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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

with the hollow side away from you. Ontario. 2. The pieces are then dressed round. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. A piece of plank 12 in. 1. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. wide and 2 ft. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. Fig. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. grasp it and hold the same as a club. It is held in this curve until dry. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. as shown in Fig. distant.Fig. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. Toronto. 1. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. 1. 2. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. E. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. To throw a boomerang. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. Noble. 2 -. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. until it is bound as shown in Fig. long will make six boomerangs. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. away. apart. After the piece is thoroughly dried out.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in.

and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. If the snow is of the right consistency. however. First.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. but about 12 in. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. blocks . it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. and it may be necessary to use a little water. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. minus the top. thick. high and 4 or 5 in. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. the block will drop out. A wall. one inside of the circle and the other outside. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. A very light. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. or rather no bottom at all. 6 in. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. which makes the building simpler and easier. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. made of 6-in. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. and with a movable bottom. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. forcing it down closely. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. long. it is not essential to the support of the walls. dry snow will not pack easily. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid.

It also keeps them out. Goodbrod. or an old safe dial will do. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. A nail. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. Fig. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. Fig. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. There is no outward thrust. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. is 6 or 8 in. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. 3. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. --Contributed by Geo. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. which can be made of wood. 2. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. a. The piece of wood. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. above the ground. which is about 1 ft. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. Fig. Ore. 1. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. and the young architect can imitate them. wide. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. long and 1 in. D. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. 2. Union. 3 -. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. 1. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. C.

New York. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. one pair of special hinges. --Contributed by R. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. S. Syracuse. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. the box locked . Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. Merrill. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. If ordinary butts are used. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. says the Sphinx. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. as the weight always draws them back to place. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling.When taking hot dishes from the stove.

which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. Alberta Norrell. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. draw one-half of it. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly.and the performer steps out in view. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. To make a design similar to the one shown. Augusta. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. If the measuring has been done properly. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. one for each corner. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. smooth surface. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. about 1-32 of an inch. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. 3. on drawing paper. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. 1. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. All . as shown. as shown in Fig. Place the piece in a vise. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. When the sieve is shaken. as shown in Fig. It remains to bend the flaps. proceed as follows: First. 2. Fig. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. -Contributed by L. Ga. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. With the metal shears. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. allowing each coat time to dry. If they do not. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth.

Denver. and in the positions shown in the sketch. 25 German-silver wire. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. of No. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. To keep the metal from tarnishing. In boring through rubber corks. causing it to expand. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. Colo.the edges should be left smooth. The current. 25 gauge German-silver wire. in diameter. is fitted tightly in the third hole. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. in passing through the lamp. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. H. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. about 6 in. which is about 6 in. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. heats the strip of German-silver wire. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. from the back end. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. should be in the line. A resistance. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. if rolled under the shoe sole. long. The common cork. --Contributed by R. R. used for insulation. If a touch of color is desired. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. After this has dried. When the current is turned off. B. C. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. A piece of porcelain tube. Galbreath. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. as shown at AA.

Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. between them as shown in Fig. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Purchase two long book straps. 1. 2. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. Fig. leaving a space of 4 in. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. Kansas City.bottom ring. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. 3. with thin strips of wood. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Mo. . as shown in Fig. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. --Contributed by David Brown. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable.

An ordinary electric bell. just the right weight for a woman to use. as . Fig. Syracuse. The folds are made over the string. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Kane. and tack smoothly. --Contributed by James M. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. 3. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. The string is then tied. Two strips of brass. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. and one weighing 25 lb. C. A. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. in diameter. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. and a pocket battery. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. 1. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. long. 1. one weighing 15 lb. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. Fig. Fig. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Doylestown. When the aeroplane tips. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom.. 1. are mounted on the outside of the box.. to form a handle. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. Y. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. Morse. --Contributed by Katharine D. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Pa. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. having a gong 2-1/2 in. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. N. which is the right weight for family use. 4. These are shown in Fig. 2. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. 36 in. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig.

Day. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. Floral Park. two 1/8 -in. machine screws. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. The saw. Y. and many fancy knick-knacks. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. 1. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. long. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. if once used. Frame Made of a Rod . --Contributed by Louis J. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. four washers and four square nuts. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. bent as shown in Fig. in diameter. 2. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. 2. N. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. AA. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. such as brackets. 3/32 or 1/4 in.

Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. 1 part sulphuric acid.. Apply two coats. after breaking up. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. File these edges. The buckle is to be purchased. --Contributed by W. copper. of course. as well as brass and copper. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. using a swab and an old stiff brush. allowing each time to dry.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. Drying will cause this to change to purple. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish.may be made of either brass. use them in place of the outside nuts. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. Silver is the most desirable but. treat it with color. be covered the same as the back. For etching. or silver. If it colors the metal red. Watch Fob For coloring silver. of water in which dissolve. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. it has the correct strength. Michigan. if copper or brass. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. green and browns are the most popular. of water. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. 1 part nitric acid. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. An Austrian Top [12] . Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. Scranton. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. though almost any color may be obtained. A. the most expensive. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. therefore. as well as the depth of etching desired. Rub off the highlights. In the design shown. Detroit. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. Of the leathers.

long.F. . When the shank is covered. Parts of the Top To spin the top. Bore a 3/4-in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. long. A handle. starting at the bottom and winding upward. The handle is a piece of pine. Tholl. Ypsilanti. is formed on one end. A 1/16-in. 3/4 in. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. hole. 5-1/4 in. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. Michigan. allowing only 1-1/4 in. 1-1/4 in. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. --Contributed by J. set the top in the 3/4 -in. hole in this end for the top. thick. wide and 3/4 in. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. in diameter. pass one end through the 1/16-in.

A. Alberta Norrell. Augusta. For black leathers. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Mich. Northville. having no sides. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. --Contributed by Miss L. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. --A. The baking surface. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Ga. tarts or similar pastry. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. . Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Houghton. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center.

two turns will remove the jar. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. glass fruit jar. Stringing Wires [13] A.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. then solder cover and socket together. Mo. When you desire to work by white light. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . the same as shown in the illustration. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. Centralia. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. says Studio Light. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes.

and not tip over. 16 Horizontal bars. Janesville. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. 4 Vertical pieces. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. 1-1/4 in. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. . so it can be folded up. as shown in the cross-section sketch. square by 12 in. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. 1-1/4 in. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. 4 Braces.for loading and development. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. Wis. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. square by 62 in. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. They are fastened. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes.

These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. Phillipsburg. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. After rounding the ends of the studs. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. and a loop made in the end. from scrap material. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. Cincinnati. The whole. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. O. after filling the pail with water. -Contributed by Charles Stem. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. The front can be covered . the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. Rosenthal. New York. H. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. If the loop is tied at the proper place. --Contributed by Dr. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. C. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand.

and. the color will be an undesirable. thoroughly fix. FIG. --Contributed by Gilbert A. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. Develop them into strong prints. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. The . entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. If the gate is raised slightly. you are. the mouth of which rests against a. principally mayonnaise dressing. The results will be poor. by all rules of the game. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. By using the following method. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. either for contact printing or enlargements. 1 FIG. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. In my own practice. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. Wehr. Baltimore. sickly one.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. Md. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. if you try to tone them afterward.

when it starts to bleach. A good final washing completes the process..... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. etc.. long to admit the angle support.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.. transfer it to a tray of water... A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.... three times. 2 oz..........bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. Iodide of potassium ....... They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. It will bleach slowly and evenly. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. San Francisco... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax...... in size. 5 by 15 in. preferably the colored kind. L. but.." Cyanide of potassium ... --Contributed by T... being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. in this solution. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes.. without previous wetting. 20 gr. The blotting paper can .. When the desired reduction has taken place. 1 and again as in Fig... to make it 5 by 5 in.. wide and 4 in. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. 16 oz. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. Gray.. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. 2...... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper..... Cal. Water . Place the dry print..... where it will continue to bleach. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. as it will appear clean much longer than the white. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in... With a little practice.

It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Oshkosh.J. Wilson Aldred Toronto. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. wide. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. --Contributed by J. the shaft 1 in.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. --Contributed by L. Canada. Monahan. wide below the . the head of which is 2 in. 3. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Wisconsin. and a length of 5 in. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Make a design similar to that shown. 20 gauge.

then trace the other half in the usual way. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. which gives the outline of the design Fig. 1 part nitric acid. 1. 1 Fig. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. Do not put the hands in the solution. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. Trace the design on the metal. Make one-half of the design. 3. using carbon paper. With files. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. After the sawing. but use a swab on a stick. With the metal shears. as shown in Fig. Allow this to dry. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. then put on a second coat. 2. freehand. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. After this has dried. The metal must be held firmly. using a small metal saw. Fig. being held perpendicular to the work. 4. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. Pierce a hole with a small drill. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. For coloring olive green. using turpentine. Apply with a small brush. deep. 1 part sulphuric acid. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. then coloring. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. .FIG. after folding along the center line. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper.

as shown. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. Morse. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. or for serving an invalid's breakfast.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. . The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. it does the work rapidly. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. Cal. Burnett. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. --Contributed by H. thick. M. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. attach brass handles. When this is cold. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. on a chopping board. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Conn. Richmond. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. After the stain has dried. then stain it a mahogany color. East Hartford. Syracuse. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. --Contributed by M. New York. Carl Cramer. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. --Contributed by Katharine D. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Ii is an ordinary staple. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. the block is split and the pasteboard removed.

A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. . The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. some pieces of brass. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. --Contributed by Mrs. and several 1/8-in. H. saucers or pans. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. Jaquythe. also locate the drill holes. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. A. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. Atwell. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. 53 steel pens.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. thick. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. Richmond. --Contributed by W. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. in width at the shank. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. Florida. one shaft. indicating the depth of the slots. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. 1. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. machine screws. Kissimmee. 4. brass. Fig. thick and 4 in. square. holes. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. not over 1/4 in. as shown at A. WARNECKE Procure some brass. Cal. as shown in Fig.. two enameled. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. about 3/16 in. L. or tin. 1/4 in.

hole. using two nuts on each screw. lead should be run into the segments. thick. Bend as shown in Fig. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. machine screws and nuts. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. 2. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. as in Fig. 1. These are connected to a 3/8-in. with 1/8-in. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. about 1/32 in. long and 5/16 in. Fig. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. Fig. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. 5. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. supply pipe. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. 2. thick. If metal dishes. 6. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. in diameter and 1/32 in. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. The shaft hole may also be filed square. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . hole in the center. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. 3. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing.. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. Fig. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. each about 1 in. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. and the ends filed round for the bearings. long by 3/4 in. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. brass and bolted to the casing. can be procured. 7. as shown in Fig. into the hole. wide and bend as shown in Fig. wide. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. as shown. There should be a space of 1/16 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. with the face of the disk. A 3/4-in. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. machine screws. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. If the shaft is square. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. hole is drilled to run off the water. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. and pins inserted. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. with a 3/8-in. 3. a square shaft used.

With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. When assembling. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. La Salle. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Canada. deep and 1-1/4 in. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. from the top of the box. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Ill. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Stain the wood before putting in the . allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. Fasten with 3/4-in. 8-1/2 in. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. Be sure to have the cover. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. --Contributed by S. from the bottom end of the legs. V. The lower part. The four legs are each 3/4-in. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. using four to each leg. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. to make the bottom. make these seams come between the two back legs. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. Now you will have the box in two pieces. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. long. high and 15 in. we will call the basket. With a string or tape measure. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. Smith. or more in diameter. screws. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. deep over all. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. square and 30-1/2 in. three of which are in the basket. Hamilton. Cooke. --Contributed by F.

--Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. --also the lower edge when necessary.2 Fig. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. Boston. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible.lining.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . The side. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Baltimore. you can. Mass. Sew on to the covered cardboards. Md. Cover them with the cretonne. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. wide and four strips 10 in. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. as shown in the sketch. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. and gather it at that point. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. 1. Packard. 2. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. sewing on the back side. When making the display. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. wide. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Fig. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. -Contributed by Stanley H. If all the parts are well sandpapered. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound.

--Contributed by B. Gloversville. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. It is cleanly. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Cross Timbers.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. saving all the solid part. and. --Contributed by H. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Crockett. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. N. Orlando Taylor. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. L. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. It is not difficult to . Mo. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. with slight modifications. Y. Fig. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. 3. When through using the pad. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog.

Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Both of these methods are wasteful. -Contributed by C. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Bourne. Lane. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. S. or if desired. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. Lowell. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. After stirring. Texas. If a file is used. it should be new and sharp. El Paso. are shown in the diagram. and scrape out the rough parts. --Contributed by Edith E. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. across the face. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. and secure it in place with glue or paste. Mass. remove the contents. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. After this is done.

circled over the funnel and disappeared. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. The insects came to the light. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Greenleaf. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. --Contributed by Loren Ward. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. A Postcard Rack [25]. --Contributed by Marion P. After several hours' drying. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. Canton. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Ill. Ill. --Contributed by Geo. As these were single-faced disk records. Turl. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Des Moines. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. The process works well and needs no watching. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. F. Those having houses .cooking utensil. Oregon. Oak Park. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. Iowa. Wheeler.

