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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

The finished preserver is shown in Fig. with the hollow side away from you. E. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. 1. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. The pieces are then dressed round. distant. --Contributed by J. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Ontario. A piece of plank 12 in. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. away. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. Toronto. long will make six boomerangs. wide and 2 ft.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. 2. 1. 2 -. Noble.Fig. It is held in this curve until dry. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. To throw a boomerang. 1. apart. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. 2. until it is bound as shown in Fig. grasp it and hold the same as a club. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. Fig. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention.

First. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. dry snow will not pack easily. If the snow is of the right consistency. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. blocks . Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. long. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. however. one inside of the circle and the other outside. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. and it may be necessary to use a little water. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. high and 4 or 5 in. the block will drop out. but about 12 in. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. minus the top. and with a movable bottom. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. forcing it down closely. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. A wall. or rather no bottom at all. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. made of 6-in. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. it is not essential to the support of the walls. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. A very light. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. thick. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. 6 in.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. which makes the building simpler and easier.

and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. and the young architect can imitate them. 2. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. The piece of wood. or an old safe dial will do. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. Goodbrod. 3 -. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. There is no outward thrust. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . Fig. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. A nail. 1. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. a. 2. --Contributed by Geo. Fig. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. Union. is 6 or 8 in. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. wide. which is about 1 ft. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. It also keeps them out.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. Fig. 3. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. C. D. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. above the ground. 1. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. Ore. which can be made of wood. long and 1 in. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding.

Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. the box locked . Merrill. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. If ordinary butts are used. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. S. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. New York. --Contributed by R. one pair of special hinges.When taking hot dishes from the stove. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. as the weight always draws them back to place. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. Syracuse. says the Sphinx. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. and the other back of the stove and out of the way.

It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. as shown in Fig. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. To make a design similar to the one shown. one for each corner. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. Ga. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. If the measuring has been done properly. Alberta Norrell. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. When the sieve is shaken. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. With the metal shears. proceed as follows: First. Fig. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. Augusta. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. allowing each coat time to dry. draw one-half of it. as shown. as shown in Fig. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. smooth surface. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Place the piece in a vise. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. -Contributed by L. on drawing paper. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. If they do not. It remains to bend the flaps. 2. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. 3.and the performer steps out in view. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. 1. about 1-32 of an inch. All . How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked.

smooth it off with pumice stone and water. long. if rolled under the shoe sole. A resistance. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. in passing through the lamp. as shown at AA. A piece of porcelain tube. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. To keep the metal from tarnishing. and in the positions shown in the sketch. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. should be in the line. H. heats the strip of German-silver wire. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. Colo. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. is fitted tightly in the third hole. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. used for insulation. --Contributed by R. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . Galbreath. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. Denver. B. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. of No. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. In boring through rubber corks. If a touch of color is desired. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. The current. 25 gauge German-silver wire. in diameter. After this has dried. causing it to expand. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. which is about 6 in. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. 25 German-silver wire. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. from the back end. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can.the edges should be left smooth. about 6 in. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. R. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. The common cork. When the current is turned off. C. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly.

leaving a space of 4 in. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. . with thin strips of wood. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. as shown in Fig.bottom ring. 1. 3. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. --Contributed by David Brown. Fig. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Mo. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. between them as shown in Fig. Purchase two long book straps. Kansas City. 2. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe.

B are mounted on the bottom of the box. in diameter. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. --Contributed by James M. just the right weight for a woman to use. 36 in. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. Pa. --Contributed by Katharine D.. one weighing 15 lb. Syracuse. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. 1. which is the right weight for family use. N. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. 4. as . The folds are made over the string. Fig. and tack smoothly. Fig. Fig. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. long. Morse. Y. and one weighing 25 lb. are mounted on the outside of the box. to form a handle. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. 1. 3. and also prevent any leakage of the contents.An ordinary electric bell. Two strips of brass. 2. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. and a pocket battery. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. The string is then tied. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. C. A. having a gong 2-1/2 in.. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. These are shown in Fig. When the aeroplane tips. Kane. 1. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Doylestown. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit.

which can be purchased at a local hardware store. Y. 2. machine screws. and many fancy knick-knacks. if once used. Floral Park. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. bent as shown in Fig. such as brackets. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. long. two 1/8 -in. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. N. AA. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. 1. 2.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. Day. --Contributed by Louis J. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. The saw. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. in diameter. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. Frame Made of a Rod . 3/32 or 1/4 in. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. four washers and four square nuts.

The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt.. If it colors the metal red. though almost any color may be obtained. Watch Fob For coloring silver. as well as brass and copper. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. --Contributed by W. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. therefore. it has the correct strength. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. of course. In the design shown. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. if copper or brass.may be made of either brass. Detroit. The buckle is to be purchased. Of the leathers. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. be covered the same as the back. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. For etching. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. Rub off the highlights. the most expensive. of water in which dissolve. Scranton. use them in place of the outside nuts. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. 1 part sulphuric acid. Michigan. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. using a swab and an old stiff brush. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. Silver is the most desirable but. An Austrian Top [12] . Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. treat it with color. Apply two coats. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. green and browns are the most popular. 1 part nitric acid. as well as the depth of etching desired. after breaking up. A. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. of water. copper. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. File these edges. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. or silver. Drying will cause this to change to purple. allowing each time to dry.

. --Contributed by J. long. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. 5-1/4 in. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. 3/4 in. pass one end through the 1/16-in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. in diameter. Ypsilanti. hole. is formed on one end. Bore a 3/4-in. thick.F. allowing only 1-1/4 in. Tholl. wide and 3/4 in. 1-1/4 in. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. set the top in the 3/4 -in. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. The handle is a piece of pine. Parts of the Top To spin the top. starting at the bottom and winding upward. hole in this end for the top. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. long. When the shank is covered. Michigan. A 1/16-in. A handle. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape.

The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Ga. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. --A. Northville. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Augusta. The baking surface. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. --Contributed by Miss L. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. tarts or similar pastry. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. Houghton. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. having no sides. . Alberta Norrell. For black leathers. A. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Mich. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown.

the same as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. Centralia. glass fruit jar. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. says Studio Light. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. two turns will remove the jar.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. When you desire to work by white light. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Mo. then solder cover and socket together. Stringing Wires [13] A. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe.

The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration.for loading and development. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. square by 62 in. 1-1/4 in. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. 16 Horizontal bars. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. They are fastened. Janesville. and not tip over. as shown in the cross-section sketch. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. . square by 12 in. Wis. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. 1-1/4 in. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 4 Vertical pieces. so it can be folded up. 4 Braces.

-Contributed by Charles Stem. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. Cincinnati. After rounding the ends of the studs. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. O. C. H. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. The front can be covered . was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. New York. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. Phillipsburg. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. If the loop is tied at the proper place. Rosenthal. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. and a loop made in the end. The whole. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. after filling the pail with water. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. --Contributed by Dr. from scrap material.

as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. either for contact printing or enlargements. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. The . by all rules of the game. sickly one. Md. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. By using the following method. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. if you try to tone them afterward. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. FIG. thoroughly fix. Develop them into strong prints. The results will be poor. Wehr. 1 FIG. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. you are. principally mayonnaise dressing. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. If the gate is raised slightly. In my own practice. Baltimore. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. the mouth of which rests against a. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. the color will be an undesirable. and. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. --Contributed by Gilbert A. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution.

. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. 20 gr.. to make it 5 by 5 in. Place the dry print... The blotting paper can ... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses... wide and 4 in... L. Iodide of potassium . Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. 16 oz. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished....." Cyanide of potassium ... It will bleach slowly and evenly.... San Francisco.. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes.... 2 oz. 1 and again as in Fig. in this solution. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. but... where it will continue to bleach. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table... They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder... --Contributed by T....... when it starts to bleach. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away............. A good final washing completes the process. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. 2..... without previous wetting. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax... as it will appear clean much longer than the white. transfer it to a tray of water. Gray. With a little practice. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. Water . 5 by 15 in. in size.... long to admit the angle support. three times. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. Cal. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper...bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. preferably the colored kind.. When the desired reduction has taken place.. etc..

having a width of 2-1/4 in. Wilson Aldred Toronto. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. wide. the head of which is 2 in. 20 gauge. Oshkosh. --Contributed by J. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Make a design similar to that shown. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. the shaft 1 in. --Contributed by L. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. and a length of 5 in. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Canada. 3.J. Wisconsin. wide below the . Corners complete are shown in Fig. Monahan. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate.

but use a swab on a stick. 1 Fig. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. 1 part nitric acid. For coloring olive green. After the sawing. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. The metal must be held firmly. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. Fig. After this has dried. being held perpendicular to the work. then put on a second coat. 1. then coloring. 1 part sulphuric acid. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. which gives the outline of the design Fig. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. 4. deep. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. using a small metal saw. as shown in Fig. using turpentine. With the metal shears. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. Make one-half of the design. freehand. 3. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. then trace the other half in the usual way. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. Trace the design on the metal. 2. using carbon paper. Do not put the hands in the solution. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. Allow this to dry. after folding along the center line.FIG. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. . Pierce a hole with a small drill. With files. Apply with a small brush.

The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. Richmond. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. --Contributed by Katharine D. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. thick. then stain it a mahogany color. as shown. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. --Contributed by M. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. New York. After the stain has dried.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Conn. Cal. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. --Contributed by H. on a chopping board. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. East Hartford. M. attach brass handles. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. Morse. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. When this is cold. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. Ii is an ordinary staple. Burnett. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. Carl Cramer. . The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. it does the work rapidly. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. Syracuse. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool.

4. in width at the shank. as shown at A. one shaft. saucers or pans. Richmond. --Contributed by W. not over 1/4 in. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. and several 1/8-in. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. 1. Florida. 1/4 in. thick and 4 in.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. two enameled. or tin. H. . Fig. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. also locate the drill holes. 53 steel pens. --Contributed by Mrs. Atwell.. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. holes. L. brass. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. thick. A. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. WARNECKE Procure some brass. Jaquythe. indicating the depth of the slots. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. Cal. some pieces of brass. as shown in Fig. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. about 3/16 in. machine screws. Kissimmee. square. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel.

and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. and the ends filed round for the bearings. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. wide. 6. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. wide and bend as shown in Fig. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. Fig. hole. 1. The shaft hole may also be filed square. as in Fig. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. each about 1 in. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. If the shaft is square. Fig. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. These are connected to a 3/8-in. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. thick.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. can be procured. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. Fig. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. and pins inserted. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. with the face of the disk. Bend as shown in Fig. thick. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. brass and bolted to the casing. using two nuts on each screw. as shown in Fig. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. with 1/8-in. If metal dishes. 2. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. in diameter and 1/32 in. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. as shown. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. supply pipe. with a 3/8-in. lead should be run into the segments. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock.. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. long and 5/16 in. A 3/4-in. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. 3. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. 5. 7. long by 3/4 in. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. 2. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. about 1/32 in. machine screws. There should be a space of 1/16 in. hole is drilled to run off the water. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. 3. hole in the center. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. into the hole. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. machine screws and nuts. a square shaft used. Two nuts should be placed on each screw.

find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. 8-1/2 in. --Contributed by S. screws. Be sure to have the cover. La Salle. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. to make the bottom. Cooke. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. --Contributed by F.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. from the top of the box. high and 15 in. long. square and 30-1/2 in. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Ill. or more in diameter. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. deep and 1-1/4 in. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. three of which are in the basket. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. Fasten with 3/4-in. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. The lower part. When assembling. from the bottom end of the legs. we will call the basket. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. make these seams come between the two back legs. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. using four to each leg. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. With a string or tape measure. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. Now you will have the box in two pieces. Stain the wood before putting in the . allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. V. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Smith. The four legs are each 3/4-in. deep over all. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. Hamilton. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Canada. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs.

Packard. 1. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. When making the display. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. Cover them with the cretonne. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in.2 Fig. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Baltimore. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. as shown in the sketch.lining. and gather it at that point. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. you can. The side. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. 2. If all the parts are well sandpapered. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. wide. Fig. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Boston. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. wide and four strips 10 in. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Md. --also the lower edge when necessary. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Sew on to the covered cardboards. sewing on the back side. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. Mass. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. -Contributed by Stanley H.

it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. When through using the pad. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Fig. Mo. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. It is not difficult to . 3.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. and. saving all the solid part. N. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Crockett. Orlando Taylor. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. It is cleanly. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by B. Cross Timbers. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. --Contributed by H. L. Gloversville. with slight modifications. Y. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot.

Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. --Contributed by Edith E. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. remove the contents. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. -Contributed by C. across the face. or if desired. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. El Paso. Lowell. After stirring.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. After this is done. S. and scrape out the rough parts. and secure it in place with glue or paste. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. Texas. Lane. it should be new and sharp. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Bourne. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. are shown in the diagram. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Both of these methods are wasteful. Mass. If a file is used.

it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Turl. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Those having houses . the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. After several hours' drying. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them.cooking utensil. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. Des Moines. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Oak Park. A Postcard Rack [25]. Greenleaf. Ill. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Canton. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. --Contributed by Marion P. Ill. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Iowa. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. As these were single-faced disk records. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. Oregon. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. circled over the funnel and disappeared. Wheeler. He captured several pounds in a few hours. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. The insects came to the light. The process works well and needs no watching. F. --Contributed by Geo. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics.

Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. The single boards can then be fixed. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. will do as well. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. Only three pieces are required. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. the bottom being 3/8 in. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Conn... 6 in. not even with the boards themselves. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. and both exactly alike. Mass. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. the best material to use being matched boards. plane and pocket knife. and the second one for the developing bench. boards are preferable. material. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. --Contributed by Thomas E. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. Both sides can be put together in this way. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. Lay the floor next. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. 6 in. --Contributed by Wm. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. by 2 ft. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. Rosenberg. and as they are simple in design. one on each side of what will be the . Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. thick. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. but for cheapness 3/4 in. Worcester. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. Dobbins. Glenbrook. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. the height to the eaves being 6 ft.

and an arrangement of slats (Fig. and act as a trap for the light. It is shown in detail in Fig.. as shown in Figs. 9). and in the middle an opening. etc. 5. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. and to the outside board of the sides. nailing them to each other at the ridge. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. In hinging the door. so that the water will drain off into the sink. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. hinged to it. 7. Fig. and the top as at C in the same drawing. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. brown wrapping paper. 6. 2 in section.. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. The developing bench is 18 in. of the top of the door for the same reason. by screwing to the floor. and should be zinc lined. 9 by 11 in. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. the closing side as at B. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. 10). below which is fixed the sink. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. is cut.doorway. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. 8. 3 and 4. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. so that it will fit inside the sink. which is fixed on as shown . 11. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. The roof boards may next be put on. wide. 6 and 9. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. At the top of the doorway. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig.. 6.

Details of the Dark Rook .

and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. Fig. and a 3/8-in. For beating up an egg in a glass. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. or the room may be made with a flat roof. Fig. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. 2. 1. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. 19. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. after lining with brown paper. 14. mixing flour and water. or red light as at K. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. are fastened in the corners inside. 13. though this is hardly advisable. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. 16. Fig. which makes it possible to have white light. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. as at M. 20. Pennsylvania. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. Erie. but not the red glass and frame. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. preferably maple or ash. it is better than anything on the market. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. A circular piece about 2 in. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. as shown in the sections. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. screwing them each way into the boards. these being shown in Fig. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. and a tank stand on it. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. as shown in Fig. 15. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. 13. 6. four coats at first is not too many.in Fig. 16. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. hole bored in the center for a handle. Karl Hilbrich. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. The house will be much strengthened if strips. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. In use. Fig. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. 17. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. --Contributed by W. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. 18. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. as in Fig. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. as at I. if desired. The handle should be at least 12 in.

Ark. New York. for a handle. Kansas City. Mo. Smith. L. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. Mitchell. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. long. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. about 3/8 in. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Eureka Springs. -Contributed by E. Yonkers. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . when put together properly is a puzzle. To operate. which. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Schweiger. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. --Contributed by L. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match.copper should be. --Contributed by Wm. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. D. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. G. as shown in the sketch.

It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. The corks in use are shown in Fig. which binds them together. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. to make it set level. for the moment. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. as shown in Fig. 3. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. as is usually the case. the rustic work should be varnished. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. A number of 1/2-in. in order to thoroughly preserve it. holes should be drilled in the bottom. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. . The design shown in Fig. Each cork is cut as in Fig. 3. 2. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. the box will require a greater height in front. If the sill is inclined. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. Having completed the bare box. need them. After the box is trimmed. especially for filling-in purposes. as well as improve its appearance. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. 1. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. as shown in Fig.

One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. Traps do no good. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. 1. 3. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. F. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. share the same fate.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. Each long projection represents a leg. drilled at right angles. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. can't use poison. . it's easy. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. When the corn is gone cucumbers. too dangerous. life in the summer time is a vexation. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. the squirrels come in droves from far and near.. and observe results. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. But I have solved the difficulty. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. cabbages. as shown in Fig. etc. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. 2. being partly eaten into. 4. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat.

as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. About 9-1/2 ft. long. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. the coil does not heat sufficiently. The solution can be used over and over again. by trial. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. of No. cut some of it off and try again. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. strips. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. Iowa. -. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. If.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. and made up and kept in large bottles. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. cut in 1/2-in. . tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way.

Dallas. N. hot-water pot. but with unsatisfactory results. forks. coffee pot. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. of gasoline. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Do not wash them. --Contributed by James M. Syracuse.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. . Fig 2. Stir and mix thoroughly. In cleaning silver. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Texas. Y. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. D. as shown in the sketch. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Knives. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. is a good size--in this compound. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. it falls to stop G. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. and a strip. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. --Contributed by Katharine D. to cause the door to swing shut. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Kane. of whiting and 1/2 oz. 1) removed. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Pa. Doylestown. C. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Morse. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page.

New Orleans. --Contributed by Oliver S. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . later fixed and washed as usual. Fisher. Sprout. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. Harrisburg.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. La. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Pa. . of course. using the paper dry. --Contributed by Theodore L. but unfixed. Waverly. which is. Ill. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. negatives. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions.

the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. a harmonograph is a good prescription. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. 1. Fig. metal. then . The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. To obviate this difficulty. In this uncertainty lies the charm. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. The harmonograph. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing.

1-3/4 by 2 in. one-fifth. exactly one-third. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. one-fourth. of about 30 or 40 lb. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. makes respectively 3. as long as the other. as shown in the lower part of Fig. A small weight. The length of the short pendulum H. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. is about right for a 10-ft. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. A pedestal. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. and unless the shorter pendulum is. G. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. with a nail set or punch. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. 1. A weight. etc. A length of 7 ft. Arizona. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. R. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. --Contributed by Wm. K. for instance.. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. what is most important. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . J. in diameter. is attached as shown at H. Chicago. Holes up to 3 in. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. in the center of the circle to be cut. Another weight of about 10 lb. to prevent any side motion. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. Punch a hole. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. that is. ceiling. Rosemont. which can be regulated. Ingham. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. --Contributed by James T.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. or the lines will overlap and blur. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. provides a means of support for the stylus. such as a shoe buttoner. A small table or platform. Gaffney. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. as shown in Fig. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in.. 1.

The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. dividing them into quarters. 4. 6. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Fig. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made.H. distributing them over the whole card. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. then 3 as in Fig. N. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case.J. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. 1. 3. a correspondent of . Morey. then put 2 at the top. Cape May City. Chicago. one for the sender and one for the receiver.J. 5. and 4 as in Fig.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. and proceed as before. -Contributed by W. The capacity of the vise. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. 2. of course. Cruger. Fig. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. The two key cards are made alike.

wood-screws. --Contributed by L. sheet of well made asbestos paper. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. Cut through the center. acetic acid and 4 oz. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. of water. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. 6 gauge wires shown. from the top and bottom. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. 30 gr. Augusta. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. of the uprights. says Popular Electricity. of ferricyanide of potash. citrate of iron and ammonia. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. drill 15 holes. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. long. After preparing the base and uprights. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. Wind the successive turns of . 1/2 oz. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. Ga. After securing the tint desired. To assemble. respectively. If constructed of the former. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. the portion of the base under the coil. deep. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. of 18-per-cent No. Asbestos board is to be preferred. remove the prints. Alberta Norrell. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. 22 gauge German-silver wire. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. 1/4 in. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in.

Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. Ward. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. if one is not a smoker. but these are not necessary. screws. N.. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. The case may be made of 1/2-in. 16 gauge copper wire. rivets. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. cut and dressed 1/2 in. then fasten the upright in place. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. Labels of some kind are needed. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. square. as they are usually thrown away when empty. 14 gauge. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. Small knobs may be added if desired. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. Ampere. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. --Contributed by Frederick E. etc. which. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. Y.

as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. Kenosha. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. as shown in the sketch. being careful about the heat. particularly so when the iron has once been used. and labeled "Poison. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. Richmond.. especially if a large tub is used. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. zinc. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. Wis. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. then to the joint to be soldered. tinner's acid. California. G. B. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. --C. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. it must be ground or filed to a point. galvanized iron. Eureka Springs. and rub the point of the copper on it. A. The material can be of any wood. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. or has become corroded. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. of water. tin. brass. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. of glycerine to 16 oz. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. --Contributed by A. Copper. The parts are put together with dowel pins. --Contributed by W. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. . lead. D. Ark. If the soldering copper is an old one. Jaquythe. the pure muriatic acid should be used. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. S. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve.14 oz. sandpaper or steel wool." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. Larson. C. In soldering galvanized iron. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. a piece of solder. This is considerable annoyance. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. E and F. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. Heat it until hot (not red hot). and one made of poplar finished black. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac.

the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . The disk will come out pan shaped. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. The dimensions shown in Fig. Take a 3/4-in. and drill out the threads. N. such as copper. which gives two bound volumes each year. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. brass and silver. Troy. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Six issues make a well proportioned book. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. 2. W. 7/8 in. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. Fig. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. B. Y. in diameter. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. Hankin.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. D. Apart from this. with good results. thick and 1-1/4 in. however. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. I bind my magazines at home evenings. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. 1. round iron. Place the band. Fig. a ring may be made from any metal. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. The covers of the magazines are removed. nut. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. The punch A. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. This will leave a clear hole. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. This completes the die. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. wide. Brass rings can be plated when finished. C. in diameter. -Contributed by H.

The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. 1 in Fig. 5. If started with the January or the July issue. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. The string No. of the ends extending on each side. The sections are then prepared for sewing. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. using . 1. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. allowing about 2 in. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. as shown in Fig. C. size 16 or larger. and place them against the strings in the frame. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. threaded double. Five cuts. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Place the cardboard covers on the book. 1. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. on all edges except the back. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. which is fastened the same as the first. through the notch on the left side of the string No. After drawing the thread tightly. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. and then to string No.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. 2. Start with the front of the book. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. The covering should be cut out 1 in. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. is nailed across the top. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. then back through the notch on the right side. 1. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. deep. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. Coarse white thread.4. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. The covering can be of cloth. . is used for the sewing material. 1/8 in. and a third piece. 2. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. 2 before the work can be continued on the book.

Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Cal. Nebr. round iron. Place the cover on the book in the right position. Encanto. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. --Contributed by Clyde E. and mark around each one. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. at opposite sides to each other. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. College View. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. For the blade an old talking-machine . iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. on which to hook the blade. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Divine. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. and. Tinplate.

as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. and file in the teeth. fuse hole at D. Ohio. at the same end. bore. and a long thread plug. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. C. F. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). Moorhead. Then on the board put . by 4-1/2 in. hydraulic pipe. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in.. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. On the upper side. long.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. thick.. E. Hays. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. with 10 teeth to the inch. -Contributed by Willard J. in order to drill the holes in the ends. A. Miss. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. and another piece (B) 6 in. Summitville. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. and 1/4 in. B. with a steel sleeve. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Make the blade 12 in. and 1/4 in. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. or double extra heavy. thick. as shown. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. as it is sometimes called. by 1 in. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in.

Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. 4 jars. If you are going to use a current of low tension. --Contributed by Chas. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. and some No. about 5 ft. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. some sheet copper or brass for plates. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. of rubber-covered wire. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. of wire to each coil.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. the jars need not be very large. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . Philadelphia. high around this apparatus. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. using about 8 in. A lid may be added if desired. H. Connect up as shown. Boyd. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. as from batteries.

long by 22 in. 2 is lower down than in No. 1. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. B. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white.. above the ground. In proportioning them the points A. by 2 in. and for the rear runners: A. 1 on switch. 15-1/2 in. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. and four pieces 14 in.. apart. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. by 1-1/4 in. two pieces 14 in. direct to wire across jars. two pieces 34 in. gives full current and full speed. as they are not substantial enough. and bolt through. however. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. C. are important. 1 is connected to point No. For the brass trimmings use No. C. 3 in. Put arm of switch on point No.. 27 B. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. 5 on switch. by 2 in. A 3/4-in. Use no nails. thick. For the front runners these measurements are: A. 7 in. and plane it on all edges. First sandpaper all the wood. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. Equip block X with screw eyes. by 1 in. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. 2. with the cushion about 15 in. . 2 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. two pieces 30 in. long. & S. is used to reduce friction. The sled completed should be 15 ft. sheet brass 1 in. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. The top disk in jar No. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. then apply a coat of thin enamel. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. On the door of the auto front put the . beginning at the rear. Construct the auto front (Fig.. 3.. square by 14 ft. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. long. long. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. 3 and No. The connection between point No. No. wide and 2 in. 2 and 3. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. by 5 in. on No. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. At the front 24 or 26 in. An iron washer. by 6 in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. 16-1/2 in. steel rod makes a good steering rod. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. by 1-1/4 in. To wire the apparatus. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. 2. two for each jar. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. 1 and so on for No. thick. wide and 3/4 in. 30 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. B and C. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. The current then will flow through the motor. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. oak boards. or source of current. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. Their size also depends on the voltage. The stock required for them is oak. 11 in. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. See Fig.the way.. long. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No.. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. wide by 3/4 in. wide. 4. Fig. by 5 in. The illustration shows how to shape it. 4) of 3/4-in. A variation of 1/16 in. Z. making them clear those in the front runner. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. 34 in. B. 2. 4 in. as they "snatch" the ice. Use no screws on the running surface.

The best way is to get some strong. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. long. which is somewhat moist. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. fasten a cord through the loop. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. to improve the appearance. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. by 1/2 in. a brake may be added to the sled. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. Then get some upholstery buttons. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. etc. such as burlap. brass plated. may be stowed within. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. cutting it out of sheet brass. Fasten a horn. lunch. parcels. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. If desired. to the wheel. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. If desired. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. overshoes. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . by 30 in. If the expense is greater than one can afford. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. or with these for $25. such as used on automobiles. cheap material. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. a number of boys may share in the ownership.

the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same.tree and bring. Lexington. Ill. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. . Leland. --Contributed by Stewart H. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long.

4). will be over the line FG. say 1 in. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. so that the center of the blade. London. by drawing diameters. though more difficult. The Model Engineer. First take the case of a small gearwheel. Fig. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. With no other tools than a hacksaw. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . the cut will be central on the line. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. The first tooth may now be cut. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. 2. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. sheet metal. CD. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. when flat against it. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. 3. which. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. This guide should have a beveled edge. A small clearance space. some files. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. E. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. mild steel or iron. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. FC. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. Fig. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. Fig. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. a compass. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. Draw a circle on paper. The straight-edge. the same diameter as the wheel. from F to G. 1. made from 1/16-in. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. outside diameter and 1/16 in. with twenty-four teeth. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. thick. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required.

Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. R.Four Photos on One Plate of them. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. some wire and some carbons. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. each in the center. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. B. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. Focus the camera in the usual manner. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. 1. either the pencils for arc lamps. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. and the other outlet wire. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. hold in one hand. Then take one outlet wire. . With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. Make a hole in the other. as shown in Fig. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. A bright. electric lamp. ground it with a large piece of zinc. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. If there is no faucet in the house. as shown in Fig. transmitter. No shock will be perceptible. B. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. as shown in Fig. or several pieces bound tightly together. 2. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. 1.

under the gable. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. at each end for terminals. a transmitter which induces no current is used. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. A is a wooden block. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. D D are binding posts for electric wires. Ohio. or more of the latter has been used. leaving about 10 in. J. 36 wire around it. one at the receiver can hear what is said. and about that size. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. Then set the whole core away to dry. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. One like a loaf of bread. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. serves admirably. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. by 1 in. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. Several battery cells. B. and again wind the wire around it. If desired. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. by 12 in. and will then burn the string C. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. Emsworth. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. are also needed. Pa. Ashland. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. They have screw ends. For a base use a pine board 10 in. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. as indicated by E E. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse .A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. of course. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. --Contributed by Geo. Slattery. Dry batteries are most convenient. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. Wrenn. as shown. But in this experiment.

B B. run a No. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. The oven is now ready to be connected. D. connecting lamp receptacles.. in parallel. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. 2. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. F. From the other set of binding-posts. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. the terminal of the coil. and switch. 12 or No. and one single post switch. E. 1. Fig. Turn on switch. D. Fig. The coil will commence to become warm. in series with bindingpost. B B. First make a support. Newark. The apparatus is now ready for operation. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. C. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. These should have hollow ends. Connect these three to switch. until the hand points to zero on the scale.wire. while C is open. as shown. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. and the lamps. 14 wire. Place 16-cp. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. At one side secure two receptacles. as shown. C. Jr. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. Ohio. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. for the .

The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. where A is the homemade ammeter. as shown in the cut. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. --Contributed by J. It is 1 in. 2.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. 1. wide and 1-3/4 in.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. D. 7. The pointer or hand. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. 6. Fig. Fig. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. long. a variable resistance. After drilling. drill in only to the opening already through. remove the valve. The box is 5-1/2 in. This may be made of wood. 1. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. 14 wire. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. drill a hole as shown at H. thick. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. to prevent it turning on the axle.E. 10 turns to each layer. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. Montreal. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. is made of iron. wide and 1/8 in. Fig. This is slipped on the pivot. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. a standard ammeter. D. At a point a little above the center. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. inside measurements. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. a battery. C. is then made and provided with a glass front. but if for a 4way. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. B. from the lower end. is made of wire. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. 3. high. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. 14. 5. 36 magnet wire instead of No. A wooden box. 4. drill through the entire case and valve. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. 1/2 in. The core. If for 3-way. 3 amperes. although brass is better. 4 in. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. long and make a loop. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. To make one. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand.. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. until the scale is full. 1/4 in. 4 amperes. 5. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. although copper or steel will do. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. long. deep. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . Fig. Mine is wound with two layers of No.or 4-way valve or cock. Dussault. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. etc. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. and D. E. wind with plenty of No.

First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. To start the light. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. By connecting the motor. B. provided with a rubber stopper. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. A. D. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. and the arc light. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. and a metal rod. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. high. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. One wire runs to the switch. in diameter. and the other connects with the water rheostat.performing electrical experiments. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. as shown. which is used for reducing the current. F. This stopper should be pierced. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. making two holes about 1/4 in. E. in thickness .

2. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. Having fixed the lead plate in position. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. A. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. If all adjustments are correct. As there shown. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. --Contributed by Harold L. Carthage. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Jones. 1. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Fig. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. To insert the lead plate. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. B.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. as shown in C. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. Y. where he is placed in an upright open . N. Fig. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. 1. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. Fig. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. If the interrupter does not work at first. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. long. Fig. Turn on the current and press the button. Having finished the interrupter. A piece of wood. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. 1. as shown in B. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. 2.

The skeleton is made of papier maché. and must be thoroughly cleansed. The model. which can be run by three dry cells. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. If everything is not black. could expect from a skeleton. is constructed as shown in the drawings. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. with the exception of the glass. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. especially the joints and background near A. The glass should be the clearest possible. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. from which the gong has been removed. by 7 in. giving a limp. should be miniature electric lamps. dressed in brilliant. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. should be colored a dull black. loosejointed effect. If it is desired to place the box lower down. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. until it is dark there. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell.coffin.. light-colored garments. L and M. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. high. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. figures and lights. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. They need to give a fairly strong light. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. and wave his arms up and down. the illusion will be spoiled. A white shroud is thrown over his body. to aid the illusion. Its edges should nowhere be visible. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. The lights. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. inside dimensions. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. by 7-1/2 in. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. All . and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. as the entire interior. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. and can be bought at Japanese stores. especially L. within the limits of an ordinary room. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. A.

With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. --Contributed by Geo. W. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. square block. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. fat spark. Two finishing nails were driven in. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. Cal. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. after which it assumes its normal color. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green.that is necessary is a two-point switch. as shown in the sketch. If a gradual transformation is desired. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. Fry. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. San Jose. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. placed about a foot apart.

soldered in the top. One of these plates is connected to metal top. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. If a lighted match . In Fig. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. -Contributed by Dudley H. as shown. with two tubes. to make it airtight. Cohen. and should be separated about 1/8 in. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. F. hydrogen gas is generated. 1. B and C.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. The plates are separated 6 in. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. A (see sketch). 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. This is a wide-mouth bottle. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. New York. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. by small pieces of wood. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. the remaining space will be filled with air. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. or a solution of sal soda. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. In Fig. into the receiver G. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in.

A piece of 1/8-in. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. C C. 2 shows the end view. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. is then coiled around the brass tube. P. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. by means of the clips. says the Model Engineer. If desired. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. One row is drilled to come directly on top. either by passing a current of electricity around it. and the ends of the tube. in diameter and 6 in. A nipple. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. B. Fig. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. which forms the vaporizing coil. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. long. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. N. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. or by direct contact with another magnet. should be only 5/16 of an inch. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. copper pipe. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. 1. A. Fig. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. of No. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. from the bottom. is made by drilling a 1/8in. A. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. 1-5/16 in. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. A. 36 insulated wire. copper pipe. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. The distance between the nipple. as is shown in the illustration. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. N. London. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . long. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. which is plugged up at both ends. then a suitable burner is necessary. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. A. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. 1/2 in. A 1/64-in.

or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. trim both ends and the front edge. 1/4 in. larger all around than the book.lamp cord. Turn the book over and paste the other side. 2). Take two strips of stout cloth. at the front and back for fly leaves. Cut four pieces of cardboard. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). Fig. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. should be cut to the diameter of the can. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. longer and 1/4 in. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. boards and all. taking care not to bend the iron. but if the paper knife cannot be used. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. 3. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. leaving the folded edge uncut. A disk of thin sheet-iron. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. smoothly. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. about 8 or 10 in. this makes a much nicer book. Fig. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. fold and cut it 1 in. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. duck or linen. Fig. with a fine saw. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. 1. cut to the size of the pages. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth.

D. B. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. Another tank. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. 4). Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. H. Va. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. --Contributed by Joseph N. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. deep. is perforated with a number of holes. is soldered onto tank A. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Ont. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. in diameter and 30 in. the joint will be gas tight. A. of tank A is cut a hole. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. Another can. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. Noble. Parker. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. is fitted in it and soldered. is turned on it. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. is made the same depth as B. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. A gas cock. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Bedford City. or rather the top now. This will cause some air to be enclosed. and a little can. In the bottom. but its diameter is a little smaller.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. 18 in. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by James E. which will just slip inside the little can. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. C. pasting them down (Fig. as shown. E. Toronto. without a head. .

which may be either spruce. H is a square knot. B. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. B. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. Fig. E. If the back armature. The wiring diagram. The small guards.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. should be cut a little too long. D. fastened in the bottom. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. long. 2. The longitudinal corner spines. tacks. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. If the pushbutton A is closed. S. N. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. should be 1/4 in. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. Beverly. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. Bott. long. shows how the connections are to be made. and the four diagonal struts. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. when finished. to prevent splitting. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. with an electric-bell magnet. making the width. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. by 1/2 in. and sewed double to give extra strength. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. square by 42 in. are shown in detail at H and J.. which moves to either right or left. A A. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. J. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. basswood or white pine. thus adjusting the . as shown at C. exactly 12 in. Fig. The bridle knots. B. The diagonal struts. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. A. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. -Contributed by H. D. 1. and about 26 in. The armature. should be 3/8 in. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. C. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand.

How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. thus shortening G and lengthening F. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. shift toward F. Harbert. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. with gratifying results. however. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. Clay Center. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Chicago. If the kite is used in a light wind. --Contributed by A. that refuse to slide easily. E. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. for producing electricity direct from heat. and if a strong wind is blowing. Closing either key will operate both sounders. Kan. to prevent slipping. Stoddard. D. as shown. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. --Contributed by Edw. and. the batteries do not run down for a long time. can be made of a wooden .lengths of F and G. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. A bowline knot should be tied at J.

When the cannon is loaded. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. and also holds the pieces of wood. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. A. 14 or No. with a pocket compass. A. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. E. with a number of nails. by means of machine screws or. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. E. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. --Contributed by A. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. to the cannon. C. B. placed on top. F. 16 single-covered wire. Chicago. and the current may then be detected by means.. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. spark. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. or parallel with the compass needle. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. Fasten a piece of wood. A. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. D. A and B. The wood screw. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. Then. in position. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. C. C. which conducts the current into the cannon. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire.frame. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires.

turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. B. but no weights or strings. Chicago. To reverse. 1. where there is a staple. 1. Keil. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. screw is bored in the block. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. A hole for a 1/2 in. square and 3/8 in. now at A' and S'. when in position at A'. Bend the strips BB (Fig. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. L. --Contributed by Joseph B. with the long arm at L'. --Contributed by Henry Peck. within the reach of the magnet. A. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. To unlock the door. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. 1. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. Ohio. Mich. Fig. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Fig. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. requiring a strong magnet. in this position the door is locked. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown.the current is shut off. . The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. In Fig. To lock the door. A and S. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. Big Rapids. press the button. to receive the screw in the center. A and S. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. H. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Connect as shown in the illustration. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Marion.

The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. gas-pipe. long. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. and may be made at very slight expense. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. The standard and base. and if desired the handles may . and then tap it for a 3/8-in. When ready for use. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. put in the handle. are enameled a jet black. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. West Somerville. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. When the holes are finished and your lines set. --Contributed by C. about 18 in. pipe with 1-2-in. if enameled white on the concave side. Thread the other end of the pipe. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. and C is a dumbbell. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. J. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. or for microscopic work. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. Mass. Rand. hole. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black.

Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. Warren. --Contributed by C. Fig. long and 8 in. 8 in. E. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. Mass. Fig. M. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . across. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. high by 1 ft. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. B. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. North Easton. across.. 1. This peculiar property is also found in ice. with a cover. D. as shown at A in the sketch. Make a cylindrical core of wood.be covered with leather. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. A. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. inside the pail. which shall project at least 2 in. 1.

as dictated by fancy and expense. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. The 2 in. hotel china. diameter. and with especial caution the first time. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. strip of sheet iron. hard porcelain. It is placed inside the kiln. let this dry thoroughly.-G. say 1/4 in. This done. pack this space-top. L. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. After removing all the paper. 25%. thick. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. and 3/8 in. and 3/4 in. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. such . if there is to be any glazing done. to hold the clay mixture.. long over the lid hole as a chimney. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. full length of iron core. Fit all the parts together snugly. Wind about 1/8 in. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. 60%. Whatever burner is used. carefully centering it. When lighted. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. in diameter. pipe. but will be cheaper in operation. but it will burn a great deal of gas. 1). It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. Cover with paper and shellac as before. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. 15%. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. and cut it 3-1/2 in. make two wood ends. After finishing the core. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. passing wire nails through and clinching them. If the cover of the pail has no rim. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. and graphite. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. 1330°. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. about 1 in. C. the point of the blue flame. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. W. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. 1). pipe 2-ft. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. wider than the kiln. and varnish. the firing should be gradual. and on it set the paper wrapped core. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. C. E. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. sand. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. cutting the hole a little smaller.. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. thick. long.mixture of clay. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. layer of the clay mixture. in diameter. as is shown in the sketch. 2 in. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. 2.. 1390°-1410°. bottom and sides. which is the hottest part. if you have the materials. of fine wire. or make one yourself. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. and your kiln is ready for business. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. Set aside for a few days until well dried. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. Fig. 3) with false top and bottom. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. projecting from each end (Fig. C. Line the pail.

Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. 2. Chicago. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. and so on. every alternate card being the same color. T. about 1/16 in.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. Next restore all the cards to one pack. Washington. around the coil. 1. --Contributed by J. a regulator must be had for the vibrator.. The funnel. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum.53 in. A. R. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. diameter. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. overlaps and rests on the body. Take the red cards. You can display either color called for. Of course. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. as shown in the sketch herewith. taking care to have the first card red. bind tightly with black silk. with a plane. 2. leaving long terminals. D. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. B. . square them up and place in a vise. the next black. red and black. Then take the black cards. Then. length of . Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. C. and discharges into the tube. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. C. procure a new deck. all cards facing the same way. and divide it into two piles. 8 in. 2). which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. square them up. and plane off about 1/16 in. C. as in Fig. as in Fig.

through the holes already drilled. so that when they are assembled. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. of the frame. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. 1 gill of fine white sand. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. B. stove bolts. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. The cement. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. thus making all the holes coincide. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. angle iron for the frame. Long Branch. stove bolts. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. and then the frame is ready to assemble. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. When the glass is put in the frame a space. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. and this is inexpensive to build.. B. D. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. F. B. Drill all the horizontal pieces. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. 1 gill of litharge. It should be placed in an exposed location. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file.J. Fig. 1. The bottom glass should be a good fit. The upright pieces. C. A. To find the fall of snow. E. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. N. so it is filled up with plaster of paris.C. about 20 in. as the difficulties increase with the size. A. the same ends will come together again. E. to form a dovetail joint as shown. Let . the first thing to decide on is the size. All the horizontal pieces.

D. Aquarium Finished If desired. a centerpiece (A. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. Fasten the lever. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. on the door by means of a metal plate. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. and. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. having a swinging connection at C.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. to the door knob. A. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. Fig. if desired. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. B. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish.

thus doing away with the spring. B. A small piece of spring brass. 3 shows one of the paddles. long. to form the slanting part. will open the door about 1/2 in. from the outside top of the frame. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. 1. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. and another. 1. E. Fig. --Contributed by Orton E. Buffalo. and Fig. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. They are shown in Fig. approximately 1 ft. long. screwed to the door frame. 1 is the motor with one side removed. White. which is 15 in. several lengths of scantling 3 in. but mark their position on the frame. hoping it may solve the same question for them. Fig. F. 26 in. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. another. Do not fasten these boards now. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. as at E. according to the slant given C. soldered to the end of the cylinder. Cut two pieces 30 in. Fig. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. Y. Cut two of them 4 ft. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. wide by 1 in. 2 is an end view. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. N. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. Fig. for the top. 1 . Fig. showing the paddle-wheel in position. to keep the frame from spreading. PAUL S. 2 ft. wide . to form the main supports of the frame. Two short boards 1 in. 2 at GG. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF.. D. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. C. 6 in. AA. another. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. with a water pressure of 70 lb. long. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. Fig. I referred this question to my husband. long. To make the frame. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this.

after which drill a 5/8 in. thick. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. that is. (I. Take the side pieces. Next secure a 5/8-in. and drill a 1/8-in. in diameter. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. with the wheel and shaft in place. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Fasten them in their proper position. Tack one side on. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. tapering from 3/16 in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Now block the wheel. holes. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. hole to form the bearings. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. and drill a 1-in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. Drill 1/8-in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. hole through its center. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. hole through them. then drill a 3/16-in. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. to a full 1/2 in. Fig. hole from the tops to the 1-in. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. long to the wheel about 8 in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. 1. take down the crosspieces. pipe. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame.along the edges under the zinc to form . iron. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. 2) form a substantial base. hole through the exact center of the wheel. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. by 1-1/2 in. hole through their sides centrally. iron 3 by 4 in. steel shaft 12 in. When it has cooled. Fig. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. 2) with a 5/8-in. from one end by means of a key. These are the paddles. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. 2) and another 1 in. thick (HH. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Fig. remove the cardboard. 4. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in.burlap will do -. GG. Make this hole conical. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). and a 1/4 -in. 24 in. as shown in Fig.

How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. remove any white curtains there may be. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Darken the rest of the window. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. and leave them for an hour or so. . and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. as shown in the sketch at B. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. place the outlet over a drain. it would be more durable. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. Correct exposure depends. It is obvious that.a water-tight joint. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. The best plate to use is a very slow one. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. If sheet-iron is used. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. shutting out all light from above and the sides. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. on the lens. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. says the Photographic Times. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. as this makes long exposure necessary. and the subject may move. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. sewing machine. or what is called a process plate. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. Do not stop down the lens. of course.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Drill a hole through the zinc. and as near to it as possible. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. but now I put them in the machine. Raise the window shade half way. If the bearings are now oiled. light and the plate. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. ice-cream freezer. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. start the motor. but as it would have cost several times as much. any window will do. drill press. Focus the camera carefully. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper.

Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. On completing .In developing get all possible density in the high lights. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. D. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. until the core slowly rises. With a piece of black paper. 2. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. as shown in Fig. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. or can be taken from an old magnet. The current required is very small. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. A. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. hard rubber. and a base. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. The glass tube may be a test tube. as a slight current will answer. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. which is made of iron and cork. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. full of water. with binding posts as shown. and without fog. by twisting. the core is drawn down out of sight. 2. C. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. an empty pill bottle may be used. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. without detail in the face. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. or wood. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. a core. a glass tube. The core C. or an empty developer tube. B.

and one not easy to explain. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. water and 3 oz. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. The colors appear different to different people. 1 pt. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. according to his control of the current. whale oil. finest graphite. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. and are changed by reversing the rotation. white lead. is Benham's color top. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. 1 lb. 1. This is a mysterious looking instrument. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. and make a pinhole in the center.

As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. especially if the deck is a new one. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. before cutting. deuce. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. fan-like. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. A. -Contributed by D. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. nearly every time. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. when the action ceases. Chicago. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. or three spot. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. As this device is easily upset. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . C. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. In making hydrogen. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones.L. and asks an observer to withdraw a card.B. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. In prize games.. thus partly filling bottles A and C. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. B.

at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. J. 9 in. S. 12 in. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. Dak. as shown in Fig. Detroit. --Contributed by C. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. in diameter. Detail of Phonograph Horn . long. Fig. Form a cone of heavy paper.. Fig. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. 1. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. . connecting the bottom by cross pieces.. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 10 in. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. 3). making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. long and 3 in. in length and 3 in. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. W. 2. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. Jr. that will fit loosely in the tube A. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Huron. Bently. --Contributed by F. Make a 10-sided stick. S. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. 4. (Fig. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack.

How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. push back the bolt. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. Fortunately. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. allowing 1 in. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . 6. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. --Contributed by Reader. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. long. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. Remove the form. A piece of tin. bend it at right angles throughout its length. about the size of a leadpencil. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. Cut out paper sections (Fig. making it three-ply thick. A. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. and walk in. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. Fig. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. with a pin driven in each end. but bends toward D. it is equally easy to block that trick. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. Denver. E. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. will cause an increased movement of C. A second piece of silk thread. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. on one side and the top. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. C.

4 ft. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base.strip. --Contributed by J. are made 2 by 4 in. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. long. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. as shown. Jr. posts. The feet. Two wood-base switches. is connected each point to a battery. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. B. are 7 ft. while the lower switch. The 2 by 4-in. and rest on a brick placed under each end. A. will last for several years. or left to right. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . The reverse switch. West St. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other.. S. put together as shown in the sketch. long. B. Fremont Hilscher. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. The upper switch. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. Paul. R. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. By this arrangement one. S. Minn. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor.. S S. W.

E. cut in half.every house. The valve motion is shown in Figs. either an old sewing-machine wheel. and has two wood blocks. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. The piston is made of a stove bolt. In Fig. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. and in Fig. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. and valve crank S. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. the other parts being used for the bearing B. 3/8 in. FF. and the crank bearing C. pulley wheel. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. and a cylindrical . The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. or anything available. is an old bicycle pump. Fig. 2 and 3. the size of the hole in the bearing B. 2. thick. which is made of tin. The base is made of wood. The hose E connects to the boiler. with two washers. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. H and K. 1. Fig. which will be described later. The steam chest D. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire.

using the positive wire as a pen. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. . Eustice. --Contributed by Geo. G. Cal. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. of Cuba. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. as it is merely a trick of photography. San Jose. Schuh and A. The boiler. to receive the connecting rod H. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. or galvanized iron. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. Wis. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. First. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. J. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft.piece of hard wood. is cut out of tin. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. C. 4. Fry. This engine was built by W. and saturated with thick oil. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. Fig. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. as shown in Fig. and a very amusing trick. and the desired result is obtained. Fig. W. powder can. at that. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. can be an old oil can. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. G. The valve crank S. This is wound with soft string. 3. 1.

A curious effect can be produced with Fig.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. and pass ropes around . On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. Fig. 1 will be seen to rotate. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. diameter. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. The smaller wheel. B. to cross in the center. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. as shown. They may be of any size. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. as shown at AA. and place a bell on the four ends. Fig. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. When turning. Cut half circles out of each stave. B. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. and Fig. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. Fig. C. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. 1 by covering up Figs. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution.

such as clothes lines. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. Mo. To make this lensless microscope. produces a higher magnifying power). From a piece of thin . When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. procure a wooden spool. Louis. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. A (a short spool. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. as shown in the illustration. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E.G. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. which allows the use of small sized ropes. --Contributed by H. W. This in turn will act on the transmitter.M. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. which accounts for the sound. but not on all. long. St. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. from the transmitter..

a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. if the distance is reduced to one-third. which costs little or nothing to make. An innocent-looking drop of water. . To use this microscope. which are pieces of hard wood. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. 2. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. and so on. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. The spring. D. i. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. The lever. the diameter will appear twice as large. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. D. and at the center. cut out a small disk. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. and look through the hole D. the diameter will appear three times as large. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. darting across the field in every direction. 1. by means of brads. the object should be of a transparent nature. A. Viewed through this microscope. B. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. 3. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. E. B. is fastened at each end by pins. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. in which hay has been soaking for several days. bent as shown. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. held at arm's length. fastened to a wooden base. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. e. and has the general appearance shown in Fig.) But an object 3/4-in. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. otherwise the image will be blurred. as in all microscopes of any power. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. Fig. The pivot. (The area would appear 64 times as large..Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. H. can be made of brass and the armature. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. C. is made of iron. or 64 times.. C. place a small object on the transparent disk. if the distance is reduced to one-half. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings.

. should be about 22 in. K. 2. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. long by 16 in. Fig. brass. brass or iron soldered to nail. between the armature and the magnet. B. wide and set in between sides AA. Cut the top. 16 in. The door. FF. E. connection of D to nail. brass: E. which are made to receive a pivot. C. coils wound with No. AA.SOUNDER-A. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. The binding posts. can be made panel as shown. 16 in. brass: B. D. wide. A switch. 1. is cut from a board about 36 in. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. thick. wide. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. wood: C. wood. long. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. soft iron. B. in length and 16 in. binding posts: H spring The stop. and are connected to the contacts. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. K. long and 14-1/2 in. C. The back. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. D. wide. fastened near the end. D. A. Fig. wood: F. KEY-A. wide and about 20 in. The base of the key. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. or taken from a small one-point switch. 26 wire: E. HH. nail soldered on A. F. similar to the one used in the sounder. Each side. DD. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. wide. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. or a single piece.

Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . material. Garfield. with 3/4-in. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. 13-1/2 in. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. Ill. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. cut in them. AA. When the electrical waves strike the needle. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. as shown. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. E. as shown in the sketch. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. 2 and made from 1/4-in. brads. long. Make 12 cleats. In operation.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch.. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube.

F. N. in order to increase the surface. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. A. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . N. when used with a motor. Ridgewood. A fairly stiff spring.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. and thus decreases the resistance. A (see sketch). Pushing the wire. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. B. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. Fairport. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. The cord is also fastened to a lever. and. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. E. pulls down the armature. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. Brown. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. down into the water increases the surface in contact. filled with water. will give a greater speed. --Contributed by R. J. through which a piece of wire is passed. When the pipe is used. --Contributed by John Koehler. the magnet. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. Y. A. C.

if desired. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. N. even those who read this description.for the secret contact. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. --Contributed by Perry A. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. B. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Gachville. Borden. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Of course. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time.

2. D. as shown in Fig. Nails for stops are placed at DD. J. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. C. from the bottom. 1. Two drawers are fitted in this space. The top board is made 28-in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. --Contributed by Dr. wide. . C. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. thick and 12-in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. From a piece of brass a switch. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. for 6-in. long and full 12-in. Dobson.whenever the bell rings. Mangold. records and 5-5/8 in. A. wide. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. E. wide. Jr. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. and on both sides of the middle shelf. With about 9 ft. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. wide. N. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in.. records. Connect switch to post B. East Orange. wide. Washington. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. in a semicircle 2 in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. Cal. as shown in Fig. long and 5 in. deep and 3/4 in. for 10in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. apart. The three shelves are cut 25-in. Compton. where the other end of wire is fastened. --Contributed by H. H.

An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] .Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. B. Va. closed. as shown by the dotted lines. which in operation is bent. to which is fastened a cord. Roanoke. When the cord is passed over pulley C. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. E. 1. A. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D.

it too loose. 3). These wheels should be 3/4 in. E. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. Fig. through one of these holes. Notice the break (S) in the track. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. is compressed by wheels. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Cut two grooves. excepting the crank and tubing. against which the rubber tubing. In these grooves place wheels. one in each end. Bore two 1/4 in. 1. Do not fasten the sides too . Fig. The crankpin should fit tightly. which should be about 1/2 in. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. wide. in diameter. CC. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. Now put all these parts together. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. apart. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. they will bind. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. in diameter. D. Fig. deep. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. thick (A. as shown in the illustration. Put the rubber tube. but a larger one could be built in proportion. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. thick. holes (HH. square and 7/8 in. in diameter. If the wheels fit too tightly. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. to turn on pins of stout wire. deep and 1/2 in. long. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. B. Figs. 5) when they are placed. In the sides (Fig. 1 in. 4 shows the wheel-holder. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. wide. they will let the air through. in diameter. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. 1 in. 3. Figs. E.

B. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. AA. 1. 1. Two feet of 1/4-in. though a small iron wheel is better. a platform should be added. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. To use the pump. iron. Fig. Then turn the crank from left to right. Kan. Idana. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. 15 in. the pump will give a steady stream. stands 20 in. If the motion of the wheels is regular. from each end. as it gives steadiness to the motion. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. The animal does not fear to enter the box. because he can . For ease in handling the pump. as shown in Fig. 2. of material. --Contributed by Dan H. and are 30 in. AA. 17-1/2 in. beyond each of these two. Fig. from that mark the next hole. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. from each end. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. Take the center of the bar. 1. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. tubing. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. A in Fig. and mark for a hole. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. Hubbard. mark for hole and 3 in. Fig. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. from the bottom and 2 in. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. is all the expense necessary. from each end. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. long. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. The screen which is shown in Fig. Cut six pieces. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. mark again. costing 10 cents. 1. and 3-1/2 in. In the two cross bars 1 in. 2. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Fig. The three legs marked BBB. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. the other wheel has reached the bottom. 1.

The mercury will adhere. sulphuric acid. long having two thumb screws. When through using the battery. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. C. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. and touches the bait the lid is released and. but if one casts his own zinc. potassium bichromate. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. of the top. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. until it is within 3 in. . acid 1 part). It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. The battery is now ready for use. If it is wet. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. of water dissolve 4 oz. dropping. stirring constantly. there is too much liquid in the jar. 2). however. When the bichromate has all dissolved. Place the carbon in the jar. --Contributed by H. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. Meyer. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. If the solution touches the zinc. The truncated. and the solution (Fig. The battery is now complete. Philadelphia. 14 copper wire. shuts him in. 4 oz. silvery appearance. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. It is useful for running induction coils. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. To cause a flow of electricity. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts.see through it: when he enters. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. 1) must be prepared. or. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. If the battery has been used before. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. giving it a bright. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. add slowly. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. rub the zinc well. some of it should be poured out. or small electric motors. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's.

The price of the coil depends upon its size.Fig. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. If. pressing the pedal closes the door. Wis. e. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. the battery circuit. however.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. the jump-spark coil . i.. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. while the coal door is being opened. After putting in the coal. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. which opens the door. Madison. with slight changes.

which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. Change the coil described. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. the full length of the coil. apart. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. in a straight line from top to bottom. This coil. After winding. 7. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. 5. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. This will make an excellent receiver. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. 6. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. in a partial vacuum. coil. Now for the receiving apparatus. which is made of light copper wire. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. 7). as shown in Fig. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. Fig. 7. made of No.described elsewhere in this book. diameter. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. 6. as shown in Fig. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil.7. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. while a 12-in. W W. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. . being a 1-in. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. W W. and closer for longer distances. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver.

The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. 90°. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. I run my lathe by power. and hence the aerial line. after all. 1 to 4. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. A. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. where A is the headstock. at any point to any metal which is grounded. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. B the bed and C the tailstock. as it matches the color well. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. only. Figs. but it could be run by foot power if desired. Run a wire from the other binding post. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. to the direction of the current. These circles. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. being vertical. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). suitable for turning wood or small metal articles.6 stranded. No. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface.The aerial line. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. are analogous to the flow of induction. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. but simply illustrates the above to show that. A large cone pulley would then be required. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. using an electric motor and countershaft. 1). in the air. which will be described later. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. may be easily made at very little expense. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. above the ground. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. For an illustration. The writer does not claim to be the originator. 90°. . being at right angles. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one.

so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. The headstock. Fig. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. If the bearing has been properly made. but not hot enough to burn it. steel tubing about 1/8 in. Fig. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. After pouring. 5. 6. tapered wooden pin. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. B. 6 Headstock Details D. one of which is shown in Fig. Fig. The bearing is then ready to be poured. 5. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. 4. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. Heat the babbitt well. which are let into holes FIG. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. thick. and runs in babbitt bearings. The bolts B (Fig. which pass through a piece of wood. Fig. on the under side of the bed. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. To make these bearings. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. pitch and 1/8 in.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. just touching the shaft. and it is well to have the shaft hot. A. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. and Fig. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. 4. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. too. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . deep. 2 and 3.

they may be turned up after assembling. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. Oak Park. FIG. B. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. of the walk . Take up about 5 ft. embedded in the wood.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. Newark. Ill. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. so I had to buy one. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut.other machines. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. lock nut. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. and a 1/2-in. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. A. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. If not perfectly true. N. If one has a wooden walk. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. This prevents corrosion.J. the alarm is easy to fix up. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. The tail stock (Fig. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest.

Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. 2). Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. hang the articles on the wires. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. leaving a clear solution. to remove all traces of grease. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Minn. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. Finally. Fig. to roughen the surface slightly. save when a weight is on the trap. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. water. Jackson. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. (A. Do not touch the work with the hands again. and the alarm is complete. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. of water. S. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. To avoid touching it. silver or other metal. clean the articles thoroughly. --Contributed by R. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Minneapolis. before dipping them in the potash solution. so that they will not touch. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. add potassium cyanide again. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Connect up an electric bell. Then make the solution . American ash in 1-1/2 pt.

Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. will serve for the key. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. copper. Fig. an old electric bell or buzzer. which is held by catch B. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. with water. light strokes. 1). Fig. Can be made of a 2-in. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. Where Bunsen cells are used. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. Then. but opens the door. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. use 2 volts for large articles. shaking. B should be of the same wood. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. The wooden catch. 3. I. When all this is set up. which . Take quick. long. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. with water. from the lower end. With an electric pressure of 3. as shown in Fig. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. Repeat six times. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. 1). of water. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. hole in its center. zinc. To provide the keyhole. piece of broomstick. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. a circuit is completed. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. Make a somewhat larger block (E. The wooden block C. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. Screw the two blocks together. when the point of the key touches the tin. and then treated as copper. nickel and such metals.up to 2 qt. 1. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. and 4 volts for very small ones. German silver. with the pivot 2 in. 3) directly over the hole. such metals as iron. On brass. if one does not possess a buffing machine. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. and the larger part (F. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. Having finished washing the precipitate. 1 in. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. silver can be plated direct. long. a hand scratch brush is good. about 25 ft. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. of clothesline rope and some No. must be about 1 in. A (Fig. --Model Engineer. Before silver plating. A 1/4 in. as at F. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. This solution.5 to 4 volts. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. 10 in. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. In rigging it to a sliding door. lead. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. make a key and keyhole. pewter. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. 3) strikes the bent wire L. also. Fig. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. If more solution is required. If accumulators are used. square. 18 wire. saw a piece of wood. thick by 3 in. Fig. 1 not only unlocks. which is advised.

Showing you plainly that both hands are empty.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. and a slit. cut in one side. and plenty of candles. top. the requisites are a large soap box. and hands its contents round to the audience. . Next. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. sides and end. Objects appear and disappear. --Contributed by E. Fig. and finally lined inside with black cloth. 1. 2. no painting inside is required. spoons and jackknives. 3. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. a few simple tools. such as forks. B. he points with one finger to the box. Next. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. 116 Prospect St. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. and black art reigns supreme. or cave. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). and relies on a principle of optics for its success. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. some black paint. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. He removes the bowl from the black box. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. 0. one-third of the length from the remaining end. New Jersey. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. To prepare such a magic cave. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. the illumination in front must be arranged. The box must be altered first. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. with a switch as in Fig. with the lights turned low. Fig. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. the box should be painted black both inside and out. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. H. some black cloth. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. The magician stands in front of this. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. so much the better. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. 1. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. between the parlor and the room back of it. In front of you. he tosses it into the cave. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. Thus. shows catch B. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. enlarged. East Orange. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. H. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. to throw the light toward the audience. floor. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide.. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. should be cut a hole. Heavy metal objects. half way from open end to closed end. Receiving the bowl again. Fig. although a little more trouble. On either side of the box. surrounding a perfectly black space. is the cut through which the rope runs. which unlocks the door. Fig. One end is removed. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. H. One thing changes to another and back again. heighten the illusion. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. Klipstein. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. in his shirt sleeves. 2. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. The interior must be a dead black.

and the skeleton can change to a white cat.Finally. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. you must have an assistant. The illusion. The audience room should have only low lights. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. had a big stage. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. and several black drop curtains. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. which are let down through the slit in the top. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. is on a table) so much the better. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. was identical with this. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. in which are oranges and apples. and pours them from the bag into a dish. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. a screen must be used. of course. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. of course. one on each side of the box. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. But illusions suggest themselves. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. into the eyes of him who looks. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. only he. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. the room where the cave is should be dark. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. The exhibitor should be . as presented by Hermann. if. which can be made to dance either by strings. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. Consequently. and if portieres are impossible. his confederate behind inserts his hand. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear.

or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. making contact with them as shown at y. b1. b3. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. c2. by means of two wood screws. b2. About the center piece H moves a disk. c1. held down on disk F by two other terminals. when handle K is turned to one side. d. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. and c1 – electricity. making contact with them. b2. held down by another disk F (Fig. Then. f2. by 4 in. or b2. terminal c3 will show . 2. A represents a pine board 4 in. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. respectively. c4. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery.. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. is shown in the diagram. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. 2). if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. vice versa. FIG. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . if you turn handle K to the right. respectively.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. or binding posts. respectively. and c2 to the zinc. On the disk G are two brass strips. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. at L. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. 2. so arranged that. 1. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. c3. held down on it by two terminals. e1 and e2. Fig. as shown in Fig. their one end just slips under the strips b1. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. and c4 + electricity. terminal c3 will show +.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. b3. A. and a common screw.a boy who can talk. 1. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. square. Finally. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. with three brass strips.

E. . Ohio. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. and then hold the receiver to your ear. when on No. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. -Contributed by A. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. from four batteries. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. and C and C1 are binding posts. --Contributed by Eugene F. 5. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. When switch B is closed and A is on No. thus making the message audible in the receiver. from five batteries. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. 3. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. you have the current of one battery. Newark. and when on No. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . when on No. from three batteries. when A is on No. Tuttle. 4.. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. 1. Joerin.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. B is a onepoint switch. jump spark coil. Jr. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade).

per second. A. Redmond. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position.. and placed on the windowsill of the car. B. mark. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. When you do not have a graduate at hand. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. mark. of Burlington. so one can see the time. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. per second for each second. A. Wis. and supporting the small weight. Thus. E. as shown in the sketch. rule. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. P. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. A.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. over the bent portion of the rule. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. traveled by the thread. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. New Orleans. which may be a button or other small object. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. is the device of H. La. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. Handy Electric Alarm . A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. The device thus arranged. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in.

fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. which illuminates the face of the clock. S. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. Then if a mishap comes. but may be closed at F any time desired. for a wetting is the inevitable result. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. wrapping the wire around the can several times. --C. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood.which has a piece of metal. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. Pa. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. Crafton. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. . being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. B. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. --Contributed by Gordon T. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. Lane. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. and with the same result. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. When the alarm goes off. Instead. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. C. soldered to the alarm winder.

The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. battery zincs. Two cleats. It is possible to make molds without a bench. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . --Contributed by A. as shown in Fig. AA. C. ornaments of various kinds. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. Macey. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. 1 . and duplicates of all these. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. bearings. With the easily made devices about to be described. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. small machinery parts. L. as shown. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. The first thing to make is a molding bench. which may. when it is being prepared. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. 1. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. models and miniature objects. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. cannons. and many other interesting and useful articles. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. engines. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. BE. New York City. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. If there is no foundry Fig. A. but it is a mistake to try to do this. whence it is soon tracked into the house. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. binding posts.

and a sieve. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. Fig. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. 1. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. 1. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. by 6 in. as shown. DD. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. H. is nailed to each end of the cope. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. A wedge-shaped piece. white metal. CC. The rammer. and the lower pieces. which can be made of a knitted stocking. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. A A. and the "drag. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. J. An old teaspoon. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. The cloth bag." or upper half." or lower part. 2. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. high. F. the "cope. Fig. by 8 in. II . is about the right mesh. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. is shown more clearly in Fig. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. makes a very good sieve. is filled with coal dust. previous to sawing. If the box is not very strong. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. It is made of wood and is in two halves. If desired the sieve may be homemade. and saw it in half longitudinally.near at hand. say 12 in. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. which can be either aluminum. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. CC. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. as shown. but this operation will be described more fully later on. E. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. The dowels. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. a little larger than the outside of the flask.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. The flask. which should be nailed in. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. and this.How to Make a Mold [96] . G. is made of wood. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. A slight shake of the bag Fig. D. 2 . will be required. try using sand from other sources.

and if water is added. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. as shown at D." in position. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. as shown. After ramming. It is then rammed again as before. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. and then more sand is added until Fig. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. as shown at C. or "drag. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. and by grasping with both hands. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. the surface of the sand at . turn the drag other side up. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. Place another cover board on top. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. as it is much easier to learn by observation. The sand is then ready for molding. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. In finishing the ramming. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. in order to remove the lumps. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. where they can watch the molders at work. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. as described. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. and thus judge for himself. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. as shown at E. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. and scatter about 1/16 in. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. or "cope.

Place a brick or other flat. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. as shown at J. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. and then pour. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. deep. After drawing the pattern. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. as shown at H. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. Fig.E should be covered with coal-dust. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. as shown at G. thus making a dirty casting. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. III. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening." or pouring-hole. as shown in the sketch. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. as shown at F. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. wide and about 1/4 in. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. . it shows that the sand is too wet. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. made out of steel rod. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. in order to prevent overheating. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. to give the air a chance to escape. after being poured. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. place the cope back on the drag. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. as shown at H. is next cut. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. in diameter. thus holding the crucible securely. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. The "sprue. This is done with a spoon.

but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. white metal and other scrap available. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. If a good furnace is available. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. is very desirable. used only for zinc. Although the effect in the illustration . Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. Referring to the figure. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. --Contributed by Harold S. the following device will be found most convenient. babbitt. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. or from any adjacent pair of cells. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. may be used in either direction. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. and. battery zincs. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. In my own case I used four batteries. and the casting is then ready for finishing. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. but any reasonable number may be used. although somewhat expensive. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. 15% lead. Morton. Minneapolis. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling.

Chicago. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. as shown in the illustration. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. which will be sufficient to hold it. B. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. connected by cords to the rudder. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. Put a sharp needle point. shaft made. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. Then walk down among the audience. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. Then replace the table. backward. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. To make it take a sheet-iron band. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. The brass rings also appear distorted. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. --Contributed by Draughtsman. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. A. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . may be made of hardwood. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. By replacing the oars with paddles. outward. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. 3/4 in. If desired. The bearings. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. as shown at A. Make one of these pieces for each arm. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. B. 2. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. Fig.

This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. Snow. The covers. D. spoiling its appearance. 3. The hubs. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. W. or the paint will come off. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. C. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. when it will again return to its original state. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. should be made of wood. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. If galvanized iron is used. as shown in Fig. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. 1. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. but when in motion. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. being simply finely divided ice. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. A. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. 1. 1. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. E. 2. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. and a weight. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. It may seem strange that ice . The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. as shown in Fig. If babbitt is used. A block of ice. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow.melted babbitt. In the same way. 2 and 3. or under pressure. Fig. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards.

by 5 in. as shown on page 65. but by placing it between books. Pa. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. whenever there is any connection made at all. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. by 2 in. B. which resembles ice in this respect. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. it will gradually change from the original shape A. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. as per sketch. in. thus giving a high resistance contact. by 1/2 in. Lane.. brass. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. or supporting it in some similar way. Crafton. no matter how slow the motion may be. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. by 1/4. The rate of flow is often very slow.should flow like water. but. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. square. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. P. Pressing either push button. --Contributed by Gordon T. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. and assume the shape shown at B. sometimes only one or two feet a day.

B. as shown.000 ft. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. about the size used for automobiles. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. H. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. --Contributed by A. Indianapolis. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. the battery. F. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. G. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time.thumb screws. as shown. K . and C. draft. horizontal lever. furnace. The parts are: A. A is the circuit breaker. D. wooden supports. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. C. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. cord. and five dry batteries. the induction coil. draft chain. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. Pa. alarm clock. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. Ward. B. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. J. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. I. The success depends upon a slow current. G. In the wiring diagram. E. vertical lever. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. weight. pulleys. Wilkinsburg.

The frame (Fig. 2 are dressed to the right angle. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. material framed together as shown in Fig. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. such as used for a storm window. will fit nicely in them. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. Artistic Window Boxes The top. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. which will provide a fine place for the plants. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. as well as the bottom. Kalamazoo. 3. where house plants are kept in the home. Mich.

which sells for 25 cents. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. for some time very satisfactorily. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. but maintain the voltage constant.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. 1 each complete with base. in this connection. by connecting them in series. N. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. A certain number of these. and will give the . it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. and the instrument will then be complete. --Contributed by Wm. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. as if drawn upon for its total output. one can regulate the batteries as required. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series.. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. so as to increase the current. Halifax. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. can be connected up in series. Push the needle into the cork. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. is something that will interest the average American boy. 1. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. i. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. after a rest. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. This is more economical than dry cells. The 1/2-cp. multiples of series of three. a cork and a needle. in any system of lamps.. this must be done with very great caution. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. S. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. Canada. and cost 27 cents FIG. in diameter. Thus. It must be remembered. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. where they are glad to have them taken away. as indicated by Fig. However. Grant. However. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. and a suitable source of power.. W. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. 1 cp. since a battery is the most popular source of power. e. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel.

lamps. each. according to the water pressure obtainable. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. and diffused light in a room. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. making. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. However. and then lead No. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. to secure light by this method. Fig. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. where the water pressure is the greatest. 3. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. double insulated wire wherever needed. . and for Christmas trees. These will give 3 cp. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. Thus. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. In conclusion. Thus. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. or 22 lights. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. although the first cost is greater. 11 series. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. 1-cp. as in Fig. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. 2 shows the scheme.proper voltage. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. generates the power for the lights. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. we simply turn on the water.. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. Chicago. If wound for 10 volts. for display of show cases. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. 18 B & S. which is the same as that of one battery. especially those of low internal resistance. FIG. So. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. if wound for 6 volts. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. lamps. lamp. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and running the series in parallel. by the proper combination of these. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage.

--Contributed by F. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. A. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. Emig. and C. switch. DD. simply change the switch.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. Cal. outside points of switch. AA. a bait of meat. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. Santa Clara. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. BB. Ind. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. B. or a tempting bone. the letters indicate as follows: FF. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. we were not bothered with them. A indicates the ground. thus reversing the machine. and the sides. center points of switch. bars of pole-changing switch. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. as shown in the sketch. After I connected up my induction coil. Parker. CC. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. --Contributed by Leonard E. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. Plymouth. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. brushes of motor. field of motor. are cut just alike. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. or from one pattern. . To reverse the motor. B.

If it is not. as it is the key to the lock. Melchior.. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. a piece of string. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. merely push the button E. thus locking the door. The button can be hidden. Fry. W. To unlock the door.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. one cell being sufficient. A. which is in the door. attached to the end of the armature B. When the circuit is broken a weight. or would remain locked. and a table or bench. San Jose. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. The experiment works best . the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. Minn. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. -Contributed by Claude B. Cal. 903 Vine St. a hammer. Hutchinson.

and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. Brockville. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. -. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. as shown in Fig. attached at the other end. 1). When the alarm rings in the early morning. --Contributed by Geo. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. Schmidt. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Madison. I. releasing the weight. Culebra. Crawford Curry. Wis. D. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig.. C. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. Ontario. . A. 18 Gorham St. the current flows with the small arrows. which pulls the draft open. Tie the ends of the string together. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. the stick falls away. the key turns. P. Canada. --Contributed by Edward Whitney.Contributed by F. W. 3.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. 2. On another block of wood fasten two wires. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. where it will remain suspended as shown. 4). Porto Rico. run through a pulley. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. in the ceiling and has a window weight. 3. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. forming a loop.

N. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. which fasten to the horn. and the other to the battery. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. J. thence to a switch. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. thick. R. S. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. Connect two wires to the transmitter. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. or tree. running one direct to the receiver. The cut shows the arrangement.. and . and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. 6 in. --Contributed by Wm.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. or from a bed of flowers. and break the corners off to make them round. including the mouthpiece. square and 1 in. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. D. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. First. Jr. Farley. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. J. made with his own hands. Camden. and then to the receiver. Use a barrel to work on. get two pieces of plate glass. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush.

Then take a little of the coarsest powder. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. or it will not polish evenly. and a large lamp. so the light . the coarse grinding must be continued. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. Fig. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. L. twice the focal length away. set the speculum against the wall. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. a round 4-in. while walking around the barrel. 2. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. wide around the convex glass or tool. then take 2 lb. unless a longer focal length is wanted. When polishing the speculum. Fig. wet till soft like paint. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. melt 1 lb.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. When dry. Use a binger to spread it on with. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. using straight strokes 2 in. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. with 1/4-in. When done the glass should be semitransparent. in length. with pitch. Fasten. also rotate the glass. spaces. 2. 1. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. and the under glass or tool convex.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. and spread on the glass. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. then 8 minutes. Have ready six large dishes. In a dark room. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. or less. and is ready for polishing. A. wetting it to the consistency of cream. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. and label. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. by the side of the lamp. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled.. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. as in Fig. of water.. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. Then warm and press again with the speculum. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds.

large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. as in K. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. that was set aside.. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. The knife should not be more than 6 in. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use.……………. With pitch. 4 oz. 4 oz. face down. Two glass or earthenware dishes. Place the speculum S..……………………………….……………………………. Now add enough of the solution A. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. 39 gr. and pour the rest into the empty dish. the speculum will show some dark rings. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. with distilled water.. Fig... deep. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. if a hill in the center. Fig.. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. Then add 1 oz. If not. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. also how the rays R from a star . Nitric acid . must be procured.. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. Fig. 25 gr. 2. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. from the lamp. long to the back of the speculum.100 gr. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade.. the speculum is ready to be silvered. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. 840 gr. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. fill the dish with distilled water. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. Place the speculum. 2. touched with rouge. When the focus is found. Solution D: Sugar loaf . Alcohol (Pure) ……………. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. then ammonia until bath is clear.. cement a strip of board 8 in. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. 100 gr. or hills. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. longer strokes. The polishing and testing done. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. When dry.. Then add solution B. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). Silver nitrate …………………………….

John E. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. Mellish. Make the tube I of sheet iron. is a satisfactory angle. The flatter they are the less they will distort. long and cost me just $15. slightly wider than the lens mount. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. using strawboard and black paper. deg. Then I made the one described. and proceed as for any picture. which proves to be easy of execution. two glass prisms. with an outlay of only a few dollars. Place over lens. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. My telescope is 64 in. Thus an excellent 6-in. cover with paper and cloth.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. telescope can be made at home. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. About 20. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration.. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. . then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. stop down well after focusing.

says the Master Painter. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. D. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. instead of the contrary. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. The rays of the clear. B. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. as shown in Fig. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. -Contributed by A. Ill. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. Do not stir it. To unlock. through the lens of the camera and on the board. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. add the plaster gradually to the water. complete the arrangement. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. 2. The paper is exposed. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. push the button D. A. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. or powdered alum. 1. unobstructed light strike the mirror. but will not preserve its hardening. Fig. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. Boody. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. . Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. then add a little sulphate of potash. and reflect through the negative. Zimmerman.

Then blow through the spool. also provide them with a handle. so that it can rotate about these points. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. To reverse. but will remain suspended without any visible support. 2. Fig. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. Fasten on the switch lever. as shown in the sketch. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. as in Fig. throw . 1). I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. as at A and B. 3. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. 2. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. use a string.

Go McVicker. . San Antonio. Neb. the armature. wash in running water. rinse in alcohol. San Marcos. --Contributed by R. L. In the sketch. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. carbon sockets. and rub dry with linen cloth. Push one end of the tire into the hole. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. Levy. binding posts.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. Take out. and E E. -Contributed by Morris L. North Bend. as shown in the sketch. D. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Tex. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. --Contributed by Geo. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. A is the electricbell magnet. carbons. although this is not necessary. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Thomas. C C. Tex. B. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light.

By means of two or more layers of No. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. 16 magnet wire. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. 36 magnet wire. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. --Contributed by Joseph B. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. wound evenly about this core. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Bell. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. Brooklyn. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. long or more. 14 or No.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch.

The condenser is next wrapped . 2 yd. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. 1. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. long and 2-5/8 in. Beginning half an inch from one end. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. No. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. 4. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. and the results are often unsatisfactory. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. After the core wires are bundled. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. about 6 in. a box like that shown in Fig. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. one piece of the paper is laid down. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. with room also for a small condenser. or 8 in. in length. wide. hole is bored in the center of one end. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. as the maker prefers. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. diameter. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. The following method of completing a 1-in. In shaping the condenser.which would be better to buy ready-made. making two layers. When cut and laid in one continuous length. The primary is made of fine annealed No. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. which is an important factor of the coil. then the strip of tin-foil. and finally the fourth strip of paper. at a time. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. coil illustrates the general details of the work. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. but if it is not convenient to do this work. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. long and 5 in. in diameter. the entire core may be purchased readymade. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. This makes a condenser which may be folded. which is desirable. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. A 7/8-in. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. as shown in Fig.

V-shaped copper strip. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. to the door. which allows wiring at the back. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. B. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. forms the other pole or terminal. the letters indicate as follows: A. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. switch. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact.securely with bands of paper or tape. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. B. 4 in. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. flange turned on one side.. shelf for clock. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. I. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. spark. and the other sheet. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. open switch C. shows how the connections are made. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. Fig. round so that the inside . which is insulated from the first. long to key. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. one from bell. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. 3. long and 12 in. battery .) The wiring diagram. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. D. G. F. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. by 12 in. lines H. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. ready for assembling. go. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. C. bell. whole length. copper lever with 1-in. E. A. and one from battery. The alarm key will turn and drop down. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. wide. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation.

If desired for use immediately. from the bottom. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. says the Model Engineer. and the battery is ready for use. and then rivet the seam. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. 2 in. London. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. do not shortcircuit. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Use a glass or metal shade. Line the furnace. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. but with the circuit. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. . A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. instead of close to it. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. of zinc sulphate. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. Short-circuit for three hours.diameter is 7 in. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. but add 5 or 6 oz. of blue stone. This is for blowing. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole.. That is what they are for. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. The circuit should also have a high resistance. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing.

About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. 2. At least it is amusing. and then. oxygen to ozone. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. This type of battery will give about 0. 1. as in the other movement. If too low. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. thus producing two different vibrations. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. and therein is the trick. If any or your audience presume to dispute. but the thing would not move at all. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. Outside of the scientific side involved. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath.. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. Ohio. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. while for others it will not revolve at all. g. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. the second finger along the side. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. grip the stick firmly in one hand. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. or think they can do the same let them try it.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. Enlarge the hole slightly. To operate the trick.9 of a volt. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. long. changes white phosphorus to yellow. porcelain and paper. below the bottom of the zinc. square and about 9 in. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time." which created much merriment. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. Try it and see. imparting to them a violet tinge. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. for others the opposite way. affects . and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. herein I describe a much better trick. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. for some it will turn one way.

there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. chemicals. and one of them is photomicrography. but this is less satisfactory. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. but small flowers. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. a short-focus lens. if possible. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. To the front board is attached a box. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. earth. says the Photographic Times. an old tripod screw. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. and. but not essential. a means for holding it vertical. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. insects. however.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined.

Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 65 4 lb. 697 44 lb. in diameter. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 8 ft. in Cu. Mass. 7 ft. 905 57 lb. while it is not so with the quill. 179 11 lb. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. 7-1/2 in. and a line. 381 24 lb. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 7-1/2 in. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. Divide one-quarter of the circle . A line. Fig. long and 3 ft. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. wide from which to cut a pattern. 5 in. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. Boston. The following table will give the size. 1. or 31 ft. Ft Lifting Power. 113 7 lb. 12 ft. 11 ft. balloon. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. or 3 ft.--Contributed by George C. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 5 ft. Cap. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 10 ft 523 33 lb. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. If the balloon is 10 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. Madison. 9 ft. which is 15 ft. 6 ft. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 268 17 lb. CD. AB. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E.

A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. cutting all four quarters at the same time. on the curved line from B to C. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. of the very best heavy body. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. 3.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. and so on. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. 2. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. of beeswax and boil well together. 4. 70 thread. The cloth segments are sewed together. using a fine needle and No. Procure 1 gal. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. The pattern is now cut. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. The amounts necessary for a 10- . When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. This test will show if the bag is airtight. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. keeping the marked part on the outside. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. Repeat this operation four times. making a double seam as shown in Fig.

Water 1 oz. capacity and connect them. All FIG. B.ft. which may sound rather absurd. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. A. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. but if any grease remains on the hand. In the barrel. or dusting with a dry brush. The outlet. 1 lb. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. . in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. with the iron borings. B. of water will make 4 cu. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. B. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. 150 gr. leaving the hand quite clean. should not enter into the water over 8 in.Green Iron ammonium citrate . Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. About 15 lb. with 3/4in. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. of gas in one hour. a clean white rag. After washing a part. of sulphuric acid. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. of iron. ]. When the clock has dried. pipe. using a fine brush. 1 lb. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. as shown in Fig. oil the spindle holes carefully. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. ft. it is not fit to use. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. . until no more dirt is seen. 5. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. A. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. by fixing. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. or a fan. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. Fill the other barrel. of iron borings and 125 lb. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. C. Vegetable oils should never be used. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. The 3/4-in. if it is good it will dry off. A. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. to the bag. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed.. C. balloon are 125 lb. this should be repeated frequently. 5 .The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. with water 2 in. above the level of the water in barrel A.

and a vigorous negative must be used. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. keeping the fingers out of the solution. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. The miniature 16 cp. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. or carbon. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. A cold. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. toning first if desired. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. Port Melbourne. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. and keep in the dark until used. The negative pole.. or battery. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Dry the plates in the dark. Printing is done in the sun. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Dry in the dark. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. says the Moving Picture World. dry atmosphere will give best results.Water 1 oz. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. of any make. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E.000 ft. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. A longer exposure will be necessary. or zinc. 20 to 30 minutes. . to avoid blackened skin. This aerial collector can be made in . Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. fix in hypo. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. at the time of employment. The positive pole. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Exposure. .

long. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. If the wave ceases. both positive and negative. in diameter. lay a needle. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. forming a cup of the pipe. and as less current will flow the short way. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. and have the other connected with another aerial line. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. the resistance is less. This will complete the receiving station. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. lead pipe. as described below. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. when left exposed to the air. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. The storage cell. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. As the telephone offers a high resistance. a positive and a negative. making a ground with one wire. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. 5 in. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. will soon become dry and useless. If the waves strike across the needle. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. holes .various ways.

or tube C. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. D. This support or block. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. on each end. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . When mixing the acid and water. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. except for about 1 in. or tube B. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. an oblong one and a triangular one. and the other to the negative. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. Two binding-posts should be attached. a round one.as possible. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. B. of course. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. This. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. says the Pathfinder. by soldering the joint. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. The other plate is connected to the zinc. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. This box can be square. namely: a square hole. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. one to the positive. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. does not need to be watertight.

back and under.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. 3. and has plenty of good seating capacity. all around the edge. long. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. were fitted by this one plug. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. 2. 1. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. as it is not readily overturned. as shown in Fig. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. about 20 in. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. and match them together. wide. thick cut two pieces alike. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. as shown in Fig. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. Chicago. deep and 4 ft. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. 1. A and B. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. Only galvanized nails should be used. leaving about 1/16 in. in place on the wood. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. is built 15 ft. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. This punt. . The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. wide. 2. C. C. Ill. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. The third piece of brass.

Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. A piece of 1/4-in. is cut 1 in. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. gas pipe. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. square (Fig 2). The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . thick and 3-1/2 in. A. In Fig. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Tacoma. Wash. long and fitted with a thumbscrew.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. B. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in.

but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . or "rotor. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. without auxiliary phase. and to consume. which can be developed in the usual manner. H. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. says the Model Engineer. lamp. no more current than a 16-cp.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. In designing.--Contributed by Charles H. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. The winding of the armature. it had to be borne in mind that. if possible. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. which the writer has made. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. no special materials could be obtained." has no connection with the outside circuit. with the exception of insulated wire. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. Wagner. may be of interest to some of our readers.

It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. 4. and all sparking is avoided. 2. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. or "stator. no steel being obtainable. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. with the dotted line. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. thick. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. being used. about 2-1/2 lb. 5. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. bolts put in and tightened up. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints.the field-magnet. this little machine is not self-starting. as shown in Fig. holes. as shown in Fig. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. 3. B. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. wrought iron. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. 1. in diameter were drilled in the corners. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. while the beginnings . After assembling a second time. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. C. Unfortunately. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. to be filed out after they are placed together. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. were then drilled and 1/4-in. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. The stator is wound full with No. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. They are not particularly accurate as it is. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. Holes 5-32 in. and filled with rivets. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. A. also varnished before they were put in. and is shown with dimensions in Fig.

This type of motor has drawbacks. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. and as each layer of wire was wound. If too late for alcohol to be of use. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. and especially of colored ones. and the other by reduction in the camera. having no commutator or brushes. as before stated. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. if applied immediately.. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. One is by contact. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. Newark. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. E. N. No starting resistance is needed. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. as shown in Fig. and would not easily get out of order. The image should . In making slides by contact. The lantern slide is a glass plate. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. 1. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. The rotor is wound with No. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. it would be very simple to build. and as the motor runs at constant speed. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. J. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. as a means of illustrating songs. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. film to film. Jr. 2. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. McKinney. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. 3-Contributed by C. and all wound in the same direction. a regulating resistance is not needed.

as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. the formulas being found in each package of plates. D. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. 5. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. A. 2. 1. 4. C. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. 3. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. and development should be over in three or four minutes. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. If the exposure has been correct. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. Being unbreakable. they are much used by travelers. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. It is best. a little extra work will be necessary. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. These can be purchased from any photo material store. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. about a minute. B. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. Draw lines with a pencil. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. to use a plain fixing bath. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. if possible. over the mat. and then a plain glass.appear in. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. Fig. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. also. except that the binding is different. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. Select a room with one window.

The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. Hastings. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. 1. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. is to be used for the seat. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. long. Vt. wide and 50 in. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. 16 in. from the end piece of the chair.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. 2. as shown at A. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. A piece of canvas. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. These longer pieces can be made square. If the star is in front of the left eye. long. as shown at B. Fig. in diameter and 40 in. known as rods and cones. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. or other stout cloth. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. from the ends. as shown in Fig. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. long. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. holes bored in the end pieces. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. while the dot will be in front of the other. from the center of this dot draw a star. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. in diameter and 20 in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. Fig. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. Corinth. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. 1.

1. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. O'Gara. A disk 1 in. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. J.-Contributed by P. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. as shown in Fig. Cal.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. Auburn. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. in thickness and 10 in. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. 2. per square inch. made from an ordinary sash cord. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. . They will be found to be exactly the same distance. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. as well as to operate other household machines. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. as shown in Fig. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. A belt. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb.

and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. says the Scientific American. thick and 2-1/2 in. with as fine a thread as possible. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. Cut out a piece from the block combination. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. divided by the number of threads to the inch. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. will be the thickness of the object. Bore a 1/4-in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. then removing the object. 3/4 in. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. it serves a very useful purpose. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. or inconvenient to measure. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. leaving it shaped like a bench. screwing it through the nut. and the construction is complete. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. long. A simple. square for a support. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. The part of a rotation of the bolt. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. . long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. wide. direction. to the top of the bench. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. Put the bolt in the hole. fairly accurate. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer.

yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. which show up fine at night. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. piece of wood 12 ft. bolt in each hole. long is used for the center pole.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Place a 3/4-in. material 12 ft. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. beyond the end of the wood. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Oal. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. The wheel should be open . Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. globe that has been thrown away as useless. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Bore a 3/4-in. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. long. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Santa Maria.

is soldered. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. P. The boards may be nailed or bolted. Tex. H and J. 1/2 in. to be operated by the magnet coil. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted.-Contributed by A. C. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. long. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. at the top and 4 in. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. wide and 1/8 in. The coil. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. pieces used for the spokes. C. at the bottom. thick is used for the armature. thick. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing.Side and Top View or have spokes. square and 3 or 4 in. of the ends with boards. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. from the top end. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. made of the same material. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. Fort Worth. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. in diameter. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. B. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. and the lower part 61/2 in. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. which should be 1/4 in. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. long. The spool . long. from the ends. O. A. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. thick. A cross bar. L. wide and 1/8 in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. Graham. A piece of brass 2 in. and on its lower end a socket. long.

--A. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. making a hole just a little larger than the rod.000 for irrigation work. This is a very neat trick if performed right. At the bottom end of the frame. Randolph. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. . that holds the lower carbon. which is also connected to the brass ferrule.000. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. C. R. 1. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. --Contributed by Arthur D.E. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. for insulating the brass ferrule. When you slide the pencil along the casing. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. then with a firm. 2 the hat hanging on it. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. S. A. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. This tie can be used on grain sacks. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection.is about 2-1/2 in.J. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. by soldering. The armature. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. do it without any apparent effort. or a water rheostat heretofore described. long. is drilled. and place it against a door or window casing. Mass. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. B. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. D and E. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. 2. Bradlev. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. one without either rubber or metal end. which may be had by using German silver wire. A soft piece of iron. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. and directly centering the holes H and J. S. and in numerous other like instances. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. F.

in diameter. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. about 1/8 in. S. The vibrator. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. wide. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. Fig. for the secondary. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. is constructed in the usual manner. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. 1. D. mixed with water to form a paste.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. and then 1. may be made from a 3/8-in. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. A. with a 3/16-in. from the core and directly opposite. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. in diameter. is connected to a flash lamp battery. long and 1 in. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. About 70 turns of No. 2. hole in the center. long. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. Fig. The switch. The vibrator B.500 turns of No. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. for adjustment. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. in diameter and 2 in. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. C. F. B. in diameter and 1/16 in. The coil ends are made from cardboard. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. for the primary. about 3/16 in. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. The core of the coil. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. Experiment with Heat [134] . about 1 in. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. 1. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. leaving the projections as shown. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. S. thick. so the coils of wire will hold them in place.

board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. wide. The tin is 4 in. The hasp. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. which seemed to be insufficient. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. as shown. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. which is cut with two holes. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. long and when placed over the board. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. lighted. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. The lock. thick on the inside. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. and the same distance inside of the new board. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. it laps down about 8 in.Place a small piece of paper. . A leather shield may be used for this purpose. 2 to fit the two holes. brass plate. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. and then well clinched. The knob on the dial extends out too far. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. 1. which is only 3/8-in. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. board. as shown in the sketch. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. in an ordinary water glass. 1. with which to operate the dial. 16 in. The three screws were then put in the hasp. was to be secured by only three brass screws. Fig. between the boards.

not shiny. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. but when the front part is illuminated. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. black color. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. any article placed therein will be reflected in. square and 8-1/2 in. one in each division. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. high for use in window displays. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. When the rear part is illuminated. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. When making of wood. clear glass as shown. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. square and 10-1/2 in. and the back left dark. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. If the box is made large enough. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. the glass. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. which completely divides the box into two parts. or in the larger size mentioned.

as shown in the sketch. alternately. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. into the other. . as shown at A in the sketch. When using as a window display. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. as it appears. and with the proper illumination one is changed.. long and 1 ft. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. a tank 2 ft. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. above the top of the tank. wide will be about the right size. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. When there is no electric current available. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

and boring two holes with a 1-in. Iron sulphate. radius. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. but with a length of 12 in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. hole. O. wide. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. under sides together. however. each. 2 ft. 1 in. as shown. Three windows are provided. If a planing mill is near. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. bore from each end. This precipitate is then washed. long. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. is built on the front. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. The 13-in. 5 ft. with a length of 13 in. lines gauged on each side of each. square. and a solution of iron sulphate added. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. A small platform. 6 in. This hole must be continued . is the green vitriol. hole bored the full length through the center. Shape the under sides first. bit. and a door in front. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. square and 40 in. then use a red-hot iron to finish. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. one for each side. The pieces can then be taken out. Columbus. or ferrous sulphate. thick and 3 in. from the ground. long. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. using a 3/4-in. wide. two pieces 1-1/8 in. and 6 ft. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. gauge for depth. dried and mixed with linseed oil. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. high.

Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. square and drawing a diagonal on each. A better way. If the parts are to be riveted. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. apply two coats of wax. hole in each block. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Electric globes--two. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. three or four may be attached as shown. When the filler has hardened. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap.through the pieces forming the base. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Saw the two blocks apart. The sketch shows one method of attaching. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. Directions will be found on the filler cans. For art-glass the metal panels are . When this is dry. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. if shade is purchased. thick and 3 in." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal.

as brass. METAL SHADE . the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.The Completed Lamp cut out.Construction of Shade . such as copper.

as shown in the sketch. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. as in ordinary devices. the object and the background. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. and Fig. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. The arms holding the glass. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. the other. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. 2 the front view of this stand. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. Figure 1 shows the side. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. one way and 1/2 in. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube.

Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. long. An ordinary pocket compass. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. thick 5/8-in. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. wide and 6-5/16 in. Put the ring in place on the base. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. as it is very poisonous. Before mounting the ring on the base. and swinging freely. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. wide and 11 in. thus forming a 1/4-in. as shown in the sketch. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. If the light becomes dim. in diameter. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. as shown in the cut. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. about 1-1/4 in. outside diameter. Cut another circular piece 11 in. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. uncork and recork again. channel in the circumference of the ring. and an inside diameter of 9 in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. in diameter for a base. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. pointing north and south.

and north of the Ohio river. black oxide of copper. CC. are mounted on a base. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in.182 . An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. B. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. in diameter and 8 in. of the top.500 . to which a wire has been soldered for connections. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago.865 1. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. from the second to the third. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. EE.289 . Corresponding mirrors.600 . and mirrors.715 .088 . from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.420 .cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. AA. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. 1 oz.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. The results given should be multiplied by 1. above the half can. into these cylinders.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. Place on top the so- .

Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. then they will not rust fast. -Contributed by Robert Canfield.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. When renewing. of pulverized campor. University Park. In Fig. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. Colo. always remove the oil with a siphon. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. little crystals forming in the liquid. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. slender bottle. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. the wheel will revolve in one direction. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. Put the solution in a long. says Metal Worker. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. alcohol. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. which otherwise remains clear. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. 31 gr. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. 62 gr.

The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. A paper-fastener box. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. --Contributed by C. Lloyd Enos. Solder in the side of the box . floating on a solution. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. Attach to the wires. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. This is used in place of the spoon.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. If zinc and carbon are used. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. If zinc and copper are used. If two of them are floating on the same solution. about 1-1/4 in. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. on the under side of the cork. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. will allow the magnet to point north and south. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork.

1/2. The standard. of No. 1. long. To this standard solder the supporting wire. and on the other around the glass tube. thick. C. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. wide and 6 in. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in.in.Contributed by J.not shorter than 18 in. away. A. 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. to it. Use a board 1/2. If the hose is not a tight fit. A circular piece of cardboard. 14 wire will do. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. E. and then solder on the cover. long that has about 1/4-in. H. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . . B. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. brass tubing. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. The bottom of the box. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. F. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. glass tubing . The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. C. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. E. D. D. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. Put ends. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. 10 wire about 10 in.in. Take a small piece of soft iron. D. Bore holes for binding-posts. stained and varnished. long. B. Thos. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. as shown in Fig. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. is made from a piece of No. The spring should be about 1 in. one on each side of the board. Rhamstine. and connect the two wires from the coil to them.1-in. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. hole. The base. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. can be made of oak. Wind evenly about 2 oz. or made with a little black paint. C. G--No. piece of 1/4-in. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. A. of wire on each end extending from the coil. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. 3 in. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire.

Smith. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. four hinges. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. E. long. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. Wis. long. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. of No. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. is drawn nearer to the coil. 2. 1. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. Teasdale. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. Milwaukee. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested.--Contributed by R. . making a support as shown in Fig. long. two pieces 2 ft. in diameter. Cuba. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. D. of mercury will be sufficient. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. 3-in. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. J. N. When the glass becomes soft.of the coil. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig.--Contributed by Edward M. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. as shown in Fig. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. long. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. About 1-1/2 lb. 5. about 1 in. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long are used for the legs. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. The iron plunger. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. from the right hand. 3. 3 in. Y. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. of 8-oz. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. canvas. long.

from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. Break off the piece of glass. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. 6. Can. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. 3. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. Toronto. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. Keys. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. 5. long. This tube as described will be 8 in.. thus leaving a. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. --Contributed by David A. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. expelling all the air. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. Fig. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. holding in the left hand. The tube now must be filled completely. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. small aperture in the long tube. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. of vacuum at the top. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. leaving 8 in. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. 2.. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. Take 1/2 in. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Measure 8 in. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. 4.

6. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . Fig. as in Fig. joint be accurately put together. wide and 5 ft. wide and 5 ft. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. wide and 12 in. 1 in. 3 in. 1 in. as shown in Fig. 4 in. The large pulley is about 14 in. and 1/4 in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. FIG. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in.6 -. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. but yellow pine is the best. Four blocks 1/4 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. long. thick. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. 7. long. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. long.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. These are bent and nailed. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. 9 in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. cut in the shape shown in Fig. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. This forms a slot. with each projection 3-in. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. wide and 5 ft. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. 4. wood screws. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. in diameter. as shown in Fig. 1. 3. material 2 in. 3 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. thick. from the end of same. thick. wide and 3 in. 2. A crosspiece 3/4-in. thick. 5. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. thick. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. long.

first removing the crank. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Kan. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. says Photography. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. Welsh. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. by 1-in. R. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. above the runner level. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. . --Contributed by C. Water 1 oz. Manhattan. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. attach runners and use it on the ice. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch.

of water. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. Treasdale. The print is washed. --Contributed by Wallace C. and very much cheaper. 3.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. 2. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. This is done with a camel's hair brush. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. 1. also. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. --Contributed by Edward M. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. Printing is carried rather far. Leominster. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 1 oz. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. . How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. from an ordinary clamp skate. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. Mass. Newton. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat.

Fig. from one end. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. square piece. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. F. Alexandria. 1 ft. 1. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. long. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. 1. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. A. 2.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. as shown in the sketch. Place a 10-in. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. The thread is broken off at the . board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. Then. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. --Contributed by H. fasten a 2-in. which represents the back side of the door. and to the bottom. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. The swing door B. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. Church. Va. about 10 in. causing the door to swing back and up. extending the width of the box. with about 1/8-in. hole. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. Take two glass tubes. too. high for rabbits. 1-1/2 ft. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. wide. and bend them as shown in the sketch. and 3 ft. high. wide and 4 in. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. Fig. say.

one in each end and exactly opposite each other. 1. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. wide and 5 in. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. 2. 1 in. black surfaced if possible. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. B. Fig.. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. camera and wish to use some 4. shorter at each end. plates. long. A and B. wide. This opening. and go in the holder in the same way. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. say 8 in. Take two pieces of pasteboard. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. horses and dogs. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. Jr. and exactly 5 by 7 in. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. D. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. Cut an opening in the other piece. from the edge on each side of these openings. being 1/8 in. 3.proper place to make a small hole. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. Paste a piece of strong black paper. says Camera Craft. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. trolley cars. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. shorter. automobiles. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. Out two rectangular holes. -Contributed by William M. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. Crilly. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. in size.by 7-in. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. C. Chicago. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. high and 12 in. Fig. wide. . to be used as a driving pulley. as shown in Fig. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. Cut a piece of thin black cloth.by 5-in. inside of the opening. but cut it 1/4 in. 10 in. in size. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. long.

A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. The needle will then point north and south. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2.. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. if it has previously been magnetized. making a . Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. A cell of this kind can easily be made. into which the dog is harnessed. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon.in. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. wide will be required. in diameter. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. long and 6 in.

leaving about 1/2-in. one that will hold about 1 qt. A is a block of l-in. 1 lb. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb.watertight receptacle. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. under the spool in the paraffin. long which are copper plated. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. for a connection. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. Form a 1/2-in. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. B is a base of 1 in. . of water. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. of the top. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. pine. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. pull out the wire as needed.in. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. 1/4 lb. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. with narrow flanges. sal ammoniac. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. only the joints. when the paraffin is melted. filter. short time. fuel and packing purposes. This makes the wire smooth. of the plate at one end. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. in which P is the pan. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. Place the pan on the stove. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. of rosin and 2 oz. in diameter and 6 in. fodder. 3/4 lb. F is a spool. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. Do not paint any surface. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. File the rods to remove the copper plate. plaster of paris. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. and a notch between the base and the pan. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. zinc oxide. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. beeswax melted together. Pack the paste in. says Electrician and Mechanic.

g. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. for others the opposite way. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. but the thing would not move at all. long. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. while for others it will not revolve at all. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge.. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. and therein is the trick. grip the stick firmly in one hand. for some it will turn one way. as in the other movement. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. square and about 9 in. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. If any of your audience presume to dispute. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. and one friend tells me that they were . Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. the thumb and second finger changing places: e." which created much merriment. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. At least it is amusing. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. 2. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. Try it and see. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and then. Ohio. and he finally. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. thus producing two different vibrations. from vexation. or think they can do the same. let them try it. Enlarge the hole slightly. by the Hindoos in India. Toledo. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right.

and I think the results may be of interest. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. To operate. 4. rotation was obtained. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. A square stick with notches on edge is best. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. 6.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. 2. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. m. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. Thus a circular or . The experiments were as follows: 1. and. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. If the pressure was upon an edge. p. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. gave the best results. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. Speeds between 700 and 1. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed.100 r. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. by means of a center punch. the rotation may be obtained. 5. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. no rotation resulted. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. 7. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. 3. secondly. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion.

unwetted by the liquid. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. C. G.. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. it will be clockwise. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. Sloan.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown.D. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. --Contributed by M. Lloyd. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water.. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. Ph. the upper portion is. and the resultant "basket splash. A wire is tied around the can. Minn. A. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. is driven violently away. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. --Contributed by G. . at first. D. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. Duluth. and the height of the fall about 6 in." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. or greasy. forming a handle for carrying. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. so far as can be seen from the photographs. if the pressure is from the left. a piece of wire and a candle. Washington. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. as shown.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

as shown. hole drilled in the center. in diameter. with a 1/16-in. thick and 1 in. as shown in Fig. axle. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. 1. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. long. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. about 2-5/8 in. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. flange and a 1/4-in." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. Each wheel is 1/4 in.

wide and 16 in. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. or main part of the frame. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. as shown in Fig. The motor is now bolted. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. These ends are fastened together. The current. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. bottom side up. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. 3. of No. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. If the ends are to be soldered. --Contributed by Maurice E. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. 1 from 1/4-in. before doing so drill four 1/4-in.50. The parts. Fig. Fuller. put together complete. 2. as shown in Fig. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. each in its proper place. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. This will save buying a track. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . 3/4 in. Texas. Fig. 6. which must be 110 volt alternating current. with cardboard 3 in. lamp in series with the coil. 5. are shown in Fig. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. 3. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. holes 1 in. long.brass. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. 4. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. A trolley. is made from brass. 2. The first piece. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. is made from a piece of clock spring. and the locomotive is ready for running. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. San Antonio. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. wood. bent as shown.

Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. as shown in Fig. The quarter will not go all the way down. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. O. but do not heat the center. the length of a paper clip. 3. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Fig 1. and as this end . Cincinnati. 2. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. 1. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. then continue to tighten much more. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Fig. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. and holes drilled in them. as shown in Fig. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil.

The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. 2 and 1 respectively. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. A pair of centers are fitted. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. or should the lathe head be raised. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. has finished a cut for a tooth. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. or apparent security of the knot. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. In the sketch. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. When the cutter A. and adjusted . which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. When the trick is to be performed. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line.

--Contributed by Samuel C. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post.) Place the paper design on the leather and. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. In this manner gears 3 in. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. Bunker. coin purse. Fold over along these center lines. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. Second row: -Two book marks. or one-half of the design. An ordinary machine will do. swing lathe. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). tea cosey. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. (4. trace the outline. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . (2. (5. (1. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within).) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. Brooklyn. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. about 1-1/2 in. long. note book. 1. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. lady's belt bag. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. --Contributed by Howard S. gentleman's card case or bill book. The frame holding the mandrel. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. above the surface. dividing it into as many parts as desired. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. tea cosey. (6. if four parts are to be alike. blotter back. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. N. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. and a nut pick. holding it in place with the left hand. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. if but two parts. Y. watch fob ready for fastenings. draw center lines across the required space. at the same time striking light. Fig. Bott. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. lady's card case.) Make on paper the design wanted. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. such as brass or marble. twisted around itself and soldered.to run true. (3. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. book mark. When connecting to batteries. 2.

some heavy rubber hose.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle. Secure .

Thrust a pin. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. If the needle is not horizontal. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches.. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. into which fit a small piece of tube. from Key West. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. A.C. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. Florida. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. The electrodes are made . One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. and push it through a cork. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. and bore a hole through the center. a distance of 900 miles. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. D. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. where it condenses.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. B. C.

How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. All wiring is done with No. as shown in Fig. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. wide and 4 ft. wide and 20 ft. both laterally and longitudinally. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. as shown in Fig. thick. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. wide and 4 ft. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. 1. If 20-ft. C. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. use 10-ft. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. Four long beams 3/4 in. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. The operator can then land safely and . These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. long. long for the body of the operator. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. and also to keep it steady in its flight. 2. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. square and 8 ft long. 1. 2. slacken speed and settle. wide and 4 ft long. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig.in. lumber cannot be procured. which is tacked to the front edge. To make a glide. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. lengths and splice them. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. free from knots. 1. Washington. long. 2 arm sticks 1 in. --Contributed by Edwin L. 2 in. long. 1/2. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. 12 uprights 1/2 in. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. long. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. or flying-machine. long. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. take the glider to the top of a hill. thick. wide and 3 ft. 3. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. apart and extend 1 ft. 1-1/4 in. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. thick. Powell. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. wide and 3 ft. several strips 1/2 in. thick. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. D. Connect as shown in the illustration. 3/4 in. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. using a high resistance receiver. as shown in Fig. by 3/4 in.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. 1-1/2 in. 16 piano wire. thick. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs.

and the balancing is done by moving the legs. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Of course. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Glides are always made against the wind. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Great care should be . but this must be found by experience.gently on his feet.

Bellingham. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. which causes the dip in the line. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. When heated a little. as shown in Fig. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. 1. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips.exercised in making landings. 2. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. a creature of Greek mythology. M. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. --Contributed by L. half man and half horse. Olson. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place.

wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. While at the drug store get 3 ft. a piece of brass or steel wire. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. long. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. square. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. of small rubber tubing. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. long and about 3/8 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. about the size of stove pipe wire. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. will complete the material list. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. at the other. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. about the size of door screen wire. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. making it 2-1/2 in. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. in diameter. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. this will cost about 15 cents. 14 in. The light from the . the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. outside the box. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp.

