. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. high and 12 in. wide. Crilly. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. and go in the holder in the same way. shorter at each end. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. C. Fig. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. . Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around.by 5-in. long. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. but cut it 1/4 in. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. plates. from the edge on each side of these openings. say 8 in. horses and dogs. 1. in size. This opening. shorter.

and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. into which the dog is harnessed.in. in diameter. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. making a . of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. The needle will then point north and south. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. long and 6 in. if it has previously been magnetized.. A cell of this kind can easily be made. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. wide will be required. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about.

This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. sal ammoniac. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. in diameter and 6 in. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. long which are copper plated. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. of rosin and 2 oz. 3/4 lb. Place the pan on the stove. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. for a connection.watertight receptacle. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. pine. says Electrician and Mechanic. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. when the paraffin is melted. pull out the wire as needed. in which P is the pan.in. and a notch between the base and the pan. . How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. plaster of paris. 1/4 lb. Pack the paste in. A is a block of l-in. Do not paint any surface. of the top. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. of water. filter. short time. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. of the plate at one end. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. Form a 1/2-in. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. fodder. beeswax melted together. only the joints. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. zinc oxide. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. fuel and packing purposes. File the rods to remove the copper plate. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. with narrow flanges. 1 lb. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. F is a spool. under the spool in the paraffin. This makes the wire smooth. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. one that will hold about 1 qt. leaving about 1/2-in. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. B is a base of 1 in.

you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. At least it is amusing. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. 2. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. thus producing two different vibrations. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. let them try it. If any of your audience presume to dispute. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Toledo. by the Hindoos in India. but the thing would not move at all. and therein is the trick. long. and one friend tells me that they were . and many other things in order to make the arm operate. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. square and about 9 in. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. and then. while for others it will not revolve at all. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. grip the stick firmly in one hand.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. for others the opposite way. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. Ohio. and he finally. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. Enlarge the hole slightly. for some it will turn one way. or think they can do the same. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Try it and see. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make.. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. thus making the arm revolve in one direction." which created much merriment. from vexation. as in the other movement. g. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. the thumb and second finger changing places: e.

gave the best results. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. and I think the results may be of interest. by means of a center punch. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. p. A square stick with notches on edge is best. no rotation resulted. 7. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. secondly. 6. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. and. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. If the pressure was upon an edge. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. 3. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. 2. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. 4.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. rotation was obtained. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. m. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. Speeds between 700 and 1. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. To operate. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand.100 r. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. The experiments were as follows: 1. the rotation may be obtained. 5. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. Thus a circular or .

and the resultant "basket splash. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. A wire is tied around the can. Ph. . it will be clockwise.. or greasy. Lloyd. --Contributed by G.D. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. --Contributed by M. a piece of wire and a candle. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. unwetted by the liquid. at first. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. Sloan. and the height of the fall about 6 in. if the pressure is from the left. as shown. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. is driven violently away. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. Minn. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. forming a handle for carrying. Duluth. G. D. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. so far as can be seen from the photographs. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. A. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. C. Washington. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward).. the upper portion is.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. in diameter. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. hole drilled in the center. with a 1/16-in. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. thick and 1 in. Each wheel is 1/4 in. axle. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. flange and a 1/4-in. long. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. as shown in Fig. as shown. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. 1. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . about 2-5/8 in.

6. 3. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . The parts. Fig. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. which must be 110 volt alternating current. 3/4 in. with cardboard 3 in. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. each in its proper place. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. bent as shown. long. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. lamp in series with the coil. --Contributed by Maurice E. 2. holes 1 in. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles.brass. Texas. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. Fuller. The first piece. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. 5. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. or main part of the frame. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. 3. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. is made from brass. This will save buying a track. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. wide and 16 in. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. as shown in Fig. San Antonio. If the ends are to be soldered. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. of No. and the locomotive is ready for running. 1 from 1/4-in. The motor is now bolted. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. put together complete. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. These ends are fastened together. wood.50. Fig. 2. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. bottom side up. A trolley. is made from a piece of clock spring. 4. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. The current. are shown in Fig.

Cincinnati. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. but do not heat the center. The quarter will not go all the way down. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Fig 1. 2. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. 1. and as this end . and holes drilled in them. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. then continue to tighten much more. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. the length of a paper clip. 3. Fig. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. O. When cold treat the other end in the same way. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece.

For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. and adjusted . A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. or should the lathe head be raised. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. When the trick is to be performed. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. In the sketch. or apparent security of the knot. 2 and 1 respectively. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. has finished a cut for a tooth. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. A pair of centers are fitted. When the cutter A. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end.

This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . (6. (1.to run true. 1. trace the outline. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. Brooklyn. dividing it into as many parts as desired. N. In this manner gears 3 in. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). lady's card case. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. (5. about 1-1/2 in. When connecting to batteries. book mark. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. tea cosey. watch fob ready for fastenings. An ordinary machine will do. lady's belt bag. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. Fig. and a nut pick. long. The frame holding the mandrel. Fold over along these center lines. twisted around itself and soldered. Bott. if but two parts. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. Second row: -Two book marks.) Place the paper design on the leather and. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. (3. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. (4.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. note book. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. draw center lines across the required space. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. if four parts are to be alike. coin purse. swing lathe. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. blotter back. such as brass or marble. above the surface. tea cosey. Y. at the same time striking light. gentleman's card case or bill book. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. 2. --Contributed by Howard S. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks).) Make on paper the design wanted. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Bunker. or one-half of the design. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. --Contributed by Samuel C. Make free-hand one quarter of the design.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. (2. holding it in place with the left hand.

some heavy rubber hose. and an ordinary bottle.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. Secure .

through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. and bore a hole through the center. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. C. Florida.C. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle.. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. into which fit a small piece of tube. The electrodes are made . pull it through the cork to one side or the other. B. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. If the needle is not horizontal. where it condenses. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. a distance of 900 miles. and push it through a cork. A. D. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. Thrust a pin. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. from Key West. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water.

Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. apart and extend 1 ft. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. --Contributed by Edwin L. and also to keep it steady in its flight. 2 in. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. both laterally and longitudinally. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. long. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. free from knots. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. 1-1/4 in. 16 piano wire. long for the body of the operator. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. If 20-ft. To make a glide. Powell. take the glider to the top of a hill. thick. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. as shown in Fig. wide and 20 ft. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. 1/2. thick. 1. slacken speed and settle. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. by 3/4 in. use 10-ft. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. thick. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. Four long beams 3/4 in. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. long. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. 2 arm sticks 1 in. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. 12 uprights 1/2 in. wide and 3 ft. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. Washington. long. wide and 4 ft. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. 2. The operator can then land safely and . Connect as shown in the illustration. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. long.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. 2. using a high resistance receiver. C. or flying-machine. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. D. lengths and splice them. thick. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. 1-1/2 in. thick. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. 3. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. All wiring is done with No. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. wide and 4 ft long. which is tacked to the front edge. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. 1. as shown in Fig. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. wide and 3 ft. long. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. several strips 1/2 in. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. 1. 3/4 in.in. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. lumber cannot be procured. wide and 4 ft. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. square and 8 ft long. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. as shown in Fig. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air.

Glides are always made against the wind. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. but this must be found by experience.gently on his feet. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Of course. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Great care should be . Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes.

which causes the dip in the line. Olson. Bellingham. M. half man and half horse. 1. When heated a little. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] .exercised in making landings. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. 2. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. --Contributed by L. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. a creature of Greek mythology. as shown in Fig. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips.

long. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. of small rubber tubing. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. outside the box. about the size of stove pipe wire. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. about the size of door screen wire. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. square. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. in diameter. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. While at the drug store get 3 ft. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. The light from the . If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. this will cost about 15 cents. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. will complete the material list. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. making it 2-1/2 in. long and about 3/8 in. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. at the other. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. 14 in. a piece of brass or steel wire.

The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. as shown in Fig. while others will fail time after time. . After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. Hunting. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. --Photo by M. 2. If done properly the card will flyaway. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. 1. This is very simple when you know how. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. O. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. M. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. Dayton. as shown in Fig. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. as shown in the sketch.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. but puzzling when the trick is first seen.

as shown.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. This game is played by five persons. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve." or the Chinese students' favorite game. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. hold the lump over the flame. When the desired shape has been obtained. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. place the other two. closing both hands quickly. If a certain color is to be more prominent. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. as before. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. as described. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. then put it on the hatpin head. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. Cool in water and dry. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl.

distribute electric charges . Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. these sectors. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. passing through neutralizing brushes. or more in width. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house.

C C. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. The drive wheels. as shown in Fig. 1. D. and of a uniform thickness. in diameter. in diameter. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. in diameter. or teeth. and pins inserted and soldered. long. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. free from wrinkles. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. are made from solid. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. are made from 7/8-in. Two pieces of 1-in. long and the standards 3 in. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. wide. The fork part is 6 in. from about 1/4-in. The two pieces. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. 1-1/2 in. wide at one end. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. as shown in Fig. and 4 in. 2.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. The plates are trued up. Two solid glass rods. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. in diameter. brass tubing and the discharging rods. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. in diameter and 15 in. and the outer end 11/2 in. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. 4. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. The collectors are made. and this should be done before cutting the circle. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. 3. turned wood pieces. the side pieces being 24 in. long. Fig. 1 in. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. long and the shank 4 in. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. EE. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. Fig. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. after they are mounted. GG. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. in diameter. material 7 in. in diameter. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. to which insulating handles . RR. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. at the other. These pins. 3/4 in. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. 3. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. The plates.

A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. 12 ft. long. in diameter.. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. D. which are bent as shown. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. ball and the other one 3/4 in. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. Colo. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. --Contributed by C. Colorado City. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. Lloyd Enos. one having a 2-in. KK. and the work was done by themselves.are attached. wide and 22 ft. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water.

pens . making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. string together. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. The key will drop from the string. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. deep. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. as at A. bit. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. and bore a hole 1/2 in. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut.is a good one. They can be used to keep pins and needles. yet such a thing can be done. using a 1-in. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork.

stamp the background promiscuously. Raise the ends. Proceed as follows: 1. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. they make attractive little pieces to have about. using a nail filed to chisel edge. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. or cigar ashes. two spikes. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. inside the second on all. slim screw. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. 2. Draw one-half the design free hand. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. 7. 8. This is to make a clean. 5. etc. above the work and striking it with the hammer.. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. Inside this oblong. then the other side. etc. They are easily made. 23 gauge. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. 9. unless it would be the metal shears.. also trace the decorative design. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. sharp division between background and design. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. 4. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. flat and round-nosed pliers. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. When the stamping is completed. very rapid progress can be made. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. Use . require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. and the third one 1/4 in. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. inside the first on all. extra metal on each of the four sides. The second oblong was 3/4 in. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. about 3/4-in. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. file.and pencils. Having determined the size of the tray. above the metal. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. 3. 6.

put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. 6. first fingers. 7. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. second fingers. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. 9. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. and fourth fingers. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. The eyes. and the effect will be most pleasing. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. third fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. 8. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. In the first numbering. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . 10. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color.

. etc. which tens are added. Put your thumbs together. the product of 12 times 12. or the product of 6 times 6. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. 25 times 25. which would be 70. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. or 60. 12. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. renumber your fingers. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70.. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. 11. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. viz. or 80. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. which would be 16. etc. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. and the six lower fingers as six tens. Let us multiply 12 by 12.. Still. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. or the product of 8 times 9. 600. but being simple it saves time and trouble. above 20 times 20. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. etc. Two times one are two. there are no fingers above. 2 times 2 equals 4.. At a glance you see four tens or 40. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. or numbers above 10. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. as high as you want to go. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. 400. above 15 times 15 it is 200. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. if we wish. In the second numbering. thumbs. first fingers.

whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. or what. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. 2. etc. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. about a vertical axis. . however. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. the revolution seems to reverse. For example. twenties. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. forties. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. at the will of the observer. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. and so on. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. or from above or from below. 3. when he removes his spectacles.. 8. in the case of a nearsighted person. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. The inversion and reversion did not take place. For figures ending in 6. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. as one might suppose. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. lastly. 21. any two figures between 45 and 55. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. first fingers 22. It takes place also. being 80). the inversion takes place against his will. and. thumbs. the lump sum to add. adding 400 instead of 100. thirties.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. the value which the upper fingers have. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. beginning the thumbs with 16. Proceed as in the second lumbering. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. 75 and 85. the value of the upper fingers being 20. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. not rotation. which is the half-way point between the two fives. 7. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. further. Take For example 18 times 18. And the lump sum to add. whether the one described in second or third numbering. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. first finger 17.

Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. The ports were not easy to make. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. as . From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. Looking at it in semidarkness. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. when he knows which direction is right. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. sometimes the point towards him. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. A flat slide valve was used. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. tee. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. and putting a cork on the point. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. the other appearance asserts itself. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina.

While this engine does not give much power. pipe. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. bottom side up. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. as in a vise. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. secure a piece of No. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. across and 1/2 in. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. H. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. Kutscher. deep. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. inexpensive. it is easily built. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired.. Next take a block of wood. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. apart. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. saw off a section of a broom handle. Fasten the block solidly. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. The steam chest is round. if continued too long without proper treatment. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. such as is shown in the illustration. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. Ill. The tools are simple and can be made easily. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. If nothing better is at hand. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. in diameter. about 2 in. Springfield. pipe 10 in. Beating copper tends to harden it and. -Contributed by W. across the head. The eccentric is constructed of washers. . and make in one end a hollow. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base.

--Contributed by W. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . Vinegar. Camden. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. Hay. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. as it softens the metal. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot.will cause the metal to break. This process is called annealing. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. especially when the object is near to the observer. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. To produce color effects on copper. S. C. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. and. O. the other to the left. To overcome this hardness. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand.

As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. only the orange rays may pass through. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. it. while both eyes together see a white background. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. . would serve the same purpose. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. and without any picture. The further apart the pictures are. disappears fully. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. So with the stereograph. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. diameter. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. although they pass through the screen. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. orange. because. not two mounted side by side. from the stereograph. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. with the stereograph. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background.stereoscope. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. the one for the left eye being blue. the left eye sees through a blue screen. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. But they seem black. the further from the card will the composite image appear." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. and lies to the right on the picture. they must be a very trifle apart. It is just as though they were not there. The red portions of the picture are not seen. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. because of the rays coming from them. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. that for the right. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. in the proper choice of colors. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. In order to make them appear before the card. as for instance red and green. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. however.