6 in.. and as they are simple in design. the best material to use being matched boards. --Contributed by Wm. plane and pocket knife. 6 in. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. thick. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. one on each side of what will be the . Both sides can be put together in this way. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. by 2 ft. Mass. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. boards are preferable. Only three pieces are required. will do as well. the bottom being 3/8 in. but for cheapness 3/4 in. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. Glenbrook. Dobbins. Worcester. --Contributed by Thomas E. The single boards can then be fixed. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. Conn. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. Lay the floor next. Rosenberg. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way.. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. and the second one for the developing bench. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. and both exactly alike. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. material. not even with the boards themselves.

hinged to it. of the top of the door for the same reason. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A.. so that it will fit inside the sink. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. The roof boards may next be put on. etc. and to the outside board of the sides. 6 and 9. 9). It is shown in detail in Fig. and in the middle an opening. brown wrapping paper. 10). fix a narrow piece between the side boards. Fig.doorway. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. 11. and act as a trap for the light. nailing them to each other at the ridge. is cut. 6. 8. 2 in section.. and the top as at C in the same drawing. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. The developing bench is 18 in. 6. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. 7. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. below which is fixed the sink.. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. 3 and 4. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. which is fixed on as shown . wide. 5. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. 9 by 11 in. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. so that the water will drain off into the sink. In hinging the door. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. At the top of the doorway. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. by screwing to the floor. and should be zinc lined. the closing side as at B. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. as shown in Figs. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close.

Details of the Dark Rook .

The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. 13. as at I. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. which makes it possible to have white light. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. as shown in Fig. as at M. The house will be much strengthened if strips. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. 1. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. preferably maple or ash. Fig. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. or red light as at K. though this is hardly advisable. Pennsylvania. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. 2. screwing them each way into the boards. and a 3/8-in. are fastened in the corners inside. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. 17. A circular piece about 2 in.in Fig. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. 14. Fig. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. 15. Fig. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. Fig. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. four coats at first is not too many. 16. 20. Erie. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. 18. 6. 19. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. For beating up an egg in a glass. mixing flour and water. In use. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. these being shown in Fig. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. and a tank stand on it. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . --Contributed by W. or the room may be made with a flat roof. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. after lining with brown paper. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. The handle should be at least 12 in. 13. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. hole bored in the center for a handle. but not the red glass and frame. as shown in the sections. it is better than anything on the market. if desired. Karl Hilbrich. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. 16. as in Fig. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor.

A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. --Contributed by Wm. Ark. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. D. Schweiger. -Contributed by E. about 3/8 in. --Contributed by L. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B.copper should be. Mo. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. as shown in the sketch. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. New York. G. for a handle. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. Eureka Springs. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. L. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. To operate. Yonkers. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. Smith. which. long. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Kansas City. Mitchell. when put together properly is a puzzle.

These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. Each cork is cut as in Fig. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. 1. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. to make it set level. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. for the moment. If the sill is inclined. The design shown in Fig. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. the box will require a greater height in front. as shown in Fig. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. Having completed the bare box. 3. 2.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. The corks in use are shown in Fig. . as shown in Fig. especially for filling-in purposes. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. which binds them together. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. A number of 1/2-in. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. as well as improve its appearance. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. as is usually the case. need them. in order to thoroughly preserve it. the rustic work should be varnished. holes should be drilled in the bottom. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. After the box is trimmed. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. 3.

the squirrels come in droves from far and near. But I have solved the difficulty. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. 4. F. etc.. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. Each long projection represents a leg. drilled at right angles. 1. life in the summer time is a vexation. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. 3. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. . Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. and observe results. share the same fate. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. 2. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. can't use poison. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. being partly eaten into. cabbages. Traps do no good. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. as shown in Fig. it's easy. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. When the corn is gone cucumbers. too dangerous.

Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. long. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. cut in 1/2-in. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. The solution can be used over and over again. cut some of it off and try again. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. strips. . Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. by trial. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. Iowa. -. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. and made up and kept in large bottles. If. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. About 9-1/2 ft. the coil does not heat sufficiently. of No.

and a strip. is a good size--in this compound. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. Syracuse. Pa. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Morse. In cleaning silver. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Knives. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. Stir and mix thoroughly. D.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. 1) removed. Dallas. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. N. Y. of whiting and 1/2 oz. as shown in the sketch. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. --Contributed by Katharine D. C. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Do not wash them. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. coffee pot. to cause the door to swing shut. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. . Texas. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. hot-water pot. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. --Contributed by James M. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Fig 2. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. it falls to stop G. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. of gasoline. but with unsatisfactory results. Kane. forks. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. Doylestown.

Fisher. which is. La. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Pa. Harrisburg. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. --Contributed by Oliver S. Sprout. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. negatives. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. Waverly. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. later fixed and washed as usual. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Ill. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. . --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. New Orleans. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. but unfixed. of course. --Contributed by Theodore L. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. using the paper dry.

then . A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. a harmonograph is a good prescription. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. The harmonograph. metal. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. 1. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. To obviate this difficulty. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. Fig. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. In this uncertainty lies the charm. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling.

Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. of about 30 or 40 lb. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . and unless the shorter pendulum is. Another weight of about 10 lb. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. etc. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. 1. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. what is most important. 1. R. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. Holes up to 3 in.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. A small weight. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. exactly one-third. or the lines will overlap and blur. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. provides a means of support for the stylus.. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. which can be regulated.. as shown in the lower part of Fig. A small table or platform. A length of 7 ft. --Contributed by Wm. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. Punch a hole.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. with a nail set or punch. Arizona. for instance. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. J. that is. A weight. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. Chicago. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. Gaffney. in the center of the circle to be cut. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. Rosemont. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. as long as the other. G. K. one-fourth. in diameter. --Contributed by James T. The length of the short pendulum H. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. one-fifth. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. to prevent any side motion. Ingham. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. A pedestal. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. such as a shoe buttoner. is attached as shown at H. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. is about right for a 10-ft. ceiling. 1-3/4 by 2 in. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. makes respectively 3. as shown in Fig.

The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. Morey. -Contributed by W. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. Cape May City. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made.J. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. then put 2 at the top. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. then 3 as in Fig. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. Fig. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig.J. one for the sender and one for the receiver. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. 2. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. The two key cards are made alike. of course. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. --Contributed by J. 4. The capacity of the vise. 5. 6. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. Cruger. and proceed as before. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case.H. Chicago. N. Fig. 1. 3. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. and 4 as in Fig.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. dividing them into quarters. distributing them over the whole card. a correspondent of .

then cut slices from the center toward the ends. citrate of iron and ammonia. 6 gauge wires shown. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. from the top and bottom. After securing the tint desired. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. Alberta Norrell. of ferricyanide of potash. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. drill 15 holes. long. If constructed of the former. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. deep. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. Cut through the center. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. 30 gr. Asbestos board is to be preferred. After preparing the base and uprights. 22 gauge German-silver wire. wood-screws. 1/2 oz. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. sheet of well made asbestos paper. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. Ga. of water. of the uprights. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. --Contributed by L. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. respectively. 1/4 in. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. remove the prints. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. To assemble. acetic acid and 4 oz. the portion of the base under the coil. of 18-per-cent No. Wind the successive turns of . and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. Augusta. says Popular Electricity. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes.

and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. but these are not necessary. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. N. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. Labels of some kind are needed. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. if one is not a smoker.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. as they are usually thrown away when empty. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. 14 gauge. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films.. Ward. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. The case may be made of 1/2-in. --Contributed by Frederick E. then fasten the upright in place. Ampere. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. square. etc. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. Y. which. cut and dressed 1/2 in. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. 16 gauge copper wire. rivets. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . Small knobs may be added if desired. screws.

a piece of solder. zinc. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. If the soldering copper is an old one. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. Jaquythe. Eureka Springs. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. E and F. California. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. then to the joint to be soldered. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. of water. In soldering galvanized iron. A. it must be ground or filed to a point. Heat it until hot (not red hot). the pure muriatic acid should be used. . melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. Wis. Richmond. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. as shown in the sketch. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. lead. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. D. tinner's acid. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. The material can be of any wood. tin. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. --C. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper.14 oz. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. This is considerable annoyance. G. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. Ark. C.. being careful about the heat. galvanized iron. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. --Contributed by A. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. The parts are put together with dowel pins. or has become corroded. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. S. and one made of poplar finished black. particularly so when the iron has once been used. Larson. Copper. --Contributed by W. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. B. Kenosha. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. sandpaper or steel wool. brass. especially if a large tub is used. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. and labeled "Poison. and rub the point of the copper on it. of glycerine to 16 oz. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper.

and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. Brass rings can be plated when finished. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. Troy. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. Apart from this. 7/8 in. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. round iron.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. The dimensions shown in Fig. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. in diameter. brass and silver. I bind my magazines at home evenings. C. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Fig. This will leave a clear hole. with good results. Hankin. such as copper. a ring may be made from any metal. which gives two bound volumes each year. Place the band. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. N. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. W. -Contributed by H. wide. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. This completes the die. and drill out the threads. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. thick and 1-1/4 in. nut. The covers of the magazines are removed. in diameter. however. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. B. D. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. 1. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . 2. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. Take a 3/4-in. Fig. The disk will come out pan shaped. Y. The punch A. Six issues make a well proportioned book. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water.

2. 1. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. is nailed across the top. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. then back through the notch on the right side. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. If started with the January or the July issue. using . making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. The string No. size 16 or larger. Coarse white thread. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. is used for the sewing material. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. threaded double. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Place the cardboard covers on the book. The covering can be of cloth. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. 5. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. through the notch on the left side of the string No. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. and then to string No. C. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. Five cuts. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. Start with the front of the book. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. . 1. allowing about 2 in. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. which is fastened the same as the first. The covering should be cut out 1 in. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. on all edges except the back. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. deep. 2. as shown in Fig. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. 1.4. of the ends extending on each side. and a third piece. 1 in Fig. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. After drawing the thread tightly. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. The sections are then prepared for sewing. 1/8 in. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. and place them against the strings in the frame.

Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. round iron. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Nebr. on which to hook the blade. College View. Place the cover on the book in the right position. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Cal. For the blade an old talking-machine . and mark around each one. --Contributed by Clyde E. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Encanto. Tinplate. and. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. at opposite sides to each other. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Divine. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson.

by 4-1/2 in. fuse hole at D. Then on the board put . Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. hydraulic pipe. thick. thick. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). Ohio. Miss. C. long. Summitville. and 1/4 in. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. bore. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. with 10 teeth to the inch. and file in the teeth. with a steel sleeve.. -Contributed by Willard J. E. or double extra heavy. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. and 1/4 in. Moorhead. On the upper side.. and another piece (B) 6 in. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. A. F. in order to drill the holes in the ends. by 1 in. at the same end. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. as it is sometimes called. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. and a long thread plug. Make the blade 12 in. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Hays. as shown. B.

Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. If you are going to use a current of low tension. Philadelphia. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. some sheet copper or brass for plates. and some No.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. --Contributed by Chas. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. Connect up as shown. about 5 ft. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. the jars need not be very large. of rubber-covered wire. using about 8 in. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. A lid may be added if desired. high around this apparatus. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. as from batteries. H. of wire to each coil. Boyd. 4 jars.

For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. and bolt through. with the cushion about 15 in. At the front 24 or 26 in. by 2 in. First sandpaper all the wood. 3. 30 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. C. B and C. thick. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. B. B. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled.. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. then apply a coat of thin enamel. & S. C.. above the ground. In proportioning them the points A. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. as they "snatch" the ice. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. is used to reduce friction. long by 22 in. long. 2. wide by 3/4 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. long. by 1 in. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. 1 and so on for No. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. The sled completed should be 15 ft.. square by 14 ft. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. and plane it on all edges. making them clear those in the front runner. 3 in. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. See Fig. A variation of 1/16 in. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. direct to wire across jars. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. oak boards. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. 16-1/2 in. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. by 1-1/4 in. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. by 5 in. by 2 in.. For the brass trimmings use No. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. and for the rear runners: A. two pieces 34 in. The connection between point No. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes.. 7 in. 5 on switch. 34 in. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. The top disk in jar No. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. on No. wide and 2 in. Z. are important. 1. two pieces 14 in. 1 on switch. sheet brass 1 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. wide and 3/4 in. Use no nails. The illustration shows how to shape it. 2 and 3. Their size also depends on the voltage. 4 in. by 1-1/4 in.. Construct the auto front (Fig. long. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. 1 is connected to point No. 27 B. two for each jar. Put arm of switch on point No. long. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. For the front runners these measurements are: A. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. Equip block X with screw eyes. An iron washer. 2 is lower down than in No. 3 and No. as they are not substantial enough. 2. steel rod makes a good steering rod. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. No. 4. 15-1/2 in. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. On the door of the auto front put the . Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron.the way. by 6 in. 4) of 3/4-in. or source of current. To wire the apparatus. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. The stock required for them is oak. The current then will flow through the motor. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. gives full current and full speed. 2. . however.. and four pieces 14 in. A 3/4-in. 2 in. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. beginning at the rear. apart. wide. two pieces 30 in. thick. Fig. by 5 in. 11 in. Use no screws on the running surface.

so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. The best way is to get some strong. If desired. overshoes. a brake may be added to the sled. parcels. such as used on automobiles. cheap material. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. Fasten a horn. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. etc. to the wheel. by 30 in. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the .monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. such as burlap. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. which is somewhat moist. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. by 1/2 in. may be stowed within. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. If desired. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. or with these for $25. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. cutting it out of sheet brass. If the expense is greater than one can afford. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. a number of boys may share in the ownership. brass plated. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. long. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. to improve the appearance. fasten a cord through the loop. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. Then get some upholstery buttons. lunch. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag.