M. 1. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. 2. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. as shown in the sketch. Hunting. If done properly the card will flyaway. O. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. while others will fail time after time. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. Dayton. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. This is very simple when you know how. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. . Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. --Photo by M.

closing both hands quickly." or the Chinese students' favorite game. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. hold the lump over the flame. then put it on the hatpin head.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. as described. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. place the other two. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. When the desired shape has been obtained. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. If a certain color is to be more prominent. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. This game is played by five persons. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. Cool in water and dry. as shown. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. as before.

Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. distribute electric charges .Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. these sectors. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. passing through neutralizing brushes. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. or more in width. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house.

material 7 in. 3/4 in. turned wood pieces. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. The plates are trued up. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. wide at one end. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. and the outer end 11/2 in. at the other. as shown in Fig. long and the standards 3 in. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. and 4 in. in diameter. D. and of a uniform thickness. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. in diameter. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. Fig. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. are made from 7/8-in. 1 in. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. 3. to which insulating handles . wide. free from wrinkles.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. The fork part is 6 in. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. the side pieces being 24 in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. 1. after they are mounted. are made from solid. RR. 1-1/2 in. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. The collectors are made. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. from about 1/4-in. brass tubing and the discharging rods. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. in diameter. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. The drive wheels. long. The two pieces. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. 2. in diameter and 15 in. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. These pins. and pins inserted and soldered. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. C C. Two pieces of 1-in. 3. 4. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. Fig. EE. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. long and the shank 4 in. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. long. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. or teeth. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. GG. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. in diameter. The plates. and this should be done before cutting the circle. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. in diameter. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. in diameter. Two solid glass rods. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in.

The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. Colorado City. long. wide and 22 ft. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. KK.are attached.. which are bent as shown. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. --Contributed by C. in diameter. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. and the work was done by themselves. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. ball and the other one 3/4 in. D. 12 ft. one having a 2-in. Colo. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. Lloyd Enos.

Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. as at A. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. pens . and bore a hole 1/2 in. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand.is a good one. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. deep. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. using a 1-in. string together. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. They can be used to keep pins and needles. yet such a thing can be done. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. The key will drop from the string. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. bit.

With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. Having determined the size of the tray. Inside this oblong. file. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. two spikes. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. slim screw. When the stamping is completed. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. and the third one 1/4 in. Proceed as follows: 1. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. also trace the decorative design. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. Draw one-half the design free hand. inside the second on all. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. 4. 8. flat and round-nosed pliers. sharp division between background and design. etc. Raise the ends. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. 9. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. stamp the background promiscuously. They are easily made. 23 gauge. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. above the work and striking it with the hammer. or cigar ashes. 3. 2.and pencils. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. inside the first on all. using a nail filed to chisel edge. 6. The second oblong was 3/4 in. 7. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. Use . above the metal. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. 5. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. This is to make a clean. very rapid progress can be made.. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. they make attractive little pieces to have about.. then the other side. etc. extra metal on each of the four sides. unless it would be the metal shears. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. about 3/4-in. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design.

and the effect will be most pleasing. 8. second fingers. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. 10. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. third fingers. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. 9. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. The eyes. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. and fourth fingers. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. In the first numbering. 6. 7. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. first fingers.

. 25 times 25. which tens are added. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. 600. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. above 15 times 15 it is 200. first fingers.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten.. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. 400. or numbers above 10. Put your thumbs together. but being simple it saves time and trouble. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. 12. In the second numbering. or the product of 8 times 9. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. or 60. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. At a glance you see four tens or 40. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. which would be 16. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. above 20 times 20. there are no fingers above. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. etc. etc. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. or the product of 6 times 6. 2 times 2 equals 4. thumbs. Two times one are two. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. renumber your fingers. and the six lower fingers as six tens. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. if we wish. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. as high as you want to go. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. Let us multiply 12 by 12. viz. etc. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. and 20 plus 16 equals 36.. Still. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. which would be 70. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100.. the product of 12 times 12. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. or 80. 11. At a glance you see seven tens or 70.

thumbs. For figures ending in 6. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. Take For example 18 times 18. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. 7. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. forties. the value of the upper fingers being 20.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. and so on. the value which the upper fingers have. thirties. first finger 17. 2. the upper fingers representing a value of 20.. being 80). were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. not rotation. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. . or from above or from below. twenties. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. For example. the inversion takes place against his will. Proceed as in the second lumbering. 3. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. the lump sum to add. about a vertical axis. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. It takes place also. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. etc. 21. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. however. when he removes his spectacles. The inversion and reversion did not take place. beginning the thumbs with 16. at the will of the observer. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. further. in the case of a nearsighted person. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. any two figures between 45 and 55. first fingers 22. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. 75 and 85. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. the revolution seems to reverse. 8. whether the one described in second or third numbering. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. which is the half-way point between the two fives. as one might suppose. And the lump sum to add. or what. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. adding 400 instead of 100. lastly. and. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200.

and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. sometimes the point towards him. Looking at it in semidarkness. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. when he knows which direction is right. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. tee. the other appearance asserts itself. as .Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The ports were not easy to make. and putting a cork on the point. A flat slide valve was used.

Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. Ill. in diameter. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. secure a piece of No. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. as in a vise. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. The tools are simple and can be made easily. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. Fasten the block solidly. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. across and 1/2 in. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. pipe. H. bottom side up. across the head. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. deep. and make in one end a hollow. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. if continued too long without proper treatment. saw off a section of a broom handle. The eccentric is constructed of washers. it is easily built. Kutscher. about 2 in. . about 3 by 3 by 6 in. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. inexpensive. The steam chest is round. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in.. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. -Contributed by W. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. pipe 10 in. Springfield. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. Beating copper tends to harden it and. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. such as is shown in the illustration. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. apart. Next take a block of wood. If nothing better is at hand. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. While this engine does not give much power.

cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. O. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. Camden. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. Hay. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. Vinegar. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . the other to the left. as it softens the metal. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border.will cause the metal to break. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. C. This process is called annealing. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. --Contributed by W. To produce color effects on copper. especially when the object is near to the observer. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. S. and. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. To overcome this hardness.

In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. however. that for the right. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. not two mounted side by side. disappears fully. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. from the stereograph. In order to make them appear before the card. in the proper choice of colors. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. So with the stereograph. because. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result.stereoscope. the left eye sees through a blue screen. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. the further from the card will the composite image appear. The red portions of the picture are not seen. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. . Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. and without any picture. orange. while both eyes together see a white background. although they pass through the screen. as for instance red and green. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. only the orange rays may pass through. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. it. It is just as though they were not there. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. But they seem black. and lies to the right on the picture. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. with the stereograph. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. the one for the left eye being blue. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. they must be a very trifle apart. would serve the same purpose. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. because of the rays coming from them. The further apart the pictures are. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. diameter.

the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. long and a hole drilled in each end. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. thick. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. wireless. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. This should only be bored about half way through the block. 1/4 in.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. 12 gauge wire. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. A No. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. in diameter. The weight of the air in round . wide and 1 in. Cal. or the middle of the bottle. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. in the shape of a crank. etc. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. Place a NO. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. San Francisco.

are marked off and divided into sixteenths. The 4 in. internal diameter and about 34 in. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. high. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. square. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. but before attempting to put in the mercury. wide and 40 in. square. or. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. thick. a bottle 1 in. high. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. a glass tube 1/8 in. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. long. the contrary. Before fastening the scale. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. 34 ft. In general. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. long. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. and a slow fall. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. the instrument. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow.numbers is 15 lb.6) 1 in. long. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. But if a standard barometer is not available. pine 3 in. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same.. will calibrate itself. Only redistilled mercury should be used. if you choose. wide and 4 in. if accurately constructed. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. high. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. or a column of mercury (density 13. 30 in. . Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. inside diameter and 2 in.

6 and 7. which is slipped quickly over the end. 5. and place them as shown in Fig. 3. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. Number the pieces 1. 1. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. thick. Procure a metal can cover. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. a cover from a baking powder can will do. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. Mark out seven 1-in. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. the size of the outside of the bottle. wide and 10 in. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. long. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. 2.

Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 6. 3 to the center. Move 7-Jump No. l over No. 7 over No. 2 over No. 5 over No. Move 9-Jump No.J. 2. 3 into No. Move 2-Jump No. Move 5-Jump No. shaped like Fig. Move 13-Move No. N. Move ll-Jump No. Move 6-Move No. 5. Move 3-Move No. in diameter. 5's place. 7 over No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 2's place. long and 2 ft. This can be done on a checker board. 3. 7. 1 to No. 3 over No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. each 10 ft. 6. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 1. 6 over No. 3. 2. 2 . After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 7's place. as shown in Fig. using checkers for men. Move 12-Jump No. 5 over No. Woolson. 3. 6 into No. Move 10-Move No. 2's place. Move 15-Move No. 6 to No. 1. Move 4-Jump No. Move 8-Jump No. 6 in. Make 22 sections.-Contributed by W. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 1 into No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 2 over No. To make such a tent. which is the very best material for the purpose. L. Move 14-Jump No. Cape May Point. 5's place. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. procure unbleached tent duck.

as in Fig..J. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. round galvanized iron. 5) stuck in the ground. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Fig. 6. 5. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. 3 in. 6-in. fill with canvas edging. 2 in. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. Pa. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. about 9 in. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. wide by 12 in. Tress. In raising the tent. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. to a smooth board of soft wood. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. Punch holes in the brass in . The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. --Contributed by G. After transferring the design to the brass. wide at the bottom. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. in diameter. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. 9 by 12 in. leaving the rest for an opening. long. Have the tent pole 3 in. These are ventilators. diameter. high. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. Emsworth. from the top. Fig. 2. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. will do.in. wide at the bottom. As shown in the sketch. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. added. made in two sections. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Use blocks. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. long and 4 in.

The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. When the edges are brought together by bending. It will not. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. but before punching the holes. . apart. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. cut out the brass on the outside lines. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. bend into shape. Corr. around the outside of the pattern.the spaces around the outlined figures. When all the holes are punched. excepting the 1/4-in. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. Chicago. The pattern is traced as before.

Sometimes the cream will accumulate. pipe is used for the hub. A cast-iron ring. or. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. allowing 2 ft. If a wheel is selected. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. better still. pipe. --Contributed by Geo. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. Oregon. Badger. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. Que. Mayger. or center on which the frame swings. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank.however. Dunham. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank.. These pipes are . a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. A 6-in. G. --Contributed by H. or less. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. E. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. Stevens. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. partially filled with cream. between which is placed the fruit jar. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in.

pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. bent to the desired circle. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. pipe. Four braces made from 1/2-in. pipe clamps. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . An extra wheel 18 in.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed.

The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. and dropped on the table. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. while doing this. 1. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. and the guide withdrawn. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. as shown in Fig. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. 3. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The performer. which was placed in an upright position. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated.

Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. --Contributed by H. Mo. St. Harkins. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. first. F. -Contributed by C. D. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. and second. White. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. it requires no expensive condensing lens. Denver. Louis. The box can be made of selected oak or . in diameter on another piece of tin. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. in a half circle. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Colo. 1. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. 2.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines.

If a camera lens is used. long. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. 1. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. AA. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. wide and 6-1/2 in. 2. wide. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. An open space 4 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. wide and 5 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. and 2 in. The door covering this hole in the back. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. Two strips of wood 1/2 in.mahogany. This will be 3/4 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. high and must . from each end. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. and. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. represented by the dotted line in Fig. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. fit into the runners. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. wide by 5 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. 5-1/2 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. long and should be placed vertically. but not tight. long. focal length. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. as shown in Fig. wide and 6-1/2 in. Two or three holes about 1 in. high and 11 in. 3-1/2 in. from each end of the outside of the box.

This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 1. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. the article may be propped up . and extending the whole height of the lantern. June and November.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. Bradley. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September." etc. provided it is airtight. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. West Toledo. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. then the second knuckle will be March. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. This process is rather a difficult one. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. calling that knuckle January. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached.. calling this February. --Contributed by Chas. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. C. Ohio. and so on. April. as it requires an airtight case. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown.

1 and 2. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. giving it an occasional stir. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. . The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. running small motors and lighting small lamps. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. Schenectady. fruit jars are required. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. 2. The top of a table will do. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. taking care to have all the edges closed. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. one of lead and one of aluminum. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. the lid or cover closed. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. In each place two electrodes. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. or suspended by a string. but waxed.with small sticks. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. and the lead 24 sq. H. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. 1. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. Y. in. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. Pour in a little turpentine. In both Fig. and set aside for half a day. N. Crawford. --Contributed by J. in.

as you have held it all the time. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. and take the handkerchief and unfold it.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine.. You have an understanding with some one in the company. which you warm with your hands. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. you remove the glass. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. he throws the other. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. He. After a few seconds' time. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. O. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. as well as others. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. This trick is very simple. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. Cleveland.

but by being careful at shores. in diameter in the center. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. near a partition or curtain. J. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. on a table.take the handiest one. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. Pull the ends quickly. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Be sure that this is the right one. but in making one. if any snags are encountered.-Contributed by E. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Crocker. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Victor. put it under the glass. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. . one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. Colo. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again.

8 in. screws and cleats. by 8 in. the smaller is placed 3 ft. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. clear pine. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. 50 ft. for the bow. The keelson. 4 outwales. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 1. apart. from the stern. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. by 12 in. for center deck braces. 8 yd. 1/8 in. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. 1 in. one 6 in. as illustrated in the engraving. Both ends are mortised.. wide unbleached muslin. from each end to 1 in. 14 rib bands. for the stern piece. are as follows: 1 keelson. from the bow and the large one. 2 and braced with an iron band. by 2 in. is 14 ft. long. 9 ft.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. by 10 ft. 3 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. Paint. drilled and fastened with screws. and. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. long. 2 gunwales.. 1 in. 1 in. and is removed after the ribs are in place. at the ends. by 15 ft. 7 ft. wide. by 16 ft. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 1 piece. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. square by 16 ft. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. ducking. wide 12-oz. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 1/4 in. 3 in. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. by 16 ft. of rope. long. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. Fig. selected pine. 2 in. 3 and 4. for cockpit frame. and fastened with screws. 1 mast. of 1-1/2-yd. 1 in. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. 1 piece. thick and 3/4 in. wide and 12 ft. wide and 12 ft. and the other 12 in. long. of 1-yd. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. by 2 in. 11 yd.

When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. . Fig. Braces. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. A block of pine. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. wood screws. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. thick. long. wide. 9. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. from the bow. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. Before making the deck. 3-1/2 ft. gunwales and keelson. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. The deck is not so hard to do. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. and fastened to them with bolts. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. wide and 3 ft. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. thick and 12 in. a piece 1/4 in. is a cube having sides 6 in. They are 1 in. 1 in. 6 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. The trimming is wood. Fig. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. 7 and 8. thick 1-1/2 in. 4 in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. thick. long. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. also. A seam should be made along the center piece. in diameter through the block. is cut to fit under the top boards. long is well soaked in water. A piece of oak. A 6-in. wide. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. length of canvas is cut in the center. This block. doubled. apart. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. 1 in. 1/4 in. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. wide and 14 in. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. The 11-yd. The block is fastened to the keelson. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. 5. These are put in 6 in. long. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. thick and 1/2 in. 6 and 7. Figs. 6. screws. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. corner braces. wide and 24 in.

The house will accommodate 20 families. is 6 in. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. E. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. apart in the muslin. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. long. --Contributed by O. Tronnes. are used for the boom and gaff. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. thick by 2 in. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. each 1 in. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. in diameter and 10 ft. at the other. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. long.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. The mast has two side and one front stay. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. wide at one end and 12 in. 12. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. 10 with a movable handle. 11. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The sail is a triangle. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. . at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. Ill. A strip 1 in. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. wide. The keel. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. Wilmette. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. Fig.

This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. wide. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. 3. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. and the other 18 in. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. about 5/16 in. with the ends and the other side rounding. and 3 ft. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang.into two 14-in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. wide and 2 ft. 2 in. Wilmette. thick. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. E. flat headed screws. as shown in Fig. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. Cut the maple. wide and 30 in. wide. 2-1/2 in. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. 1 yd. one 11-1/2 in. --Contributed by O. five 1/2-in. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. long and five 1/2-in. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. thick. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. square. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. thick. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. 2. 1. Tronnes. Ill. Bevel both sides of the pieces. 2-1/2 in. 5. flat-headed screws. Take this and fold it over . Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. Fig. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. long. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. long. 4.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. flat on one side. long.

long. square. 5 from 1/16-in. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. Glue a three cornered piece. thick. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. the top and bottom. of each end unwound for connections. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. St. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. 2 and 3. E. wide .once. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. The bag is then turned inside out. pieces 2-5/8 in. long. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. Wind three layers of about No. Fig. wide and 3 ft. If carefully and neatly made. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. 1-1/4 in. Louis. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. After the glue. Mo. B. the mechanical parts can be put together. The sides are 3-1/4 in. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. long. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. 3 in. and take care that the pieces are all square. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. soaked with water and blown up. D. C. F. is set. 3/8 in. long. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. long. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. thick and 3 in. Bliss. About 1/2 in. wide and 4-1/2 in. C. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. long. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. but can be governed by circumstances. about 3/8 in. are rounded. 6-1/2 in. forming an eye for a screw. Cut another piece of board. wide and 6-1/2 in. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. Figs. as well as the edges around the opening. When the glue is set. thick. --Contributed by W. A. wide and 6-3/4 in. and the four outside edges. long. and make a turn in each end of the wires. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. leaving a small opening at one corner. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. wide and 5 in. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. wide and 2-1/2 in. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. The front. then centered. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. A. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. this square box is well sandpapered. wide and 2-3/4 in. 1. Another piece. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. long. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. 3-1/4 in. square. and glue to this board two smaller pieces.

The end of the polar axis B. C. the same size as the first. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. Austwick Hall. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. wide and 2-1/2 in. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. The stronger the current. Chapman. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. Fig. When the current flows through the coil. Place the tin. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. long. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. showing a greater defection of the pointer. 4. Another strip of tin. 4. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. thick. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. bored in the back. Yorkshire. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. L. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . 1/4 in. wide and 9 in.A. and as the part Fig. A pointer 12 in. F. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. R. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. Richmond Hill. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. from the spindle. 5. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. long. The resistance is now adjusted to show . and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place.S. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig.R. long. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. Like poles repel each other. I. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. and the farther apart they will be forced. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. G. and fasten in place. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. so it will just clear the tin. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. --Contributed by George Heimroth. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. that has the end turned with a shoulder.and 2-5/8 in.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. 4 is not movable. 1/16 in. the part carrying the pointer moves away. board. W. 5-1/2 in. hole is fastened to the pointer. from one end. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. Fig. These wires should be about 1 in. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. The base is a board 5 in. in diameter. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J.

say Venus at the date of observation.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. 10 min. A. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. 30 min. 1881. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. thus: 9 hr. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. and vice . all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. 10 min. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. shows mean siderial. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. The following formula will show how this may be found. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. at 9 hr. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. M. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out.

The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. if one of these cannot be had.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Conn. Hall.m. owing to the low internal resistance. . Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. --Contributed by Robert W. or. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection.f. New Haven. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in.

Wet paper will answer. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. leaves or bark. Then. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. Fig. arsenic to every 20 lb. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . fresh grass. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. of alum and 4 oz. and heap the glowing coals on top. as shown in the accompanying picture. 1-3/4 in. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. thick. long. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. When the follower is screwed down. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. put the fish among the ashes. cover up with the same. inside diameter and about 5 in. especially for cooking fish. 1. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. 3/8 in. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. The boring bar. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes.

These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. fastened with a pin. when they were turned in. and threaded on both ends. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. pipe.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. thick. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. about 1/2 in. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. pipe. pipe were fitted to these holes so that.

This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. A 1-in. 2. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. thick and 3 in. square iron. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. bent in the shape of a U. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. If the valve keeps dripping. The rough frame. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. but never one which required so little material. 4. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. however. It . This plate also supports the rocker arms. was then finished on an emery wheel. Fig. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. and which gave such satisfactory results. Clermont. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. wide. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. 30 in. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. then it should be ground to a fit. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. 3. Fig. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. labor and time. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. the float is too high. a jump spark would be much better. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. 5. Fig.valve stems. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. Iowa. long. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. as the one illustrated herewith. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in.

As there is no bracing. rope is not too heavy. being held in position by spikes as shown. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. so it must be strong enough. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. A malleable iron bolt. completes the merry-go-round. It looks like a toy. in fact. The seats are regular swing boards. butting against short stakes. 3/4 in. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . The upright is a 4 by 4-in. The crosspiece is 2 in. no matter what your age or size may be. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. in the ground with 8 ft. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. and. long. long is the pivot. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. strengthened by a piece 4 in. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. square and 2 ft. long. Use a heavy washer at the head. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. timber. This makes an easy adjustment. The illustration largely explains itself. in diameter and 15 in. and a little junk. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. square. 12 ft. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. --Contributed by C. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. from all over the neighborhood.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. A 3/4 -in. square and 5 ft. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. W. set 3 ft. Nieman. long. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. extending above. for the "motive power" to grasp. strong clear material only should be employed. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. from the center." little and big. with no trees or buildings in the way. hole bored in the post." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. If it is to be used for adults.

and sent to earth. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. Both have large reels full of . a wreck. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. as shown in Fig. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. 1/4 by 3/32 in. away.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. To wind the string upon the reel.the fingers. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. 1. 4. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. 2. long. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. These ends are placed about 14 in. light and strong.2 emery. square. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. then it is securely fastened. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. A reel is next made. one for the backbone and one for the bow. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. if nothing better is at hand. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. and 18 in. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. The backbone is flat. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. The bow is now bent. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. Having placed the backbone in position.

he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. The handle end is held down with a staple. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. C. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull.string. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. N. often several hundred yards of it. If the second kite is close enough. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. the balance. Y. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Newburyport. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . --Contributed' by Harry S. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. common packing thread. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Mass. Bunker. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Moody. Brooklyn.-Contributed by S. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. he pays out a large amount of string. First. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. or glass-covered string.

square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. such as mill men use. Vt. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. each the size of half the table top. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. cutting the circular piece into quarters. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. make the pad as shown in the illustration. length of 2-in. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. lengths (Fig. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. then draw the string up tight. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Corinth.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. --Contributed by Earl R. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Hastings. If the table is round. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. then a dust protector. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. square (Fig. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. must be attached to a 3-ft.

A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. 2-1/4 in. Calif. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. 6-1/4 in.. .Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. trace the design carefully on the leather. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture.. E. Use a smooth. Oakland. 16-1/4 in. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern.. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. from E to F. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. and E to G. Wharton. which spoils the leather effect. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. hard pencil. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. trace this or some other appropriate design on it.-Contributed by H. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. G to H. 17-1/2 in. Moisten the . from C to D.9-1/4 in. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work.

To complete the bag. H-B. Cut it the same size as the bag. I made this motor . place both together and with a leather punch. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. wide. get something with which to make a lining. and E-G. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. and corresponding lines on the other side. about 1/8 in. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. G-J. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. and lace through the holes. Trace the openings for the handles. Now cut narrow thongs. with the rounded sides of the tools. Cut out the leather for the handle openings.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. also lines A-G. is taken off at a time. apart. if not more than 1 in.

It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. Shannon. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. 24 gauge magnet wire. 1. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base.M. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. iron. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. Calif. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. --Contributed by J. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. 1. as shown in Fig. B. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. Pasadena. D. each being a half circle. 2-1/4 in. 2. of No. long. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. . in length. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft.

will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. 1. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. from the bottom end. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. and the gores cut from these. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. balloon should be about 8 ft. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. The gores for a 6-ft. pasted in alternately. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. are the best kind to make. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. near the center. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. high. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far.

These are to hold the wick ball. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. A. leaving a long wake behind. saturating it thoroughly. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. Fig. In removing grease from wood. 1. The steam. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. In starting the balloon on its flight. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. somewhat larger in size. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. coming through the small pipe A. lap on the edges. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible.widest point. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. As the boat is driven forward by this force. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. as shown in Fig. after which the paint will adhere permanently. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. 3. 2. using about 1/2-in. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. as shown in Fig. so it will hang as shown in Fig. 4. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. The boat soon attains considerable speed. --Contributed by R. B. After washing. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. in diameter. leaving the solution on over night. Staunton. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. If the gores have been put together right. 5. E. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together.

Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. in bowling form. In using either of the two methods described. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. There are three ways of doing this: First. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. if you have several copies of the photograph. Third. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. wide by 6 in. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . 1. Second. high and 8 in. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The blocks are about 6 in. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. long and each provided with a handle. long. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. as is shown in Fig. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. apart on these lines.

Fig.Fig. Y. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Hellwig. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. --Contributed by John A. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. N. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. being careful not to dent the metal. Rinse the plate in cold water. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. 2. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Albany. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. thick.

the set screws will hold the telescope in position. --Contributed by R. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. wide and of any desired height. 1 Fig. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. and not produce the right sound. S. A. thick. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. in diameter. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store.upon any particular object. 6 in. In Fig. are screwed to the circular piece. A. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. Richmond. long for the base. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. through which passes the set screw S. 2 the front view. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. and. These corner irons are also screwed to. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. with a set screw. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. B. Paine. With this device. which is 4 in. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. CC. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. Break off the frame. 5 in. is fastened to a common camera tripod. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. wide and 8 in. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. Corner irons. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. A circular piece of wood. and Fig. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. Va. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do.

in diameter of some 1-in. D.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. La Salle. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Kidder. as only the can is visible. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. Ill. I made a wheel 26 in. This horn. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. S. This will make a very compact electric horn. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. -1. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. pine boards. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. R. Lake Preston. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. . Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. thus producing sound waves. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator.

Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . The frame is made of a heavy card. A. 1. square. If there is a large collection of coins. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. --Contributed by James R. 1. If the collection consists of only a few coins. B. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. the same thickness as the coins. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. --Contributed by C. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Ghent. thick and 12 in. Feet may be added to the base if desired. 2. Doylestown. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Kane. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Purdy. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. O. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Fig. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them.

for after the slides have been shown a few times.J. A rivet punch is desirable. Milwaukee. a hammer or mallet. --Contributed by August T. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. One Cloud. Neyer. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. though not absolutely necessary. --Contributed by J. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. Smith. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. Cal. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. and then glued together as indicated. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. plus a 3/8-in. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain.E. Wis. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. several large nails. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. thick. Noble. If desired. border all around. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. A lead pencil. Toronto. --Contributed by R. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. The material required is a sheet of No. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. cut and grooved. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. they become uninteresting. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. melted and applied with a brush. of developer. It will hold 4 oz. Canada. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. into which to place the screws . and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment.

never upon the metal directly. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. draw one part. using 1/2-in. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. and file it to a chisel edge. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. like the one shown. There are several ways of working up the design. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. both outline and decoration. Punch rivet holes in holder and band.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. screws placed about 1 in. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. Take the nail. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. Remove the screws.

rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. 2. being ball bearing. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. square and 11 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. each 1 in. l-1/8 in. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. for the lower rails. up from the lower end. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. and two lengths. of 11-in. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces.wall. square. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. 1. as shown in Fig. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. Rivet the band to the holder. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. long. . Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. Provide four lengths for the legs. 3. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. Do not bend it over or flatten it. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. long. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. in the other. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. About 1/2 yd. 3/4 in. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. using a 1/2in. square and 181/2 in. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. two lengths. for the top. long. The pedal.