The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. in the shape of a crank. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. in diameter. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. etc. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. wireless. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. thick. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. or the middle of the bottle. long and a hole drilled in each end. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. A No. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. 12 gauge wire. wide and 1 in. This should only be bored about half way through the block. Place a NO.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. Cal. 1/4 in. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. San Francisco. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. The weight of the air in round . 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly.

numbers is 15 lb. if accurately constructed. a bottle 1 in. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. internal diameter and about 34 in. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. long. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. high. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. long. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather.. thick. the contrary. . Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. pine 3 in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. wide and 4 in. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. will calibrate itself. if you choose. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. and a slow fall. 34 ft. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. long. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. 30 in. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. high. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. Only redistilled mercury should be used. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. Before fastening the scale. or a column of mercury (density 13. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. In general. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. inside diameter and 2 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. high. a glass tube 1/8 in. but before attempting to put in the mercury. But if a standard barometer is not available. The 4 in. wide and 40 in. square.6) 1 in. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. the instrument. square. or. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube.

a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. 3. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . Mark out seven 1-in. long. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. a cover from a baking powder can will do. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. Procure a metal can cover. which is slipped quickly over the end. 5. 2. and place them as shown in Fig. the size of the outside of the bottle. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. Number the pieces 1. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. 6 and 7. thick. 1. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. wide and 10 in. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly.

which is the very best material for the purpose. shaped like Fig. 5 over No. Move 12-Jump No. L. as shown in Fig. 6 in. 3 into No. Move 3-Move No. To make such a tent. Move ll-Jump No. 5's place. 6 to No. each 10 ft. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 3 over No. 3. Move 9-Jump No. 1 into No. long and 2 ft. 3. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 6 over No. Move 10-Move No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 6. 2's place. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Move 13-Move No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 5. Move 15-Move No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. Move 7-Jump No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. Move 4-Jump No. 2 over No. 2 over No. Move 2-Jump No. 5's place. 6. procure unbleached tent duck. in diameter.-Contributed by W. 7's place. 3 to the center. 6 into No. l over No. Woolson. Move 5-Jump No. 2. 7 over No. N. 2's place. Move 14-Jump No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Cape May Point. Move 6-Move No.J. This can be done on a checker board. 1 to No. Move 8-Jump No. 2 . 2. 5 over No. 1. Make 22 sections. 1. using checkers for men. 7. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 3. 7 over No.

Emsworth. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. as in Fig. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. about 9 in. Have the tent pole 3 in. As shown in the sketch. added. Fig. Pa. Punch holes in the brass in . Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. 5) stuck in the ground. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass.in. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. high. 2 in. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in.J. made in two sections. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground.. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. will do. 6. Tress. 6-in. in diameter. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. 2. fill with canvas edging. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. Nail a thin sheet of brass. diameter. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. Fig. wide at the bottom. --Contributed by G. 5. wide by 12 in. These are ventilators. After transferring the design to the brass. wide at the bottom. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. long and 4 in. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. long. to a smooth board of soft wood. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. 9 by 12 in. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. leaving the rest for an opening. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. In raising the tent. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. from the top. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. 3 in. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. Use blocks. round galvanized iron.

Corr. but before punching the holes. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. apart. cut out the brass on the outside lines. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. When all the holes are punched. . The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. bend into shape. Chicago. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief.the spaces around the outlined figures. It will not. The pattern is traced as before. around the outside of the pattern. excepting the 1/4-in. When the edges are brought together by bending. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder.

but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. or center on which the frame swings. These pipes are . pipe is used for the hub. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. --Contributed by Geo. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. or. If a wheel is selected. A 6-in. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. Mayger. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft.. Badger. G. A cast-iron ring.however. Que. Oregon. better still. between which is placed the fruit jar. partially filled with cream. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. E. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. pipe. or less. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. Dunham. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Stevens. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. --Contributed by H. allowing 2 ft.

Four braces made from 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. An extra wheel 18 in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. pipe. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. bent to the desired circle. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. pipe clamps.

the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. as shown in Fig. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. while doing this. and the guide withdrawn. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. 3. and dropped on the table. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The performer. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. which was placed in an upright position. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. 1. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover.

D. The box can be made of selected oak or . Harkins. Mo. in a half circle. --Contributed by H. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. in diameter on another piece of tin. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. 1. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Colo. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. and second. St. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Denver. Louis. -Contributed by C. first. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. 2. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. White. it requires no expensive condensing lens. F.

long. high and 11 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. 3-1/2 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. 5-1/2 in. and. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. focal length. as shown in Fig. long and should be placed vertically. If a camera lens is used. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. 1. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. wide and 6-1/2 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. wide. wide and 5 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. long. high and must .mahogany. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. from each end of the outside of the box. The door covering this hole in the back. This will be 3/4 in. Two or three holes about 1 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. from each end. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. wide and 6-1/2 in. An open space 4 in. but not tight. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. AA. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. represented by the dotted line in Fig. and 2 in. wide by 5 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. fit into the runners. 2.

but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. Bradley. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. and so on.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection.. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. 1. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. C. calling that knuckle January. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. This process is rather a difficult one. then the second knuckle will be March. --Contributed by Chas. June and November. calling this February. and extending the whole height of the lantern. provided it is airtight. April. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. Ohio. West Toledo." etc. the article may be propped up . A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. as it requires an airtight case. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct.

For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. giving it an occasional stir. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. one of lead and one of aluminum. Crawford. running small motors and lighting small lamps. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. N. or suspended by a string. but waxed. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. the lid or cover closed. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. . taking care to have all the edges closed. Pour in a little turpentine. In both Fig. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. H. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface.with small sticks. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. The top of a table will do. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. Schenectady. fruit jars are required. 1. in. and set aside for half a day. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. in. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. 2. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by J. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. 1 and 2. Y. In each place two electrodes. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. and the lead 24 sq.

.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . O. This trick is very simple. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. After a few seconds' time. Cleveland. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. He. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. he throws the other. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. you remove the glass. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. which you warm with your hands. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. as you have held it all the time. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. as well as others. You have an understanding with some one in the company. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief.

allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Colo. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. Pull the ends quickly. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. in diameter in the center. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. but in making one. on a table. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. if any snags are encountered. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. near a partition or curtain. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Crocker.take the handiest one. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. . Victor.-Contributed by E. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Be sure that this is the right one. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. but by being careful at shores. put it under the glass. J. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle.

1 piece. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. of rope. for the stern piece. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. 2 in. 3 and 4. Both ends are mortised. 50 ft.. 1. long. 1/4 in.. Fig. for the bow. The keelson. wide and 12 ft. 2 gunwales. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. of 1-1/2-yd. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. 9 ft. from the stern. 1 piece. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. drilled and fastened with screws. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 3 in. 7 ft. from each end to 1 in. and. wide and 12 ft. wide 12-oz. wide unbleached muslin. 2 and braced with an iron band. long. one 6 in. 8 in. of 1-yd. 1 in. the smaller is placed 3 ft. by 16 ft. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . by 2 in. 1 in. 1 in. and the other 12 in. as illustrated in the engraving. long. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. by 10 ft. 1/8 in. apart. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. for cockpit frame. wide. 3 in. by 2 in. by 16 ft. at the ends. square by 16 ft. 1 in. thick and 3/4 in. and fastened with screws. by 15 ft. by 12 in. 11 yd. long. 8 yd. ducking. selected pine. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. from the bow and the large one. 4 outwales. are as follows: 1 keelson. by 8 in. screws and cleats. clear pine. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 14 rib bands. and is removed after the ribs are in place.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. is 14 ft. for center deck braces. 1 mast. Paint.

and a seam made joining the two pieces together. A piece of oak. Fig. thick. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. 6 in. 4 in. long. apart. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. a piece 1/4 in. long. is a cube having sides 6 in. 1/4 in. Before making the deck. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. thick 1-1/2 in. . 3-1/2 ft. They are 1 in. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. 1 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. 7 and 8.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. wide. thick. screws. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. from the bow. long. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. A 6-in. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. in diameter through the block. wood screws. This block. The block is fastened to the keelson. thick and 1/2 in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. thick and 12 in. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. also. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. corner braces. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. wide and 24 in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. 6 and 7. A seam should be made along the center piece. The 11-yd. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. These are put in 6 in. Fig. wide and 3 ft. is cut to fit under the top boards. wide and 14 in. 1 in. doubled. long is well soaked in water. gunwales and keelson. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. Braces. and fastened to them with bolts. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. The deck is not so hard to do. length of canvas is cut in the center. Figs. wide. 9. The trimming is wood. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. 6. A block of pine. 5.

The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. Fig. long. thick by 2 in. The mast has two side and one front stay. in diameter and 10 ft. The house will accommodate 20 families. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. Wilmette. is 6 in. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. apart in the muslin. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. Tronnes. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. The sail is a triangle. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. E. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. The inside of the rooms should be stained black.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. Ill. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. 11. 10 with a movable handle. 12. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. at the other. . is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. long. The keel. each 1 in. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. A strip 1 in. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. are used for the boom and gaff. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. wide. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. --Contributed by O. wide at one end and 12 in. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun.

on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. Wilmette. Take this and fold it over . pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. thick. long. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. wide. Fig. Bevel both sides of the pieces. 2 in. Tronnes. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. E. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. 5. square. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. wide and 2 ft. long. and 3 ft. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. one 11-1/2 in. flat headed screws. and the other 18 in. 2-1/2 in. thick. 2. flat on one side. Ill. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. --Contributed by O. 3. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. five 1/2-in. wide. thick. long. 1 yd. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. about 5/16 in. wide and 30 in. with the ends and the other side rounding. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.into two 14-in. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. flat-headed screws. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. 2-1/2 in. 4.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. long and five 1/2-in. 1. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. Cut the maple. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang.

3 in. Louis. long. soaked with water and blown up. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. A. leaving a small opening at one corner. A. wide and 6-1/2 in. 2 and 3. 5 from 1/16-in. wide and 3 ft. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. long. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. long. B. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. thick. and the four outside edges. wide and 2-1/2 in. square. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. wide and 2-3/4 in. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. forming an eye for a screw. F. E. long. square. About 1/2 in. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. If carefully and neatly made. and make a turn in each end of the wires. thick.once. D. After the glue. thick and 3 in. Cut another piece of board. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. Wind three layers of about No. 3-1/4 in. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. long. long. --Contributed by W. of each end unwound for connections. The front. then centered. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. C. 1. When the glue is set. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. Mo. this square box is well sandpapered. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. Bliss. Another piece. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. pieces 2-5/8 in. St. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. 1-1/4 in. The bag is then turned inside out. but can be governed by circumstances. is set. long. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. wide . The pointer is made as shown in Fig. wide and 4-1/2 in. and take care that the pieces are all square. the mechanical parts can be put together. wide and 6-3/4 in. C. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. The sides are 3-1/4 in. the top and bottom. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. long. Glue a three cornered piece. Make a double stitch all around the edge. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. wide and 5 in. about 3/8 in. are rounded. 3/8 in. Figs. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. as well as the edges around the opening. 6-1/2 in. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. Fig.

the part carrying the pointer moves away. long. in diameter. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. The end of the polar axis B. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. 5. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. The stronger the current. from one end. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. R. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. F. and fasten in place. Richmond Hill. The resistance is now adjusted to show . A pointer 12 in. 1/16 in. L. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. 4. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. 4 is not movable. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. long. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. and the farther apart they will be forced. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. Fig. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. and as the part Fig. wide and 9 in. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. so it will just clear the tin. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. from the spindle. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. 4. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. Chapman. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips.A. showing a greater defection of the pointer.R. Austwick Hall. I. the same size as the first. 5-1/2 in. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. --Contributed by George Heimroth. hole is fastened to the pointer. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in.S. thick. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. These wires should be about 1 in. board. wide and 2-1/2 in. Fig. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. W. bored in the back. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. C.and 2-5/8 in. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. When the current flows through the coil. long. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. Like poles repel each other. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. 1/4 in. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. The base is a board 5 in. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. that has the end turned with a shoulder. Yorkshire. Another strip of tin. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. Place the tin. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. G. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted.

Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. 10 min. say Venus at the date of observation. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. M. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. thus: 9 hr. 10 min. 1881. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. 30 min.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. The following formula will show how this may be found. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. and vice . A. at 9 hr. shows mean siderial.

Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc.f. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. or. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Hall. owing to the low internal resistance. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. if one of these cannot be had. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. New Haven. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. Conn.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. .m. --Contributed by Robert W. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery.

One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. 3/8 in. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. arsenic to every 20 lb. especially for cooking fish. inside diameter and about 5 in. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. The boring bar. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. When the follower is screwed down. fresh grass. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. 1-3/4 in. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. as shown in the accompanying picture. 1. Fig. cover up with the same. leaves or bark. Wet paper will answer. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . thick. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. long. Then. of alum and 4 oz. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. put the fish among the ashes. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. and heap the glowing coals on top.

thick. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. pipe. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. and threaded on both ends. about 1/2 in. pipe. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. when they were turned in. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. fastened with a pin. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore.

one of which is plainly shown in the picture. then it should be ground to a fit. labor and time. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. was then finished on an emery wheel. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. The rough frame. but never one which required so little material. square iron. thick and 3 in. wide. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. as the one illustrated herewith. bent in the shape of a U. Fig. Iowa. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. 30 in. This plate also supports the rocker arms. however. Fig. Clermont. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. the float is too high. It . angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. and which gave such satisfactory results. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. 5. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. If the valve keeps dripping. 3. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. 4. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. A 1-in. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. 2. a jump spark would be much better. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws.valve stems. long. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. Fig. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated.

and a little junk. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. This makes an easy adjustment. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. square and 5 ft. extending above. being held in position by spikes as shown. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. in diameter and 15 in. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. The illustration largely explains itself. long. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. As there is no bracing. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. long is the pivot. for the "motive power" to grasp.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. It looks like a toy. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. 12 ft. completes the merry-go-round. The crosspiece is 2 in. --Contributed by C. The seats are regular swing boards. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . no matter what your age or size may be. hole bored in the post. in the ground with 8 ft. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. Nieman. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in." little and big. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. from all over the neighborhood. timber. 3/4 in. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. long. long. with no trees or buildings in the way. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. If it is to be used for adults. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. and. A malleable iron bolt. W. Use a heavy washer at the head. from the center. set 3 ft. A 3/4 -in. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. strengthened by a piece 4 in." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. square and 2 ft. strong clear material only should be employed. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. rope is not too heavy. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. butting against short stakes. so it must be strong enough. square. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. in fact.

A reel is next made. light and strong. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. 1/4 by 3/32 in. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing.2 emery. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. These ends are placed about 14 in. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. Having placed the backbone in position. then it is securely fastened. long. as shown in Fig. Both have large reels full of . or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. 1.the fingers. 4. and sent to earth. if nothing better is at hand. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. 2. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. The backbone is flat. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. a wreck. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. and 18 in. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. To wind the string upon the reel. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. one for the backbone and one for the bow. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. square. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. The bow is now bent. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. away.