Lexington. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Leland. Ill. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks.tree and bring. --Contributed by Stewart H. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. .

very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. 3. made from 1/16-in. With no other tools than a hacksaw. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. outside diameter and 1/16 in. Draw a circle on paper. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. Fig. The first tooth may now be cut. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. London. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . a compass. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. by drawing diameters. which. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. First take the case of a small gearwheel. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. some files. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. thick. 2. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. 4). mild steel or iron. will be over the line FG. E. 1. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. sheet metal. though more difficult. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. The straight-edge. This guide should have a beveled edge. the cut will be central on the line. FC. CD. The Model Engineer. from F to G. the same diameter as the wheel. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. Fig. A small clearance space. when flat against it. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. so that the center of the blade. with twenty-four teeth. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. Fig. say 1 in. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction.

as shown in Fig. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. Make a hole in the other. B. No shock will be perceptible. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. some wire and some carbons. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. ground it with a large piece of zinc. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. electric lamp. hold in one hand. 1. If there is no faucet in the house. or several pieces bound tightly together. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. as shown in Fig. R. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A.Four Photos on One Plate of them. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. 2. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. as shown in Fig. . transmitter. each in the center. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. and the other outlet wire. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. Then take one outlet wire. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. A bright. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. 1. B. either the pencils for arc lamps. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. Focus the camera in the usual manner.

by 12 in. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. Slattery. under the gable. Pa. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. by 1 in. serves admirably. and will then burn the string C. But in this experiment. Then set the whole core away to dry. as indicated by E E. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. and again wind the wire around it. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. at each end for terminals. A is a wooden block. as shown. For a base use a pine board 10 in. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. one at the receiver can hear what is said. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. J. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. and about that size. Ashland. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. One like a loaf of bread. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Emsworth. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. Wrenn. 36 wire around it. of course. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. D D are binding posts for electric wires. leaving about 10 in. or more of the latter has been used. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. are also needed. a transmitter which induces no current is used. Several battery cells. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. Dry batteries are most convenient. --Contributed by Geo. B. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. Ohio. If desired. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. They have screw ends. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn.

and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. C.. 14 wire. E. F. B B. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. 1. while C is open. and one single post switch. Jr. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. Connect these three to switch. C. Turn on switch. D. run a No. 12 or No.wire. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. connecting lamp receptacles. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. First make a support. and the lamps. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. the terminal of the coil. B B. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. Newark. Place 16-cp. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. Fig. as shown. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. in parallel. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. as shown. D. These should have hollow ends. The coil will commence to become warm. At one side secure two receptacles. Ohio. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. Fig. until the hand points to zero on the scale. From the other set of binding-posts. and switch. in series with bindingpost. 2. The apparatus is now ready for operation. for the . by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. The oven is now ready to be connected. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris.

drill a hole as shown at H. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. A wooden box. 1. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . This may be made of wood. 7. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. Fig. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. long and make a loop. 4. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. is made of iron.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. 10 turns to each layer. B. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. long. 5. wind with plenty of No. long.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. Fig. After drilling. The pointer or hand. D.or 4-way valve or cock. and D. 3 amperes. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. Mine is wound with two layers of No. The box is 5-1/2 in. a variable resistance. although copper or steel will do. Dussault. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. remove the valve. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. 5. wide and 1-3/4 in. It is 1 in. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. from the lower end.E. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. to prevent it turning on the axle. Fig. The core. This is slipped on the pivot. 2. as shown in the cut. C. until the scale is full. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. At a point a little above the center. thick. high. 4 amperes. If for 3-way. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. E. --Contributed by J. a battery. inside measurements. 14 wire. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. 6. a standard ammeter. 1. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. is made of wire. 3. etc. where A is the homemade ammeter. 14. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. Fig. 1/2 in. D. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. 1/4 in. is then made and provided with a glass front. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. wide and 1/8 in. Montreal. drill through the entire case and valve. 36 magnet wire instead of No. 4 in. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. although brass is better. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. deep. drill in only to the opening already through. but if for a 4way. To make one. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood..

D. This stopper should be pierced. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point.performing electrical experiments. F. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. provided with a rubber stopper. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. A. which is used for reducing the current. and the arc light. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. and the other connects with the water rheostat. in thickness . Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. E. high. To start the light. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. and a metal rod. making two holes about 1/4 in. By connecting the motor. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. B. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. as shown. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. One wire runs to the switch. in diameter. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large.

2. To insert the lead plate. 1. Having fixed the lead plate in position. If all adjustments are correct. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. A piece of wood. as shown in C. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. B. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. --Contributed by Harold L. Y. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Turn on the current and press the button. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Fig. Having finished the interrupter. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. A. Fig. As there shown. If the interrupter does not work at first. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. where he is placed in an upright open . Carthage. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. 1. 1. long. Fig. N. as shown in B. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Fig. 2. Jones. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A.

until it is dark there. to aid the illusion. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. The model. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. loosejointed effect. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. The lights. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. from which the gong has been removed. with the exception of the glass. L and M. should be miniature electric lamps. is constructed as shown in the drawings. high. especially the joints and background near A. and must be thoroughly cleansed. dressed in brilliant. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. and wave his arms up and down. giving a limp. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. light-colored garments. A white shroud is thrown over his body. inside dimensions. Its edges should nowhere be visible. by 7 in. All . The glass should be the clearest possible. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. A. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. the illusion will be spoiled. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. could expect from a skeleton. which can be run by three dry cells. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience.coffin.. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. by 7-1/2 in. as the entire interior. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. within the limits of an ordinary room. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. especially L. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. They need to give a fairly strong light. and can be bought at Japanese stores. If everything is not black. If it is desired to place the box lower down. figures and lights. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. should be colored a dull black. The skeleton is made of papier maché. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections.

and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. placed about a foot apart. as shown in the sketch. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. after which it assumes its normal color. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. fat spark. San Jose. --Contributed by Geo. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. W. Two finishing nails were driven in. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. Fry. Cal.that is necessary is a two-point switch. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . If a gradual transformation is desired. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. square block. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white.

add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. In Fig. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. by small pieces of wood. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. In Fig. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. If a lighted match . as shown. Cohen. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. The plates are separated 6 in. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. and should be separated about 1/8 in. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. 1. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. to make it airtight. This is a wide-mouth bottle. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. A (see sketch). hydrogen gas is generated. One of these plates is connected to metal top. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. -Contributed by Dudley H. soldered in the top. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. or a solution of sal soda. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. F. the remaining space will be filled with air. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. with two tubes. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. New York. B and C. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. into the receiver G. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas.

either by passing a current of electricity around it.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. A. If desired. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. London. which is plugged up at both ends. or by direct contact with another magnet. A nipple. A. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. copper pipe. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. is then coiled around the brass tube. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. from the bottom. 36 insulated wire. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. should be only 5/16 of an inch. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. N. long. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. then a suitable burner is necessary. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. of No. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. The distance between the nipple. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. A. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. is made by drilling a 1/8in. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. and the ends of the tube. N. Fig. in diameter and 6 in. says the Model Engineer. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. A 1/64-in. copper pipe. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. by means of the clips. 1-5/16 in. long. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. Fig. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. A. which forms the vaporizing coil. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. as is shown in the illustration. B. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. One row is drilled to come directly on top. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. 1/2 in. 2 shows the end view. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. C C. 1. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. A piece of 1/8-in. P. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises.

taking care not to bend the iron. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. 2). Cut four pieces of cardboard. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. larger all around than the book. boards and all. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. Take two strips of stout cloth. duck or linen. about 8 or 10 in. Fig. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. 1/4 in. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). longer and 1/4 in. 1. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. smoothly. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. this makes a much nicer book. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board.lamp cord. trim both ends and the front edge. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. A disk of thin sheet-iron. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. with a fine saw. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. Fig. cut to the size of the pages. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. but if the paper knife cannot be used. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Turn the book over and paste the other side. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Fig. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. at the front and back for fly leaves. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. should be cut to the diameter of the can. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. leaving the folded edge uncut. fold and cut it 1 in. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. 3.

Ont. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. as shown. is made the same depth as B. Va. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. but its diameter is a little smaller.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. In the bottom. or rather the top now. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. is fitted in it and soldered. A gas cock. of tank A is cut a hole. Another tank. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. C. Another can. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. in diameter and 30 in. B. This will cause some air to be enclosed. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. as shown in the sketch. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. pasting them down (Fig. Noble. is perforated with a number of holes. is soldered onto tank A. Toronto. D. --Contributed by James E. Bedford City. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. Parker. A. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. 18 in. and a little can. is turned on it. H. deep. without a head. --Contributed by Joseph N. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. E. the joint will be gas tight. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. . On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. 4). which will just slip inside the little can. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down.

and sewed double to give extra strength. shows how the connections are to be made. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. Fig. long. E. basswood or white pine. 1. tacks. square by 42 in. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. N.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. -Contributed by H. should be 1/4 in. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. and the four diagonal struts. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. If the pushbutton A is closed. The diagonal struts. making the width. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. thus adjusting the . The small guards. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. A A. long. D. B. by 1/2 in. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. Fig. A. with an electric-bell magnet. Beverly. are shown in detail at H and J. If the back armature. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. The bridle knots. which moves to either right or left. H is a square knot. when finished. B. The longitudinal corner spines. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. as shown at C. The armature. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. Bott. D. to prevent splitting. C. and about 26 in. The wiring diagram.. S. 2. exactly 12 in. B. which may be either spruce. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. J. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. should be cut a little too long. fastened in the bottom. should be 3/8 in.

but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Stoddard. A bowline knot should be tied at J. shift toward F. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. If the kite is used in a light wind. the batteries do not run down for a long time. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. can be made of a wooden . thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. Kan. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. and. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. Harbert. however. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. that refuse to slide easily. with gratifying results. as shown. Clay Center. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. to prevent slipping. thus shortening G and lengthening F. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. and if a strong wind is blowing. Closing either key will operate both sounders. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. --Contributed by Edw. D. E. Chicago. for producing electricity direct from heat.lengths of F and G. --Contributed by A.

When the cannon is loaded. placed on top. Chicago. Then. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. spark. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. A. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. C. E. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. or parallel with the compass needle. and the current may then be detected by means. F. A. by means of machine screws or. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. E. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. D. with a number of nails. C.. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. A and B. C. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . --Contributed by A. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. 14 or No. A. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. Fasten a piece of wood. 16 single-covered wire. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. which conducts the current into the cannon. The wood screw. with a pocket compass. B. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle.frame. in position. and also holds the pieces of wood. to the cannon. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current.

Chicago. A hole for a 1/2 in. 1. In Fig. Bend the strips BB (Fig. in this position the door is locked. Keil. Ohio. A and S. square and 3/8 in. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. To reverse. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. L. when in position at A'. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. Fig. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. with the long arm at L'. 1. Mich. H. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Big Rapids. now at A' and S'. press the button. A. within the reach of the magnet. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. screw is bored in the block. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. but no weights or strings. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. where there is a staple. Fig. . it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. Connect as shown in the illustration. B. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Marion. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. requiring a strong magnet. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. --Contributed by Henry Peck. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. to receive the screw in the center. 1. --Contributed by Joseph B. To unlock the door. A and S. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. To lock the door. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest.the current is shut off.

unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. are enameled a jet black. Rand. The standard and base. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. and C is a dumbbell. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. gas-pipe. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. --Contributed by C. if enameled white on the concave side. and may be made at very slight expense. hole. about 18 in. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. put in the handle. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. When the holes are finished and your lines set. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. pipe with 1-2-in. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. or for microscopic work. Mass. West Somerville. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. and if desired the handles may . When ready for use. Thread the other end of the pipe.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. long. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. J.

be covered with leather. Fig. Fig. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. which shall project at least 2 in. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. high by 1 ft. A. --Contributed by C. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. D. 1. across. inside the pail. Mass. across. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. E. 1. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. This peculiar property is also found in ice.. Warren. with a cover. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . M. long and 8 in. Make a cylindrical core of wood. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. as shown at A in the sketch. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. 8 in. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. North Easton. B.

in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. Fit all the parts together snugly. 1). but will be cheaper in operation. as is shown in the sketch. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. carefully centering it. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. L. 3) with false top and bottom. but it will burn a great deal of gas. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. pack this space-top. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. 2 in. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. Whatever burner is used. The 2 in. Set aside for a few days until well dried. hotel china. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. long. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. wider than the kiln. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. C. 1330°. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. thick. When lighted. 1). take out the plugs in the top and bottom. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. passing wire nails through and clinching them. which is the hottest part. W. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. let this dry thoroughly. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. sand. thick. Line the pail. and cut it 3-1/2 in. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. to hold the clay mixture. if there is to be any glazing done. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. E. and graphite. pipe 2-ft. Cover with paper and shellac as before. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. 15%. and your kiln is ready for business.. such . layer of the clay mixture. 25%. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. and 3/8 in. bottom and sides. This done. Fig. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. about 1 in. make two wood ends. as dictated by fancy and expense. 2. C. or make one yourself. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. of fine wire. long over the lid hole as a chimney. diameter.-G. say 1/4 in. Wind about 1/8 in. strip of sheet iron. After finishing the core. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. in diameter. the point of the blue flame. hard porcelain. C. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. the firing should be gradual. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. If the cover of the pail has no rim. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in.. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. full length of iron core.mixture of clay. projecting from each end (Fig. in diameter. It is placed inside the kiln. if you have the materials. 1390°-1410°. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. After removing all the paper. and 3/4 in. and on it set the paper wrapped core. cutting the hole a little smaller. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. pipe.. and with especial caution the first time. and varnish. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. 60%. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner.

taking care to have the first card red. and plane off about 1/16 in. Washington. . about 1/16 in. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. length of .. C. You can display either color called for. around the coil. 2. Next restore all the cards to one pack. A. D. all cards facing the same way. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. C. overlaps and rests on the body. as in Fig. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. Chicago. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool.53 in. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. red and black. as in Fig. and discharges into the tube. Of course. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. 2. T. 1. procure a new deck. 8 in. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. C. --Contributed by J. diameter. every alternate card being the same color. Then take the black cards. square them up. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. and divide it into two piles. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. B.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. Then. The funnel. square them up and place in a vise. R. and so on. Take the red cards. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. leaving long terminals. as shown in the sketch herewith. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. the next black. bind tightly with black silk. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. 2). so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. with a plane. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel.