Attalla. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] .The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. New York City. Quackenbush. Ala. F. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. having quite a length of threads. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. --Contributed by John Shahan. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. --Contributed by W. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners.

Luther. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . of sal-soda in one pailful of water. making a lap of about 1 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Mich. wide and 4-1/4 in. from the end. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. long. each 1-1/4 in. long. The desired emblem. Assemble as shown in the sketch. one about 1 in. the end of the other piece is folded over. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. --Contributed by C. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. long. initial. Purchase a 1/2-in. college or lodge colors.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. D. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. in depth. from one end. and the other 2-3/4 in. and two holes in the other. and 3/8 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. wide and 8-1/4 in.. using class. something that is carbonated. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. Two pieces of felt. Ironwood.

or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. 2. which can be procured from a plumber. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Fig. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. Punch two holes A. --Contributed by John H. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. as shown at B. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. about 2 in. from the center and opposite each other. and the cork will be driven out. Ind. Indianapolis. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. if desired by the operator. as shown in the sketch. 1/4 in. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. in diameter and 2 in.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. in the cover and the bottom. Schatz. A piece of lead. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. 1. or a pasteboard box. This method allows a wide range of designs. or more in height.

3.Rolling Can Toy lead. 1. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. A piece of thick glass. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. are turned up as in Fig. it winds up the rubber band. O. . When the can is rolled away from you. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. The pieces of tin between the holes A. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. or marble will serve. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. Columbus. as shown in Fig. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. metal. putting in the design. 5. and the ends of the bands looped over them. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. allowing the two ends to be free. on both top and bottom. Fig. 4. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig.

Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. 1 in. mark over the design. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. and. If it is desired to "line" the inside. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. After this has been done. deep in its face. New York City. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. thicker than the pinion. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. or more thick on each side. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. hole through it. wide and 20 in. 3 in. I secured a board 3/4 in. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. face up.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. The edges should be about 1/8 in. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. A pencil may be used the first time over. Next place the leather on the glass. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. thick. from each end. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. long and bored a 1/2-in.

1 top board. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. Rice. 4 guides. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . New York. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 2. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Fig. 3 by 3 by 36. 2 crosspieces. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. M. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 1 screw block. and fit it in place for the side vise. 2 by 12 by 77 in. in diameter. Now fit up the two clamps. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 2 side rails. 1 back board. thick top board. 1. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 1 piece for clamp. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. lag screws as shown. Cut the 2-in.in the board into the bench top. 1 by 9 by 80 in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Y. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 1 piece for clamp. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. countersinking the heads of the vise end. 3 by 3 by 6 in. pieces for the vise slides. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. --Contributed by A. Syracuse. 1 piece. 1 top board. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Make the lower frame first. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. N. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. Brooklyn. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 2 by 2 by 18 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 2 end rails.

it can be easily found when wanted. 1 cross cut saw. in diameter. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 2-ft. 1 brace and set of bits. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 nail set. 24 in. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 pair dividers.. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 claw hammer. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 pair pliers. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 pocket level. 2 screwdrivers. 1 countersink. 1 compass saw. 1 wood scraper. 1 set chisels. 1 rip saw. The bench is now complete. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need.. 1 set gimlets. 1 marking gauge. 24 in. 1 monkey wrench. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. The amateur workman. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted.. as well as the pattern maker. They can be purchased at a hardware store. Only the long run. 3 and 6 in.screws. . The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. rule.

the projecting point A.1. The calf skin. will be easier to work. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. after constant use. Fig. Fig. Fig. try square. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. but will not make . Fig. will sink into the handle as shown at D. 2 and 00 sandpaper. No. Pa. 1. 3.1 6-in. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. Kane. 1. becomes like A. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. Doylestown. being softer. 2. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. ---Contributed by James M. 1 oilstone.

First draw the design on paper. . and the length 6-5/8 in. Having prepared the two sides. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. White. the same method of treatment is used. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. such as copper or brass. lay the design on the face. will do just as well. -Contributed by Julia A. The form can be made of a stick of wood. Two pieces will be required of this size. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. water or heat will not affect. which steam. then prepare the leather. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct.as rigid a case as the cow skin. when dry. After the outlines are traced. secure a piece of modeling calf. cover it completely with water enamel and. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. New York City. If calf skin is to be used. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. but a V-shaped nut pick. Turn the leather. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. If cow hide is preferred. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool.

from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Jaquythe. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. New York City. --Contributed by W. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Cobb. . --Contributed by Chester L. C. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Portland. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Cal. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. Herrman. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. and an adjustable friction-held loop. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. A. Maine. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Chas. Richmond.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one.

Roberts. --Contributed by Wm. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. an inverted stewpan. Cambridge. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. for instance. Mass. Conn. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. was marked out as shown. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base.. This was very difficult. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. . as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. A thick piece of tin. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Middletown. Wright.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. --Contributed by Geo. B.

but not running over. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. Herbert. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. Illinois. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. L. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. --Contributed by C. of boiling water. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. If the article is highly polished. There was no quicklime to be had. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. apply powdered calcined magnesia. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. and quite new. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. Bone. The next morning there was no trace of oil. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. and the grease will disappear. pulverized and applied. F. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. When dry. . Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane.. Chicago. but only an odor which soon vanished. If any traces of the grease are left. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. on a clear piece of glass. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. Ind. which has been tried out several times with success. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. as shown. so some bones were quickly calcined. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. used as part of furniture. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. face down. Indianapolis. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. A beautifully bound book. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. well calcined and powdered. such as chair seats. --Contributed by Paul Keller. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow.

This coaster is simple and easy to make. Howe. deep and 5 in. 6 in. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in.. New York. the pieces . and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. If properly adjusted. soft steel with the opening 6 in. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in.. A.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. The pieces marked S are single. set and thumbscrews. --Contributed by Geo. says Scientific American. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. 2 in. wide and 12 in. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. long. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. thick. Tarrytown. high and are bolted to a block of wood.

double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. for sending to friends. they will look remarkably uniform. The seat is a board. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. E. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. Their size depends on the plate used. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. If the letters are all cut the same height. says Camera Craft. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. albums and the like. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. no doubt. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. A sharp knife. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. to the underside of which is a block. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming.

mount them on short pieces of corks. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. pasting the prints on some thin card. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. So arranged. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. The puzzle is to get . Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. photographing them down to the desired size. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. using care to get it in the right position. after. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. So made. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. for example. and. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. In cutting out an 0. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. these letter pictures can be made with a black border.

J. squeezes along past the center of the tube. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. with the longest end outside. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. Old-Time Magic . snow or anything to hide it. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.-Contributed by I. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . so they will lie horizontal. of its top. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. A hole 6 or 7 in.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. long that will just fit are set in. N. says the American Thresherman. hung on pivots. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. Cape May Point. G. Bayley. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. He smells the bait.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made.

pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Idaho. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. then expose again. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. --Contributed by L. Pocatello. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. or rub the hands a little before doing so. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Y. Press the hands together. Brooklyn. Dry the stamps between two white blotters.faced up. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Parker. Rhode Island. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Pawtucket. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. --Contributed by L. Szerlip. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. E. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. N. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. then spread the string. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album.

The blade should be about 27 in. dark red. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. The pieces. wide and 2 in. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. When the whole is quite dry. 2 Fig. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. The handle is next made. or green oil paint. and if carefully made. in building up his work from the illustrations. near the point end. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. end of the blade.. long.. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands.Genuine antique swords and armor. if any. 3 Fig. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. 1. 1 Fig. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. using a straightedge and a pencil. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. narrower. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. says the English Mechanic. or a complete suit of armor. in width. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. 4 on the blade. they will look very much like the genuine article. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. whether he requires a single sword only. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. Glue the other side of the blade. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. thick. full size. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. wipe the blade .

The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. preferably of contrasting colors. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. Fig. 1. the length of the blade 28 in. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory.with light strokes up and down several times. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. In making this scimitar.. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. the illustration. as it is . In the finished piece. in the widest part at the lower end. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. 1. thick and 5 in. the other two are identical. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. 1. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. in diameter. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. 2. the other is flat or half-round. long. follow the directions as for Fig. should be about 9 in. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. not for use only in cases of tableaux. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. the other is flat or halfround. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. 1. and 3 in. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. 3. take two pieces of wood. square and of any length desired. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. 4. The length of the handle. 2. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. Both edges of the blade are sharp. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. allowing for a good hold with both hands. about 1-1/2 in. 3. 1/8 in. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood.. shows only two sides. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. In making. of course. This sword is about 68 in. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord.

Franklin. or an insecure fastening. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. at the lower end. N. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. Y. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. and. 2 in. however. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. It is made of a plank. --Contributed by John Blake. Syracuse. piping and jackets by hard water. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. Both can be made easily. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. and if so. square. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. A cold . each about 1 ft. Morse.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. The thinness of the plank. Doctors probed for the button without success. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. as shown in the sketch. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. On each edge of the board. long. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. Mass. about 3/8 in. in an attempt to remove it. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. --Contributed by Katharine D. as there was some at hand. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. A piece of mild steel. as can the pitch bed or block. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired.

a file to reduce the ends to shape. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. 18 gauge. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown.. 5 lb. secure a piece of brass of about No.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. tallow. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. To remedy this.. 5 lb. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. When this has been done. Trim up the edges and file them . A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. To put it in another way. plaster of Paris. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. design down. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. on the pitch. using a small metal saw. When the desired form has been obtained.

and still revolve. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Cutter. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. and hang a bird swing. living together in what seems like one receptacle. 2).000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. over the smaller vessel. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Fill the 3-in. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Before giving the description. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. one 18 in. space between the vessels with water. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. This in turn divided by 33. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. 1 ft.smooth. per minute. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. in diameter (Fig.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. 30 ft. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. lb. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. Fig. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. in one second. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. make an unusual show window attraction. . Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. but not to stop it. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. The smaller is placed within the larger. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. using powdered pumice with lye. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Clean the metal thoroughly. in the center. per second. or fraction of a horsepower. 3. A.000 ft. in one minute or 550 lb. That is lifting 33. or 550 ft. in diameter (Fig. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. lb. 1) and the other 12 in. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. 1 ft. to keep it from floating. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. --Contributed by Harold H.000 lb.

Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Campbell. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. --Contributed by J. or on a pedestal. F. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. The effect is surprising. Mass. 1 Fig.3 Fig. Diameter Fig. --Contributed. Szerlip. by L. Somerville. Y. N. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . 2 Fig.18 in. Brooklyn. Diameter 12 in. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use.

Do not be content merely to bend them over. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. unsatisfactory. Rivet the cup to the base. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. is. and the clay . keeping the center high. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. then by drawing a straightedge over it. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. using any of the common metal polishes. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. which may be of wood or tin. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands.copper of No. to keep the metal from tarnishing. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. with the pliers. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. which. as a rule. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. with other defects. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. This compound is impervious to water. the same as removing writing from a slate. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. In riveting. after which it is ready for use. Polish both of these pieces. away from the edge. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. and cut out the shape with the shears. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. and then. often render it useless after a few months service. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph.

Northville. 1. the device will work for an indefinite time. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. -Contributed by Thos. . 3/4 in. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Dunlop. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. --Contributed by John T. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. long. Mich. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. Grand Rapids. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. Mich. DeLoof. Scotland. --Contributed by A. A. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. in diameter and 5 in. 2. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. as shown in Fig. Houghton. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws.can be pressed back and leveled. The siphon is made of glass tubes. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. It is made of a glass tube. Shettleston.

in width and 2 in. As the handle is to . will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. 1. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. This sword is 4 ft. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle.FIG. put up as ornaments. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. long. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. London. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in.1 FIG. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. stilettos and battle-axes.

Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. with wire or string' bound handle. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. 8. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. very broad. in width. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. This axe is made similar to the one . is shown in Fig. string. which is about 2-1/2 ft. studded with brass or steel nails. The ball is made as described in Fig. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. one about 1/2 in. 7. In Fig. This weapon is also about 1 ft. firmly glued on. When dry. 3 is shown a claymore. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. A German stiletto. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. These must be cut from pieces of wood. the upper part iron or steel. 20 spike. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. The sword shown in Fig. Cut two strips of tinfoil. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. 6. in length. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. narrower. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. In Fig. wood with a keyhole saw. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. long with a dark handle of wood. Three large. 9. then glued on the blade as shown.represent copper. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. the axe is of steel. The handle is of wood. When the glue is thoroughly dry. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. The crossbar and blade are steel. 5. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. long. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. This sword is about 4 ft. 4. with both edges sharp. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. The lower half of the handle is of wood. glue and put it in place. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. small rope and round-headed nails. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. A German poniard is shown in Fig. paint it a dark brown or black. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. This stiletto has a wood handle. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. Both handle and axe are of steel. This weapon is about 1 ft. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. sometimes called cuirass breakers. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. with both edges of the blade sharp. 11 were used. the same as used on the end of the handle. When the whole is quite dry. In Fig. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. in length. sharp edges on both sides. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade.

10.described in Fig. high. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. the ends are tied and cut off. . and as the tension members are all protected from wear. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. Davis.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. When wrapped all the way around. Chicago. such as braided fishline. will pull where other belts slip. 2. so the contents cannot be seen. W. --Contributed by E. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. together as shown in Fig. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. This will make a very good flexible belt. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. Old-Time Magic . 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig.

Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. The dotted lines in Fig. about one-third the way down from the top. in a few seconds' time. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. Oakland. an acid. 2. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . These wires are put in the jar. or using small wedges of wood. As zinc is much lighter than iron. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. held in the right hand. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Macdonald. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. N. S. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. with the circle centrally located. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Bridgeton. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. some of the liquid. four glass tumblers. filled with water. causing the flowers to grow. apparently. 1 and put together as in Fig. --Contributed by A. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Calif. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof.J. Before the performance. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. There will be no change in color.

and equally worthy of individual treatment. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. If the size wanted is No. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. 2 for height. not only because of the fact just mentioned. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. Richmond. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. When many slides are to be masked. unless some special device is used. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. says a correspondent of Photo Era. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. 4 for width and No. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. practical and costs nothing. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . which are numbered for convenience in working. A. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. Jaquythe. --Contributed by W. and kept ready for use at any time. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. Cal. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. This outlines the desired opening.

the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. 16 gauge. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. and the extreme length 7 in. or. Secure a sheet of No. but they can be easily revived.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. Draw a design. too. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. using the carbon paper. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. is about right for the No. or a pair of old tongs. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. paint the design. about half and half. This done. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. a little less acid than water. the margin and the entire back of the metal. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. may be changed. the paper is folded along the center line. and do not inhale the fumes. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. possibly. which is dangerous. With a stick. When etched to the desired depth. not the water into the acid. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. The one shown is merely suggestive. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. The decoration. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn.

punch a hole through it and put in under post E. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. Fig. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. wide and of the same length as the table. through it. 2. 2. high. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. Fig. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. attached to a post at each end. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. 1. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. Fig. and bore two holes. Cut out a piece of tin. wide. J is another wire attached in the same way. about 3 ft. repeat as many times as is necessary. in diameter and 1/4 in. 0 indicates the batteries. Then get two posts. to the table. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. Fig. and about 2-1/2 ft. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. 5. thick. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. about 8 in. so that when it is pressed down. long and 1 ft. long. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. as in Fig. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. 5. with the wires underneath. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. as shown in the illustration. 4. C and D. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. 24 parts water. The connections are simple: I. about 1 in. Paint the table any color desired. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. or more wide. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. Nail a board. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. . A. it will touch post F. 3/8 in. Fig. When the button S is pressed. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. 3. as at H. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. It may be either nailed or screwed down. the bell will ring. about 2-1/2 in. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. 2. as shown in Fig.

remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. such as . A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. After the glue is dry. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. The entire weapon. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The circle is marked out with a compass. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel.Imitation Arms and Armor . thick. These rings can be carved out. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. The imitation articles are made of wood. A wood peg about 2 in. is to appear as steel. 2. 1. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. handle and all.. long serves as the dowel. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. long. says the English Mechanic. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. but they are somewhat difficult to make. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. the wood peg inserted in one of them. This weapon is about 22 in. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks.

used at the end of the fifteenth century. This weapon is about 22 in. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. also. studded with large brass or steel nails. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. as before mentioned. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. All of these axes are about the same length. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. leaves. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. is shown in Fig. 6. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. covered with red velvet. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. as described in Fig. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. . Its length is about 3 ft. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. as shown. 2. flowers. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. etc. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. The upper half of the handle is steel. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century.ornamental scrolls. 5. If such a tool is not at hand. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. The spikes are cut out of wood. The lower half of the handle is wood. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The handle is of steel imitation. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The axe is shown in steel. long. 3. 8. or the amateur cannot use it well. with a sharp carving tool. The entire handle should be made of one piece. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The handle is of wood. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. the hammer and spike. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil.

The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 5. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. then the other plays. 3. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. a three-base hit. calls for a home run. 6. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. 7) calls for one out. 4). Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. as in Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. as shown in Fig. and so on for nine innings. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. . Each person plays until three outs have been made. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. 2. The knife falling on its side (Fig. the knife resting on its back. Chicago. Fig. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. 1.

When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. as shown in Fig. hypo to 1 pt. F. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. 1. If it is spotted at all.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. 2. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. Somerville. while the committee is tying him up.-Contributed by J. of the rope and holds it. one of them burning . When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. as shown in Fig. Mass. Old-Time Magic . the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. It may be found that the negative is not colored. of water for an hour or two. 3. with the rope laced in the cloth. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. This he does. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. Campbell. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath.

Contributed by Andrew G. --Contributed by L. and. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. bolt.. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. Drill Gauge screw. Thome. 4 oz. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. 3/4 in. Lebanon. Evans. of water and 1 oz. New York City. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. 4 oz. B. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. .brightly. with which he is going to light the other candle. Ky. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. thick. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Ky. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. Louisville. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. shades the light for a few seconds. The magician walks over to the burning candle. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. invisible to them (the audience). Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. of turpentine. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. He then walks over to the other candle. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. --Contributed by C. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. the other without a light. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. of sugar. showing that there is nothing between them. etc. Brown. thus causing it to light. of plumbago.

Pulteney. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. Y. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. long. Denniston. 5 in. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. H. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. To make the porous cell. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. Do not add water to the acid. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. In making up the solution. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. N. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. for the material. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. about 5 in. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. which will give a strong. diameter. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. steady current. or blotting paper. Its current strength is about one volt. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . into a tube of several thicknesses. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. but is not so good. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. thick. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. --Contributed by C.

The . steel. but somewhat lighter.) may be obtained. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. steel. One hole was bored as well as possible. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. As to thickness. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. carrying the hour circle at one end. a positive adjustment was provided. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. Finally. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. one drawing them together. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. To insure this. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. long with a bearing at each end. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. the other holding them apart. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. while the other end is attached by two screws. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. After much experimentation with bearings. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. steel. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in.station. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer.

It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. Cassiopiae. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. To find a star in the heavens. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. excepting those on the declination axis. The pole is 1 deg. The pointer is directed to Alpha. is provided with this adjustment. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. 45 min. All these adjustments. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. Point it approximately to the north star. The aperture should be 1/4 in. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. in each direction from two points 180 deg. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness.. Declination is read directly. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. apart. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. are tightened. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. and if it is not again directed to the same point. If the result is more than 24 hours." Only a rough setting is necessary. turn the pointer to the star. Set the declination circle to its reading. need not be changed. When properly set it will describe a great circle.. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. All set screws. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. and 15 min. save the one in the pipe. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. Instead. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. subtract 24. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. To locate a known star on the map. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg." When this is done. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. It is. once carefully made. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. Each shaft. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum.

Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. then add 1 2-3 dr. In reality the first ball. a great effect will be produced.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. add a little more benzole. -Contributed by Ray E. is the real cannon ball. The ball is found to be the genuine article. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. La. which is the one examined. 3 or 4 in. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. the others . Plain City. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. If this will be too transparent. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. long. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. New Orleans.. as shown in the sketch. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. The dance will begin. Ohio. of ether. is folded several times. benzole. taking care not to add too much. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. Strosnider. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. cannon balls.

Cal. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. Milwaukee. small brooches. 1).. Campbell. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. taps.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. Mass. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. --Contributed by J. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. In boxes having a sliding cover. F. 2. as shown in the illustration. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Return the card to the pack. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . San Francisco. Wis. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. etc. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Fig. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. without taking up any great amount of space. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. Somerville. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards.

I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. thus giving ample store room for colors. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. This box has done good service. slides and extra brushes. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. as shown in the illustration. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. . Beller. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. Hartford. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. from the bottom of the box. prints. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. round pieces 2-1/4 in. Connecticut. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned.

will answer the purpose. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. 1). as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. holes in the bottom of one. O. Fill the upper tub. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. Mass. When the ends are turned under. about threefourths full. West Lynn. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. tacking the gauze well at the corners. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. FIG. -Contributed by C. . or placed against a wall. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. costing 5 cents. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. 2). with well packed horse manure. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. Darke. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig.

Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. M. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. they should be knocked out. Chicago. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. If plugs are found in any of the holes. oil or other fluid. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. --Contributed by L.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. if this is not available. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. when they are raised from the pan. cutting the cane between the holes. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. Eifel. If the following directions are carried out. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. and each bundle contains .

after having been pulled tight. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. a square pointed wedge. as it must be removed again. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. No plugs . The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. In addition to the cane. 1. then across and down. it should be held by a plug. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. held there by inserting another plug. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. put about 3 or 4 in. and. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. as shown in Fig.

as the height of the line BC for lat. 42° is 4. the height of which is taken from table No. If you have a table of natural functions. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. 5 in. The style or gnomon.2+. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. --Contributed by M. 1. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. it is 4. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. but the most common. 40°. Patrick. No weaving has been done up to this time. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. After finishing this fourth layer of strands.42 in.5 in. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third.075 in. or the style. and for lat. 41 °-30'. as shown in Fig. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. for 2°. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. as it always equals the latitude of the place. is the base (5 in. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. This will make three layers. 3.3 in. -Contributed by E.15+.075 in. and for 1° it would be . The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. During the weaving. It consists of a flat circular table. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. and the one we shall describe in this article.2 in. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. called the gnomon. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. W. we have 4.= 4. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. When cool. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. R. 41°-30'. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. Even with this lubrication. 4. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. 1 lat. There are several different designs of sundials. Their difference is . trim off the surplus rosin. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. From table No. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . All added to the lesser or 40°. stretch the third one. using the same holes as for the first layer. Michigan.15 in. as for example. in this case) times the . Fig. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. 5. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. 3. 1. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. the next smallest. Detroit. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. lat. is the horizontal dial. D. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. the height of the line BC. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. If handled with a little care. 1. Fig. After completing the second layer. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place.

29 4-30 7-30 3.26 4.42 45 .94 1.56 .93 6.46 3. Its thickness.30 1.85 1. if of metal.16 40 .39 .76 1.40 34° 3.87 1. an inch or two.18 28° 2.14 5.55 5.63 56° 7.81 4.79 4.42 . for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.23 6.82 5.49 30 .49 3. circle Sundial.97 5 7 4. using the points A and C as centers.66 48° 5.41 38° 3. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. or more.06 2. .10 6.07 4.57 1. For latitudes not given.59 2. 2.37 54° 6. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.33 . Fig. To layout the hour circle.89 50° 5.82 3. and perpendicular to the base or style. 1. and intersecting the semicircles.03 3. according to the size of the dial.42 1. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.64 4 8 3.38 .83 27° 2.96 32° 3. or if of stone. Chords in inches for a 10 in. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.46 .99 2.37 5. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. 2. 2 for given latitudes. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.57 3.40 1.85 35 . Draw two semi-circles.02 1. which will represent the base in length and thickness.27 2. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .28 .11 3.32 6.33 42° 4.68 5-30 6-30 5. Table NO. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.55 30° 2.55 4. with a radius of 5 in.77 2. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.00 40° 4. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.20 60° 8.12 52° 6.tangent of the degree of latitude.88 36° 3.30 2. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.66 1.87 4.55 46° 5.50 26° 2.16 1. Draw the line AD. base.19 1. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. gives the 6 o'clock points.44 44° 4. and for this size dial (10 in.91 58° 8.82 2. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. long.66 latitude.93 2.

The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. then the watch is slower. June 15. Mitchell. Iowa. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.50 55 .60 4.63 1. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. Sun time to local mean time.52 Table No.add those marked + subtract those Marked . The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. The + means that the clock is faster. will enable one to set the dial. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. after allowing for the declination.24 5. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. each article can be labelled with the name. and for the difference between standard and local time. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. London. 3.54 60 .77 3.82 3. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.71 2.10 4. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.14 1. 900 Chicago. 2 and Dec.53 1. E. An ordinary compass.34 5. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.08 1.46 4.06 2. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.89 3. Sept.79 6.98 4. it will be faster.46 5. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . 3.01 1. and the .87 6. says the English Mechanic.72 5. This correction can be added to the values in table No.12 5.. Sioux City.19 2.50 .49 5. April 16.49 3.57 1.68 3.37 2.93 6. 25.from Sundial lime. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. if west. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. As they are the genuine reproductions. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. --Contributed by J.21 2.means that the dial is faster than the sun. Each weapon is cut from wood. adding to each piece interest and value. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.30 2.

The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. Partisan. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. the length of which is about 5 ft. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry.. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. . Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. 3. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. When putting on the tinfoil. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. 1.

The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods.which is square. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. 6 ft. is shown in Fig. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. long with a round staff or handle. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. A gisarm or glaive.. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. sharp on the outer edges. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. 5. . An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. the holes being about 1/4 in. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. press it well into the carved depressions. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. used about the seventeenth century. long. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The spear is steel. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. 8. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. This weapon is about 6 ft. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. long with a round wooden handle. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. which are a part of the axe. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. about 4 in. 7. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. in diameter. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The edges are sharp. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. It is about 6 ft. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. long. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The extreme length is 9 ft.

2 and 3. Ohio. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. Cut all the cords the same length. used for spacing and binding the whole together. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. 5. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired.-Contributed by R. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. This is important to secure neatness. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. are put in place. as shown in Fig. B. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. 4. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. H. Workman. Loudonville. They can be made of various materials. The twisted cross cords should . a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. apart. or in holes punched in a leather strap. 1. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. In Figs. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. are less durable and will quickly show wear. the most durable being bamboo. Substances such as straw. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. the cross cords. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom.

and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. To remedy this. This was turned over the top of the other can. New York. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. shaped as shown at C. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Lockport. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. for a length extending from a point 2 in. New Orleans. -Contributed by Geo. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. 3 in. A slit was cut in the bottom. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. below the top to within 1/4 in. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. in which was placed a piece of glass. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. M. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. bamboo or rolled paper. Harrer. La. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. The first design shown is for using bamboo.be of such material. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. wide. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. as shown at B. of the bottom. Four V-shaped notches were cut.

giving the appearance of hammered brass. wide. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. the brass is loosened from the block. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. is shown in the accompanying sketch. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. do not throw away the gloves. Newburgh. Ill. Sanford. turned over but not fastened. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . This plank. H. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. --Contributed by W. Shay. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. It would be well to polish the brass at first. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. Y. N. This should be done gradually. Cal. about 1/16 in. Pasadena. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. Maywood. After this is finished.tape from sticking to the carpet. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. --Contributed by Joseph H. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. and two along the side for attaching the staff. --Contributed by Chas. Schaffner. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall.