N. The handle end is held down with a staple. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Bunker.-Contributed by S. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. C. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. he pays out a large amount of string. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. or glass-covered string.string. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. Moody. common packing thread. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Brooklyn. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. If the second kite is close enough. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Y. First. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. --Contributed' by Harry S. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Mass. the balance. often several hundred yards of it. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. Newburyport. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it.

cutting the circular piece into quarters. must be attached to a 3-ft. square (Fig. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. lengths (Fig. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. If the table is round. each the size of half the table top. make the pad as shown in the illustration. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . then draw the string up tight. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Vt. Corinth. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. such as mill men use. Hastings. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. length of 2-in. then a dust protector. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. --Contributed by Earl R. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time.

but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working.. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together.. which spoils the leather effect. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. from C to D. E. Calif. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. G to H.. from E to F. trace the design carefully on the leather. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. 6-1/4 in. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. 2-1/4 in. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. Wharton. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. Use a smooth. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. 16-1/4 in. hard pencil.9-1/4 in. Moisten the .-Contributed by H. and E to G. . Oakland. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. 17-1/2 in. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture.

Now cut narrow thongs. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. if not more than 1 in. Cut it the same size as the bag. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. I made this motor . G-J. and lace through the holes. and E-G. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. and corresponding lines on the other side. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. apart. wide. about 1/8 in. H-B. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. with the rounded sides of the tools. Trace the openings for the handles. is taken off at a time. place both together and with a leather punch.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. To complete the bag. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. also lines A-G. get something with which to make a lining. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire.

--Contributed by J. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. of No. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. 24 gauge magnet wire. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. as shown in Fig. 2-1/4 in. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig.M. D. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. iron.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. Shannon. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. 2. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. 1. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. B. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. in length. long. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. Pasadena. . each being a half circle. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. 1. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. Calif. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws.

Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. from the bottom end. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. balloon should be about 8 ft. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. The gores for a 6-ft. 1. and the gores cut from these. near the center. are the best kind to make. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. pasted in alternately. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. high.

somewhat larger in size. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. The boat soon attains considerable speed. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. so it will hang as shown in Fig. --Contributed by R. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. As the boat is driven forward by this force. Fig. 4. using about 1/2-in. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. 3. E. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. These are to hold the wick ball. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. In removing grease from wood. 2. After washing. Staunton. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. In starting the balloon on its flight. 5. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. 1. as shown in Fig. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. leaving the solution on over night. The steam. B. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible.widest point. If the gores have been put together right. A. saturating it thoroughly. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . having the ends bent into hooks as shown. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. coming through the small pipe A. leaving a long wake behind. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. after which the paint will adhere permanently. lap on the edges. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. as shown in Fig. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. in diameter. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed.

The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. 1. There are three ways of doing this: First. as is shown in Fig. apart on these lines. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. wide by 6 in. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. Second. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. long and each provided with a handle. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. in bowling form. high and 8 in. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. if you have several copies of the photograph. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. Third. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. long. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. In using either of the two methods described. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The blocks are about 6 in.

Y. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . not pointed down at the road at an angle. 2. Hellwig. Rinse the plate in cold water.Fig. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Albany. thick. being careful not to dent the metal. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. --Contributed by John A. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Fig. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. N. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching.

Va. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. and. wide and 8 in. With this device. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. 6 in. Paine. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. wide and of any desired height. long for the base. through which passes the set screw S. Break off the frame. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost.upon any particular object. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. is fastened to a common camera tripod. A circular piece of wood. S. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. These corner irons are also screwed to. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. --Contributed by R. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. A. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. and not produce the right sound. which is 4 in. thick. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. with a set screw. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . In Fig. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. are screwed to the circular piece. Richmond. in diameter. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. and Fig. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. B. CC. A. 1 Fig. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. Corner irons. 2 the front view. 5 in.

thus producing sound waves. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. D. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. La Salle. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. R. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. Ill. This will make a very compact electric horn. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. as only the can is visible. Kidder. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. I made a wheel 26 in. in diameter of some 1-in. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. . pine boards. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. This horn. Lake Preston. -1. S. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery.

The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. If there is a large collection of coins. square. 1. The frame is made of a heavy card. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. O. --Contributed by C. A. the same thickness as the coins. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Doylestown. 1. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Fig.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. B. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Purdy. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Kane. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. 2. Ghent. thick and 12 in. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. --Contributed by James R.

Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Milwaukee. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. of developer. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. Neyer. they become uninteresting. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. --Contributed by R. One Cloud. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. If desired. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner.E. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. Smith. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. plus a 3/8-in. A lead pencil. Toronto. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. A rivet punch is desirable. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. --Contributed by J. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. It will hold 4 oz.J.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. into which to place the screws . a hammer or mallet. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. thick. several large nails. though not absolutely necessary. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. --Contributed by August T. Canada. Cal. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. The material required is a sheet of No. Noble. cut and grooved. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. and then glued together as indicated. melted and applied with a brush. border all around. Wis. for after the slides have been shown a few times.

apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. Remove the screws. Take the nail. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. both outline and decoration.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. like the one shown. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. never upon the metal directly. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . draw one part. using 1/2-in. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. and file it to a chisel edge. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. screws placed about 1 in. There are several ways of working up the design.

and two lengths. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. About 1/2 yd. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. Provide four lengths for the legs. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. Rivet the band to the holder. as shown in Fig. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. long. 2. each 1 in. square. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. two lengths. 1. square and 181/2 in. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. The pedal. in the other. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. using a 1/2in. long. 3. long. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. square and 11 in. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. l-1/8 in. . for the top. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. of 11-in.wall. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. up from the lower end. 3/4 in. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. Do not bend it over or flatten it. for the lower rails. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. being ball bearing.

The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. Attalla. Ala. having quite a length of threads. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. New York City. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. --Contributed by W. F. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. --Contributed by John Shahan. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. Quackenbush. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps.

Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. stitched on both edges for appearance. The desired emblem. long. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. Two pieces of felt. long. the end of the other piece is folded over. from one end. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. in depth. wide and 4-1/4 in. Ironwood. each 1-1/4 in. and 3/8 in. and the other 2-3/4 in. making a lap of about 1 in. using class. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied .. Assemble as shown in the sketch. initial. --Contributed by C. one about 1 in. Mich. D. Purchase a 1/2-in. from the end. college or lodge colors. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Luther.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. something that is carbonated. and two holes in the other. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. long. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. wide and 8-1/4 in.

sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. in the cover and the bottom. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. from the center and opposite each other. if desired by the operator. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. Indianapolis. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. 1. or more in height. Schatz. and the cork will be driven out. in diameter and 2 in. Ind. as shown at B.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. --Contributed by John H. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. 1/4 in. A piece of lead. which can be procured from a plumber. as shown in the sketch. This method allows a wide range of designs. Punch two holes A. Fig. or a pasteboard box. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . 2. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. about 2 in. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet.

When the can is rolled away from you. Columbus. on both top and bottom. 3. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. metal. as shown in Fig. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick.Rolling Can Toy lead. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. or marble will serve. A piece of thick glass. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. allowing the two ends to be free. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. 1. and the ends of the bands looped over them. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. 4. 5. . Fig. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. O. it winds up the rubber band. are turned up as in Fig. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. The pieces of tin between the holes A. putting in the design.

hole through it. New York City. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. deep in its face. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. I secured a board 3/4 in. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. A pencil may be used the first time over. and. wide and 20 in. The edges should be about 1/8 in. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . After this has been done. long and bored a 1/2-in. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. Next place the leather on the glass. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. thick. thicker than the pinion.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. from each end. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. 1 in. 3 in. face up. mark over the design. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. If it is desired to "line" the inside. or more thick on each side.

2. 1 piece for clamp. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 2 crosspieces. 1. Make the lower frame first. 4 guides. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 2 by 12 by 77 in. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Fig. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 1 by 9 by 80 in. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. N. 1 back board. New York. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1 top board. Cut the 2-in. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. countersinking the heads of the vise end. 1 by 12 by 77 in. thick top board. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. and fit it in place for the side vise. 2 by 2 by 18 in. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. Syracuse. Now fit up the two clamps. 1 piece for clamp. 2 side rails. 1 top board. M. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in.in the board into the bench top. 3 by 3 by 20 in. pieces for the vise slides. 3 by 3 by 6 in. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. in diameter. 1 piece. lag screws as shown. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Y. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 3 by 3 by 36. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. Rice. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 1 screw block. 2 end rails. Brooklyn. --Contributed by A. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws.

rule. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. The amateur workman. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 24 in.. 1 claw hammer. 1 rip saw. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 pocket level. 1 monkey wrench. 1 compass saw. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 2-ft. 1 wood scraper. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 cross cut saw. .. as well as the pattern maker. Only the long run. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 marking gauge. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 set gimlets.. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. If each tool is kept in a certain place. The bench is now complete. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. in diameter. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 3 and 6 in. 1 set chisels. 1 nail set.screws. 1 countersink. 1 pair pliers. 24 in. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 pair dividers. 2 screwdrivers. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 brace and set of bits.

but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. Fig. No. Fig. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. becomes like A. 1. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. being softer.1 6-in. but will not make . ---Contributed by James M. Kane. 1 oilstone. 2. The calf skin. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. 3. Doylestown. Pa.1. Fig. will sink into the handle as shown at D. after constant use. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. 1. will be easier to work. Fig. try square. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. 2 and 00 sandpaper. the projecting point A.

Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. Two pieces will be required of this size. If cow hide is preferred. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. -Contributed by Julia A. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. The form can be made of a stick of wood. White. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. will do just as well. secure a piece of modeling calf. but a V-shaped nut pick. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. . lay the design on the face. After the outlines are traced. First draw the design on paper. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. Turn the leather. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. Having prepared the two sides. such as copper or brass. water or heat will not affect. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. If calf skin is to be used. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. New York City. cover it completely with water enamel and. the same method of treatment is used. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow.as rigid a case as the cow skin. when dry. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. then prepare the leather. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. and the length 6-5/8 in. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. which steam. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side.

and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. --Contributed by Chas. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. A. --Contributed by Chester L. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Richmond. Cal. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Jaquythe. Maine. New York City. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. as shown in the sketch. Portland. --Contributed by W. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Cobb. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. . Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. C. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Herrman.

A thick piece of tin. Middletown. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. Conn.. --Contributed by Wm. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. Mass. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. --Contributed by Geo. This was very difficult. Wright. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. B. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. . Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. an inverted stewpan.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. was marked out as shown. Cambridge. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Roberts. for instance. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time.

had oil from a lamp spilled over it. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. Chicago. Ind. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. such as chair seats. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. Illinois. Indianapolis. which has been tried out several times with success. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. If any traces of the grease are left. and quite new. but not running over. as shown. apply powdered calcined magnesia. --Contributed by Paul Keller. When dry. so some bones were quickly calcined. but only an odor which soon vanished. on a clear piece of glass. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. pulverized and applied. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. Herbert. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. F. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. face down. used as part of furniture. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. There was no quicklime to be had. and the grease will disappear. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. well calcined and powdered.. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. L. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. . This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. --Contributed by C. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. Bone. A beautifully bound book. of boiling water. If the article is highly polished. The next morning there was no trace of oil. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch.

The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. 2 in.. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. set and thumbscrews. --Contributed by Geo. This coaster is simple and easy to make. soft steel with the opening 6 in. wide and 12 in. long. thick. the pieces .Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. A. The pieces marked S are single. If properly adjusted. deep and 5 in. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. Tarrytown. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. Howe. 6 in. says Scientific American. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. high and are bolted to a block of wood.. New York.

no doubt. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. The seat is a board. they will look remarkably uniform. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. albums and the like. to the underside of which is a block. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . says Camera Craft. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. for sending to friends. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. Their size depends on the plate used. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. If the letters are all cut the same height. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. E. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. A sharp knife.

What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. So arranged. In cutting out an 0. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. using care to get it in the right position. and. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. photographing them down to the desired size. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. mount them on short pieces of corks. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. for example. The puzzle is to get . So made. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. pasting the prints on some thin card. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. after.

The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made.-Contributed by I. Old-Time Magic . A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. long that will just fit are set in. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. so they will lie horizontal. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. G. with the longest end outside.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. hung on pivots. Cape May Point. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . A hole 6 or 7 in. Bayley. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. N. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. of its top. says the American Thresherman. squeezes along past the center of the tube. snow or anything to hide it. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. He smells the bait. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.J.

Rhode Island. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. N. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Pocatello. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Szerlip. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. --Contributed by L. then spread the string. --Contributed by Charles Graham. then expose again. Brooklyn.faced up. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Y. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. E. --Contributed by L. Press the hands together. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Parker. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Idaho. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Pawtucket.

or designs in this article are from authentic sources. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. 2 Fig. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. using a straightedge and a pencil. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. wide and 2 in. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. The pieces. 4 on the blade. thick. or a complete suit of armor. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. and if carefully made. wipe the blade . or green oil paint. long. full size. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. they will look very much like the genuine article. end of the blade. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig.Genuine antique swords and armor. The handle is next made. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. dark red. whether he requires a single sword only. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. When the whole is quite dry. narrower. The blade should be about 27 in. 1.. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. Glue the other side of the blade. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. if any. When the glue is thoroughly dry. in width. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. 1 Fig.. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. 3 Fig. near the point end. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. says the English Mechanic. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. in building up his work from the illustrations.

and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. 1. about 1-1/2 in. not for use only in cases of tableaux. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. 4. This sword is about 68 in. shows only two sides. follow the directions as for Fig. 1/8 in. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. Fig. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. In the finished piece. the illustration. 3. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. as it is . drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. take two pieces of wood. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. 2. and 3 in. in the widest part at the lower end. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel.with light strokes up and down several times. 3. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig.. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. In making this scimitar. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. Both edges of the blade are sharp. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side.. square and of any length desired. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. in diameter. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. In making. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. the length of the blade 28 in. the other two are identical. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. 1. preferably of contrasting colors. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. The length of the handle. of course. the other is flat or half-round. thick and 5 in. 1. 2. allowing for a good hold with both hands. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. long. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. 1. should be about 9 in. the other is flat or halfround.

Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. in an attempt to remove it. as shown in the sketch. Franklin. On each edge of the board. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Both can be made easily. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. as there was some at hand. however. thick and from 14 to 16 ft.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. Doctors probed for the button without success. and if so. and. --Contributed by John Blake. piping and jackets by hard water. 2 in. as can the pitch bed or block. The thinness of the plank. Y. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. N. It is made of a plank. long. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Morse. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Mass. Syracuse. or an insecure fastening. about 3/8 in. each about 1 ft. A cold . Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. A piece of mild steel. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. at the lower end. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. --Contributed by Katharine D. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. square.