A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. F. A. N. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter.C. the same ends will come together again. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. D. A. E. and this is inexpensive to build. angle iron for the frame. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. When the glass is put in the frame a space. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. as the difficulties increase with the size.. 1. 1 gill of litharge. All the horizontal pieces. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. It should be placed in an exposed location. C. about 20 in. Long Branch. The upright pieces. The bottom glass should be a good fit. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. the first thing to decide on is the size. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. Drill all the horizontal pieces. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. E. The cement. 1 gill of fine white sand. To find the fall of snow. so that when they are assembled. B. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. and then the frame is ready to assemble. through the holes already drilled. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. of the frame. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium.J. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. to form a dovetail joint as shown. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. stove bolts. B. B. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. Fig. stove bolts. thus making all the holes coincide. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. Let . will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces.

Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. D. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. on the door by means of a metal plate. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. to the door knob. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. Aquarium Finished If desired. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. Fig. A. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. B. Fasten the lever. having a swinging connection at C. and. a centerpiece (A. if desired. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails.

with a water pressure of 70 lb. as at E. several lengths of scantling 3 in. Do not fasten these boards now. --Contributed by Orton E. long. soldered to the end of the cylinder. 3 shows one of the paddles. approximately 1 ft. long. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. 2 ft. long. 1 is the motor with one side removed.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. Fig. 26 in. They are shown in Fig. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. D. Fig. according to the slant given C. Cut two of them 4 ft. 1. Y. White. B. To make the frame. showing the paddle-wheel in position. Cut two pieces 30 in. hoping it may solve the same question for them. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. to keep the frame from spreading. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. screwed to the door frame. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. Buffalo.. Fig. from the outside top of the frame. F. 1 . when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. 6 in. N. which is 15 in. long. I referred this question to my husband. AA. E. wide . In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. A small piece of spring brass. Fig. another. 2 at GG. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. Fig. Fig. to form the main supports of the frame. and Fig. Two short boards 1 in. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. wide by 1 in. to form the slanting part. PAUL S. but mark their position on the frame. another. and another. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. will open the door about 1/2 in. 2 is an end view. 1. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. for the top. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. thus doing away with the spring. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. C.

by 1-1/2 in. 24 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. hole through them. Fig. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Take the side pieces. with the wheel and shaft in place. GG. 4. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. hole through their sides centrally. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. (I. These are the paddles. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). long to the wheel about 8 in. iron. 2) form a substantial base. Make this hole conical. after which drill a 5/8 in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Now block the wheel. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. iron 3 by 4 in. When it has cooled. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. and drill a 1-in. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Tack one side on. 2) and another 1 in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. hole through its center. then drill a 3/16-in. Drill 1/8-in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame.burlap will do -. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Fig. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. thick. take down the crosspieces. thick (HH. 1. Next secure a 5/8-in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. in diameter. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. holes. to a full 1/2 in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. as shown in Fig. remove the cardboard. Fig. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. tapering from 3/16 in. pipe. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. and a 1/4 -in. steel shaft 12 in. hole to form the bearings. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. that is. 2) with a 5/8-in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. and drill a 1/8-in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. from one end by means of a key. Fasten them in their proper position.along the edges under the zinc to form . the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in.

using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. on the lens. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. as shown in the sketch at B. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. shutting out all light from above and the sides. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. drill press. and the subject may move. If sheet-iron is used. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. any window will do. If the bearings are now oiled. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible.a water-tight joint. Do not stop down the lens. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. ice-cream freezer. it would be more durable. Raise the window shade half way. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. remove any white curtains there may be. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. but now I put them in the machine. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. and leave them for an hour or so. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. place the outlet over a drain. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. . and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. It is obvious that. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. sewing machine. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. Drill a hole through the zinc. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. light and the plate. and as near to it as possible. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. says the Photographic Times. Darken the rest of the window. but as it would have cost several times as much. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. as this makes long exposure necessary. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. The best plate to use is a very slow one. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. or what is called a process plate. Focus the camera carefully. Correct exposure depends. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. of course. start the motor. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen.

reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. as a slight current will answer. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. D. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. The glass tube may be a test tube. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. and a base. which is made of iron and cork. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. The core C. as shown in Fig. The current required is very small. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. the core is drawn down out of sight. or wood. or an empty developer tube.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. with binding posts as shown. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. On completing . or can be taken from an old magnet. 2. A. hard rubber. 2. a glass tube. an empty pill bottle may be used. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. without detail in the face. With a piece of black paper. and without fog. a core. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. until the core slowly rises. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. C. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. by twisting. B. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. full of water. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled.

the core will obey his command to rise or fall. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. is Benham's color top. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. 1 pt. finest graphite. whale oil. water and 3 oz. and are changed by reversing the rotation. 1 lb. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. and one not easy to explain. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. white lead. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. 1. according to his control of the current. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . and make a pinhole in the center. This is a mysterious looking instrument. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. The colors appear different to different people.

hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. especially if the deck is a new one. before cutting. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc.L. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. when the action ceases.B.. Chicago. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. deuce. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. nearly every time. C. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. thus partly filling bottles A and C. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. B. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. -Contributed by D. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. or three spot. fan-like. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. In making hydrogen. A. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. In prize games. As this device is easily upset.

Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. --Contributed by F. as shown in Fig.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. (Fig. . Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Fig. Jr. Make a 10-sided stick. J. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. in diameter. 10 in. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. Detroit. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. 1. Form a cone of heavy paper. 3). 4. Dak. Detail of Phonograph Horn . to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. long and 3 in. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in.. Huron. Bently. W. 2. S. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Fig. --Contributed by C. S. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. long. 12 in. in length and 3 in. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Make ten pieces about 1 ft.. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. 9 in.

The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. allowing 1 in. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. E. Fig. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. bend it at right angles throughout its length. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. A. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. with a pin driven in each end. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. will cause an increased movement of C. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. making it three-ply thick. A second piece of silk thread. Remove the form. but bends toward D. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. and walk in. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. Denver. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. long. Fortunately. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. push back the bolt. A piece of tin. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. on one side and the top. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. C. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. 6. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. --Contributed by Reader. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. it is equally easy to block that trick. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. Cut out paper sections (Fig. about the size of a leadpencil.

B. are 7 ft. The upper switch. is connected each point to a battery. S S. A. The reverse switch.. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. are made 2 by 4 in. Minn. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. long. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. Paul. Fremont Hilscher. R. By this arrangement one. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine.strip.. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. W. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . B. while the lower switch. Two wood-base switches. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. Jr. posts. or left to right. --Contributed by J. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. long. The feet. West St. put together as shown in the sketch. and rest on a brick placed under each end. as shown. The 2 by 4-in. S. 4 ft. S. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. will last for several years.

FF. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. E. In Fig. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. 3/8 in. and in Fig. 2 and 3. Fig. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. The steam chest D. the other parts being used for the bearing B. The valve motion is shown in Figs. and valve crank S. or anything available. 1. which is made of tin. The piston is made of a stove bolt. H and K. cut in half. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. The hose E connects to the boiler. Fig. and a cylindrical . pulley wheel. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. and the crank bearing C. is an old bicycle pump. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. the size of the hole in the bearing B. either an old sewing-machine wheel.every house. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. The base is made of wood. which will be described later. thick. 2. and has two wood blocks. with two washers.

Schuh and A. --Contributed by Geo. First. C. This is wound with soft string. W. 4.piece of hard wood. Cal. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. to receive the connecting rod H. Fig. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. and the desired result is obtained. 3. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. as it is merely a trick of photography. The boiler. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. or galvanized iron. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. of Cuba. This engine was built by W. and a very amusing trick. powder can. Fig. J. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. using the positive wire as a pen. can be an old oil can. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. San Jose. The valve crank S. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. Fry. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. as shown in Fig. . This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. 1. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. is cut out of tin. G. Wis. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. and saturated with thick oil. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. Eustice. G. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. at that.

On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. as shown at AA. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. and Fig. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. to cross in the center. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. as shown. Fig. 1 will be seen to rotate. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. and place a bell on the four ends. B. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. The smaller wheel. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. and pass ropes around . 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. They may be of any size. diameter. Fig. B. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. Cut half circles out of each stave. When turning. C. Fig. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. 1 by covering up Figs. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. A curious effect can be produced with Fig.

M. as shown in the illustration. St. --Contributed by H. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. This in turn will act on the transmitter. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. Mo. produces a higher magnifying power). long. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. From a piece of thin . W. procure a wooden spool. from the transmitter. such as clothes lines. A (a short spool. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera.G. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. which accounts for the sound. but not on all. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. which allows the use of small sized ropes. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. Louis. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B.. To make this lensless microscope.

Viewed through this microscope. e. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. C. The lever. 2. 3. i. which costs little or nothing to make.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. the object should be of a transparent nature. and at the center. An innocent-looking drop of water. To use this microscope.) But an object 3/4-in. . B. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. B. and so on. and look through the hole D. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in.. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. C. by means of brads. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. cut out a small disk. is made of iron. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. The pivot. can be made of brass and the armature. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. D. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. is fastened at each end by pins. place a small object on the transparent disk. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. The spring. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. as in all microscopes of any power. otherwise the image will be blurred. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. the diameter will appear twice as large. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. D. held at arm's length. or 64 times. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig.. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. in which hay has been soaking for several days. the diameter will appear three times as large. A. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. Fig. darting across the field in every direction. (The area would appear 64 times as large. which are pieces of hard wood. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. H. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. fastened to a wooden base. if the distance is reduced to one-half. if the distance is reduced to one-third. bent as shown. 1. E.

may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. B. connection of D to nail. wood: F. brass: B. 2. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. Fig. and are connected to the contacts. binding posts: H spring The stop. C. B. DD. fastened near the end. long and 14-1/2 in. wide. between the armature and the magnet. wide. A switch. F. A. coils wound with No. thick. should be about 22 in. The binding posts. Cut the top. wide. C. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. K. 1. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. AA. D. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. . long by 16 in. wide. brass or iron soldered to nail. brass: E. D. FF. The door. wide and set in between sides AA. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. nail soldered on A. is cut from a board about 36 in. which are made to receive a pivot. 16 in. 16 in. The binding posts are like those of the sounder.SOUNDER-A. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. 26 wire: E. can be made panel as shown. The base of the key. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. soft iron. or taken from a small one-point switch. wood: C. HH. similar to the one used in the sounder. D. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. Each side. E. in length and 16 in. wide and about 20 in. long. KEY-A. brass. wood. The back. Fig. K. or a single piece.

When the electrical waves strike the needle. E. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. 2 and made from 1/4-in. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. as shown. Garfield. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. long. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. Ill. AA. In operation. as shown in the sketch. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. 13-1/2 in.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . with 3/4-in. brads. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. Make 12 cleats. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. material. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube.. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. cut in them.

which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. A (see sketch). the magnet. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. F. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. Y. in order to increase the surface. A. J. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. N.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. N. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. E. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. Fairport. --Contributed by R. Brown. A. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. B. A fairly stiff spring. filled with water. and thus decreases the resistance. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. when used with a motor. and. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. Ridgewood. --Contributed by John Koehler. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. C. When the pipe is used. will give a greater speed. Pushing the wire. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. through which a piece of wire is passed. down into the water increases the surface in contact. The cord is also fastened to a lever. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . pulls down the armature.

for the secret contact. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Gachville. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. if desired. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. N. even those who read this description. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. B. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Borden. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Of course. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. --Contributed by Perry A. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7.