Oak Park. bent as shown. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. in diameter. --E. -Contributed by W. Ill. Marshall. Jaquythe. Cal. A.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. the pendulum swings . Unlike most clocks. Richmond. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. K. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob.

high. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. about 12 in. 3/4 in. the center one being 2-3/4 in. Fasten another board. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. are secured in the base bar. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. Secure a board. in diameter. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. such as this one. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. high. The construction is very simple. . and the other two 2-5/8 in. by 1-5/16 in. Metzech. C. wide that is perfectly flat. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. A. is an electromagnet. 5/16 in. says the Scientific American. long and at each side of this. only have the opposite side up. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. B. to the first one with screws or glue. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. high and 1/4 in. In using this method. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. bearing on the latter. --Contributed by V.. Two uprights. bar. away. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. thick. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. high. 7-1/2 in. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. about 6 in. 6 in. on the board B. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. Chicago. wide. Now place the board to be joined.

square. 1. as shown at A. The trigger.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. wide and 1 in. or more. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. is fastened in the hole A. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. square inside. Pa. 4. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. whose dimensions are given in Fig. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. wide and 5 in. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. by driving a pin through the wood. 1. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. long. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. 2. --Contributed by Elmer A. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. 3. . Place the cardboard square in the nick B. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. 1. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. from one end. Vanderslice. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. Phoenixville. plates should be made 8 in. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. Fig. Fig.

5 parts of black filler. 2 parts of whiting. Simonis. Ohio. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. rubbing varnish and turpentine. as shown in the illustration. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. if only two bands are put in the . Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. which allows 1/4 in. Fostoria. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed.A. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. one-half the length of the side pieces. square. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. -Contributed by J. by weight.

A mirror. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. in the opposite end of the box. It must be kept moist and well . The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. A double convex lens. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. Dartmouth. -Contributed by Abner B. long. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. DeLoof. In constructing helmets. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. and the picture can be drawn as described. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. preferably copper. as shown in Fig. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. Grand Rapids. Michigan. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. Mass. and it may be made as a model or full sized. wide and about 1 ft. 8 in. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. is set at an angle of 45 deg. A piece of metal. keeps the strong light out when sketching. which may be either of ground or plain glass.lower strings. --Contributed by Thos. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. is necessary. London. Shaw. In use. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. says the English Mechanic. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. deep. No. II. 1. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. G. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. place tracing paper on its surface. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. If a plain glass is used. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training.

The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. 2. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. and continue until the clay is completely covered. with a keyhole saw. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. and the deft use of the fingers. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. This being done. All being ready. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. will be necessary. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue.kneaded. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. as shown in Fig. 1. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. 3. After the clay model is finished. and left over night to soak. or some thin glue. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. Scraps of thin. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . The clay. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. 1. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. as in bas-relief. joined closely together. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. a few clay-modeling tools. take. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. the clay model oiled. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. brown. and over the crest on top. shown in Fig. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. on which to place the clay.

until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. one for each side. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. a few lines running down. --Contributed by Paul Keller. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. Indianapolis. 5. or. When dry. the piecing could not be detected. should be modeled and made in one piece. as seen in the other part of the sketch. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. will make it look neat. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. When perfectly dry. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. 7. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. They are all covered with tinfoil. In Fig. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. The whole helmet. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. as shown: in the design. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. The band is decorated with brass studs. and so on. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. the skullcap. owing to the clay being oiled. and the ear guards in two pieces. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. which should be no difficult matter. then another coating of glue. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. The center of the ear guards are perforated. Indiana. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. In Fig. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. square in shape. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. Before taking it off the model. 9. When the helmet is off the model. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. a crest on top. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . with the exception of the vizor. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. This contrivance should be made of wood. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. 1. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel.as possible.

AA. about 1/4 in. If a neat appearance is desired. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. thick sheet asbestos. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. The mineral wool. 1. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. The two holes. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. This will make an open space between the plates. one small switch. Fig. long. 4. 4 lb. 12 in. two ordinary binding posts. of No. and C. as shown in Fig. Fig. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. JJ. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. The holes B and C are about 3 in. long. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. 4. are allowed to project about 1 in. 1 in. Fig. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. 4. Fig. Fig. This will allow the plate. of the top. AA. in diameter and 9 in. is then packed down inside the collar. above the collar. each 4-1/2 in. 2. the holes leading to the switch. if this cannot be obtained. AA. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. Fig. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. thick. wide and 15 in. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. one oblong piece of wood. 3 in. The reverse side of the base. If asbestos is used. should extend about 1/4 in. if the measurements are correct. as shown in Fig. or. when they are placed in opposite positions. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. with slits cut for the wires. 1. Fig. which can be bought from a local druggist. A round collar of galvanized iron. FF. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. 1. high. one glass tube. The plate. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. until it is within 1 in. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. Fig. one fuse block. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. also the switch B and the fuse block C. 2. and two large 3in. of fire clay. 4. Fig. Fig. 4. 4. to receive screws for holding it to the base. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. German-silver wire is better. and. E and F. as it stands a higher temperature. 4. 2. as shown in Fig. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. Fig. long.same size. about 1 lb. for connections. Fig. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. 1. 1. of mineral wool. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. is shown in Fig. about 80 ft. Fig. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. the fuse block. GG. 3. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. 22 gauge resistance wire. screws. 1.

It should not be set on end. Richmond. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. --Contributed by W. using care not to get it too wet. steam will form when the current is applied. St. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. Cut a 1/2-in. Catherines. If it is not thoroughly dry. Cover over about 1 in. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. Next. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. It should not be left heated in this condition. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. Jaquythe. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. more wire should be added. deep. so that the circuit will not become broken. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. If this is the case. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. This point marks the proper length to cut it. will slip and come in contact with each other. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. Fig. Cnonyn. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. --Contributed by R. and pressed into it. Can. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . allowing a space between each turn. When the tile is in place. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. when cool. KK. when heated. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. This completes the stove. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. Fig. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. Cal. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. it leaves a gate for the metal. as the turns of the wires. 2. As these connections cannot be soldered. II. apart. While the clay is damp. A file can be used to remove any rough places. causing a short circuit. then. 4. When this is done. A. above the rim. H. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. The clay. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast.

A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. Thorne. constructed of 3/4-in. Then clip a little off the . but 12 by 24 in. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. the air can enter from both top and bottom. says the Photographic Times. square material in any size. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. the pie will be damaged. Louisville. and the prints will dry rapidly. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. and the frame set near a window. as shown. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. Ky. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. --Contributed by Andrew G. is large enough. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used.

The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. long. thick. Fig. The board can be raised to place . is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. The connecting rod E. 1. 2-1/2 in. each 1/2 in. 1/2 in. W. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. which gives the shaft a half turn. 3. at GG. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. each 1 in. as shown. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. Le Mars. thereby saving time and washing. high. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. Two supports. Fig. long. high. 22 gauge magnet wire. wide and 7 in. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. allowing each end to project for connections. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. 14 in. The driving arm D. 1. thick and 3 in. 1. A 1/8-in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. 2. 4 in. Herron. Iowa. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. wide. -Contributed by S. 1 and 3. in diameter and about 4 in. As the shaft revolves. long. in diameter. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. Figs. causing a break in the current. 1. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. wide and 3 in. slip on two cardboard washers.Paper Funnel point. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. Fig. open out. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. 1/2 in. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. The connections are made as shown in Fig. long. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. thick and 3 in. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. An offset is bent in the center. which are fastened to the base. for the crank. high. The upright B.

on a board. One or more pots may be used. . The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. as shown in the sketch. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. --Contributed by William F. Mass. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. in height. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. making a framework suitable for a roost. Dorchester.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. bottom side up. In designing the roost. Stecher. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. Place the pot. 3 in.

paraffin and paint or varnish. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. windows.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. adopt the method described. as shown in Fig. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. odd corners. F.. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. shelves. if it is other than straight lines. 1. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required.. Wind the . without any corresponding benefit. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. in diameter. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. that it is heated. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. ordinary glue. grills and gratings for doors. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. when combined. etc. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. The bottom part of the sketch. will produce the pattern desired. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. and give it time to dry. 1. F. The materials required are rope or. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. preferably. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. Fig.

Harrer. -Contributed by Geo. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. 2. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . M. Y. six designs are shown. N. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Lockport. cut and glue them together.Fig. Fig. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer.

and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. etc. chips of iron rust.. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.. London. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. when it will be observed that any organic matter.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. Pour the water in until the filter is filled.. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. As the . A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. will be retained by the cotton. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. 1. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. This piece of horse armor. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. but no farther. and the sides do not cover the jaws. which was used in front of a horse's head. etc. says the English Mechanic.

For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. In Fig. as shown in the sketch. and will require less clay. which is separate. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. but for . The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. the rougher the better. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. 8. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. 2. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. 4. except the thumb and fingers. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. This will make the model light and easy to move around. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. with the exception of the thumb shield. An arrangement is shown in Fig. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. then another coat of glue. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. This can be made in one piece. 6 and 7. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. 2. The armor is now removed from the model. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. This triangularshaped support. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. All being ready. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. and therefore it is not described. but the back is not necessary. and the clay model oiled. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. which can be made in any size. as the surface will hold the clay.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. This being done. the same as in Fig. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets.

fastened to the rod. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. the two pieces of foil will draw together. The two pieces of foil. the top of the rod. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Redondo Beach. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. --Contributed by John G. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. La Rue. wide and 1/2 in. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. 1/2 in. When locating the place for the screw eyes. 2. two for the jaws and one a wedge. Y. two in each jaw. Calif. are better shown in Fig. will be about right. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. are glued to it. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. but 3-1/2 in. and the instrument is ready for use. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. --Contributed by Ralph L. . cut into the shape shown in Fig. in depth. A piece of board.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. running down the plate. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. N. If it does not hold a charge. 9. Buxton. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. the foils will not move. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. Goshen. long. each about 1/4 in. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil.

M. Texas. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. --Contributed by Mrs. At a point 6 in. is made of a 1/4-in. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. Bryan. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. hole bored through it. silvered. A. 2-1/2 in. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. pine board.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. long. enameled or otherwise decorated. as shown in the illustration. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. Corsicana. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. as this will cut under the water without splashing. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. about 15 in. as indicated in the . A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. When a fish is hooked. from the smaller end. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. The can may be bronzed. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can.

If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Having completed the drawing. When it has dried over night. 3/8 or 1/4 in. or even pine.Match Holder accompanying sketch." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. will do as well as the more expensive woods. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. using a piece of carbon paper. then with a nail. Next prepare the metal holder. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. If soft wood. 22 is plenty heavy enough. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. such as basswood or pine was used. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. thick. Basswood or butternut. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. punch the holes. Polish the metal. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. as shown. take a piece of thin wood. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. using powdered pumice and lye. long over all. A good size is 5 in. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. and trace upon it the design and outline. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. Any kind of wood will do. wide by 6 in. put a coat or two of wax and polish . Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears.

hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. the whole being finished in linseed oil. are used for the cores of the magnets. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. of pure olive oil. each 1 in. A. thick. It is useful for photographers. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. . This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. 1/2 in. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. Instead of the usual two short ropes. If one has some insight in carving. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. Two wire nails. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. --Contributed by W. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. long.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. is used for the base of this instrument. Jaquythe. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. Richmond. long. If carving is contemplated. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. 2 in. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. wide and 5 in. Cal. can be made on the same standards. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr.

This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. . behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. cloth or baize to represent the legs. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. about No. All of the parts for the armor have been described. except that for the legs. acts as a spring to keep the key open. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. A piece of tin. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. says the English Mechanic. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. similar to that used in electric bells. the paper covering put on. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. London. as shown in Fig. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. as shown by the dotted lines. H. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. 1. in the shape shown in the sketch. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. About 1 in. Lynas. A rubber band. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. at A. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. leaving about 1/4 in. cut in the shape of the letter T.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. 3. --Contributed by W. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. then covered with red. when the key is pushed down. 25 gauge.

Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. By moving the position of the bolt from. 1 and drill a 1/4in. In one end of the piece. or ordinary plaster laths will do. says Camera Craft. 3 in. long. Cut them to a length or 40 in. Silver paper will do very well. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. flat headed carriage bolt. drill six 1/4-in. So set up. holes. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. 2. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. apart. make the same series of eight small holes and.. at each end. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. Fig. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. These can be purchased at a stationery store. Take the piece shown in Fig. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. apart. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. one to another . and eight small holes. about 1 in. Instead of using brass headed nails. for the sake of lightness. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. completes the equipment. The two pieces are bolted together. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. 1 in. in the other end. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. can be made in a few minutes' time. A 1/4-in. hole in the center. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. Secure two strips of wood.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. not too tight.

1. Start with one end. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. of the ends remain unwoven. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. as shown in Fig. for instance. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart.of the larger holes in the strip. C over D and B. in Fig. D over A and C. and the one beneath C. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. as in portraiture and the like. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. but instead of reversing . 4. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. then B over C and the end stuck under A. A round fob is made in a similar way. In this sketch. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. taking the same start as for the square fob. A is the first string and B is the second. 2. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. Then draw all four ends up snugly. long. Then take B and lay it over A. 2. 2. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. the one marked A. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. doubled and run through the web of A. lay Cover B and the one under D. and lay it over the one to the right. Fig.

Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. the design of which is shown herewith. --Contributed by John P. as B. especially if silk strings are used. The round fob is shown in Fig. always lap one string. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. Other designs can be made in the same manner. 1-1/2 in. Rupp. 3. long. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. as at A in Fig. is to be made of leather. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. A loop. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. as in making the square fob. 5. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. over the one to its right. Monroeville. is left out at the center before starting on one side. Ohio. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down .

Mich. When the supply of wax is exhausted. beeswax or paraffin. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. pressing it against the wood. filling them with wax. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. using the reverse side. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. it can be easily renewed. . door facing or door panel. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. Northville. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. A. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. -Contributed by A. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. Any smooth piece of steel. such as a nut pick. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. Houghton. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness.

be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. New York. place it face down in the dish. says Photographic Times. and after wetting. thick. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. it is best to leave a plain white margin. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. --Contributed by O. remaining above the surface of the board. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. leaving about 1/4 in. long. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. Ill. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. J. Fold together on lines C. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. D. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. apart and driven in only part way. Thompson. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. and about 12 in. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. N. if blueprints are used. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. The tacks should be about 1 in. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. Select the print you wish to mount. E and F. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. Petersburg. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. Enough plaster should. but any kind that will not stick may be used. . nearly as wide as the envelope is long. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. those on matte paper will work best.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. Y. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. although tin ones can be used with good success.

will be rendered perfectly white. Lower into the test tube a wire. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. as shown at the left in the sketch. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. etc.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. roses.. filling the same about onehalf full. One of the . and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. bell flowers. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. as shown in the right of the sketch. violets. without mixing the solutions. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution.

as shown. The first point should be ground blunt. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. but which will not wobble loose. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. is about 2-1/2 in. in diameter and 1 in. should be soldered to the box. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . about 1/8s in. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. or delicate tints of the egg. which should be of thin ferrotype tin.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. shading. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. Shabino. to keep the core from coming off in turning. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. 3. Fig. 2. turned a little tapering. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. and at the larger end. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. 1-7/8 in. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. Millstown. 1. When soldering these parts together. made of heavy tin. not too tightly. long and made of wood. long. The diaphragm. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. The tin horn can be easily made.. The sound box. thick. as shown in the sketch. A rod that will fit the brass tube. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. South Dakota. --Contributed by L. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. L.

A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Victor. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Colo. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. Gold. Jr. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. Ill. mice in the bottom. says the Iowa Homestead.Contributed by E. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . put a board on top. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. wondering what it was. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. Chicago. E. and.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass.

Pereira. --Contributed by Lyndwode. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. Y. N. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. Buffalo. . with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Ottawa. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Can. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset.

Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. on the side and at the lower edge of the box.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. --Contributed by W. as it can be made quickly in any size. cut round. above the end of the dasher. by means of a flatheaded tack. A. Mich. De Loof. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Grand Rapids. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. a piece of tin. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Jaquythe. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. longer than the length of the can. Put a small nail 2 in. This cart has no axle. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. as shown. and at one end of the stick fasten. --Contributed by Thos. Cal. through which several holes have been punched. Richmond.

were below the level of the bullseye.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. The candles. The baseboard and top are separable. Kane. deep and 3 in. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. board. 1 ft. I reversed a door gong.1. 1/4 in. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. wide. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. Notches 1/8 in. wide and 1/8 in. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. A wedge-shaped piece of . wide and 3 ft. Fig. wide and as long as the box. 2. as shown. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. cut in the center of the rounding edge. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. 2. 2 in. 1-1/2 in. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. New Orleans. thick. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. apart. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. of course. 2. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. Doylestown. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. 1. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. screwed it on the inside of a store box. La. --Contributed by James M. Pa. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. long.

Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Wood.Book Back Holders metal. the blade is put back into the groove . 3. wide into each side of the casing. stone or wood. West Union. by cutting away the ends. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. Mass. --Contributed by G. After the glue has dried. Worcester. When not in use. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. the reason being that if both were solid. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form.. can be picked up without any trouble. wide rubber bands or felt. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. A. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. it can be removed without marring the casing. dressing one surface of each piece. Ia. scissors. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. This device is very convenient for invalids. will. For the handle. etc. take two pieces of hard wood. as shown in Fig. to prevent its scratching the desk top. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. The block can also be used as a paperweight. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. Cover the block with rubber. the shelf could not be put on the window. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. Needles. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. After completing the handle. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. when placed as in Fig. 1.

is shown in the accompanying sketch. thus carrying the car up the incline. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. 2. A notch is cut in one side. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Pa. as shown in Fig. A. Erie. . Ohio. --Contributed by Maud McKee. -Contributed by W. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. S. 1. Mass. square and 4 in. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. 1 in. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. If desired. Malden. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. --Contributed by H. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Jacobs. Cleveland. Hutchins. long. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. as shown in Fig.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Each one is made of a hardwood block.

It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming.. and an awl and hammer. will be needed. This will insure having all parts alike. a board on which to work it. 6 by 9-1/2 in. Cape May Point.J. If one such as is shown is to be used. One sheet of metal. Prepare a design for the front.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. The letters can be put on afterward. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. . N.

if desired. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. 3/4 part.Fasten the metal to the board. but weird and distant. The stick may be placed by the side of. 1 part. that can be worked in your own parlor. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. mandolin or guitar. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. placed on a table. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space." In all appearance. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. turpentine. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. as shown. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. The music will not sound natural. If any polishing is required. in the waste metal. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. flat brush. 1/4 part. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. to right angles. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. applied by means of a brush. behind or through the center of a table leg. On the back. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. So impressive are the results. says Master Painter. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. 2 parts white vitriol. only the marginal line is to be pierced. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. which is desirable. or. Remove the metal. One coat will do. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. paste the paper design right on the metal. a violin. . The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. varnish.

each 6 in. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. it might be difficult. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. and is easy to construct. long and measuring 26 in. . These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. apart. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. London. long and spread about 8 in. each 28 in. Two pairs of feet. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. across the top. long. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. says Work. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. square bar iron.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. 2. without them. wide. thick by 1/2 in. 3. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. is bent square so as to form two uprights. The longest piece. round-head machine screws. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. With proper tools this is easy. are shaped as shown in Fig. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size.

The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. The brads are then removed. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. After the joints are soldered. or. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. special flux purchased for this purpose. B. 5. is held by the brads. While the piece of lead D. 5. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. lead. 7.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. Fig. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. the latter being tapped to . After the glass is cut. better still. in the grooves of the borders. Place the corner piece of glass. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. A. C. The glass. as shown in Fig. using rosin as a flux. The design is formed in the lead. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. cut a long piece of lead. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. 6. 4. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. and the base border. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. D. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. on it as shown. Fig.

The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. holes through their centers. N. rocker bolt. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Bore a 3/4-in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. as shown in Fig. Dreier. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. thick and drill 3/4-in. long. Make three washers 3-in. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. rounded at the top as shown. then flatten its end on the under side. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. not less than 4 in. in diameter and 1/4 in. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. long. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. Secure a post. and two wood blocks. Bore a 5/8-in. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. bolt. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in.the base of the clip. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. This . Concrete is much better if it can be secured. long. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. square and of the length given in the drawing. plank about 12 ft. Jr. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. Camden. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. J. Fasten the plates to the block B. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. The center pin is 3/4-in. 8. plates. one on each side and central with the hole. --Contributed by W. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. A and B.. This ring can be made of 1-in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. and round the corners of one end for a ring. bolt. in diameter and about 9 in. then drill a 3/4-in. Two styles of hand holds are shown. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. H. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. wood screws in each washer.

Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. because it will not stand the weather. long. If trees are convenient. La. 1-1/4in. long. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. bolts and rope. hickory. by 2 ft. New Orleans. straight-grained hickory. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 1/2 in. The four 7-in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 50 ft. square by 5 ft. 2 by 4 in. long. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. To substitute small. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. long. 7 in. 4 pieces. from one edge. long and 1 piece. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. 1 by 7 in. chestnut or ash. can make a first class gymnasium. boards along the side of each from end to end. shanks. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. by 3 ft. square by 9-1/2 ft. long. by 6-1/2 ft. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. Draw a line on the four 7-in. 16 screws. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. maple. in diameter and 7 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. apart for a distance of 3 ft. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. and some one can swing an axe. horse and rings. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. 1. screws. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. 4 filler pieces. 4 pieces. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. bit. 4 in. 2-1/2 in.will make an excellent cover for a pot. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. of 1/4-in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. 3/4 by 3 in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. 9 in. long. 4 in. 3 in.

which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. from the end. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. each 3 ft. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. 2. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. apart. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. so the 1/2-in. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. boards coincide. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. Bore a 9/16-in. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. piece of wood. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel.bored. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. at each end. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. and once tightened the bar will be rigid.. deep and remove all loose dirt. apart. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. 8 in. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place.. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar.

but most deceptive at dusk. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. and materially heightened the illusion. And all he used was a black thread. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. . the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. and ascends the stem. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. He stretched the thread between two buildings. it follows the edge for about 1 in.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. just visible against the dark evening sky. the effect is very striking." which skimmed along the distant horizon. apart.. disappearing only to reappear again. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. not much to look at in daytime. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. about 100 ft. in an endless belt. W. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. If the tumbler is rotated. passing through a screweye at either end. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. which at once gathered. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. and then passes in a curve across the base. was at its height. not even the tumbler. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. When the interest of the crowd. it is taken to the edge of the foot. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. which at once gave the suggestion of distance.

A wire about No. 2 by 4 in. 6 in. 7 in. 4 bolts. from either side of the center. long. 2 by 4 in. 2 by 4 in. 2 in. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. beginning at a point 9 in. 2 by 3 in. by 3 ft. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. To make the apparatus. Chisel out two notches 4 in. 8 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. square and 51/2 ft. 4 wood screws. 8 in. 2 cross braces. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 1. by 7 ft. wide and 1 in. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. Fig. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. long.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. deep. 4 knee braces. long. 4 in. so the point will be on top. by 2 ft. preferably cedar. long. Bevel the ends of . large spikes. square and 6 ft. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. long. by 10 ft. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. long. 4 in. La. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 8 in. long. 8 bolts. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. long and 1 doz. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. and turned in a spiral D. 2 side braces. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. New Orleans. long. 2 base pieces. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. The cork will come out easily. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.

except the bars. If using mill-cut lumber. Two endpieces must be made. as shown in the diagram. ( To be Continued. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. --Contributed by W. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather.the knee braces. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. screws. Cal. Jaquythe. etc. Richmond. equipped with a strainer. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. jellies. These will allow the ladle to be turned. which face each other. leave it undressed. but even unpainted they are very durable. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. of 7 ft. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. A. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. and countersinking the heads. The wood so treated will last for years. save the bars. After the trenches are dug. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view.. A large sized ladle. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. leaving the strainer always in position. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. so the bolts in both will not meet. additional long. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. using four of the 7-in bolts. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. .) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft.

milling machine. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. drill press or planer. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. A.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. thus holding the pail as shown. which seems impossible. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. of sufficient 1ength. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. or various cutting compounds of oil. . partly a barrier for jumps. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. it is necessary to place a stick. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. Oil. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. In order to accomplish this experiment.

from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. square by 5-1/2 ft. 7 in. beginning 1-1/2 in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. two 1/2-in. long. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. The material required is as follows: Two posts. to fasten the knee braces at the top. bolts. long. 4 in. 2 by 4 in. square by 5 ft. long.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse.. 2 by 4 in. long. 4 knee braces. bolts. 2 adjusting pieces. bolts. 4 in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. 4-1/2 in. and free from knots. 2 by 4 in. is a good length.. from each end. apart. in the ground. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. stud cut rounding on one edge. Procure from a saw mill. by 3 ft. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. long. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. piece of 2 by 4-in. projections and splinters. apart in a central position on the horse. These are placed 18 in. 1 in. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. long. The round part of this log must be planed. 4 in. wood yard or from the woods. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. in diameter--the larger the better. ten 1/2-in. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. by 3 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. To construct. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. long. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. by 3 ft. 3 in. These are well nailed in place. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. bolt. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. Hand holds must be provided next. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. but 5 ft. 1 cross brace. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. long. 2 bases.

such as a dent. over and around. pipe and fittings. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. Richmond. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. it is caused by some obstruction. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. Also. Cal.--Contributed by W. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. snow. Jaquythe. Such a hand sled can be made in a . one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. water. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. it is caused by an overloaded shell. etc. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. no one is responsible but himself. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse.horse top. A. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. then bending to the shape desired. but nevertheless. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon.

is much better than a wood sled. Mass. which. Joerin. thick. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. --Contributed by James E. Paris. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. then run a string over each part. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. --Contributed by Arthur E. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. at E and F. Boston. when straightened out. when complete. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. are all the tools necessary. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. will give the length. 1/4 or 3/16 in. These. --Contributed by J. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. 2. . Noble. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Ontario. W. 1. Vener. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. The end elevation. Toronto. in width and 1/32 in. France.

A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. 4. nor that which is partly oxidized. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. 3. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. are nailed. The method shown in Figs. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. It is best to use soft water. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. . AA and BB.

7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. as shown in Fig. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. class ice-yacht. The materials used are: backbone. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. 3. Broad lines can be made. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. 2. 2. . If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 1). or various rulings may be made. 8 and 9. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. Percy Ashley in Rudder. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. 4. or unequal widths as in Fig. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. as shown in Fig.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. It can be made longer or shorter. pins to keep them from turning. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it.Fig. pipe. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. a larger size of pipe should be used. 1. Both the lower . The point should extend about 11/2 in. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. bent and drilled as shown. out from the collar. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. but if it is made much longer. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. about 30 in. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. A good and substantial homemade lathe. a tee and a forging. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. long. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The headstock is made of two tees.