A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. plaster of Paris. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. To put it in another way. Trim up the edges and file them . place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. To remedy this. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. 5 lb. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. 5 lb. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. tallow. a file to reduce the ends to shape. When the desired form has been obtained. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. design down.. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. using a small metal saw. When this has been done.. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. 18 gauge. on the pitch. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. secure a piece of brass of about No. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb.

in the center. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. in diameter (Fig. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. . Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. to keep it from floating. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. over the smaller vessel. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. which divided by 1/6 gives 180.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. living together in what seems like one receptacle. or fraction of a horsepower. lb. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. in one minute or 550 lb. --Contributed by Harold H. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. one 18 in. and still revolve. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. using powdered pumice with lye. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel.000 ft. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. 1 ft. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. Cutter. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. in diameter (Fig. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. or 550 ft. lb.smooth. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Fig. space between the vessels with water. make an unusual show window attraction. per second. 3. per minute. in one second. but not to stop it. A. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. 1 ft. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. it may be well to know what horsepower means. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. Before giving the description.000 lb. 30 ft. That is lifting 33. The smaller is placed within the larger. Fill the 3-in. 2). This in turn divided by 33. 1) and the other 12 in. and hang a bird swing. Clean the metal thoroughly. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb.

How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . 1 Fig. Szerlip. The effect is surprising. 2 Fig. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Campbell. Y.3 Fig.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Somerville. --Contributed. or on a pedestal. F. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Diameter 12 in.18 in. N. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Mass. --Contributed by J. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Diameter Fig. Brooklyn. by L.

Do not be content merely to bend them over. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. to keep the metal from tarnishing. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. often render it useless after a few months service. keeping the center high. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. This compound is impervious to water. away from the edge. which. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. with other defects. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in.copper of No. Rivet the cup to the base. which may be of wood or tin. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. Polish both of these pieces. with the pliers. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. unsatisfactory. is. the same as removing writing from a slate. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. after which it is ready for use. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. using any of the common metal polishes. then by drawing a straightedge over it. and then. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. In riveting. and the clay . so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. and cut out the shape with the shears. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. as a rule. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time.

as shown in Fig. DeLoof. Grand Rapids. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Mich. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. 3/4 in. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. It is made of a glass tube. Scotland. The siphon is made of glass tubes. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Shettleston. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. in diameter and 5 in. long. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. Mich. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. A. . --Contributed by A. Dunlop. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Northville. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. --Contributed by John T. 1. Houghton. 2. the device will work for an indefinite time. -Contributed by Thos. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop.can be pressed back and leveled. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube.

This sword is 4 ft. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. London. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. put up as ornaments. As the handle is to .2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. stilettos and battle-axes. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. in width and 2 in. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic.1 FIG. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade.FIG. long. 1. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color.

A German poniard is shown in Fig. The crossbar and blade are steel. The sword shown in Fig. in length. Cut two strips of tinfoil. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. sometimes called cuirass breakers. string. 9. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. This weapon is also about 1 ft. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. The lower half of the handle is of wood. in width. Three large. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. is shown in Fig. long with a dark handle of wood. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. 5. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. 3 is shown a claymore. the axe is of steel. When dry. sharp edges on both sides. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. When the whole is quite dry. This sword is about 4 ft. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. the upper part iron or steel. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. one about 1/2 in. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. 4. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. 8. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. narrower. glue and put it in place. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. with wire or string' bound handle. the same as used on the end of the handle. 20 spike. A German stiletto. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. In Fig. In Fig. This axe is made similar to the one . which is about 2-1/2 ft. then glued on the blade as shown. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft.represent copper. The ball is made as described in Fig. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. In Fig. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. long. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. wood with a keyhole saw. small rope and round-headed nails. 7. This weapon is about 1 ft. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. paint it a dark brown or black. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. firmly glued on. with both edges sharp. Both handle and axe are of steel. When the glue is thoroughly dry. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. These must be cut from pieces of wood. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. studded with brass or steel nails. The handle is of wood. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. with both edges of the blade sharp. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. 11 were used. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. This stiletto has a wood handle. very broad. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. in length. 6. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade.

use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. W. so the contents cannot be seen. will pull where other belts slip. This will make a very good flexible belt. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. 10. such as braided fishline. 2. Chicago. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. high. --Contributed by E.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. When wrapped all the way around. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. together as shown in Fig. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. . Old-Time Magic . Davis. the ends are tied and cut off.described in Fig.

Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. As zinc is much lighter than iron. filled with water. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. with the circle centrally located. held in the right hand. Calif. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. The dotted lines in Fig. some of the liquid. 2. S. in a few seconds' time. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. --Contributed by A. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. causing the flowers to grow. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. N.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. four glass tumblers. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies.J. There will be no change in color. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. or using small wedges of wood. about one-third the way down from the top. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. an acid. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. These wires are put in the jar. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. 1 and put together as in Fig. Oakland. Before the performance. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. apparently. Bridgeton. Macdonald. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof.

and kept ready for use at any time. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. A. Richmond. which are numbered for convenience in working. Jaquythe. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. If the size wanted is No. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. 2 for height. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. says a correspondent of Photo Era. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. When many slides are to be masked. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. unless some special device is used. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. not only because of the fact just mentioned.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. Cal. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. --Contributed by W. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. practical and costs nothing. 4 for width and No. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. This outlines the desired opening. and equally worthy of individual treatment. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks.

This done. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. too. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . the margin and the entire back of the metal. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. the paper is folded along the center line. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. and the extreme length 7 in. a little less acid than water. 16 gauge. or a pair of old tongs. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. and do not inhale the fumes. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. may be changed. paint the design. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. Secure a sheet of No. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. or. With a stick. Trace the design and outline upon the metal.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. is about right for the No. not the water into the acid. possibly. Draw a design. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. The decoration. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. about half and half. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. The one shown is merely suggestive. When etched to the desired depth. which is dangerous. but they can be easily revived. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. using the carbon paper.

Fig. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. through it. or more wide. about 1 in. and bore two holes. so that when it is pressed down. in diameter and 1/4 in. as in Fig. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. wide and of the same length as the table. Then get two posts. 5. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. Fig. When the button S is pressed. 2. and about 2-1/2 ft. as shown in the illustration. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. Fig. Cut out a piece of tin. with the wires underneath. . To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. repeat as many times as is necessary. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Fig. 3/8 in. high. It may be either nailed or screwed down. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. thick. about 3 ft. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. Buttons for the bells may be purchased.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. 5. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. attached to a post at each end. about 8 in. as shown in Fig. long and 1 ft. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. A. Fig. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. 3. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. long. to the table. The connections are simple: I. Paint the table any color desired. J is another wire attached in the same way. as at H. 4. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. Nail a board. it will touch post F. 24 parts water. C and D. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. the bell will ring. 0 indicates the batteries. about 2-1/2 in. 2. wide. 1. 2.

mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. thick.. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. 1. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together.Imitation Arms and Armor . says the English Mechanic. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. long serves as the dowel. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 2. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. such as . These rings can be carved out. The imitation articles are made of wood. is to appear as steel. The circle is marked out with a compass. The entire weapon. This weapon is about 22 in. long.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. the wood peg inserted in one of them. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. but they are somewhat difficult to make. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. A wood peg about 2 in. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. After the glue is dry. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. handle and all. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks.

with a sharp carving tool. The axe is shown in steel. also. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. 6. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. etc. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. 2. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. as shown. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. is shown in Fig. Its length is about 3 ft. or the amateur cannot use it well. The lower half of the handle is wood. The handle is of wood. . The handle is of steel imitation. studded with large brass or steel nails. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. leaves. long. as before mentioned. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. 8. The spikes are cut out of wood. flowers. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. If such a tool is not at hand. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. 3. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. the hammer and spike. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth.ornamental scrolls. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. All of these axes are about the same length. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The entire handle should be made of one piece. This weapon is about 22 in. used at the end of the fifteenth century. covered with red velvet. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 5. The upper half of the handle is steel. as described in Fig. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out.

Chicago. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. The knife falling on its side (Fig. then the other plays. 6. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 7) calls for one out. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. 3. a three-base hit. 4). Fig. as shown in Fig. Each person plays until three outs have been made. and so on for nine innings. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. 2. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. calls for a home run. . Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. as in Fig. 1. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. 5. the knife resting on its back. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors.

the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. 3. Mass. It may be found that the negative is not colored. while the committee is tying him up. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. with the rope laced in the cloth. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. as shown in Fig. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. If it is spotted at all. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours.-Contributed by J. Campbell. one of them burning . The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. F. of water for an hour or two. This he does. 1. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. 2.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. Old-Time Magic . Somerville. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. as shown in Fig. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. of the rope and holds it. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. hypo to 1 pt.

Drill Gauge screw. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. of water and 1 oz. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. Thome. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. thick. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. of plumbago. and. shades the light for a few seconds. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. Lebanon.Contributed by Andrew G. invisible to them (the audience). Ky. 4 oz. Louisville. 3/4 in. showing that there is nothing between them. . The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood.. --Contributed by L. bolt. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. The magician walks over to the burning candle. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. of turpentine. B. 4 oz. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. Evans. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. with which he is going to light the other candle. New York City. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. of sugar. --Contributed by C. Brown. etc. the other without a light. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. thus causing it to light. He then walks over to the other candle. Ky. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs.brightly. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole.

into a tube of several thicknesses.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. H. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. N. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. Denniston. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. In making up the solution. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. steady current. To make the porous cell. Pulteney. long. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. 5 in. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. Its current strength is about one volt. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. Y. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. or blotting paper. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. about 5 in. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. which will give a strong. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. --Contributed by C. thick. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. Do not add water to the acid. diameter. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. but is not so good. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. for the material.

but somewhat lighter. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. steel. As to thickness. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. steel. One hole was bored as well as possible. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws.station. the other holding them apart. carrying the hour circle at one end. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The . This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. Finally. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made.) may be obtained. a positive adjustment was provided. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. while the other end is attached by two screws. steel. one drawing them together. To insure this. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. long with a bearing at each end. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. After much experimentation with bearings. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other.

" Only a rough setting is necessary. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. in each direction from two points 180 deg. Set the declination circle to its reading. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. and if it is not again directed to the same point. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. once carefully made. are tightened. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. 45 min. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. need not be changed." When this is done. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. If the result is more than 24 hours. It is. and 15 min. All these adjustments. All set screws. Instead. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. When properly set it will describe a great circle. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. save the one in the pipe. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. The pole is 1 deg. The pointer is directed to Alpha. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. Each shaft. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. is provided with this adjustment. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. Point it approximately to the north star. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. apart. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas.. turn the pointer to the star. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. The aperture should be 1/4 in. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. To locate a known star on the map." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. Declination is read directly. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. excepting those on the declination axis. Cassiopiae. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension.. subtract 24. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. To find a star in the heavens.

Plain City. -Contributed by Ray E. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. cannon balls. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. Ohio. benzole. the others . as shown in the sketch.. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. 3 or 4 in. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. is the real cannon ball. long. The ball is found to be the genuine article.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. La. a great effect will be produced. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. If this will be too transparent. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. The dance will begin. In reality the first ball. taking care not to add too much. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. is folded several times. then add 1 2-3 dr. add a little more benzole. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. of ether. New Orleans. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. Strosnider. which is the one examined.

are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring.. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. Mass. small brooches. 1). 2. Campbell. as shown in the illustration. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. etc. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. Fig. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. --Contributed by J. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. Cal. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. Milwaukee. San Francisco. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. F. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Wis. without taking up any great amount of space. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. Return the card to the pack. taps. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. In boxes having a sliding cover. Somerville. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band.

round pieces 2-1/4 in. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. prints. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. This box has done good service. slides and extra brushes.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Beller. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. from the bottom of the box. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. thus giving ample store room for colors. Hartford. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. . Connecticut. as shown in the illustration. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time.

Darke. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. costing 5 cents. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. -Contributed by C. tacking the gauze well at the corners. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. 2). the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. about threefourths full. When the ends are turned under. FIG. or placed against a wall. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. will answer the purpose. with well packed horse manure. West Lynn. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. holes in the bottom of one. . O. Mass. 1). and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. Fill the upper tub.

A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. --Contributed by L. Eifel. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. If the following directions are carried out. Chicago. M. they should be knocked out. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. If plugs are found in any of the holes. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. when they are raised from the pan. if this is not available. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. cutting the cane between the holes. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. oil or other fluid. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. and each bundle contains .

it should be held by a plug. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. then across and down. as it must be removed again. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. after having been pulled tight. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. In addition to the cane. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. held there by inserting another plug. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. a square pointed wedge. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. No plugs . and. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. as shown in Fig. 1. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. put about 3 or 4 in.

5. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. Patrick. in this case) times the .should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. When cool. as shown in Fig. R. All added to the lesser or 40°. 41°-30'.075 in. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. 4. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. as it always equals the latitude of the place. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case.2+. and for 1° it would be . can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. -Contributed by E. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. No weaving has been done up to this time. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. the height of the line BC. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. and for lat. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs.5 in. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. as the height of the line BC for lat. 3. D. as shown in Fig.15 in. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. Even with this lubrication.15+. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. 1. This will make three layers. Their difference is . using the same holes as for the first layer. Fig. Michigan. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. is the base (5 in. stretch the third one. There are several different designs of sundials. 1 lat. the next smallest. Fig. is the horizontal dial. called the gnomon. 3. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. From table No. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. lat. If handled with a little care. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair.075 in. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. or the style. 42° is 4. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. 40°. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. 41 °-30'. 1. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. it is 4. and the one we shall describe in this article. we have 4. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time.42 in. It consists of a flat circular table. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. trim off the surplus rosin. 1. During the weaving. the height of which is taken from table No.= 4. --Contributed by M. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. After completing the second layer. 5 in. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. for 2°. The style or gnomon.2 in. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. Detroit. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. but the most common. as for example. W. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. If you have a table of natural functions.3 in.

gives the 6 o'clock points.77 2.82 2.82 5.99 2. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.97 5 7 4.27 2. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.03 3. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.29 4-30 7-30 3. according to the size of the dial. using the points A and C as centers. . For latitudes not given.33 .16 1.42 1.46 .87 4. Table NO. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.49 30 . placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. circle Sundial.96 32° 3.39 .11 3. Fig.41 38° 3.68 5-30 6-30 5.28 .10 6.91 58° 8. or if of stone.57 3. if of metal. with a radius of 5 in.94 1.33 42° 4.26 4. Chords in inches for a 10 in.14 5. 2. and intersecting the semicircles. Draw the line AD.07 4.42 45 . and for this size dial (10 in.56 . The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.66 latitude. 1.16 40 .66 1.44 44° 4. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.23 6.57 1.37 54° 6. To layout the hour circle.42 .00 40° 4.55 46° 5.46 3. an inch or two.63 56° 7.40 1.87 1.02 1. base.32 6.93 2.66 48° 5. 2 for given latitudes. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.82 3. which will represent the base in length and thickness.88 36° 3. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. and perpendicular to the base or style.18 28° 2.06 2.81 4.64 4 8 3.50 26° 2.30 1.20 60° 8. long.89 50° 5.85 1.19 1.83 27° 2. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. or more. Draw two semi-circles.85 35 . Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .55 5.59 2.93 6.76 1. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.tangent of the degree of latitude.49 3.40 34° 3. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.30 2.79 4.55 30° 2. Its thickness. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.38 .55 4.37 5. 2.12 52° 6.