A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. Washington. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. Connect switch to post B. from the bottom. .whenever the bell rings. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. The top board is made 28-in. wide. D. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. 2. --Contributed by H. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. in a semicircle 2 in. long and 5 in. long and full 12-in. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. J. --Contributed by Dr. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. C. for 6-in. apart. A. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. records and 5-5/8 in. Dobson. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. wide. Jr. Nails for stops are placed at DD. Compton. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. and on both sides of the middle shelf. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. as shown in Fig. N. deep and 3/4 in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. With about 9 ft. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. wide. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. wide. for 10in. thick and 12-in. C. records. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached.. E. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. East Orange. where the other end of wire is fastened. Cal. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. From a piece of brass a switch. The three shelves are cut 25-in. Mangold. wide. 1. H.

thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. as shown in Fig.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. B. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. to which is fastened a cord. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. which in operation is bent. Va. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. Roanoke. 1. A. as shown by the dotted lines. closed. When the cord is passed over pulley C. E. --Contributed by Douglas Royer.

this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. in diameter. thick. 1 in. they will bind. D. in diameter. thick (A. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. in diameter. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. in diameter. against which the rubber tubing. If the wheels fit too tightly. Do not fasten the sides too . to turn on pins of stout wire. long. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. holes (HH. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. excepting the crank and tubing. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. as shown in the illustration. but a larger one could be built in proportion. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. is compressed by wheels. Fig. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. E. which should be about 1/2 in. one in each end. wide. Fig. E. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. square and 7/8 in. 1. Fig. 5) when they are placed. B. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. 3). 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. apart. CC. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. deep and 1/2 in. it too loose. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. through one of these holes. deep. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. In the sides (Fig. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. Figs. wide. 4 shows the wheel-holder. 3. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. 1 in. Notice the break (S) in the track. Bore two 1/4 in. The crankpin should fit tightly. Put the rubber tube. they will let the air through. These wheels should be 3/4 in. In these grooves place wheels. Now put all these parts together. Figs. Cut two grooves. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed.

tubing. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. and are 30 in. In the two cross bars 1 in. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. as it gives steadiness to the motion. 1. costing 10 cents. --Contributed by Dan H. mark again. 1. from the bottom and 2 in. 1. Fig. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. Fig.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. Take the center of the bar. from each end. and 3-1/2 in. 15 in. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. To use the pump. is all the expense necessary. Fig. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. The screen which is shown in Fig. B. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. Two feet of 1/4-in. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. The animal does not fear to enter the box. mark for hole and 3 in. If the motion of the wheels is regular. A in Fig. from each end. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. from each end. Kan. beyond each of these two. AA. as shown in Fig. iron. the other wheel has reached the bottom. For ease in handling the pump. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. of material. and mark for a hole. the pump will give a steady stream. The three legs marked BBB. AA. because he can . though a small iron wheel is better. Hubbard. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. 17-1/2 in. long. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. 2. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. from that mark the next hole. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Fig. Idana. Cut six pieces. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. 1. 2. Then turn the crank from left to right. 1. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. a platform should be added. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. stands 20 in.

sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. Place the carbon in the jar. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. there is too much liquid in the jar. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. The battery is now ready for use. giving it a bright. 14 copper wire. The truncated. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. shuts him in. When the bichromate has all dissolved. rub the zinc well. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. long having two thumb screws. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. until it is within 3 in. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. If it is wet. Philadelphia. 4 oz. and the solution (Fig. . some of it should be poured out. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. stirring constantly. Meyer. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. potassium bichromate. silvery appearance. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used.see through it: when he enters. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. If the solution touches the zinc. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. To cause a flow of electricity. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. If the battery has been used before. however. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. or small electric motors. of the top. add slowly. C. acid 1 part). sulphuric acid. --Contributed by H. It is useful for running induction coils. When through using the battery. but if one casts his own zinc. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. The battery is now complete. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. The mercury will adhere. or. and touches the bait the lid is released and. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. 1) must be prepared. dropping. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. 2). Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. of water dissolve 4 oz. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc.

with slight changes.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. If. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. e. while the coal door is being opened. After putting in the coal.. the battery circuit. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. however. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. the jump-spark coil . which opens the door. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor.Fig. Madison. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. pressing the pedal closes the door. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. Wis. The price of the coil depends upon its size. i. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted.

After winding. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. This will make an excellent receiver.7. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. in a partial vacuum. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. as shown in Fig. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. 5. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. . being a 1-in. 6. This coil. and closer for longer distances. 7. Change the coil described. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. 6. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. coil. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. diameter. apart. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. Fig. as shown in Fig. made of No. W W. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. 7. the full length of the coil. which is made of light copper wire. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. Now for the receiving apparatus. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. W W. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. in a straight line from top to bottom. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". 7). while a 12-in.described elsewhere in this book. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus.

The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. but simply illustrates the above to show that. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. 90°. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. where A is the headstock. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. only. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. are analogous to the flow of induction. after all. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. Figs. 1). an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. A. in the air. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. may be easily made at very little expense. using an electric motor and countershaft. I run my lathe by power. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. For an illustration. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. These circles. 1 to 4. B the bed and C the tailstock. as it matches the color well. being vertical. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. 90°. Run a wire from the other binding post. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. which will be described later. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. to the direction of the current. A large cone pulley would then be required. being at right angles. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface.6 stranded. at any point to any metal which is grounded. No. and hence the aerial line. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. above the ground.The aerial line. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). . The writer does not claim to be the originator. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. but it could be run by foot power if desired.

Heat the babbitt well. 4. 5. Fig. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. steel tubing about 1/8 in. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. The bearing is then ready to be poured. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. and runs in babbitt bearings.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. deep. Fig. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. and it is well to have the shaft hot. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. tapered wooden pin. The bolts B (Fig. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . B. Fig. 4. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. but not hot enough to burn it. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. thick. A. pitch and 1/8 in. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. which pass through a piece of wood. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. and Fig. just touching the shaft. 6 Headstock Details D. one of which is shown in Fig. After pouring. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. 2 and 3. too. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. 5. on the under side of the bed. 6. Fig. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. which are let into holes FIG. To make these bearings. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. If the bearing has been properly made. The headstock. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed.

the alarm is easy to fix up. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. they may be turned up after assembling.J. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. A.other machines. and a 1/2-in.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. If one has a wooden walk. of the walk . To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. Oak Park. lock nut. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. FIG. embedded in the wood. Take up about 5 ft. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. B. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. Newark. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. This prevents corrosion. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. The tail stock (Fig. N. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. so I had to buy one. Ill. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. If not perfectly true. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue.

the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Minneapolis. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. to remove all traces of grease. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. To avoid touching it. add potassium cyanide again. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Fig. and the alarm is complete. hang the articles on the wires. Do not touch the work with the hands again. 2). save when a weight is on the trap. (A. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. so that they will not touch. silver or other metal. water. Finally. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Connect up an electric bell. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. S. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. of water. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. clean the articles thoroughly. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Then make the solution . Minn. to roughen the surface slightly. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. before dipping them in the potash solution. Jackson. leaving a clear solution. --Contributed by R.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. American ash in 1-1/2 pt.

and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. 10 in. 1. nickel and such metals. copper. 3) strikes the bent wire L. --Model Engineer. of clothesline rope and some No. Fig. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. To provide the keyhole. The wooden block C. A 1/4 in. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. as at F. use 2 volts for large articles. saw a piece of wood. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. make a key and keyhole. from the lower end. Fig. When all this is set up. with water. thick by 3 in. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. In rigging it to a sliding door. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. but opens the door. which is held by catch B. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. Before silver plating. B should be of the same wood. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. an old electric bell or buzzer. which . must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. lead. 1). a circuit is completed. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. shaking. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. I. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. 18 wire. With an electric pressure of 3. and then treated as copper. with water. Screw the two blocks together. If accumulators are used. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. Fig. as shown in Fig.up to 2 qt. The wooden catch. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. Make a somewhat larger block (E. 3) directly over the hole. 1 in. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. a hand scratch brush is good. when the point of the key touches the tin. and 4 volts for very small ones. of water. Take quick. On brass. piece of broomstick. Where Bunsen cells are used. This solution. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. Fig. silver can be plated direct. must be about 1 in. also. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. which is advised. light strokes. Can be made of a 2-in. long. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. long. will serve for the key. and the larger part (F. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. 3. German silver. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. Having finished washing the precipitate. about 25 ft. pewter. If more solution is required. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. zinc. hole in its center. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. Then. Repeat six times. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. such metals as iron.5 to 4 volts. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. 1). 1 not only unlocks. with the pivot 2 in. if one does not possess a buffing machine. square. A (Fig. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt.

although a little more trouble. Fig. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. and hands its contents round to the audience. Klipstein. heighten the illusion. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. B. floor.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. sides and end. East Orange. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. 0. The box must be altered first.. cut in one side. enlarged. and a slit. To prepare such a magic cave. between the parlor and the room back of it. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. one-third of the length from the remaining end. One thing changes to another and back again. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. 1. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. the box should be painted black both inside and out. One end is removed. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. surrounding a perfectly black space. In front of you. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. and plenty of candles. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. Fig. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. in his shirt sleeves. Objects appear and disappear. spoons and jackknives. should be cut a hole. The interior must be a dead black. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. H. he points with one finger to the box. Fig. top. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. with the lights turned low. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. or cave. New Jersey. 2. Thus. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. and black art reigns supreme. 1. H. 116 Prospect St. the illumination in front must be arranged. 3. some black paint. is the cut through which the rope runs. . such as forks. so much the better. no painting inside is required. the requisites are a large soap box. Next. Fig. The magician stands in front of this. half way from open end to closed end. --Contributed by E. Receiving the bowl again. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. a few simple tools. H. Next. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. he tosses it into the cave. 2. and finally lined inside with black cloth. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. He removes the bowl from the black box. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. some black cloth. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. with a switch as in Fig. shows catch B. On either side of the box. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. which unlocks the door. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. to throw the light toward the audience. Heavy metal objects.

of course. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. and if portieres are impossible. The exhibitor should be . and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. is on a table) so much the better. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. had a big stage. if. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. which are let down through the slit in the top. the room where the cave is should be dark. you must have an assistant. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. as presented by Hermann.Finally. his confederate behind inserts his hand. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. and several black drop curtains. a screen must be used. The illusion. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. and pours them from the bag into a dish. in which are oranges and apples. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. was identical with this. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. only he. one on each side of the box. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. into the eyes of him who looks. of course. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. which can be made to dance either by strings. But illusions suggest themselves. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. Consequently. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. The audience room should have only low lights.

Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. their one end just slips under the strips b1. held down on it by two terminals. held down by another disk F (Fig. so arranged that. 2. respectively. and c2 to the zinc.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. e1 and e2.. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. and c4 + electricity.a boy who can talk. or b2. making contact with them. making contact with them as shown at y. Then. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. if you turn handle K to the right. 1. b1. respectively. at L. c3.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. terminal c3 will show . A represents a pine board 4 in. 1. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. Finally. 2). or binding posts. f2. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. b3. A. c2. FIG. Fig. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. when handle K is turned to one side. by means of two wood screws. as shown in Fig. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . About the center piece H moves a disk. and c1 – electricity. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. b2. c1. b3. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. respectively. with three brass strips. On the disk G are two brass strips. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). The action of the switch is shown in Fig. is shown in the diagram. b2. vice versa. d. terminal c3 will show +. and a common screw. by 4 in. c4. square. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. 2. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. held down on disk F by two other terminals.

5. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. when A is on No. When switch B is closed and A is on No. Ohio. from three batteries.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. 3. and then hold the receiver to your ear. 4. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B.. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. . 1. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. thus making the message audible in the receiver. E. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. when on No. from five batteries. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. Joerin. when on No. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. and when on No. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. --Contributed by Eugene F. and C and C1 are binding posts. B is a onepoint switch. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. Tuttle. from four batteries. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. jump spark coil. Jr. -Contributed by A. you have the current of one battery. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. Newark.

P. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. per second for each second. A. per second. Wis. and supporting the small weight. B. E. over the bent portion of the rule. The device thus arranged. as shown in the sketch. which may be a button or other small object. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. mark. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. traveled by the thread. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. mark. Thus. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. of Burlington.. A. When you do not have a graduate at hand. Redmond.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. is the device of H. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. Handy Electric Alarm . so one can see the time. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. rule. La. New Orleans. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. and placed on the windowsill of the car. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. A.

Instead. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. soldered to the alarm winder. Crafton. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. When the alarm goes off. which illuminates the face of the clock. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. --C. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. .which has a piece of metal. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. --Contributed by Gordon T. and with the same result. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. Lane. wrapping the wire around the can several times. for a wetting is the inevitable result. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. S. Pa. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. Then if a mishap comes. B. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. but may be closed at F any time desired. C. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E.

and duplicates of all these. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. battery zincs. whence it is soon tracked into the house. when it is being prepared. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. models and miniature objects. which may. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. C. A. binding posts. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. as shown. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. --Contributed by A.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. With the easily made devices about to be described. and many other interesting and useful articles. engines. as shown in Fig. small machinery parts. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. BE. AA. The first thing to make is a molding bench. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. ornaments of various kinds. New York City. bearings. cannons. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. It is possible to make molds without a bench. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. 1. If there is no foundry Fig. but it is a mistake to try to do this. Macey. Two cleats. 1 . L.

which should be nailed in. previous to sawing. the "cope. 1. is filled with coal dust. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. and this. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. 2. white metal. Fig. 2 . Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding.near at hand. E. A A. It is made of wood and is in two halves. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. J. is nailed to each end of the cope. CC. by 8 in. Fig. The rammer. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. try using sand from other sources. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. which can be either aluminum.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. is shown more clearly in Fig. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. If desired the sieve may be homemade." or lower part. H. a little larger than the outside of the flask. is about the right mesh. If the box is not very strong. An old teaspoon. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. D. as shown. which can be made of a knitted stocking. 1. high." or upper half. The dowels. and saw it in half longitudinally. say 12 in. but this operation will be described more fully later on. and a sieve. A wedge-shaped piece. CC. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. will be required. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. as shown.How to Make a Mold [96] . thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. by 6 in. DD. G. is made of wood. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. The cloth bag. and the lower pieces. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. F. A slight shake of the bag Fig. The flask. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. makes a very good sieve. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. and the "drag. II . zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point.

either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. In finishing the ramming. as shown. as shown at D. and thus judge for himself. and scatter about 1/16 in. or "cope. Place another cover board on top. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. and then more sand is added until Fig. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. as it is much easier to learn by observation. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. where they can watch the molders at work. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. The sand is then ready for molding. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. in order to remove the lumps. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture.Having finished making the flask and other equipment." in position. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. It is then rammed again as before. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. and if water is added. as described. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. as shown at C. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. the surface of the sand at . or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. or "drag. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. After ramming. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. and by grasping with both hands. turn the drag other side up. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. as shown at E. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft.