Man. M. It is about 1 in. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. UpDeGraff. Laporte. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Boissevain. a straight line should be scratched Fig. Indiana. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. but also their insulating properties. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. thick as desired. Cal. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. and will answer for a great variety of work. as shown in Fig. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. --Contributed by M. 2.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. Musgrove. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. . square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. W. Fruitvale. a corresponding line made on this. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. --Contributed by W. 3/4 or 1 in. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. or a key can be used as well. To do this. 1. else taper turning will result. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. Held. as shown in Fig. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. 2. 2. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in.

long.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. --Contributed by E. In use. The handle is of pine about 18 in. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. Smith. Ark. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. To obviate this. Ft. as shown. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. Cline. J. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle.

bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. Colo. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. Denver. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and when once in true up to its size. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. the drill does not need the tool. This prevents the drill from wobbling. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. which should be backed out of contact. face off the end of the piece. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. centering is just one operation too many. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. After being entered. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. La. take . This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. White. on starting the lathe. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. if this method is followed: First. --Contributed by Walter W. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. New Orleans.

This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. The handkerchief rod. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. as shown in D. a long piece of glass tubing. In doing this. It can be used in a great number of tricks. a bout 1/2 in. by applying caustic soda or . vanishing wand. after being shown empty. says the Sphinx. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. The glass tube B. and can be varied to suit the performer. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. and this given to someone to hold.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. unknown to the spectators. After the wand is removed. shorter t h a n the wand. shown at C. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. all the better. is put into the paper tube A. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. the cap is placed over the paper tube.

A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. 3/16. As the cement softens. 1 Neck. square and 1-7/8 in. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. With care and patience. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. thick. cut to any shape desired. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. The brace at D is 1 in. with the back side rounding. and if care is taken in selecting the material. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. Glue strips of soft wood. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. Glue the neck to the box. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. preferably hard maple. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. by 14 by 17 in. across the front and back to strengthen them. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 2 Sides. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. long. 1 End. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples.potash around the edges of the letters. 1 Bottom. 1/4 in. End. as shown by K. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. and glue it to the neck at F. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. 1. Cut a piece of hard wood. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. can be made by the home mechanic. This dimension and those for the frets . The sides. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in.

but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. and beveled . --Contributed by Chas. Carbondale. 3/16 in. toward each end. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. but it is not. thick and about 1 ft. in diameter. A board 1 in. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Stoddard. Frary.should be made accurately. E. Norwalk. O. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. H. 1) on which to stretch the paper. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol.Pa. Six holes. -Contributed by J. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. When it is completed you will have a canoe. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. long is used for a keel. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. or backbone. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe.

1. These are better. C. twigs 5 or 6 ft. slender switches of osier willow. thick. or other place. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. such as hazel or birch. wide by 26 in. Fig. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. 2). as shown in Fig. 3/8 in. Fig. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. and so. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. For the gunwales (a. the loose strips of ash (b. Shape these as shown by A.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. such as is used for making chairbottoms. thick. Fig. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. or similar material. by means of a string or wire. 13 in. in such cases. long are required. In drying. Any tough. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. The ribs. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. Fig. in thickness and should be cut. b. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. procure at a carriage factory. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. apart. The cross-boards (B. 2.) in notches. 3). but twigs of some other trees. long. 3. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. a. some tight strips of ash. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. buy some split cane or rattan. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. 3. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. when made of green elm. which are easily made of long. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. 4). as they are apt to do. as before described. Osiers probably make the best ribs. are next put in. two twigs may be used to make one rib. 1 and 2. b. Fig. probably. Fig. B. and notched at the end to receive them (B. Fig. and are not fastened. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. and. C. Fig. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. b. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. two strips of wood (b. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. . They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. will answer nearly as well. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. Green wood is preferable. 2). Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. as shown in Fig. Fig. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. with long stout screws. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. but before doing this.. 4. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. 3).

Then take some of the split rattan and. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. and as soon as that has soaked in. and light oars. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. however. B. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. Fig. but with less turpentine. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. If not. The paper is then trimmed. and very tough. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. apply a second coat of the same varnish. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. It should be drawn tight along the edges. after wetting it. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. Being made in long rolls. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. and held in place by means of small clamps. It should be smooth on the surface. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. wide. When thoroughly dry.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. tacking it to the bottom-board. 5). but neither stiff nor very thick. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. When the paper is dry. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. if it has been properly constructed of good material. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. If the paper be 1 yd. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. preferably iron. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. of very strong wrapping-paper. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. and steady in the water. You may put in .

fore and aft. Fig. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. 2. 1. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. Fig. and if driven as shown in the cut. to fit it easily. they will support very heavy weights. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. and make a movable seat (A. Fig.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. 5. 5). which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. Drive the lower nail first. 1 and the end in . We procured a box and made a frame. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry.

--Contributed by Albert Niemann. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. being softer where the flame has been applied. This is an easy . Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. and the glass. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long.Fig. Close the other end with the same operation. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. Pa. A good way to handle this work. 4. Pittsburg. 3. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. and the result is. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. This way has its drawbacks. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. this makes the tube airtight. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. 5.

extra metal all around. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. also trace the decorative design. -Contributed by A. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. rivet punch. Give the metal a circular motion. third. After the bulb is formed. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . very rapid progress can be made. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. above the metal. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. Sixth. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. or six arms.way to make a thermometer tube. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. above the work and striking it with the hammer. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. with a piece of carbon paper. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. thin screw. The candle holders may have two. fifth. file. Seventh. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. then reverse. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. Oswald. fourth. three. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. 23 gauge. flat and round-nosed pliers. metal shears. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. four. second. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off.

It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Small copper rivets are used. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. and holder. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. Having pierced the bracket. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. Metal polish of any kind will do. drip cup.

Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. using a steel pen. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. J. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. sugar 1 part. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. of glycerine to about 200 deg. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. Shiloh. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. all the rest I found. the stick at the bottom of the sail. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. on a water bath. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. glycerine 4 parts. The gaff. and it will be ready for future use. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. Heat 6-1/2 oz.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. they were like an ice boat with a sail. A saw. when it will be ready for use. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. thus it was utilized. alcohol 2 parts. deep. F. and in a week . which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. hammer. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. I steer with the front wheel. except they had wheels instead of runners. smooth it down and then remove as before. winding the ends where they came together with wire. is a broomstick. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. if it has not absorbed too much ink. and other things as they were needed. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. The boom. Fifty. and add the gelatine. Mother let me have a sheet. and water 24 parts. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. and brace and bit were the tools used. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. Twenty cents was all I spent. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. N. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. Soak 1 oz.

Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. a projecting lens .Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. long. or a lens of 12-in. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. 3. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. thick. and a projecting lens 2 in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. If a small saw is used. at a point 1 in. G. above the center. focus enlarging a 3-in. and the lens slide. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. describe a 9-in. but if such a box is not found. 8 in. A and B. wide. about 2 ft. and the work carefully done. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. wide and 15 in. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. provided the material is of metal. or glue. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. 1/2 to 3/4 in. The slide support. slide to about 6 ft. are . The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. high. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. as desired. H. This ring is made up from two rings.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. 1. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. at a distance of 24 ft. well seasoned pine. The board is centered both ways. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. A table. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. and 14 in. wire brads. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. and. DD. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. Fig. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. E.

if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. the strips II serving as guides.constructed to slip easily on the table. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. placed on the water. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. P. St. Minn. Paul. should the glass happen to upset. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. E. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. and when the right position is found for each. A sheet . the water at once extinguishes the flame.-Contributed by G. JJ. apply two coats of shellac varnish. The arrangement is quite safe as. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. Small strips of tin. but not long enough. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. B. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. To reach the water. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. light burning oil. of safe. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use.

3. 3. Fig. then the corners on one end are doubled over. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . by 12 ft. Fig. Y. --Contributed by J. I ordered a canvas bag. Schenectady. Crawford. 12 ft. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. If one of these clips is not at hand.. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. from a tent company. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 1. 3 in. to cover the mattresses. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. 9 in. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. form a piece of wire in the same shape. 2. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. 4. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. N.H.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded.

first mark the binding-post A. Fasten the wire with gummed label. 2. Fig. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. through which the indicator works. White. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. 1/2 in. and insert two binding-posts. Teasdale. V. 1. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. Warren. for amperes and the other post. as shown in Fig. open on the edges. --Contributed by Edward M. 1. Fig. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Denver. 3/4 in. C. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. to keep it from unwinding. 3/4 in. D. in the center coil. insulating them from the case with cardboard. Attach a piece of steel rod. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. wide. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. Colo. A Film Washing Trough [331] . An arc is cut in the paper. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. holes in the edge. To calibrate the instrument. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. A rubber band. apart. long.each edge. Fold two strips of light cardboard. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. 2. long and 3/16 in. Pa. 2. Do not use too strong a rubber. thick. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Walter W. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. so as to form two oblong boxes. 1/2 in. 3 to swing freely on the tack. to the coil of small wire for volts. drill two 3/16 in.

A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. O. Hunting. M. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Cut a 1/4-in. Dayton. Place this can on one end of the trough. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. as shown. with the large hole up. Wood Burning [331] . --Contributed by M.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed.

Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. then into this bottle place. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. mouth downward. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle.

Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . This will make a very pretty ornament. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. If the cork is adjusted properly. provided the bottle is wide. If the small bottle used is opaque. long. thick. 2. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. many puzzling effects may be obtained. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. Upper Troy. Auburn. Place the small bottle in as before. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. --Contributed by John Shahan. Ala. Whitehouse. --Contributed by Fred W.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. 3/4 in. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. N. 1. wide and 4 in. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. but not very thick. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. as shown in the sketch. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A.Y. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig.

W. Fig.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. The wire L was put . 2 ft. 1. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. which was 6 in. The shaft C. The bearing blocks were 3 in. The 21/2-in. --Contributed by D. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. high without the upper half. which was nailed to the face plate. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. 2. G. by the method shown in Fig. Fig. 1. 3. thick. 1. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. On a 1000-ft. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. iron rod. or ordinary telephone transmitters. as shown in Fig. Both bearings were made in this manner. was 1/4in. to the shaft. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. 1. which extended to the ground. 1 in. thick. Fig. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. I. A staple. thick and 3 in. K. pulley. which gave considerable power for its size. line. Milter. pulley F. B. 1. 4. long. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. even in a light breeze. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. such as blades and pulleys. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. sugar pine on account of its softness. Fig. Its smaller parts. was keyed to shaft C. were constructed of 1-in. wide. Fig. If a transmitter is used. in diameter and 1 in.

Fig. and was cut the shape shown. 5. long and 1/2 in. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. 6. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. Fig. 2. This completes the receiver or sounder. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. wide and 1 in. so that the 1/4-in. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. through the latter. 0. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. hole was bored for it. 6. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. long and 3 in. providing one has a few old materials on hand. Fig. The bed plate D. when the windmill needed oiling. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. Two washers were placed on shaft C. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. To lessen the friction here. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. The power was put to various uses. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. 1. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. Fig. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. square to the board P at the top of the tower. as. Fig. To make the key.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. with brass headed furniture tacks. cut out another piece of tin (X. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. If you have no bell. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. apart in the tower. 1. 1. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. long and bend it as . strips. across the thin edge of a board. was tacked. The smaller one. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. top down also. There a 1/4-in. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. R. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. for instance. 3 in. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. long. in the center of the board P. hole for the shaft G was in the center. This board was 12 in. long. Fig. in diameter. 1) 4 in. pine 18 by 12 in. The other lid. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. Fig. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. a 1/2-in. 25 ft. washers were placed under pulley F. with all parts in place. was 2 ft. 1. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. This fan was made of 1/4-in. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. H. long and bend it as shown at A. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. G. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids.

adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. causing a buzzing sound. leaving the other wire as it is. -Contributed by John R. 2. 1. Now. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Before tacking it to the board. When tired of this instrument.shown. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. as indicated. fitted with paddles as at M. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. and. By adjusting the coils. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. Thus a center drive is made. Going back to Fig. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. after the manner of bicycle wheels. at the front. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. The rear barrels are. McConnell. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. as shown at Water. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. like many another device boys make. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. using cleats to hold the board frame. although it can be made with but two. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. consisting of four pieces of board nailed .

but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . thin sheet brass for the cylinder. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. 1. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. or even a little houseboat. If the journals thus made are well oiled. There is no danger. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. as shown in Fig. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. The speed is slow at first. which will give any amount of pleasure. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. 3. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. copper piping and brass tubing for base. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. To propel it. can be built. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. feet on the pedals. there will not be much friction. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety.

break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. Turn a small circle of wood. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. 2. Fig. Place one brass ring in cylinder. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. 2. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Fig. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. 1. Fig. 2. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. then the glass disc and then the other ring. Fig. 1. or it may be put to other uses if desired. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. If magnifying glass cannot be had. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. C. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. D. A. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. and so creating a false circuit. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. 1. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far.of pleasure for a little work. If it is desired to make the light very complete. Then melt out the rosin or lead. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. B.

I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . To operate this. To throw on light throw levers to the left. some glue will secure them. C. 5-1/4 by 10 in. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. Pa. bracket. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. which stops bell ringing. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. I. Brinkerhoff. 4 in. T. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. Chatland. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes.. Swissvale. if too small. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. Utah. wide and 1/16 in. dry batteries. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . and pulled tight. --Contributed by C. or 1/4in. after two turns have been made on the key. brass rod. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. by having the switch on the baseboard. near the bed. G. copper tubing. --Contributed by Geo. contact post. H. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. J. B. S. The parts indicated are as follows: A. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. wire from light to switch. bell. C. wire from bell to switch. brass strip. F. To get the cylinder into its carriage. thick. In placing clock on shelf. X. shelf. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. switch. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. such as is used for cycle valves. Ogden. wire from batteries to switch. Throw lever off from the right to center. E. while lying in bed. long. key of alarm clock. long. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. set alarm key as shown in diagram. 3/8 in. after setting alarm. D. When alarm goes off. 4-1/2 in.india rubber tubing.

1/4 in. a bed warmer. as .Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. as at A. about 6 in. 4 in. Fig. as at A. Minn. 1. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. --Contributed by Chas. in diameter. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. gives the heater a more finished appearance. 3. letting it extend 3/4 in. as in Fig. making it as true and smooth as possible. 1. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. long. about 3-1/2 in. in diameter. will do the heating. being careful not to get the sand in it. as at B. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. A small lamp of about 5 cp. 2. This is to form the fuse hole. 2. S. place stick and all in a pail of sand. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. Fig. beyond the end of the spindle. Lanesboro. which can be made of an old can. wide. Fig. Having finished this. Make the spindle as in Fig. for instance. Pull out the nail and stick. from one end. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. Chapman. Make a shoulder. All that is required is a tin covering. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. A flannel bag.

5/8 in. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. or hickory. 1 in. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. 3/8 in. wide and 3/8 in. thick. A piece of tin. --Contributed by Arthur E. this is to keep the edges from splitting. long. ash. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. thick. long. good straight-grained pine will do. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. long. wide and 3 ft. 11/2 in. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. Joerin. deep. thick. A piece of oak. 6 in. will be sufficient to make the trigger. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. The illustration shows how this is done. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . wide and 6 ft. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. 1.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. but if this wood cannot be procured. The material must be 1-1/2 in. spring and arrows.

9. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. When the trigger is pulled. Fig. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. better still. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. Fig. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. 6. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. To shoot the crossbow. The bow is not fastened in the stock. The stick for the bow. in diameter. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. --Contributed by O. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. place the arrow in the groove. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. A spring. Ill. from the opposite end. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. 7. which is 1/4 in. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. Wilmette. E. from the end of the stock. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. 8. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. 3. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. it lifts the spring up. and one for the trigger 12 in. 2. thick. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. or through the necessity of. To throw the arrow. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. 4. Fig. as shown in Fig. having the latter swing quite freely. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. wide at each end. as shown in Fig. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. The trigger. Such a temporary safe light may be . a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. Trownes.

which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. the bark lean-to is a . and nail it in position as shown at A. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. By chopping the trunk almost through. respectively. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. it is the easiest camp to make. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. Remove the bottom of the box. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. making lighting and trimming convenient. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. The cut should be about 5 ft. The hinged cover E. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. make the frame of the wigwam. apart. from the ground. C. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. is used as a door. This lamp is safe. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. Remove one end. Moreover. from the ground. since the flame of the candle is above A. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. says Photo Era. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. and replace as shown at B. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum.

The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. spruce. For a permanent camp. thick. and split the tops with an ax. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. Tongs are very useful in camp. make the best kind of a camp bed. are a convenient size for camp construction. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. deep and covered with blankets.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. For a foot in the middle of the stick. In the early summer. makes a good pair of tongs. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. 6 ft. will dry flat. nails are necessary to hold it in place. and cedar. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. and when the camp is pitched. long and 1-1/2 in. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. Where bark is used. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. A piece of elm or hickory. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. 3 ft. . wide. long. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. piled 2 or 3 ft. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. long and 2 or 3 ft. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. a 2-in. Sheets of bark. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. selecting a site for a camp. wide and 6 ft. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones.

and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. and affording accommodation for several persons. .Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. hinges. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats.

changing the water both morning and night. A.. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. B. B. deep and 4 in. 1. and provide a cover or door. the interior can. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. --Contributed by James M. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. Kane. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. wide. Pa. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. about 4 in. I drove a small cork.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Doylestown. to another . Fig.

a liquid. 2.glass tube. 3. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. Fig. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. 4 and 5). to pass through an increasing resistance. limit. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. 2. which project inside and outside of the tube. The current is thus compelled. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. for instance. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. The diagram. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. fused into one side. E. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. C. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. for instance. This makes . if necessary. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. such as ether. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. until.

thick. 4-1/2 in. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. Then the field can be finished to these marks. on a lathe. but merely discolored. which may be of any thickness so that. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. larger than the dimensions given. assemble and rivet them solidly. between centers. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. thick. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. drill the four rivet holes. Fig. 1. which will make it uniform in size. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. two holes. Alpena. tap. thicker. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. is composed of wrought sheet iron. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. therefore. or pattern. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. bent at right angles as shown. to allow for finishing. 3. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. when several pieces are placed together. These holes are for the bearing studs. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. by turning the lathe with the hand. clamp the template. When the frame is finished so far. Before removing the field from the lathe. making it 1/16 in. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. cannot be used so often. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. If the thickness is sufficient. or even 1/16 in. screws. 2. The bearing studs are now made. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. A. 3-3/8 in. in diameter. Fig. 3-3/8 in. brass. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. After the template is marked out. Michigan. as shown in Fig. brass or iron. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. they will make a frame 3/4 in. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. as shown in the left-hand sketch. in diameter. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. set at 1/8 in. mark off a space. After cleaning them with the solution. and for the outside of the frame. A 5/8in. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. hole is .

and build up the solder well. or otherwise finished. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. The shaft of the armature. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . Fig. soldered into place. 4. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. file them out to make the proper adjustment. is turned up from machine steel. solder them to the supports. brass rod is inserted. When the bearings are located.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. into which a piece of 5/8-in.

Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. as shown in Fig. 6. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. then drill a 1/8-in. thick. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. holes through them for rivets. Procure 12 strips of mica. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. and held with a setscrew. as shown in Fig. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. 3. Rivet them together. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. thick. or segments. 1-1/8 in. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. sheet fiber. as shown in Fig. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. 3/4 in. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. deep and 7/16 in. Make the core 3/4 in. inside diameter. to allow for finishing to size. thick and 1/4 in. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. thick.. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. The pins are made of brass. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. 3/4 in. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. 3. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. After the pieces are cut out. by 1-1/2 in. 5. 1/8 in. 9. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. wide. 8. 7. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. thick are cut like the pattern. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. The sides are also faced off and finished. After they . The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. being formed for the ends. Armature-Ring Core. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. hole and tap it for a pin. as shown in Fig. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. 6. When this is accomplished. as shown m Fig. When annealed. as shown in Fig. brass rod. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. and then they are soaked in warm water. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. Find the centers of each segment at one end. threaded. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. washers. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. wide.

then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown.have dried. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. The source of current is connected to the terminals. 5. To connect the wires. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. sheet fiber. The winding is started at A. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. thick. 8 in. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. The field is wound with No. 1. In starting to wind. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Fig. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. after the motor is on the stand. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. wide and 1 in. are soldered together. and bring the end of the wire out at B. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. being required. which will take 50 ft. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. 1. until the 12 slots are filled. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. This winding is for a series motor. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. The two ends are joined at B. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. Fig. of the end to protrude. or side. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. the two ends of the wire. When the glue is set. of No. long. Run one end of the field wire. yet it shows a series of . shown at A. about 100 ft. they are glued to the core insulation. After one coil. sheet fiber. and wind on four layers. by bending the end around one of the projections. 6 in. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. All connections should be securely soldered. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. shown at B. of the wire.

In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. or. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. A 1/2-in. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. is fastened to the metallic body. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. and one. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. Nine wires run from the timer. as in the case of a spiral. still more simply. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . one from each of the eight contacts. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. which serves as the ground wire.

These magnets are placed in a 10-in. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. 6 in. Without this attachment. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. circle. board. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. thus giving 16 different directions. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. 45 deg. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. of the dial. long. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. It should be . Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial.The Wind Vane. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. Covering these is a thin.

" Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. Before tacking the fourth side. Buffalo. Place the leather on some level. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. 14 by 18 in. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. To make it. To work these outlines. long to give the best results. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. will be enough for the two sides. also a piece of new carpet. Cut 3-in. and about 6 in. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. however. if not too high. or. high. thus making a universal joint. though a special knife. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. -Contributed by James L. is most satisfactory. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. Blackmer. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. N. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. will be sufficient. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. will answer the purpose just as well. . Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets.about 6 ft. and securely nail on the top of the box. called a chip carving knife. making it heavy or light. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. Fill the box with any handy ballast. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. according to who is going to use it. Y.

fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. An ordinary sewing-machine . A good leather paste will be required.

Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. temporary lameness. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. as in cases of a sprained ankle. or a hip that has been wrenched. of common salt and 10 lb. and tie them together securely at the bottom. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. Morse. square and tying a piece of . The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Syracuse. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. of water. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. N. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. --Contributed by Katharine D. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. rather than the smooth side. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. a needle and some feathers. If a fire breaks out. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Y. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. B. away from it. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. can be thrown away when no longer needed. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames.will do if a good stout needle is used. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch.

The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. deep. A small wooden or fiber end. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. B. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. N. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. This not only keeps the rats out. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. E. A. Ashland. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. The diaphragm C. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. One end is removed entirely. as shown. Y. Albany. 1/8 in. . the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint.. etc. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. letting it go at arm's length. which is the essential part of the instrument. The body of the receiver. The coil is 1 in. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. commonly called tintype tin. long. and the receiver is ready for use. N. and a coil of wire. and tacked it to the boards. long. Gordon Dempsey. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. wide and 1/16 in. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. There is a 1-in. made up of four layers of No. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. the corners being wired. The end is filed to an edge. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. but not sharp.J. Hellwig. --Contributed by J. high. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. thus helping the rats to enter. Wis. board all around the bottom on the inside. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. --Contributed by John A. is cut on the wood. G. wound on the head end. laying poisoned meat and meal. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. F.string to each corner. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. setting traps. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. Paterson. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. cut to the length of the spool. The strings should be about 15 in. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. -Contributed by Ben Grebin.

dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. begin with the smallest scrolls. Take a piece of string or. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. and bend each strip in shape. a piece of small wire. The vase is to have three supports. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. To clean small articles. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. A single line will be sufficient. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. better still. wide. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. to . The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. gold. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears.

and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Fold the leather on the line EF. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. After taking off the pattern. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Work down the outside line of the design. . Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. from C to D. 4-1/4 in. Press or model down the leather all around the design. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct.. from the lines EF on the piece. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. through which to slip the fly AGH. 6-3/8 in.which the supports are fastened with rivets. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. 3-1/2 in. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. sharp pencil. Trace also the line around the purse. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. 3-1/4 in. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. wide when stitching up the purse. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. as shown in the sketch. from E to F.. About 1 in. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. and does not require coloring. thus raising it. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. using a duller point of the tool.

the "open" side. 1. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. deep. long. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. 1 was cut. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. with the open side down. Cut off six pieces 12 in. 3. then nail it. When it is finished. It can be made without the use of a lathe. 1/2 in. with a compass saw. and. Make the lug 1/4 in. and which will be very interesting. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. as well as useful. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. by 12 ft. being cast in wooden molds. b. all the way around. Now take another piece of wood. leaving the lug a. as shown in Fig. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. square. It is neat and efficient. First. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and the projections B. Then nail the wheel down firmly. following the dotted lines. deep. then place the square piece out of which Fig.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. and tack the other piece slightly. and a model for speed and power. with the largest side down. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. and cut out a wheel. 2.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. thick. This also should be slightly beveled. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. around the wheel. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. with pins or small nails. Fit this to the two .

Now put mold No.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. hole entirely through at the same place. deep. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and clean all the shavings out of it. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. place it between two of the 12-in. Take the mold apart. then bolt it together. and boring a 3/8-in. hole 1/4 in. square pieces of wood. one of which should have a 3/8-in. After it is finished. bolts. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. hole bored through its center. holes through it. slightly beveled.pieces just finished. as shown by the . and bore six 1/4-in. 1. square pieces of wood. as shown by the black dots in Fig. in the center of it. Now take another of the 12-in. and lay it away to dry. 4.

holes. and run in babbitt metal again. true it up with a square. as shown in illustration. 6. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. and the exhaust hole in projection b.1. take an ordinary brace. B. place it under the drill. Fig. A piece of mild steel 5 in. Now take mold No.black dots in Fig. 6. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. from the one end. put the top of the brace through this hole. holes at d. over the defective part. and 3/8-in. see that the bolts are all tight. Pour metal into mold No. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. b. and drill them in the same manner. and pour babbitt metal into it. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Using the Brace . and two 1/4-in. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. After it is fitted in. Commencing 1-1/2 in. long. where the casting did not fill out. until it is full. This is mold No. Then bolt the castings together. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. This is for a shaft. drill in it. the other right-handed. one in the lug. 1. long. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. This will cast a paddle-wheel.2. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. Put this together in mold No. and lay it away to dry. in diameter must now be obtained. This is the same as Fig. and the other in the base. and pouring metal in to fill it up. and bore three 1/4-in. Now cut out one of the 12-in. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. as shown by the black dots in Fig. only the one is left-handed. instead of the right-handed piece. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press.1. place the entire machine in a vise. and connect to the boiler. 4. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. wide and 16 in. Let it stand for half an hour. so that it will turn easily.2. lay it on a level place. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. 5. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. screw down. fasten a 3/8-in. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. d. and drill it entirely through. one in the projections.

or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. one 6 ft. and if instructions have been carefully followed. turn the wheel to the shape desired. while it is running at full speed. Plan of Ice Boat . will do good service. Then take a knife or a chisel. At each end of the 6ft.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. piece and at right angles to it. and. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. and the other 8 ft. with a boss and a set screw.. and with three small screw holes around the edge. long. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood.

in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. 3. at the top. Over the middle of the 6-ft. plank nail 8-in. boards to make the platform. in front of the rudder block. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. in diameter. 8 a reef point knot. leaving 1 ft. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. plank. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. bolt the 8-ft. long and 2-1/2 in. distant. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. 2 by 3 in. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . Make your runners as long as possible. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. To the under side of the 8-ft. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. Fig. Fig. long. in diameter in the center. so much the better will be your boat. in the top before the skate is put on. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. which m