01 1.57 1. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. Sun time to local mean time. 2 and Dec. if west.50 55 . says the English Mechanic..34 5. adding to each piece interest and value.82 3. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. 25.37 2. This correction can be added to the values in table No. April 16. The + means that the clock is faster. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.63 1.89 3.46 4. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position.93 6. after allowing for the declination.06 2. each article can be labelled with the name. London.77 3.60 4.add those marked + subtract those Marked .24 5.71 2.from Sundial lime. it will be faster. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.79 6. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.50 . Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. An ordinary compass. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. 3.53 1. Each weapon is cut from wood.30 2. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. will enable one to set the dial.72 5.08 1. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . Sioux City. Iowa.14 1. June 15. and for the difference between standard and local time.54 60 . The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.21 2. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. E.means that the dial is faster than the sun.19 2.10 4.98 4. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. As they are the genuine reproductions. Mitchell. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.87 6.49 3. 900 Chicago.46 5.52 Table No. 3. Sept.49 5.12 5. then the watch is slower.68 3. and the . --Contributed by J.

The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. Partisan. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. . The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. the length of which is about 5 ft. When putting on the tinfoil. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. 3. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color.. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. The spear head is of steel about 15 in.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. 1. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil.

The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails.which is square. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. long. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The length of this bar is about 5 in. This weapon is about 6 ft. It is about 6 ft. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. press it well into the carved depressions. The edges are sharp. . The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. 6 ft. used about the seventeenth century. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. in diameter. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. long with a round wooden handle. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. 5. The extreme length is 9 ft. long. is shown in Fig. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. 8. A gisarm or glaive. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. the holes being about 1/4 in. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. long with a round staff or handle. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. sharp on the outer edges. about 4 in. which are a part of the axe. 7. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown.. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The spear is steel.

How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. are less durable and will quickly show wear. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. the most durable being bamboo. B. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. Substances such as straw. Cut all the cords the same length. and if placed from 6 to 12 in.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. In Figs. Loudonville. They can be made of various materials. Workman. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. H. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. 2 and 3. Ohio. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. The twisted cross cords should . A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. are put in place. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. as shown in Fig. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. apart. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. This is important to secure neatness. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. 5. used for spacing and binding the whole together.-Contributed by R. 4. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. 1. or in holes punched in a leather strap. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. the cross cords. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs.

3 in. shaped as shown at C. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. below the top to within 1/4 in. New York. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. Harrer. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. M. as shown at B. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. of the bottom. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. This was turned over the top of the other can. The first design shown is for using bamboo. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. bamboo or rolled paper. -Contributed by Geo. New Orleans. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. for a length extending from a point 2 in. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. A slit was cut in the bottom. Lockport. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. La. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. To remedy this. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. in which was placed a piece of glass. Four V-shaped notches were cut. wide.be of such material. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the .

A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. Sanford. about 1/16 in. turned over but not fastened. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. and two along the side for attaching the staff. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. --Contributed by Joseph H. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. is shown in the accompanying sketch. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing.tape from sticking to the carpet. After this is finished. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. Schaffner. the brass is loosened from the block. Shay. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. Newburgh. This should be done gradually. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. It would be well to polish the brass at first. Maywood. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. wide. N. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. do not throw away the gloves. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . giving the appearance of hammered brass. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. Pasadena. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. --Contributed by W. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. Y. Cal. Ill. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. --Contributed by Chas. H. This plank. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design.

Richmond. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. --E. Marshall. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. bent as shown. -Contributed by W. in diameter. A.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Jaquythe. Cal. Ill. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Unlike most clocks. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. K. Oak Park. the pendulum swings .

. . about 6 in. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. in diameter. Fasten another board. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. the center one being 2-3/4 in. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. by 1-5/16 in. and the other two 2-5/8 in. is an electromagnet. such as this one. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. says the Scientific American. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. high. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. In using this method. about 12 in. Secure a board. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. on the board B. 5/16 in. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. Chicago. high. 6 in. Metzech. bearing on the latter. --Contributed by V. Now place the board to be joined. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. C. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. thick. The construction is very simple. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. wide that is perfectly flat. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. wide. high and 1/4 in. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. are secured in the base bar. 7-1/2 in. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. away. in diameter and 1-7/16 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. B. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. bar. to the first one with screws or glue. 3/4 in. Two uprights. A. long and at each side of this. only have the opposite side up. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. high. first-class joints can be made without much trouble.

long. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. square. Fig. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. 3. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. by driving a pin through the wood. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. 2. Phoenixville. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. wide and 1 in. wide and 5 in. or more. 4. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. as shown at A. plates should be made 8 in. Fig. from one end. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. whose dimensions are given in Fig. Vanderslice. Pa. 1. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. 1. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. The trigger. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. 1.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. --Contributed by Elmer A. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. . is fastened in the hole A. square inside.

one-half the length of the side pieces. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. rubbing varnish and turpentine. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. which allows 1/4 in. Simonis. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. -Contributed by J. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Fostoria. by weight.A. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. square. as shown in the illustration. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. 2 parts of whiting. Ohio. 5 parts of black filler. if only two bands are put in the . when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position.

In constructing helmets. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. Grand Rapids. 8 in. Michigan. which may be either of ground or plain glass. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. preferably copper. is set at an angle of 45 deg. in the opposite end of the box. A piece of metal. wide and about 1 ft. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. and the picture can be drawn as described. and it may be made as a model or full sized. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. as shown in Fig. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. II. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. DeLoof. Dartmouth. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. In use. Mass. London.lower strings. A mirror. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. If a plain glass is used. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. says the English Mechanic. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. It must be kept moist and well . long. -Contributed by Abner B. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. --Contributed by Thos. 1. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. place tracing paper on its surface. deep. is necessary. No. A double convex lens. keeps the strong light out when sketching. G. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. Shaw. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch.

The clay. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. joined closely together. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. or some thin glue. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. This being done. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. take. a few clay-modeling tools. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. 2. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. with a keyhole saw. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. 3. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. brown. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . the clay model oiled. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. and left over night to soak. and continue until the clay is completely covered. shown in Fig. 1. will be necessary. and the deft use of the fingers.kneaded. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. All being ready. and over the crest on top. on which to place the clay. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. Scraps of thin. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. as in bas-relief. as shown in Fig. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. After the clay model is finished. 1.

The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. When the helmet is off the model. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. When dry. Indianapolis. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. The center of the ear guards are perforated. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. This contrivance should be made of wood. In Fig. then another coating of glue. as shown: in the design. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. When perfectly dry. In Fig. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. as seen in the other part of the sketch. with the exception of the vizor. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. The whole helmet. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. --Contributed by Paul Keller. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. and the ear guards in two pieces. They are all covered with tinfoil. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. square in shape. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. 7. 5. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. Before taking it off the model. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. the piecing could not be detected. owing to the clay being oiled. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . 1. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. which should be no difficult matter. will make it look neat. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. and so on. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. the skullcap. one for each side. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. make holes with a small awl at equal distances.as possible. or. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. a crest on top. should be modeled and made in one piece. 9. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. Indiana. The band is decorated with brass studs. a few lines running down.

The points marked BB are the glass tubes. If a neat appearance is desired. 4. one small switch. 1. Fig. 1. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. 4. AA. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. wide and 15 in. of mineral wool. thick. which can be bought from a local druggist. one glass tube. 2. 4. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. The plate. 3. Fig. Fig. 12 in. for connections. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. The holes B and C are about 3 in. to receive screws for holding it to the base. the holes leading to the switch. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . is then packed down inside the collar. screws. 1. and. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. The reverse side of the base. 22 gauge resistance wire. 4 lb. Fig. long. two ordinary binding posts. about 1/4 in. thick sheet asbestos. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly.same size. 2. 4. high. The mineral wool. If asbestos is used. 3 in. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. or. This will make an open space between the plates. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. This will allow the plate. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. 4. of No. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. long. Fig. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. 1. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. A round collar of galvanized iron. should extend about 1/4 in. 2. when they are placed in opposite positions. long. one fuse block. 1. of the top. also the switch B and the fuse block C. Fig. as it stands a higher temperature. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. and two large 3in. Fig. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. E and F. GG. if the measurements are correct. Fig. and C. is shown in Fig. Fig. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. Fig. about 80 ft. Fig. Fig. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. are allowed to project about 1 in. of fire clay. 4. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. until it is within 1 in. in diameter and 9 in. German-silver wire is better. as shown in Fig. 1. 1 in. as shown in Fig. AA. JJ. about 1 lb. one oblong piece of wood. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. above the collar. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. as shown in Fig. the fuse block. 4. if this cannot be obtained. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. AA. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. each 4-1/2 in. Fig. with slits cut for the wires. FF. The two holes.

Cover over about 1 in. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. and pressed into it. causing a short circuit. so that the circuit will not become broken. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. Cal. This completes the stove. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. It should not be set on end. When the tile is in place. as the turns of the wires. --Contributed by W. While the clay is damp. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. when cool. steam will form when the current is applied. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. Fig. above the rim. When this is done. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. Richmond. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. A. St. Jaquythe. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . 4. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. when heated. H. The clay. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. then. more wire should be added. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. Catherines. Fig. Next. This point marks the proper length to cut it. A file can be used to remove any rough places. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. using care not to get it too wet. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. If it is not thoroughly dry. deep. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. It should not be left heated in this condition. 2. allowing a space between each turn. Cnonyn. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. will slip and come in contact with each other. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. II. Can. it leaves a gate for the metal. KK. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. apart. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. --Contributed by R. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. As these connections cannot be soldered. If this is the case. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. Cut a 1/2-in.

Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. Louisville. is large enough. Thorne. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. but 12 by 24 in. as shown. --Contributed by Andrew G. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. constructed of 3/4-in. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. the pie will be damaged. and the prints will dry rapidly. says the Photographic Times. square material in any size. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. Then clip a little off the . Ky." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. the air can enter from both top and bottom. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. and the frame set near a window. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle.

is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. for the crank. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. The driving arm D. which are fastened to the base. 1. 1. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. open out. in diameter and about 4 in. Iowa. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. Fig. 1/2 in. thick and 3 in. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. Figs. 14 in. long. 3. long. 1. at GG. high. causing a break in the current. Fig. high. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. The board can be raised to place . high. wide. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. in diameter. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. each 1/2 in. Fig. Le Mars. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. which gives the shaft a half turn. Two supports. 1. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. allowing each end to project for connections. wide and 7 in. thereby saving time and washing. As the shaft revolves. wide and 3 in. slip on two cardboard washers. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. 4 in. -Contributed by S. as shown. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. long. 1 and 3. An offset is bent in the center. The upright B. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. each 1 in. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. thick. long. W. 2-1/2 in. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. Herron. 1/2 in. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. The connections are made as shown in Fig.Paper Funnel point. 2. thick and 3 in. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. 22 gauge magnet wire. A 1/8-in. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. The connecting rod E. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in.

--Contributed by William F. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. as shown in the sketch. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. Place the pot.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. In designing the roost. on a board. making a framework suitable for a roost. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. One or more pots may be used. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. . bottom side up. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. Dorchester. Mass. 3 in. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. Stecher. in height. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft.

shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. paraffin and paint or varnish. 1. Wind the . it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. etc.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. in diameter. if it is other than straight lines. grills and gratings for doors. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. and give it time to dry. without any corresponding benefit.. windows. ordinary glue. will produce the pattern desired. F. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. Fig. 1. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. F. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. odd corners. The bottom part of the sketch. The materials required are rope or. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. adopt the method described. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. that it is heated. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. shelves. when combined.. preferably. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. as shown in Fig.

Y.Fig. Harrer. cut and glue them together. Lockport. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. N. -Contributed by Geo. 2. six designs are shown. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. M. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Fig.

The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. when it will be observed that any organic matter.. and the sides do not cover the jaws. This piece of horse armor. will be retained by the cotton. etc. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it.. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. chips of iron rust. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. 1. etc. As the . Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. which was used in front of a horse's head. but no farther. London. says the English Mechanic. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches.. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular.

These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. In Fig. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. the rougher the better. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. which can be made in any size. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. but for . 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. and will require less clay. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. 4. This will make the model light and easy to move around. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. 6 and 7. the same as in Fig. and the clay model oiled. This triangularshaped support. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. which is separate. but the back is not necessary. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. 2. This being done. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. then another coat of glue. except the thumb and fingers. This can be made in one piece. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. as the surface will hold the clay. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. as shown in the sketch. with the exception of the thumb shield. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. The armor is now removed from the model. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. 2. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. and therefore it is not described. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. All being ready. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. An arrangement is shown in Fig. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. 8. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes.

1/2 in. running down the plate. A piece of board. N. Redondo Beach. 2. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. two in each jaw. but 3-1/2 in. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. La Rue. fastened to the rod. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. . Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. and the instrument is ready for use. Buxton. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. --Contributed by John G. If it does not hold a charge. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. wide and 1/2 in. Y. will be about right. long. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. Fasten a polished brass ball to.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. in depth. Calif. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. 9. Goshen. each about 1/4 in. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. The two pieces of foil. two for the jaws and one a wedge. the two pieces of foil will draw together. --Contributed by Ralph L. the foils will not move. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. are better shown in Fig. When locating the place for the screw eyes. are glued to it. cut into the shape shown in Fig. the top of the rod.

the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. as shown in the illustration. Corsicana. When a fish is hooked. about 15 in. A. The can may be bronzed. M. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. Texas. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. from the smaller end. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. as this will cut under the water without splashing. At a point 6 in.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. is made of a 1/4-in. as indicated in the . silvered. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. hole bored through it. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. enameled or otherwise decorated. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. --Contributed by Mrs. Bryan. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. pine board. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. long. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. 2-1/2 in.

put a coat or two of wax and polish . Basswood or butternut. A good size is 5 in. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Any kind of wood will do. When it has dried over night. long over all. punch the holes. Next prepare the metal holder. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. as shown. 22 is plenty heavy enough. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. using a piece of carbon paper. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. thick. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. will do as well as the more expensive woods. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Polish the metal. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. If soft wood. Having completed the drawing. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. and trace upon it the design and outline. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. such as basswood or pine was used. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. take a piece of thin wood. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. using powdered pumice and lye.Match Holder accompanying sketch." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. then with a nail. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. 3/8 or 1/4 in. or even pine. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. wide by 6 in.

The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. is used for the base of this instrument. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. each 1 in. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. Richmond. Instead of the usual two short ropes. 1/2 in. long. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. A. can be made on the same standards. long. are used for the cores of the magnets. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. It is useful for photographers. 2 in. Jaquythe. thick. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. Cal. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. --Contributed by W. Two wire nails. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. If carving is contemplated. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. . wide and 5 in. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. of pure olive oil. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. the whole being finished in linseed oil. If one has some insight in carving. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. The metal holder may next be fastened in place.