A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. Place a brick or other flat. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. to give the air a chance to escape. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. Fig. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask.E should be covered with coal-dust. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. After drawing the pattern. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. III. as shown at J. made out of steel rod. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. in order to prevent overheating. as shown at H. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. . These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. place the cope back on the drag. and then pour. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. thus making a dirty casting. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. wide and about 1/4 in. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. as shown in the sketch. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. thus holding the crucible securely. as shown at F. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. as shown at H. is next cut. This is done with a spoon. in diameter. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. it shows that the sand is too wet. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. after being poured. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. The "sprue." or pouring-hole. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. as shown at G. deep.

is very desirable. although somewhat expensive. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. but any reasonable number may be used. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. Although the effect in the illustration . Minneapolis. and the casting is then ready for finishing. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. used only for zinc.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. If a good furnace is available. or from any adjacent pair of cells. and. Referring to the figure. 15% lead. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. --Contributed by Harold S. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. may be used in either direction. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. battery zincs. babbitt. In my own case I used four batteries. the following device will be found most convenient. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. white metal and other scrap available. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. Morton. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned.

The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. If desired. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. To make it take a sheet-iron band. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. Chicago. shaft made. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. B. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. By replacing the oars with paddles. as shown in the illustration. Then walk down among the audience. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. The bearings. outward. The brass rings also appear distorted. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. 2. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. --Contributed by Draughtsman. 3/4 in. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. backward. Put a sharp needle point. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. connected by cords to the rudder. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. may be made of hardwood. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . Make one of these pieces for each arm. A. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. Fig. as shown at A. which will be sufficient to hold it. Then replace the table. B.

Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. spoiling its appearance. If galvanized iron is used. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. E. and a weight. The covers. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. It may seem strange that ice . Snow. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. should be made of wood. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. If babbitt is used. as shown in Fig. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. 2. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. 3. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. W. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. A. D. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. A block of ice. or the paint will come off. being simply finely divided ice. 2 and 3. Fig. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. 1. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. but when in motion. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands.melted babbitt. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. 1. C. The hubs. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. 1. In the same way. or under pressure. when it will again return to its original state. as shown in Fig.

by 5 in. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. brass. no matter how slow the motion may be. in. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. which resembles ice in this respect. B. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. by 1/2 in. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. Pa. whenever there is any connection made at all. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. it will gradually change from the original shape A. square. Pressing either push button. but by placing it between books. as per sketch. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. or supporting it in some similar way. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. thus giving a high resistance contact. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. Crafton. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. but.. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . as shown on page 65. The rate of flow is often very slow. --Contributed by Gordon T. Lane. by 1/4. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch.should flow like water. P. and assume the shape shown at B. sometimes only one or two feet a day. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. by 2 in.

The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. B. F. cord. draft chain. Indianapolis. Wilkinsburg. weight. D. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. C. the battery. E.000 ft. Pa. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. K . The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. A is the circuit breaker. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. and C. --Contributed by A. alarm clock. as shown. I. The parts are: A. H. the induction coil. In the wiring diagram. wooden supports.thumb screws. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. Ward. and five dry batteries. G. G. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. about the size used for automobiles. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. pulleys. vertical lever. draft. J. furnace. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. The success depends upon a slow current. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. B. as shown. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. horizontal lever. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key.

which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. will fit nicely in them. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. The frame (Fig. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. which will provide a fine place for the plants. 3. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. as well as the bottom. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. such as used for a storm window. Artistic Window Boxes The top. Mich.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. material framed together as shown in Fig. Kalamazoo. 2 are dressed to the right angle. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. where house plants are kept in the home.

In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. this must be done with very great caution. i. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. Push the needle into the cork. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. is something that will interest the average American boy.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. and cost 27 cents FIG. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. This is more economical than dry cells. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. N. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. for some time very satisfactorily. which sells for 25 cents. one can regulate the batteries as required. as if drawn upon for its total output. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. and will give the .. S. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. a cork and a needle. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. where they are glad to have them taken away. in diameter. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. after a rest. multiples of series of three.. A certain number of these. Canada. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. W. by connecting them in series. The 1/2-cp.. However. as indicated by Fig. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. --Contributed by Wm. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. so as to increase the current. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. 1 cp. 1. in this connection. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. However. Halifax. e. and a suitable source of power. can be connected up in series. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. and the instrument will then be complete. Thus. Grant. It must be remembered. 1 each complete with base. in any system of lamps. but maintain the voltage constant. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. since a battery is the most popular source of power.

by the proper combination of these. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. according to the water pressure obtainable. each. 11 series. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. and for Christmas trees. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. or 22 lights. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed.. .2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. to secure light by this method. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. generates the power for the lights. and running the series in parallel. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. Chicago. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. lamp. 1-cp. FIG. and diffused light in a room. we simply turn on the water. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. for display of show cases. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. lamps. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. although the first cost is greater. where the water pressure is the greatest. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. if wound for 6 volts. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. In conclusion. These will give 3 cp. 3. double insulated wire wherever needed. as in Fig. However. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. which is the same as that of one battery. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. making. lamps. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. 18 B & S. Fig. If wound for 10 volts. So. and then lead No. Thus. Thus. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp.proper voltage. especially those of low internal resistance. 2 shows the scheme.

After I connected up my induction coil. field of motor. brushes of motor. switch. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. AA. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. simply change the switch. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. A indicates the ground. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. and C. Emig. DD. Cal. CC. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. or from one pattern. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. the letters indicate as follows: FF. outside points of switch. --Contributed by Leonard E. . It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. center points of switch. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. as shown in the sketch. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. a bait of meat. Plymouth. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. Parker. To reverse the motor.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. are cut just alike. and the sides. Santa Clara. thus reversing the machine. B. BB. or a tempting bone. Ind. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. A. --Contributed by F. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. we were not bothered with them. B. bars of pole-changing switch.

When the circuit is broken a weight. San Jose. which is in the door.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. and a table or bench. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. -Contributed by Claude B. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. Hutchinson. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule.. The experiment works best . 903 Vine St. If it is not. attached to the end of the armature B. The button can be hidden. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. Fry. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. merely push the button E. W. as it is the key to the lock. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. To unlock the door. Cal. a piece of string. Minn. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. one cell being sufficient. a hammer. A. or would remain locked. Melchior. thus locking the door.

4). P. I. Schmidt. Porto Rico. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. 3. attached at the other end. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. D. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. Canada. 3. Ontario. releasing the weight. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. run through a pulley. -. the current flows with the small arrows. --Contributed by Geo. Culebra. A. On another block of wood fasten two wires. Wis. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Crawford Curry. Tie the ends of the string together.. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. forming a loop. 1). Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. the stick falls away. 2. C. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. W. Madison.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. in the ceiling and has a window weight. 18 Gorham St.Contributed by F. as shown in Fig. When the alarm rings in the early morning. . Brockville. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. the key turns. where it will remain suspended as shown. which pulls the draft open.

including the mouthpiece.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. J. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. square and 1 in. R. 6 in. The cut shows the arrangement. made with his own hands. get two pieces of plate glass. N. or tree. thick. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. which fasten to the horn. thence to a switch. Use a barrel to work on.. and . a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. Camden. Farley. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. First. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. and the other to the battery. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. Jr. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. or from a bed of flowers. --Contributed by Wm. running one direct to the receiver. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. D. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. Connect two wires to the transmitter. J. S. and then to the receiver. and break the corners off to make them round.

When polishing the speculum. and spread on the glass. by the side of the lamp. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. then take 2 lb. A. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. so the light .. with 1/4-in. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. and is ready for polishing. using straight strokes 2 in. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. melt 1 lb. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. a round 4-in. spaces. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles.. Use a binger to spread it on with. with pitch. also rotate the glass.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. set the speculum against the wall. wet till soft like paint. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. L. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. wetting it to the consistency of cream. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. unless a longer focal length is wanted. Fasten. and a large lamp. then 8 minutes. and the under glass or tool convex. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. as in Fig. in length. Then warm and press again with the speculum. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Fig. wide around the convex glass or tool. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. or it will not polish evenly. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. while walking around the barrel. 2.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. 1. twice the focal length away. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. Fig. and label. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. In a dark room. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. of water. Have ready six large dishes. When dry. When done the glass should be semitransparent. or less. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. 2. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. the coarse grinding must be continued. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze.

840 gr. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. 39 gr. fill the dish with distilled water. Now add enough of the solution A. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole.. 25 gr. deep. then ammonia until bath is clear. face down. When dry.. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. that was set aside.. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. from the lamp. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. also how the rays R from a star . 2. When the focus is found. Then add solution B. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. 100 gr.. Place the speculum S. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. The knife should not be more than 6 in. 4 oz. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. Silver nitrate ……………………………. if a hill in the center. Fig. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. 2. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. The polishing and testing done. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum).…………………………….... as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. long to the back of the speculum. With pitch. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way..………………………………. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. Nitric acid . and pour the rest into the empty dish. Fig. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. Solution D: Sugar loaf . Fig. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. Two glass or earthenware dishes. or hills. cement a strip of board 8 in. touched with rouge. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. Place the speculum.. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. as in K. must be procured.. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. the speculum will show some dark rings. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. If not. with distilled water. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. longer strokes. the speculum is ready to be silvered. 4 oz.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass.……………. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. Then add 1 oz.100 gr.

Make the tube I of sheet iron. with an outlay of only a few dollars. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. two glass prisms. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount.. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. stop down well after focusing. cover with paper and cloth. Mellish. using strawboard and black paper. is a satisfactory angle. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. slightly wider than the lens mount. About 20. Then I made the one described. and proceed as for any picture. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms.John E. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. long and cost me just $15. Thus an excellent 6-in. deg. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. Place over lens. which proves to be easy of execution. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. The flatter they are the less they will distort. telescope can be made at home. My telescope is 64 in. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. .

. Boody. Zimmerman. push the button D. A. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. -Contributed by A. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. B. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. The rays of the clear. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. 2.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. Fig. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. instead of the contrary. then add a little sulphate of potash. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. says the Master Painter. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. To unlock. 1. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. through the lens of the camera and on the board. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. complete the arrangement. or powdered alum. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. as shown in Fig. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. D. Do not stir it. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. Ill. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. add the plaster gradually to the water. but will not preserve its hardening. The paper is exposed. and reflect through the negative. unobstructed light strike the mirror. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster.

3.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. Fig. To reverse. so that it can rotate about these points. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. 2. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. use a string. as at A and B. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. also provide them with a handle. Fasten on the switch lever. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. Then blow through the spool. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. but will remain suspended without any visible support. as in Fig. as shown in the sketch. throw . 1). Connect the wires as shown in Fig. 2. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner.

C C. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. D. B.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. Tex. as shown in the sketch. -Contributed by Morris L. and rub dry with linen cloth. Take out. the armature. carbon sockets. --Contributed by R. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. Neb. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. --Contributed by Geo. binding posts. and E E. San Antonio. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. rinse in alcohol. North Bend. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Thomas. carbons. Tex. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Go McVicker. Push one end of the tire into the hole. although this is not necessary. In the sketch. . Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. L. Levy. A is the electricbell magnet. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. wash in running water. San Marcos.

One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. Bell. Brooklyn. 16 magnet wire. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. wound evenly about this core. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. 14 or No. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. 36 magnet wire. long or more. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. By means of two or more layers of No. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. --Contributed by Joseph B. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made.

When cut and laid in one continuous length. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. but if it is not convenient to do this work. with room also for a small condenser. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. at a time. in diameter. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. A 7/8-in. The following method of completing a 1-in. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. hole is bored in the center of one end. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. long and 5 in. a box like that shown in Fig. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. in length. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. about 6 in. one piece of the paper is laid down. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. and finally the fourth strip of paper. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. In shaping the condenser. Beginning half an inch from one end. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. long and 2-5/8 in. as shown in Fig. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper.which would be better to buy ready-made. wide. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. This makes a condenser which may be folded. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. 1. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. No. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. After the core wires are bundled. which is desirable. or 8 in. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. as the maker prefers. The condenser is next wrapped . and the results are often unsatisfactory. diameter. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. which is an important factor of the coil. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. 2 yd. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. then the strip of tin-foil. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. 4. the entire core may be purchased readymade. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. coil illustrates the general details of the work. making two layers. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. The primary is made of fine annealed No.

whole length.securely with bands of paper or tape. A. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. switch. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. V-shaped copper strip. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. forms the other pole or terminal. open switch C. round so that the inside . F. C. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. which is insulated from the first. I. and the other sheet. wide. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection.. G. long to key. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. to the door. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. bell. shows how the connections are made. B. long and 12 in. battery . in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit.) The wiring diagram. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. Fig. and one from battery. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. one from bell. go. D. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. E. which allows wiring at the back. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. 3. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. flange turned on one side. the letters indicate as follows: A. spark. 4 in. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. B. lines H. The alarm key will turn and drop down. ready for assembling. copper lever with 1-in. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. by 12 in. shelf for clock. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in.

Short-circuit for three hours. from the bottom. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. The circuit should also have a high resistance. . instead of close to it. Use a glass or metal shade. If desired for use immediately. and the battery is ready for use. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. London. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. but with the circuit. and then rivet the seam. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. Line the furnace. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. That is what they are for. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells.diameter is 7 in. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage.. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. says the Model Engineer. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. do not shortcircuit. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. This is for blowing. of blue stone. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. 2 in. of zinc sulphate. but add 5 or 6 oz. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed.

If any or your audience presume to dispute. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. affects . and therein is the trick. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. imparting to them a violet tinge. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. square and about 9 in. Outside of the scientific side involved. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. oxygen to ozone. while for others it will not revolve at all. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. 2. below the bottom of the zinc.9 of a volt. for others the opposite way. for some it will turn one way." which created much merriment. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. or think they can do the same let them try it. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. grip the stick firmly in one hand. but the thing would not move at all. and then. Enlarge the hole slightly. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. as in the other movement. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. changes white phosphorus to yellow. g. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. At least it is amusing. herein I describe a much better trick. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. Try it and see. porcelain and paper. long. This type of battery will give about 0.. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. 1. If too low. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. To operate the trick. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. thus producing two different vibrations. the second finger along the side. Ohio.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm.

chemicals.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. To the front board is attached a box. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. a short-focus lens. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. however. and one of them is photomicrography. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. earth. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. but not essential. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. if possible. but small flowers. but this is less satisfactory. says the Photographic Times. a means for holding it vertical. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. an old tripod screw. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. and. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. insects. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter.

The following table will give the size. 7-1/2 in. in diameter. wide from which to cut a pattern. 65 4 lb. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 7 ft. 5 ft. or 31 ft. CD. Divide one-quarter of the circle . Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 6 ft. 381 24 lb. 12 ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. and a line. 1. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. Ft Lifting Power. Cap. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 179 11 lb. Boston. Mass. 905 57 lb. Fig. Madison. 268 17 lb. long and 3 ft. balloon. 5 in. 11 ft.--Contributed by George C. 697 44 lb. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. AB. 9 ft. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. or 3 ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 113 7 lb. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. If the balloon is 10 ft. 8 ft. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. while it is not so with the quill. which is 15 ft. A line. in Cu. 7-1/2 in. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter.

Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. 70 thread. making a double seam as shown in Fig. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. Repeat this operation four times. using a fine needle and No. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. The pattern is now cut. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. on the curved line from B to C. This test will show if the bag is airtight. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. cutting all four quarters at the same time. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. 3. The cloth segments are sewed together. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. The amounts necessary for a 10- . Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. Procure 1 gal. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. 4. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. keeping the marked part on the outside. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. of beeswax and boil well together. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. of the very best heavy body. 2. and so on.

of gas in one hour. with 3/4in. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. using a fine brush. . to the bag. which may sound rather absurd. by fixing. B. 5 . All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. Vegetable oils should never be used. but if any grease remains on the hand. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. A. B. Fill the other barrel. When the clock has dried. or dusting with a dry brush. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. of water will make 4 cu. or a fan. 150 gr.ft. until no more dirt is seen. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. . After washing a part. 5.. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. above the level of the water in barrel A. The outlet. The 3/4-in. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. if it is good it will dry off. C. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. this should be repeated frequently. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. A. 1 lb. as shown in Fig. should not enter into the water over 8 in. All FIG. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. C. 1 lb. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. A. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. B. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. pipe. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. with water 2 in. balloon are 125 lb. ]. Water 1 oz. of iron. ft. a clean white rag. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. of iron borings and 125 lb. leaving the hand quite clean. capacity and connect them. it is not fit to use. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. In the barrel.Green Iron ammonium citrate . oil the spindle holes carefully. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. of sulphuric acid. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. About 15 lb. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. with the iron borings. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A.

This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in.. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. A cold. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. and keep in the dark until used. A longer exposure will be necessary. Printing is done in the sun. Exposure. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. 20 to 30 minutes. dry atmosphere will give best results. . or battery. says the Moving Picture World. to avoid blackened skin. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. The negative pole. Port Melbourne. and a vigorous negative must be used. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. The miniature 16 cp. This aerial collector can be made in . of the cell is connected to a ground wire. Dry the plates in the dark. fix in hypo. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner.000 ft. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry.Water 1 oz. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. of any make. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. . Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. keeping the fingers out of the solution. Dry in the dark. The positive pole. or carbon. toning first if desired. at the time of employment. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. or zinc. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz.

Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. both positive and negative. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. and as less current will flow the short way. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. The storage cell. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. the resistance is less. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. in diameter. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. If the wave ceases. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. This will complete the receiving station. a positive and a negative. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. forming a cup of the pipe. long. making a ground with one wire. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. when left exposed to the air. 5 in. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. As the telephone offers a high resistance. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. will soon become dry and useless. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. and have the other connected with another aerial line. as described below. holes . lead pipe. lay a needle. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in.various ways. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. If the waves strike across the needle. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in.

an oblong one and a triangular one. When mixing the acid and water. This. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. does not need to be watertight. or tube B. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. B. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. or tube C. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. of course. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. a round one. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. Two binding-posts should be attached. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. says the Pathfinder. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. D. namely: a square hole. on each end. The other plate is connected to the zinc. and the other to the negative. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. This support or block. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. by soldering the joint. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. except for about 1 in. This box can be square. one to the positive.as possible. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes.

The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. thick cut two pieces alike. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. as it is not readily overturned. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. leaving about 1/16 in. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. back and under. C. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. about 20 in. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. is built 15 ft. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. A and B. wide. This punt. 1. 1. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. and has plenty of good seating capacity. C. Chicago. deep and 4 ft. as shown in Fig. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. The third piece of brass. long. . From a piece of brass 1/16 in. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. 3. wide. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. were fitted by this one plug. Ill. Only galvanized nails should be used. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. and match them together. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. as shown in Fig. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. in place on the wood. 2. 2. all around the edge. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks.

gas pipe. A piece of 1/4-in.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. square (Fig 2). with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. A.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . Tacoma. B. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. thick and 3-1/2 in. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. Wash. is cut 1 in. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. In Fig. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder.

says the Model Engineer. may be of interest to some of our readers. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. lamp. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. no more current than a 16-cp. Wagner." has no connection with the outside circuit.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. which can be developed in the usual manner. and to consume. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. In designing. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of .--Contributed by Charles H. which the writer has made. or "rotor. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. no special materials could be obtained. it had to be borne in mind that. H. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. with the exception of insulated wire. The winding of the armature. if possible. without auxiliary phase.

They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. C. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. as shown in Fig. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. After assembling a second time. 3. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. wrought iron. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. 4.the field-magnet. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. A. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. with the dotted line. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. to be filed out after they are placed together. 2. or "stator. being used. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. while the beginnings . holes. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. about 2-1/2 lb. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. bolts put in and tightened up. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. no steel being obtainable. as shown in Fig. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. Holes 5-32 in. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. and all sparking is avoided. this little machine is not self-starting. The stator is wound full with No. were then drilled and 1/4-in. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. Unfortunately. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. B. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. also varnished before they were put in. They are not particularly accurate as it is. and filled with rivets. 1. thick. in diameter were drilled in the corners. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. 5. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third.

E. 2.. J. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. 3-Contributed by C. If too late for alcohol to be of use. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. as before stated. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. The rotor is wound with No. if applied immediately. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. having no commutator or brushes. a regulating resistance is not needed. The lantern slide is a glass plate. as a means of illustrating songs. it would be very simple to build. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. Newark. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. In making slides by contact. as shown in Fig. and all wound in the same direction. The image should .of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. and as each layer of wire was wound. and especially of colored ones. film to film. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. and the other by reduction in the camera. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. One is by contact. N. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. McKinney. This type of motor has drawbacks. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. No starting resistance is needed. Jr. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. and as the motor runs at constant speed. 1. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. and would not easily get out of order.

appear in. and development should be over in three or four minutes. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. as shown in Fig. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. over the mat. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. as shown in Fig. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. and then a plain glass. 1. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. Fig. also. the formulas being found in each package of plates. 5. they are much used by travelers. Select a room with one window. 4. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. 2. If the exposure has been correct. except that the binding is different. Draw lines with a pencil. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. Being unbreakable. B. D. about a minute. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. to use a plain fixing bath. if possible. a little extra work will be necessary. A. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. It is best. C. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. 3. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. These can be purchased from any photo material store. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg.

Corinth. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. holes bored in the end pieces. 1. while the dot will be in front of the other. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. in diameter and 40 in. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. as shown at B. from the end piece of the chair. Vt. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. long. or other stout cloth. from the ends. known as rods and cones. wide and 50 in. in diameter and 20 in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. A piece of canvas. If the star is in front of the left eye. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. is to be used for the seat. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. Fig. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. 1. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. long. as shown in Fig. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . as shown at A. These longer pieces can be made square. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. Hastings. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. 16 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. from the center of this dot draw a star. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. long. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. 2. Fig.

O'Gara. A belt. J. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. A disk 1 in. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. 2. made from an ordinary sash cord. in thickness and 10 in. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. Auburn. as well as to operate other household machines. Cal. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. . Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. as shown in Fig. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. as shown in Fig. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. per square inch.-Contributed by P. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. 1. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk.

Cut out a piece from the block combination. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. direction. screwing it through the nut. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. to the top of the bench. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. leaving it shaped like a bench. thick and 2-1/2 in. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. fairly accurate. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. then removing the object. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. it serves a very useful purpose. long. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. wide. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. and the construction is complete. Bore a 1/4-in. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. square for a support. with as fine a thread as possible. A simple. 3/4 in. . in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. Put the bolt in the hole. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. will be the thickness of the object. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. divided by the number of threads to the inch. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. says the Scientific American. or inconvenient to measure.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. The part of a rotation of the bolt.

Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Oal. Place a 3/4-in. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. material 12 ft. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. long is used for the center pole. The wheel should be open . yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. globe that has been thrown away as useless. beyond the end of the wood. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. long. bolt in each hole. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. which show up fine at night. Bore a 3/4-in. piece of wood 12 ft. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Santa Maria.

Side and Top View or have spokes. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. L. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. at the bottom. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. square and 3 or 4 in. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. long. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. wide and 1/8 in. thick. Fort Worth. at the top and 4 in. to be operated by the magnet coil. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. wide and 1/8 in. long. The boards may be nailed or bolted. and the lower part 61/2 in. from the ends. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. and on its lower end a socket. pieces used for the spokes. is soldered. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. thick is used for the armature. Graham. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. The coil. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. B. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. H and J. of the ends with boards. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. in diameter. P. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. The spool . long. C. 1/2 in. A cross bar. A.-Contributed by A. long. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. Tex. C. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. thick. O. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. made of the same material. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. which should be 1/4 in. A piece of brass 2 in. from the top end. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in.

and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it.E. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. A soft piece of iron.is about 2-1/2 in. The armature. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. Mass. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. and in numerous other like instances. F. is drilled. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. and place it against a door or window casing. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. 2. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. do it without any apparent effort. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. B. long. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. When you slide the pencil along the casing. D and E. A. This tie can be used on grain sacks. one without either rubber or metal end. R. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. 1. Randolph. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. At the bottom end of the frame. C. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. then with a firm. which may be had by using German silver wire. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post.J. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. . that holds the lower carbon. This is a very neat trick if performed right. or a water rheostat heretofore described. --Contributed by Arthur D.--A. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil.000. 2 the hat hanging on it. Bradlev. for insulating the brass ferrule. S. making a hole just a little larger than the rod.000 for irrigation work. by soldering. S. and directly centering the holes H and J.

from the core and directly opposite. leaving the projections as shown. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. About 70 turns of No. The core of the coil. hole in the center. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. The coil ends are made from cardboard. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. for adjustment. in diameter. with a 3/16-in. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. mixed with water to form a paste. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. is connected to a flash lamp battery. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. for the secondary. S. 2. about 1/8 in. long. is constructed in the usual manner. The vibrator B. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. in diameter and 1/16 in. 1. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. C. A. B. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. for the primary. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. long and 1 in. in diameter and 2 in. wide. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. The switch. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. Experiment with Heat [134] . and then 1. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. may be made from a 3/8-in. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. Fig. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. D. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. 1. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. S. about 1 in. about 3/16 in. F. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting.500 turns of No. The vibrator. thick.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. in diameter. Fig. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in.

as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. brass plate. which seemed to be insufficient. 16 in. and the same distance inside of the new board. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. board. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. thick on the inside. wide. 1. The hasp. 1.Place a small piece of paper. The tin is 4 in. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. . between the boards. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. in an ordinary water glass. and then well clinched. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. as shown. 2 to fit the two holes. as shown in the sketch. The knob on the dial extends out too far. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. which is cut with two holes. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. long and when placed over the board. with which to operate the dial. it laps down about 8 in. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. Fig. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. The lock. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. was to be secured by only three brass screws. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. lighted. The three screws were then put in the hasp. which is only 3/8-in. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. It is necessary to add 1/2-in.

which completely divides the box into two parts. any article placed therein will be reflected in. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. not shiny. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. square and 8-1/2 in. one in each division. but when the front part is illuminated. black color. or in the larger size mentioned. When the rear part is illuminated. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. If the box is made large enough. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. clear glass as shown.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . high for use in window displays. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. square and 10-1/2 in. When making of wood. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. the glass. and the back left dark. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in.

Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. into the other. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. and with the proper illumination one is changed. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water.. as it appears. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. When using as a window display. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. When there is no electric current available. above the top of the tank. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. as shown in the sketch. . or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. a tank 2 ft. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. long and 1 ft. alternately. as shown at A in the sketch.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. wide will be about the right size.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

5 ft. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. wide. The 13-in. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. 1 in. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. using a 3/4-in. two pieces 1-1/8 in. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. under sides together. however. is the green vitriol. but with a length of 12 in. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. high. The pieces can then be taken out. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. If a planing mill is near. 2 ft. with a length of 13 in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. as shown. A small platform. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. Shape the under sides first. Columbus. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. Iron sulphate. This hole must be continued . or ferrous sulphate. each. long. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. long. O. dried and mixed with linseed oil. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. This precipitate is then washed. one for each side. lines gauged on each side of each. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. Three windows are provided. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. square and 40 in. is built on the front. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. radius.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. and boring two holes with a 1-in. bit. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. bore from each end. and a solution of iron sulphate added. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. hole. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. and a door in front. then use a red-hot iron to finish. wide. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. thick and 3 in. hole bored the full length through the center. gauge for depth. and 6 ft. from the ground. square. 6 in.

square and drawing a diagonal on each." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. A better way. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Electric globes--two. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. For art-glass the metal panels are . The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. When this is dry. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. apply two coats of wax. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. if shade is purchased. The sketch shows one method of attaching. thick and 3 in. Saw the two blocks apart. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. Directions will be found on the filler cans. When the filler has hardened. hole in each block. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. If the parts are to be riveted.through the pieces forming the base. three or four may be attached as shown.