The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. leaving about 1/4 in. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. except that for the legs. acts as a spring to keep the key open. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. A piece of tin. then covered with red. similar to that used in electric bells. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. . 1. Lynas. about No. in the shape shown in the sketch. cut in the shape of the letter T. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. when the key is pushed down. A rubber band. About 1 in. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. as shown by the dotted lines. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. 3. cloth or baize to represent the legs. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. London. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. --Contributed by W. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. H. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. 25 gauge. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. as shown in Fig. the paper covering put on. says the English Mechanic. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. at A. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. All of the parts for the armor have been described.

2. one to another . These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. hole in the center. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. By moving the position of the bolt from. and eight small holes. 3 in. Instead of using brass headed nails. long. 1 in. says Camera Craft. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. flat headed carriage bolt. Cut them to a length or 40 in. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. holes. So set up. in the other end. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. can be made in a few minutes' time. Silver paper will do very well. for the sake of lightness. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. 1 and drill a 1/4in. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. A 1/4-in..Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. These can be purchased at a stationery store. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. apart. drill six 1/4-in. completes the equipment. apart. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. at each end. not too tight. Secure two strips of wood. make the same series of eight small holes and. The two pieces are bolted together. In one end of the piece. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. Fig. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. Take the piece shown in Fig. about 1 in. or ordinary plaster laths will do.

Start with one end. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. 2. but instead of reversing . of the ends remain unwoven. 1. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. for instance. D over A and C. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. 2. the one marked A. 4. 2. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. as in portraiture and the like. Then draw all four ends up snugly. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. and the one beneath C. then B over C and the end stuck under A. and lay it over the one to the right.of the larger holes in the strip. as shown in Fig. Then take B and lay it over A. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. in Fig. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. lay Cover B and the one under D. A is the first string and B is the second. long. A round fob is made in a similar way. doubled and run through the web of A. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. In this sketch. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. taking the same start as for the square fob. Fig. C over D and B.

Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . the design of which is shown herewith. is left out at the center before starting on one side. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. especially if silk strings are used. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. --Contributed by John P. Rupp. A loop. 5. Monroeville. 3. is to be made of leather. long. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. The round fob is shown in Fig. Ohio. over the one to its right. 1-1/2 in. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. as at A in Fig. as B. Other designs can be made in the same manner. as in making the square fob. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. always lap one string.

Houghton. Any smooth piece of steel. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. it can be easily renewed. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. Northville. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. When the supply of wax is exhausted. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. . On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. such as a nut pick. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. A. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. filling them with wax. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. beeswax or paraffin. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. Mich. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. pressing it against the wood. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. using the reverse side. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. door facing or door panel. -Contributed by A.

but any kind that will not stick may be used. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. thick. . and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. apart and driven in only part way. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. and about 12 in. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. Ill. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Thompson. it is best to leave a plain white margin. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. Fold together on lines C. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. N. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. if blueprints are used. Y. and after wetting. The tacks should be about 1 in. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. says Photographic Times. --Contributed by O. Enough plaster should. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Select the print you wish to mount. D.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. E and F. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. place it face down in the dish. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. remaining above the surface of the board. long. although tin ones can be used with good success. Petersburg. leaving about 1/4 in. those on matte paper will work best. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. J. New York.

etc. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. roses.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. filling the same about onehalf full. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. as shown at the left in the sketch. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution.. as shown in the right of the sketch. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. One of the . Lower into the test tube a wire. will be rendered perfectly white. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. without mixing the solutions. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. violets. bell flowers.

L. The tin horn can be easily made. South Dakota. Fig. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. in diameter and 1 in. 2. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. made of heavy tin. --Contributed by L. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. but which will not wobble loose. as shown.. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. and at the larger end. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. long and made of wood. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. The first point should be ground blunt. as shown in the sketch. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. turned a little tapering. The diaphragm. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. about 1/8s in. Shabino. A rod that will fit the brass tube. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. long. to keep the core from coming off in turning. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. When soldering these parts together. 3. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. should be soldered to the box. The sound box. or delicate tints of the egg. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. is about 2-1/2 in. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. 1. not too tightly. shading. thick. Millstown. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. 1-7/8 in.

A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. E. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Jr. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Victor.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. wondering what it was. and. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. says the Iowa Homestead. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. put a board on top. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. Colo. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . mice in the bottom. Ill.Contributed by E. Chicago. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. Gold.

The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. --Contributed by Lyndwode. Y. Can. Pereira. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. . Ottawa. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Buffalo. N. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation.

Grand Rapids. This cart has no axle. Richmond. longer than the length of the can. and at one end of the stick fasten. --Contributed by W. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Jaquythe. above the end of the dasher. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. as it can be made quickly in any size. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. by means of a flatheaded tack. Cal. Put a small nail 2 in. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. through which several holes have been punched. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. A. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. --Contributed by Thos. a piece of tin. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. as shown. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. De Loof. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. cut round. Mich. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels.

The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. 1/4 in. I reversed a door gong. Fig. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. 2 in. 1 ft. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. were below the level of the bullseye.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. Notches 1/8 in. apart. Kane. wide and 3 ft. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. wide and as long as the box. --Contributed by James M. deep and 3 in. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. of course. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. 2. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 1.1. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. A wedge-shaped piece of . as shown. The candles. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. The baseboard and top are separable. cut in the center of the rounding edge. screwed it on the inside of a store box. wide and 1/8 in. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. La. board. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. New Orleans. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. long. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. Pa. 2. wide. 1-1/2 in. thick. Doylestown. 2.

to prevent its scratching the desk top. the reason being that if both were solid. stone or wood. Wood. When not in use. by cutting away the ends. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. can be picked up without any trouble. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. will. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. take two pieces of hard wood. it can be removed without marring the casing. This device is very convenient for invalids. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. Needles. Ia.Book Back Holders metal. Cover the block with rubber. wide into each side of the casing. Worcester. The block can also be used as a paperweight. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. 1. etc. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. dressing one surface of each piece. 3. West Union. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. as shown in Fig. A. Mass.. After the glue has dried. the blade is put back into the groove . I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. For the handle. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. --Contributed by G. when placed as in Fig. the shelf could not be put on the window. scissors. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. wide rubber bands or felt. After completing the handle.

long. Erie. as shown in Fig. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. --Contributed by H. Malden. If desired. 1. thus carrying the car up the incline. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Mass. --Contributed by Maud McKee. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. square and 4 in. -Contributed by W. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. S. Ohio. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. 1 in. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Jacobs. Each one is made of a hardwood block. .and sharpened to a cutting edge. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. as shown in Fig. 2. A notch is cut in one side. Cleveland. Hutchins. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Pa. A.

The letters can be put on afterward. a board on which to work it. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. 6 by 9-1/2 in. One sheet of metal. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions.. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. and an awl and hammer. Prepare a design for the front. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. This will insure having all parts alike. will be needed.J. N. Cape May Point. . --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. If one such as is shown is to be used.

File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. turpentine. mandolin or guitar." In all appearance. . Remove the metal.Fasten the metal to the board. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. behind or through the center of a table leg. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. only the marginal line is to be pierced. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. as shown. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. One coat will do. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. If any polishing is required. but weird and distant. So impressive are the results. paste the paper design right on the metal. The music will not sound natural. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. On the back. to right angles. 2 parts white vitriol. The stick may be placed by the side of. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. says Master Painter. in the waste metal. a violin. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. 3/4 part. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. varnish. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. or. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. placed on a table. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. 1 part. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. flat brush. 1/4 part. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. applied by means of a brush. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. that can be worked in your own parlor. if desired. which is desirable.

1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. apart. The longest piece. With proper tools this is easy. long and measuring 26 in. each 6 in. it might be difficult. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. London. long and spread about 8 in. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. square bar iron. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. and is easy to construct. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. thick by 1/2 in. 2. are shaped as shown in Fig. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. is bent square so as to form two uprights. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. 3. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. long. says Work. wide. . across the top. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. round-head machine screws. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. each 28 in. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. Two pairs of feet. without them. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer.

on it as shown. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. B. The brads are then removed. 7. 4. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. the latter being tapped to . and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. After the joints are soldered. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. in the grooves of the borders. D. is held by the brads. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. and the base border. or. as shown in Fig. The glass. Place the corner piece of glass. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. Fig. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. 6. 5. lead. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. better still. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. The design is formed in the lead. After the glass is cut. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. C. A. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. special flux purchased for this purpose. While the piece of lead D. using rosin as a flux. 5. Fig. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. cut a long piece of lead.

Concrete is much better if it can be secured. --Contributed by W. holes through their centers.. long. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Camden. Fasten the plates to the block B. This . and round the corners of one end for a ring. square and of the length given in the drawing. as shown in Fig. then drill a 3/4-in. rocker bolt. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. bolt. long. then flatten its end on the under side. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. Dreier. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. The center pin is 3/4-in. wood screws in each washer. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Bore a 5/8-in. Secure a post. A and B. bolt. Two styles of hand holds are shown. long. one on each side and central with the hole. not less than 4 in. rounded at the top as shown. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. This ring can be made of 1-in. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. plank about 12 ft. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. in diameter and about 9 in. Make three washers 3-in. J. Jr. Bore a 3/4-in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. N. plates. H.the base of the clip. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. in diameter and 1/4 in. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. and two wood blocks. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. thick and drill 3/4-in. 8. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post.

This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. long. 1 by 7 in. The four 7-in. by 6-1/2 ft. apart for a distance of 3 ft. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. of 1/4-in. 2 by 4 in. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. hickory. 4 pieces. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 7 in. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. 16 screws. 4 in. boards along the side of each from end to end. by 2 ft. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. horse and rings. 4 filler pieces. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. bolts and rope. from one edge. Draw a line on the four 7-in. 1-1/4in. can make a first class gymnasium. long. long and 1 piece. 2-1/2 in. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. 50 ft. 4 in. 3/4 by 3 in. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. long. long. La. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. long. shanks. If trees are convenient. chestnut or ash. 1. maple. in diameter and 7 in. To substitute small. and some one can swing an axe. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. square by 9-1/2 ft. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. bit.will make an excellent cover for a pot. 4 pieces. 9 in. square by 5 ft. by 3 ft. the money outlay will be almost nothing. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. screws. because it will not stand the weather. 1/2 in. New Orleans. long. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. 3 in. straight-grained hickory.

which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. deep and remove all loose dirt. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. apart. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. so the 1/2-in. apart.bored. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. each 3 ft. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. 8 in. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar.. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. Bore a 9/16-in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in.. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. piece of wood. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. 2. from the end. at each end. boards coincide. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly.

and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. apart. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. He stretched the thread between two buildings. it follows the edge for about 1 in. but most deceptive at dusk. . If the tumbler is rotated. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. was at its height. which at once gathered. not even the tumbler. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room.. and materially heightened the illusion. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. not much to look at in daytime. just visible against the dark evening sky.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. When the interest of the crowd. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. disappearing only to reappear again. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. And all he used was a black thread. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. about 100 ft. in an endless belt. it is taken to the edge of the foot. passing through a screweye at either end. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. and ascends the stem. and then passes in a curve across the base. the effect is very striking. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. W. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others." which skimmed along the distant horizon. the effect will be as shown in the illustration.

2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 4 knee braces. wide and 1 in. from either side of the center. 8 bolts. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. by 10 ft. long. by 2 ft. Chisel out two notches 4 in. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. Bevel the ends of .A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. La. 2 by 4 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2 by 4 in. so the point will be on top. 8 in. large spikes. The cork will come out easily. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 4 wood screws. long. long. 4 bolts. deep. square and 6 ft. long. 8 in. Fig. 4 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 8 in. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. square and 51/2 ft. and turned in a spiral D. 6 in. long. 7 in. New Orleans. long. long and 1 doz. by 7 ft. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. To make the apparatus. by 3 ft. A wire about No. 2 in. beginning at a point 9 in. long. 2 by 4 in. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 2 base pieces. preferably cedar. 2 cross braces. 1. 2 by 3 in. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 4 in. long. 2 side braces.

Cal. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. Jaquythe. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. except the bars. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. additional long. jellies. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. which face each other. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. Richmond. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. A. Two endpieces must be made.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. A large sized ladle. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. as shown in the diagram. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint.the knee braces. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. After the trenches are dug. If using mill-cut lumber. save the bars. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. --Contributed by W. leaving the strainer always in position. but even unpainted they are very durable. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees.. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. screws. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. leave it undressed. equipped with a strainer. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. so the bolts in both will not meet. These will allow the ladle to be turned. using four of the 7-in bolts. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. and countersinking the heads. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. etc. of 7 ft. The wood so treated will last for years. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. . Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. ( To be Continued. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled.

it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. thus holding the pail as shown. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. Oil. of sufficient 1ength. it is necessary to place a stick. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. which seems impossible. partly a barrier for jumps. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. . or various cutting compounds of oil. drill press or planer. In order to accomplish this experiment. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. milling machine. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. A. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog.

two 1/2-in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. Procure from a saw mill. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. long. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. by 3 ft. long.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. 2 by 4 in. apart. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. long. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. long. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. beginning 1-1/2 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. but 5 ft. 4 knee braces. bolt. To construct. 4 in. bolts. by 3 ft. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. 4 in. 1 in.. long. is a good length. projections and splinters. 2 bases. 1 cross brace. bolts. The material required is as follows: Two posts. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. stud cut rounding on one edge. from each end. 7 in. These are placed 18 in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. and free from knots. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. These are well nailed in place. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. square by 5-1/2 ft. 2 adjusting pieces. ten 1/2-in. in diameter--the larger the better. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. apart in a central position on the horse. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. 4-1/2 in. wood yard or from the woods. in the ground. square by 5 ft.. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. Hand holds must be provided next. long. bolts. to fasten the knee braces at the top. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. by 3 ft. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . 3 in. 4 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. long. The round part of this log must be planed. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. 2 by 4 in. 2 by 4 in. long. piece of 2 by 4-in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in.

it is caused by an overloaded shell. it is caused by some obstruction. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. but nevertheless. pipe and fittings. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. then bending to the shape desired. Cal. A. such as a dent. Richmond. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. no one is responsible but himself. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Such a hand sled can be made in a . When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. snow. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. etc. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. over and around. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way.--Contributed by W. water. Jaquythe. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Also. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts.horse top. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed.

one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. in width and 1/32 in. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. when complete. at E and F. Joerin. Noble. which. France. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. Vener. --Contributed by James E. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. thick. Mass. is much better than a wood sled. Ontario. W. . will give the length.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. --Contributed by J. 2. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. --Contributed by Arthur E. are all the tools necessary. then run a string over each part. 1. Paris. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Boston. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. Toronto. 1/4 or 3/16 in. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. The end elevation. when straightened out. These.

. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. 4. and the latter will take on a bright luster. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. It is best to use soft water. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. 3. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. are nailed. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. AA and BB. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. The method shown in Figs. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. nor that which is partly oxidized.

The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 2. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. The materials used are: backbone. Percy Ashley in Rudder. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. 4. 2. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. class ice-yacht. or unequal widths as in Fig. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. 1). the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. as shown in Fig. 8 and 9. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. . 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 3. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. or various rulings may be made. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. Broad lines can be made. as shown in Fig.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. 1. about 30 in. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The headstock is made of two tees. It can be made longer or shorter. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows.Fig. pins to keep them from turning. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. a tee and a forging. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. A good and substantial homemade lathe. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. out from the collar. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. a larger size of pipe should be used. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. bent and drilled as shown. pipe. long. Both the lower . but if it is made much longer.

To do this. Indiana. W.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. or a key can be used as well. 2. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Laporte. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by W. and will answer for a great variety of work. Cal. 1. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. Fruitvale. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. else taper turning will result. Man. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Musgrove. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. a straight line should be scratched Fig. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. 2. It is about 1 in. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. 3/4 or 1 in. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. --Contributed by M. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. 2. UpDeGraff. but also their insulating properties. M. thick as desired. . Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. Boissevain. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. Held. a corresponding line made on this. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig.

If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. Ark. Cline. The handle is of pine about 18 in. Smith. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. J.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . --Contributed by E. as shown. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. Ft. To obviate this. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. In use. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. long.

A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. face off the end of the piece. Denver. --Contributed by Walter W. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. the drill does not need the tool. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. on starting the lathe. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. if this method is followed: First. which should be backed out of contact. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. After being entered. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. centering is just one operation too many. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. This prevents the drill from wobbling. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. Colo. New Orleans. take . This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. La. and when once in true up to its size. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. White. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and.

unknown to the spectators. After the wand is removed. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. The glass tube B. shorter t h a n the wand. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. the cap is placed over the paper tube. vanishing wand. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. after being shown empty. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. shown at C. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. is put into the paper tube A. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. a bout 1/2 in. by applying caustic soda or . and this given to someone to hold. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. all the better. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. It can be used in a great number of tricks. In doing this. as shown in D. and can be varied to suit the performer. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. The handkerchief rod. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. says the Sphinx.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. a long piece of glass tubing. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip.

ends and bottom are made of hard wood. As the cement softens. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. 3/16. With care and patience. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. Glue the neck to the box. long. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. 1 Neck. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in.potash around the edges of the letters. square and 1-7/8 in. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. Glue strips of soft wood. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. This dimension and those for the frets . 1 End. as shown by K. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. and glue it to the neck at F. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. The brace at D is 1 in. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. 1. Cut a piece of hard wood. thick. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. 1/4 in. End. 1 Bottom. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. preferably hard maple. The sides. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. with the back side rounding. can be made by the home mechanic. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material. 2 Sides. across the front and back to strengthen them. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. cut to any shape desired. by 14 by 17 in. the finished instrument will have a fine tone.

and is cut tapering for about a third of its length.Pa. long is used for a keel. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. thick and about 1 ft. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. O. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. and beveled . but it is not.should be made accurately. wide and 11-1/2 ft. A board 1 in. 3/16 in. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. or backbone. -Contributed by J. Frary. E. H. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. Carbondale. When it is completed you will have a canoe. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Norwalk. 1) on which to stretch the paper. toward each end. Stoddard. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Six holes. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. --Contributed by Chas. in diameter.

3. as before described. but twigs of some other trees. Fig. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. . such as is used for making chairbottoms. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. or similar material. two twigs may be used to make one rib. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. two strips of wood (b. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. in thickness and should be cut..) in notches. and notched at the end to receive them (B. b. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. 1 and 2. procure at a carriage factory. thick.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. In drying. thick. slender switches of osier willow. wide by 26 in. Fig. Any tough. a. are next put in. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. 4. Fig. and. some tight strips of ash. and so. by means of a string or wire. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. Fig. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. Fig. as they are apt to do. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. 3. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. long. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. with long stout screws. and are not fastened. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. apart. when made of green elm. Fig. as shown in Fig. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. but before doing this. Fig. probably. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. in such cases. 3/8 in. will answer nearly as well. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. 2). fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. 2. The ribs. buy some split cane or rattan. Osiers probably make the best ribs. b. which are easily made of long. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. or other place. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. Fig. as shown in Fig. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. long are required. C. the loose strips of ash (b. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. For the gunwales (a. 2). B. 4). twigs 5 or 6 ft. These are better. such as hazel or birch. 3). They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. 3). The cross-boards (B. 13 in. Green wood is preferable. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. Shape these as shown by A. 1. b. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. C. Fig. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places.

Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. Fig. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. Then take some of the split rattan and. When thoroughly dry. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. You may put in . and light oars. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. but neither stiff nor very thick. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. after wetting it. Being made in long rolls. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. It should be drawn tight along the edges. If not. but with less turpentine. tacking it to the bottom-board. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. B. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. apply a second coat of the same varnish. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. wide. however. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. The paper is then trimmed. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. preferably iron. and steady in the water. and very tough. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. 5). varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. It should be smooth on the surface. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. and held in place by means of small clamps. if it has been properly constructed of good material. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. When the paper is dry. of very strong wrapping-paper. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. If the paper be 1 yd. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. and as soon as that has soaked in.

and make a movable seat (A. 1. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. Fig. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. they will support very heavy weights. fore and aft. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. We procured a box and made a frame.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. 5). we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. Fig. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. Drive the lower nail first. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. to fit it easily. 2. and if driven as shown in the cut. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. 5. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. 1 and the end in . and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. Fig. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames.

Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. Pa. This way has its drawbacks. and the result is. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. 5.Fig. 3. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. Close the other end with the same operation. this makes the tube airtight. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. Pittsburg. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. This is an easy . a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. 4. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. A good way to handle this work. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. and the glass. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. being softer where the flame has been applied.

Oswald. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. fifth. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. metal shears. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. above the metal. three. thin screw. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. After the bulb is formed. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. or six arms. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. with a piece of carbon paper. Give the metal a circular motion. extra metal all around. above the work and striking it with the hammer. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. second. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. very rapid progress can be made. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. Sixth. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. also trace the decorative design. third. -Contributed by A. four. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. Seventh. flat and round-nosed pliers. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. then reverse. fourth. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. file.way to make a thermometer tube. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . rivet punch. The candle holders may have two. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. 23 gauge. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch.

drip cup. Having pierced the bracket. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. and holder. Metal polish of any kind will do. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Small copper rivets are used. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done.

The boom. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. hammer. is a broomstick. and add the gelatine. except they had wheels instead of runners. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. winding the ends where they came together with wire. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. J. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. smooth it down and then remove as before. on a water bath. and other things as they were needed. and water 24 parts. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. deep. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. and in a week . and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. Heat 6-1/2 oz. Mother let me have a sheet. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. Soak 1 oz. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. F. glycerine 4 parts. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. alcohol 2 parts. sugar 1 part. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. N. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. Twenty cents was all I spent. I steer with the front wheel. they were like an ice boat with a sail. thus it was utilized.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. The gaff. A saw. all the rest I found. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. the stick at the bottom of the sail. Shiloh. Fifty. when it will be ready for use. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. using a steel pen. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. of glycerine to about 200 deg. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. and it will be ready for future use. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. if it has not absorbed too much ink. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. and brace and bit were the tools used. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable.

A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. a projecting lens .Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.

thick. and. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. long. and the work carefully done. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. This ring is made up from two rings. and the lens slide. and a projecting lens 2 in. are . high. at a point 1 in. but if such a box is not found. wide and 15 in. 3. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. describe a 9-in. wide. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. A and B. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. focus enlarging a 3-in. G.. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. as desired. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. provided the material is of metal. slide to about 6 ft. or glue. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. H. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. E. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. 8 in. A table. 1/2 to 3/4 in. above the center. or a lens of 12-in. at a distance of 24 ft. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. DD. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. and 14 in. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. well seasoned pine. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. wire brads. 1. The slide support. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. Fig. If a small saw is used. about 2 ft. The board is centered both ways.

if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. Small strips of tin. apply two coats of shellac varnish. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. but not long enough. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. The arrangement is quite safe as. Paul. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. should the glass happen to upset. P. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. and when the right position is found for each. A sheet . Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. JJ. E.-Contributed by G. To reach the water. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. Minn. the strips II serving as guides. of safe. placed on the water. B. St.constructed to slip easily on the table. the water at once extinguishes the flame. light burning oil. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick.

4. to cover the mattresses. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. form a piece of wire in the same shape.H. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . 2. Fig. Y. Schenectady. If one of these clips is not at hand. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. Crawford. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. --Contributed by J.. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. I ordered a canvas bag. 12 ft. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. 3 in. by 12 ft. then the corners on one end are doubled over. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. 3. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 1.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. 3. Fig. 9 in. from a tent company. N. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one.

Fig. 1/2 in. drill two 3/16 in. --Contributed by Edward M. 1. Attach a piece of steel rod. insulating them from the case with cardboard. D. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Denver. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. Fasten the wire with gummed label. To calibrate the instrument. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. 2. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case.each edge. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. open on the edges. An arc is cut in the paper. in the center coil. to keep it from unwinding. Fold two strips of light cardboard. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. A rubber band. White. wide. Colo. 3/4 in. through which the indicator works. V. apart. for amperes and the other post. Pa. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. thick. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. 2. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. 3/4 in. first mark the binding-post A. holes in the edge. to the coil of small wire for volts. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. 3 to swing freely on the tack. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. 2. long and 3/16 in. 1. Warren. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. so as to form two oblong boxes. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Walter W. Fig. A Film Washing Trough [331] . 1/2 in. Do not use too strong a rubber. long. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. C. and insert two binding-posts. Teasdale.

Hunting. --Contributed by M. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. with the large hole up. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. as shown. Wood Burning [331] . board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Cut a 1/4-in. Place this can on one end of the trough. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Dayton. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. O. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. M. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch.

When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. mouth downward. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. then into this bottle place.

Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. Place the small bottle in as before. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. N. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. --Contributed by John Shahan. many puzzling effects may be obtained. 2. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split.Y.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. but not very thick. wide and 4 in. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. If the small bottle used is opaque. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. --Contributed by Fred W. 1. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . 3/4 in. provided the bottle is wide. long. thick. Whitehouse. Auburn. Upper Troy. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. as shown in the sketch. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. This will make a very pretty ornament. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. If the cork is adjusted properly. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. Ala. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom.

its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. high without the upper half. sugar pine on account of its softness. Fig. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. to the shaft. W. 3. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. If a transmitter is used. K. thick and 3 in. even in a light breeze. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. wide. thick. was 1/4in. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. The wire L was put . 4. which was nailed to the face plate. iron rod. thick. A staple. was keyed to shaft C. On a 1000-ft. 1 in. --Contributed by D. I. by the method shown in Fig. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. 2. which extended to the ground. 1. pulley F. The bearing blocks were 3 in. line. B. The 21/2-in. The shaft C. such as blades and pulleys. Fig. in diameter and 1 in. G. Fig. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. which was 6 in. which gave considerable power for its size. 1. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. 1. Both bearings were made in this manner. pulley. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. Milter. as shown in Fig. or ordinary telephone transmitters. 1. long. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. Fig. 2 ft. Fig.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. Its smaller parts. were constructed of 1-in. 1.

with all parts in place. square to the board P at the top of the tower. and was cut the shape shown. was tacked. with brass headed furniture tacks. long and 3 in. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. through the latter. Fig. G. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. 1. 1. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. 5. This board was 12 in. Fig. when the windmill needed oiling. The power was put to various uses. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. providing one has a few old materials on hand. 1. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. This completes the receiver or sounder. apart in the tower. Fig. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. To lessen the friction here. The other lid. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. washers were placed under pulley F. There a 1/4-in. 25 ft. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. The smaller one. as. wide and 1 in. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. Two washers were placed on shaft C. This fan was made of 1/4-in. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. cut out another piece of tin (X. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. hole for the shaft G was in the center. 2. 1) 4 in. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. long and bend it as shown at A. was 2 ft. Fig. Fig. long and 1/2 in. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. long and bend it as . hole was bored in which shaft G turned. R. across the thin edge of a board. Fig. If you have no bell. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. a 1/2-in. top down also. for instance.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. long. long. in diameter. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. so that the 1/4-in. 6. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. strips. 3 in. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. in the center of the board P. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. To make the key. 1. H. pine 18 by 12 in. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. 0. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. 6. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. The bed plate D. Fig. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. hole was bored for it. Cut another piece of tin 3 in.

cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. The rear barrels are. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. like many another device boys make. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Now. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. fitted with paddles as at M. leaving the other wire as it is. after the manner of bicycle wheels. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. as shown at Water. By adjusting the coils. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. 2. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. although it can be made with but two. and. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. -Contributed by John R. Before tacking it to the board. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. 1. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. When tired of this instrument.shown. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. using cleats to hold the board frame. Going back to Fig. McConnell. as indicated. Thus a center drive is made. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. causing a buzzing sound. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. at the front.

there will not be much friction. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. To propel it. There is no danger. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. 1. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. 3. If the journals thus made are well oiled. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount .Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. which will give any amount of pleasure. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. can be built. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. or even a little houseboat. feet on the pedals. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. as shown in Fig. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. copper piping and brass tubing for base. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. The speed is slow at first. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. thin sheet brass for the cylinder.

Fig. Shape small blocks of boxwood. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Fig. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. A. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. 2. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. 1. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. Then melt out the rosin or lead. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. 1. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. or it may be put to other uses if desired. If magnifying glass cannot be had. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. 1. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. Fig. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. If it is desired to make the light very complete.of pleasure for a little work. and so creating a false circuit. 2. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. 2. C. Turn a small circle of wood. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. B. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. Fig. then the glass disc and then the other ring. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. D. Place one brass ring in cylinder. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror.

Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. When alarm goes off. near the bed. after two turns have been made on the key. bell.. wire from batteries to switch. Throw lever off from the right to center. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. which stops bell ringing. by having the switch on the baseboard. wire from light to switch. T. --Contributed by Geo. long. S. H. brass strip. 3/8 in. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. some glue will secure them. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. switch. To get the cylinder into its carriage. C. bracket. 5-1/4 by 10 in. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. The parts indicated are as follows: A. set alarm key as shown in diagram. wire from bell to switch. J. such as is used for cycle valves. F. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. I. after setting alarm. B. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. In placing clock on shelf. contact post. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. copper tubing. E. To operate this. and pulled tight. thick. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . shelf. 4-1/2 in. while lying in bed. C. key of alarm clock. if too small. Utah. Chatland. To throw on light throw levers to the left. Pa. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. Swissvale. Ogden. G. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes.india rubber tubing. dry batteries. --Contributed by C. 4 in. Brinkerhoff. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . X. long. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. or 1/4in. brass rod. D. wide and 1/16 in.

Pull out the nail and stick. beyond the end of the spindle. as in Fig. as at B. being careful not to get the sand in it. 2.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. Make a shoulder. gives the heater a more finished appearance. Fig. as at A. place stick and all in a pail of sand. --Contributed by Chas. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. in diameter. making it as true and smooth as possible. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. a bed warmer. A flannel bag. long. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. wide. Fig. 2. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. letting it extend 3/4 in. 1. Chapman. 1/4 in. 4 in. This is to form the fuse hole. Fig. Make the spindle as in Fig. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. for instance. about 6 in. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. in diameter. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. All that is required is a tin covering. 3. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. A small lamp of about 5 cp. Lanesboro. Minn. about 3-1/2 in. which can be made of an old can. 1. from one end. Having finished this. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. as at A. as . S. will do the heating. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of.

wide and 3 ft. A piece of tin. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. or hickory. 5/8 in. thick. 1 in. good straight-grained pine will do. --Contributed by Arthur E. spring and arrows. wide and 3/8 in. long. deep. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. thick. ash. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. thick. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. wide and 6 ft. A piece of oak. this is to keep the edges from splitting. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. long.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . Joerin. 1. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. 11/2 in. The illustration shows how this is done. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. long. 3/8 in. but if this wood cannot be procured. 6 in. The material must be 1-1/2 in. will be sufficient to make the trigger.

throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. thick. When the trigger is pulled. 3. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. Trownes. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. The stick for the bow. having the latter swing quite freely. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. Wilmette. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. 7. Such a temporary safe light may be . a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. A spring. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. 8. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. as shown in Fig. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. 4. To shoot the crossbow. wide at each end. in diameter. E. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. from the opposite end. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. The trigger. 6. from the end of the stock. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. Fig. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. Fig. --Contributed by O. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. The bow is not fastened in the stock. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. and one for the trigger 12 in. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. Fig. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. which is 1/4 in. 9. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. place the arrow in the groove. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. it lifts the spring up. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. better still. To throw the arrow. or through the necessity of. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. 2. Ill.

They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. and replace as shown at B. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. By chopping the trunk almost through. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. This lamp is safe. respectively. The cut should be about 5 ft. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. apart. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. making lighting and trimming convenient. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. from the ground. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. Remove one end. make the frame of the wigwam. from the ground. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. Remove the bottom of the box. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. since the flame of the candle is above A. The hinged cover E. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. says Photo Era. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Moreover. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. C. and nail it in position as shown at A. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. it is the easiest camp to make. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. the bark lean-to is a . The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. is used as a door. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning.

each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. piled 2 or 3 ft. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. long and 1-1/2 in. wide and 6 ft. Where bark is used. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. a 2-in. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. spruce. A piece of elm or hickory. In the early summer. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. make the best kind of a camp bed. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. For a foot in the middle of the stick. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. nails are necessary to hold it in place. and cedar. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. and split the tops with an ax. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. makes a good pair of tongs.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. Tongs are very useful in camp. . A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. long and 2 or 3 ft. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. Sheets of bark. long. For a permanent camp. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. are a convenient size for camp construction. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. and when the camp is pitched. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. will dry flat. 3 ft. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. wide. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. thick. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. deep and covered with blankets. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. 6 ft. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. selecting a site for a camp.

Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. . and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. hinges. and affording accommodation for several persons.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top.

When the temperature outside is 10 deg. deep and 4 in.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. and provide a cover or door. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. Fig. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. wide. the interior can. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. B. Pa. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. changing the water both morning and night. Doylestown. 1. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. --Contributed by James M. Kane. to another . into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. B. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell.. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. about 4 in. A. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. I drove a small cork.

3. for instance. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. This makes .glass tube. The current is thus compelled. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. such as ether. to pass through an increasing resistance. for instance. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. 4 and 5). which project inside and outside of the tube. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. E. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. C. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. fused into one side. a liquid. until. The diagram. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. limit. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. Fig. if necessary. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. 2. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. 2.

clamp the template. 2. After cleaning them with the solution. 1. in diameter. to allow for finishing. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. Michigan. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. screws. by turning the lathe with the hand. brass. larger than the dimensions given. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. drill the four rivet holes. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. mark off a space. between centers. or pattern. If the thickness is sufficient. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. thicker. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. A. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. cannot be used so often. Then the field can be finished to these marks. A 5/8in. assemble and rivet them solidly. tap. or even 1/16 in. in diameter. 3. These holes are for the bearing studs. 3-3/8 in. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. on a lathe. they will make a frame 3/4 in. 4-1/2 in. After the template is marked out. thick. hole is . but merely discolored. bent at right angles as shown. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. as shown in Fig. When the frame is finished so far. therefore. thick. Before removing the field from the lathe. 3-3/8 in. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. as shown in the left-hand sketch. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. two holes. Fig. The bearing studs are now made. which may be of any thickness so that. which will make it uniform in size. when several pieces are placed together. is composed of wrought sheet iron. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. and for the outside of the frame. making it 1/16 in. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. brass or iron. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. Alpena. Fig. set at 1/8 in. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor.

file them out to make the proper adjustment. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. is turned up from machine steel. solder them to the supports. into which a piece of 5/8-in. Fig. soldered into place. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. and build up the solder well. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. 4. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. brass rod is inserted. When the bearings are located. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. The shaft of the armature. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. or otherwise finished. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel .

as shown in Fig. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. as shown in Fig. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. being formed for the ends. thick. Make the core 3/4 in. When annealed. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. 3. 8. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. 7. 6. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. as shown m Fig. and held with a setscrew. When this is accomplished. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. hole and tap it for a pin. Find the centers of each segment at one end. 3. thick. brass rod. 3/4 in. wide. then drill a 1/8-in. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. 5. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. The sides are also faced off and finished. holes through them for rivets. inside diameter.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. After the pieces are cut out. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. The pins are made of brass. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. washers. 1/8 in. thick. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. as shown in Fig. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core.. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. and then they are soaked in warm water. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. After they . as shown in Fig. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. 3/4 in. 1-1/8 in. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. thick are cut like the pattern. deep and 7/16 in. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. 9. 6. Procure 12 strips of mica. as shown in Fig. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. to allow for finishing to size. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. threaded. or segments. wide. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. Armature-Ring Core. thick and 1/4 in. sheet fiber. by 1-1/2 in. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. Rivet them together. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments.

The two ends are joined at B. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. after the motor is on the stand. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. and wind on four layers. When the glue is set. 5. by bending the end around one of the projections. sheet fiber. 6 in. Run one end of the field wire. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. of the wire. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. The winding is started at A. of the end to protrude. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. To connect the wires. sheet fiber. long. 1. The source of current is connected to the terminals. until the 12 slots are filled. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. of No. Fig. yet it shows a series of . run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. being required. 8 in. shown at B. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. wide and 1 in. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. about 100 ft. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. the two ends of the wire.have dried. are soldered together. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. and bring the end of the wire out at B. The field is wound with No. After one coil. This winding is for a series motor. Fig. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. In starting to wind. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. shown at A. 1. thick. they are glued to the core insulation. which will take 50 ft. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. or side. All connections should be securely soldered.

which serves as the ground wire. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. is fastened to the metallic body. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. or. still more simply. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. and one. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . A 1/2-in. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. one from each of the eight contacts. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. as in the case of a spiral. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. Nine wires run from the timer. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north.

thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. of the dial. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. circle. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. Without this attachment. 6 in. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. It should be . Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. Covering these is a thin. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. 45 deg. board. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. long. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. thus giving 16 different directions.The Wind Vane.

The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. Buffalo. will be sufficient. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. To make it. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. Place the leather on some level. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. Fill the box with any handy ballast. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. To work these outlines. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. will answer the purpose just as well. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. . is most satisfactory. Before tacking the fourth side. N. and securely nail on the top of the box. Y. and about 6 in. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. called a chip carving knife. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. or. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. if not too high. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. also a piece of new carpet. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. though a special knife. Cut 3-in. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. Blackmer. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. thus making a universal joint. long to give the best results. high. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. according to who is going to use it. however. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. -Contributed by James L. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap.about 6 ft. will be enough for the two sides. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. 14 by 18 in. making it heavy or light. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion.

being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. An ordinary sewing-machine . Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. A good leather paste will be required. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. Paste the silk plush to the inner side.

or a hip that has been wrenched. rather than the smooth side. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. --Contributed by Katharine D. and fasten the feathers inside of it. temporary lameness. and tie them together securely at the bottom. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. of common salt and 10 lb. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. can be thrown away when no longer needed. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Morse. away from it. a needle and some feathers. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. If a fire breaks out.will do if a good stout needle is used. Syracuse. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. B. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. square and tying a piece of . The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. as in cases of a sprained ankle. of water. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. Y. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. N.

The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. cut to the length of the spool. wound on the head end. board all around the bottom on the inside. One end is removed entirely. F. made up of four layers of No. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. E. and tacked it to the boards. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. setting traps. the corners being wired. as shown. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in.J. but not sharp. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. laying poisoned meat and meal. The strings should be about 15 in. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. N. --Contributed by J. A small wooden or fiber end. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. Hellwig. commonly called tintype tin. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. Paterson. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. high. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. The body of the receiver. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. long. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. 1/8 in. Ashland. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. which is the essential part of the instrument. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding.string to each corner. N. This not only keeps the rats out. Albany.. --Contributed by John A. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. wide and 1/16 in. is cut on the wood. The diaphragm C. . and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. B. G. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. deep. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. Y. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. and the receiver is ready for use. A. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. Wis. etc. long. There is a 1-in. thus helping the rats to enter. letting it go at arm's length. and a coil of wire. Gordon Dempsey. The coil is 1 in. The end is filed to an edge.

and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. Take a piece of string or. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. The vase is to have three supports. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. better still. begin with the smallest scrolls. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. A single line will be sufficient. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. and bend each strip in shape. a piece of small wire. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. gold. to . To clean small articles. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. wide. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls.

. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. 4-1/4 in. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. About 1 in. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. Fold the leather on the line EF. . Press or model down the leather all around the design. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. 6-3/8 in. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. Work down the outside line of the design. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Trace also the line around the purse.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. from the lines EF on the piece. sharp pencil. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. wide when stitching up the purse. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. 3-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. 3-1/4 in. using a duller point of the tool. from C to D. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. thus raising it. through which to slip the fly AGH. and does not require coloring. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened..which the supports are fastened with rivets. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. from E to F. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. After taking off the pattern. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used.

then nail it. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. and cut out a wheel. 2. Fit this to the two . cut out one piece as shown in Fig. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. by 12 ft. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. First. Then nail the wheel down firmly. the "open" side. as shown in Fig. following the dotted lines. and tack the other piece slightly. then place the square piece out of which Fig. being cast in wooden molds. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. deep. as well as useful. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. 1. deep. with the open side down. b. square. 1/2 in. and the projections B. Now take another piece of wood. around the wheel. 3. It can be made without the use of a lathe. and which will be very interesting. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. long. all the way around. and a model for speed and power. When it is finished. Make the lug 1/4 in. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. and cut it out as shown in Fig. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. This also should be slightly beveled. leaving the lug a. with a compass saw. 1 was cut. It is neat and efficient.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. and. with the largest side down. Cut off six pieces 12 in. thick. with pins or small nails.

pieces just finished. as shown by the black dots in Fig. then bolt it together. in the center of it. and boring a 3/8-in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and bore six 1/4-in. Now take another of the 12-in.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. hole entirely through at the same place. slightly beveled. and clean all the shavings out of it. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. deep. 1. 4. Now put mold No. hole 1/4 in. one of which should have a 3/8-in. holes through it. square pieces of wood. square pieces of wood. After it is finished. place it between two of the 12-in. Take the mold apart. and lay it away to dry. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. as shown by the . bolts. hole bored through its center.

in diameter must now be obtained. After it is fitted in. put the top of the brace through this hole. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. wide and 16 in. Fig. drill in it. Let it stand for half an hour. and bore three 1/4-in. This will cast a paddle-wheel. where the casting did not fill out. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Then bolt the castings together. place it under the drill. see that the bolts are all tight.black dots in Fig. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. b. A piece of mild steel 5 in. 4. and the exhaust hole in projection b. so that it will turn easily. 6. and 3/8-in. This is the same as Fig.1. lay it on a level place. Commencing 1-1/2 in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. holes at d. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. from the one end. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. holes. Now cut out one of the 12-in. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. d. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. one in the projections. Put this together in mold No. and pour babbitt metal into it. and lay it away to dry. take an ordinary brace. Pour metal into mold No. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. Find the center of the paddle-wheel.2. and two 1/4-in. 1. and run in babbitt metal again. and drill them in the same manner. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. Using the Brace . 5. as shown in illustration. fasten a 3/8-in.1. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. and pouring metal in to fill it up. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. place the entire machine in a vise. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. This is for a shaft. over the defective part. 6. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. This is mold No. one in the lug. until it is full.2. only the one is left-handed. B. the other right-handed. instead of the right-handed piece. long. and the other in the base. Now take mold No. and connect to the boiler. long. and drill it entirely through. screw down. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. true it up with a square. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel.

The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. Then take a knife or a chisel. and if instructions have been carefully followed. At each end of the 6ft. will do good service. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. long. one 6 ft. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. and the other 8 ft. while it is running at full speed. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. turn the wheel to the shape desired. with a boss and a set screw. and with three small screw holes around the edge.. Plan of Ice Boat . piece and at right angles to it. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. and. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam.

and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. boards to make the platform. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. Make your runners as long as possible. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. in front of the rudder block. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. Run the seam on a machine. in the top before the skate is put on. and about 8 in. in diameter. long. 2 by 3 in. plank nail 8-in. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. where they often did considerable damage. 8 a reef point knot. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . should be of hardwood. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. Over the middle of the 6-ft. 1. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. long. tapering to 1-1/2 in. in diameter in the center. The tiller. The spar should be 9 ft. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. leaving 1 ft. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. so much the better will be your boat. distant. projecting as in Fig. plank. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. Fig. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. Fig. 3. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. bolt the 8-ft. piece and at right angles to it. as the runners were fastened. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. To the under side of the 8-ft. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. at the top. at the butt and 1 in.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. This fits in the square hole. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. 1. at the end. long and 2-1/2 in. in diameter at the base. which may come in handy in heavy winds.

It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. small piece of wood. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. --Contributed by John D. and the alarm bell will ring. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. and place it behind a stove. Pa. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. S S. P. Mechanicsburg. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. Phoenix. --Contributed by J. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. Ariz. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. The arrangement proved quite too effective. block of wood nailed to A. bent into a hook at each end. to block B. allowing the springs to contact at C.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. The . Its parts are as follows: A. B. R. Comstock. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. wide. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. P. so that they come in contact at C. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. Adams.

including the . Take the glass. The center pole should be 10 ft. 6 in. A passenger rides in each seat and the motorman takes his station at the middle. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. says the American Boy. Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flanges or washers having a slight concave to their face. high. Gild the pan all over. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the