Construction of Shade . and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. such as copper. METAL SHADE . Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. as brass.The Completed Lamp cut out.

The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. Figure 1 shows the side. 2 the front view of this stand.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. one way and 1/2 in. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. and Fig. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The arms holding the glass. the other. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. as in ordinary devices. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. as shown in the sketch. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. the object and the background. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera.

is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. in diameter. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. channel in the circumference of the ring. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. thick 5/8-in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. Before mounting the ring on the base. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. thus forming a 1/4-in. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. wide and 6-5/16 in. uncork and recork again. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. and swinging freely. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. in diameter for a base. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. as it is very poisonous. as shown in the cut. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. and an inside diameter of 9 in. about 1-1/4 in. wide and 11 in. Cut another circular piece 11 in. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. If the light becomes dim. outside diameter. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . lies exactly in the plane of the coil. Put the ring in place on the base. An ordinary pocket compass. long. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. as shown in the sketch. pointing north and south. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire.

An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.289 . and north of the Ohio river.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. The results given should be multiplied by 1. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg.600 . above the half can. Corresponding mirrors. 1 oz.088 .500 . black oxide of copper. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. Place on top the so- . the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. in diameter and 8 in.715 . AA. of the top. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago.420 . into these cylinders. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. EE. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . and mirrors. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye.865 1.182 . from the second to the third.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. B. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. are mounted on a base. CC.

nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. says Metal Worker. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. When renewing. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. 62 gr. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. University Park. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. always remove the oil with a siphon. then they will not rust fast. slender bottle. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. alcohol. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. of pulverized campor. Put the solution in a long. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. Colo. little crystals forming in the liquid. 31 gr. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. In Fig. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. which otherwise remains clear. the wheel will revolve in one direction. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. the threads should be painted with pure white lead.

Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. If zinc and copper are used. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. If zinc and carbon are used. This is used in place of the spoon. will allow the magnet to point north and south. about 1-1/4 in. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. Lloyd Enos. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. Solder in the side of the box . Attach to the wires. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. If two of them are floating on the same solution. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. A paper-fastener box. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. floating on a solution. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. on the under side of the cork. --Contributed by C.

D. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. . A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. and then solder on the cover. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. glass tubing . Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. B. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. A. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. wide and 2-1/2 in. 10 wire about 10 in. long. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. piece of 1/4-in. and on the other around the glass tube. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. Thos. D. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. H. A. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way.in. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. The standard. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. The spring should be about 1 in. stained and varnished. C. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron.not shorter than 18 in. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. or made with a little black paint. E. to it. E. Put ends. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports.1-in.in. as shown in Fig. is made from a piece of No. one on each side of the board. 14 wire will do. B. hole. If the hose is not a tight fit. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. Rhamstine. 1/2. The bottom of the box. F. 1-1/4 in. of No. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. of wire on each end extending from the coil. The base. away. C. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. G--No. can be made of oak. long. Wind evenly about 2 oz. To this standard solder the supporting wire. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. A circular piece of cardboard. wide and 6 in. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. brass tubing. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. thick. long that has about 1/4-in.Contributed by J. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. 1. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. Bore holes for binding-posts. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. D. C. Use a board 1/2. 3 in. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. Take a small piece of soft iron.

long. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. Y. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. in diameter. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. . two pieces 2 ft. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work.of the coil. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. 2. Smith. four hinges. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. long. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. long. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. Wis. of No. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested.--Contributed by R. D. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. as shown in Fig. Cuba. canvas. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. 3 in. long are used for the legs. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. N. When the glass becomes soft. about 1 in. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. Teasdale. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. E. J. from the right hand. Milwaukee. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. 5. making a support as shown in Fig. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. About 1-1/2 lb. 3-in. 3. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. long. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. The iron plunger.--Contributed by Edward M. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. is drawn nearer to the coil. of mercury will be sufficient. 1. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. of 8-oz. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer.

Toronto. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. The tube now must be filled completely. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel.. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. leaving 8 in. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. 6. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. long. 2. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. Break off the piece of glass. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. of vacuum at the top. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. Keys. expelling all the air. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. 5. Take 1/2 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. small aperture in the long tube. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. This tube as described will be 8 in. holding in the left hand. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . thus leaving a. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. Measure 8 in. 3. Fig. Can. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. --Contributed by David A. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. 4.. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens.

These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . 3 in. wide and 5 ft. joint be accurately put together. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. and the single projection 3/4 in. cut in the shape shown in Fig. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. as shown in Fig. wide and 5 ft. 5. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. thick. as shown in Fig. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. from the end of same. but yellow pine is the best. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. long. 2. wide and 12 in. 4 in. in diameter. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in.6 -. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. 3. Fig. 1 in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. thick. Four blocks 1/4 in. wide and 5 ft. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. with each projection 3-in. 9 in. These are bent and nailed. long. 3 in. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. thick. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. 1 in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. 4. The large pulley is about 14 in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. wide and 3 in. material 2 in. 6. thick. long. wood screws. thick. long. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. as in Fig. 7. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. FIG. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. This forms a slot. 1. and 1/4 in.

The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. --Contributed by C. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Welsh. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. first removing the crank. Water 1 oz. says Photography. Kan. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. above the runner level. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. . by 1-in. R.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. attach runners and use it on the ice. Manhattan. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine.

and very much cheaper. Leominster. as shown in Fig. of water. 1 oz. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. Mass. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. as shown in Fig. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. also. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. The print is washed. This is done with a camel's hair brush. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. Printing is carried rather far. --Contributed by Wallace C. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. Treasdale. 3. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. Newton. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. 2. 1. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. --Contributed by Edward M. . Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. from an ordinary clamp skate.

and bend them as shown in the sketch. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. F. 1-1/2 ft. Va. with about 1/8-in. extending the width of the box. --Contributed by H. square piece. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. Place a 10-in. Take two glass tubes. 1. and to the bottom. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. wide and 4 in. 1. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. hole. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. 1 ft. Then. wide. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. as shown in the sketch. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. say. fasten a 2-in. high. 2. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. The thread is broken off at the . A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. long. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. and 3 ft. Fig. high for rabbits. Fig. which represents the back side of the door. Alexandria. about 10 in. The swing door B. too. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. Church. causing the door to swing back and up. from one end. A.

one in each end and exactly opposite each other. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. B. in size. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. camera and wish to use some 4. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. Take two pieces of pasteboard. high and 12 in. long. Paste a piece of strong black paper. Chicago.by 5-in. long. This opening. says Camera Craft. to be used as a driving pulley. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. trolley cars. Fig. -Contributed by William M. but cut it 1/4 in. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. Jr. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. horses and dogs. wide. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. from the edge on each side of these openings. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. wide. 1 in.. Cut an opening in the other piece. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. D. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. inside of the opening. C. 1. Cut a piece of thin black cloth.proper place to make a small hole. wide and 5 in. plates. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. . as shown in Fig. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. shorter. in size. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. being 1/8 in. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. shorter at each end. 2. A and B. Out two rectangular holes. and go in the holder in the same way. 3. Fig. automobiles. and exactly 5 by 7 in. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. 10 in. say 8 in. Crilly.by 7-in. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. black surfaced if possible.

making a . and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. long and 6 in. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill.. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. into which the dog is harnessed. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. if it has previously been magnetized. wide will be required.in. The needle will then point north and south. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. A cell of this kind can easily be made.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. in diameter. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam.

F is a spool. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. under the spool in the paraffin. pull out the wire as needed. short time. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. Place the pan on the stove. only the joints. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. and a notch between the base and the pan. A is a block of l-in. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. one that will hold about 1 qt. zinc oxide. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin.in. with narrow flanges. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. 3/4 lb. 1/4 lb. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. Form a 1/2-in. fodder. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. says Electrician and Mechanic. in diameter and 6 in. fuel and packing purposes. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. filter. of rosin and 2 oz. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. Do not paint any surface. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. of the plate at one end. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. B is a base of 1 in. when the paraffin is melted. leaving about 1/2-in. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side.watertight receptacle. in which P is the pan. pine. Pack the paste in. 1 lb. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. beeswax melted together. File the rods to remove the copper plate. for a connection. plaster of paris. of the top. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. of water. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. sal ammoniac. This makes the wire smooth. . long which are copper plated.

At least it is amusing. but the thing would not move at all. and therein is the trick. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. and he finally.. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. Enlarge the hole slightly. let them try it.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. and then. Ohio." which created much merriment. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. or think they can do the same. g. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Toledo. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. for others the opposite way. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. as in the other movement. and one friend tells me that they were . Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. grip the stick firmly in one hand. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. while for others it will not revolve at all. thus producing two different vibrations. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. square and about 9 in. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. 2. from vexation. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. for some it will turn one way. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. Try it and see. long. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. If any of your audience presume to dispute. by the Hindoos in India. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick.

if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. 6. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. 7. To operate. Speeds between 700 and 1. If the pressure was upon an edge. m. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. the rotation may be obtained. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. p. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. 3. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. and. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion.100 r. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. A square stick with notches on edge is best. and I think the results may be of interest. 5. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. by means of a center punch. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. secondly. no rotation resulted. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. 2. gave the best results. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. rotation was obtained. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. Thus a circular or . rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. 4. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. The experiments were as follows: 1. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe.

is driven violently away. the upper portion is. forming a handle for carrying. and the resultant "basket splash. Ph. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. A wire is tied around the can. a piece of wire and a candle.. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. --Contributed by G. and the height of the fall about 6 in. Washington.D. G. as shown. so far as can be seen from the photographs. Duluth. at first. D. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. . Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. C. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown.. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. if the pressure is from the left." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. A. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. Lloyd. --Contributed by M. or greasy. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. unwetted by the liquid. Sloan. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. it will be clockwise. Minn. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

Each wheel is 1/4 in. in diameter. thick and 1 in. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. flange and a 1/4-in." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. axle. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. 1. about 2-5/8 in. as shown in Fig. as shown. hole drilled in the center. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. with a 1/16-in. long. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves.

These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. which must be 110 volt alternating current. wood. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. The parts. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. 6. as shown in Fig. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. The first piece. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. bottom side up. 3/4 in. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. each in its proper place. bent as shown. These ends are fastened together. Fig. A trolley. or main part of the frame. and the locomotive is ready for running. 2. San Antonio. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. 1 from 1/4-in. are shown in Fig. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. 3. 4. --Contributed by Maurice E. put together complete. is made from brass. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle.brass. wide and 16 in. with cardboard 3 in. Fuller. 3. The motor is now bolted. as shown in Fig. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. 2. This will save buying a track. long. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. lamp in series with the coil. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. holes 1 in.50. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . The other binding-post is connected to the frame. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. 5. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. The current. is made from a piece of clock spring. Texas. If the ends are to be soldered. Fig. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. of No.

The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. the length of a paper clip. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. as shown in Fig. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Fig. 3. but do not heat the center. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. as shown in Fig. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. Cincinnati. The quarter will not go all the way down. and as this end . then continue to tighten much more.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. O. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Fig 1. 1. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. 2. and holes drilled in them. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg.

A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. When the cutter A. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. 2 and 1 respectively. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. or should the lathe head be raised. In the sketch. and adjusted . has finished a cut for a tooth. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. A pair of centers are fitted. or apparent security of the knot. When the trick is to be performed.

) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. (4. --Contributed by Samuel C. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. N. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. Y. 1. twisted around itself and soldered. Bunker. dividing it into as many parts as desired. Second row: -Two book marks. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. if four parts are to be alike. draw center lines across the required space.) Place the paper design on the leather and. book mark. (6. (1. long. trace the outline. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . tea cosey. coin purse. swing lathe. Bott. The frame holding the mandrel.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. gentleman's card case or bill book. tea cosey. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. Fold over along these center lines. --Contributed by Howard S. blotter back. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. if but two parts. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. watch fob ready for fastenings. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. holding it in place with the left hand. or one-half of the design. above the surface. (5. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. lady's belt bag. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. such as brass or marble. about 1-1/2 in. An ordinary machine will do. (3.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Fig. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. When connecting to batteries. Brooklyn. In this manner gears 3 in. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. and a nut pick.to run true. at the same time striking light. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. (2. 2. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. lady's card case. note book.) Make on paper the design wanted. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. in diameter can be made on a 6-in.

How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. Secure . some heavy rubber hose. and an ordinary bottle.

B.C. A. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. D. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. The electrodes are made . pull it through the cork to one side or the other. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. If the needle is not horizontal. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. Florida. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. and push it through a cork. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. where it condenses. a distance of 900 miles. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. Thrust a pin. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. into which fit a small piece of tube. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm.. C. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. and bore a hole through the center. from Key West. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes.

long. wide and 4 ft long. thick. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. wide and 3 ft. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. as shown in Fig. 1. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. All wiring is done with No. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. which is tacked to the front edge. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. thick. 1-1/4 in. or flying-machine. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. long. apart and extend 1 ft. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. using a high resistance receiver. 1/2. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. 2 arm sticks 1 in. lumber cannot be procured. 12 uprights 1/2 in. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. free from knots. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. thick. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. Washington. The operator can then land safely and . In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. 1. by 3/4 in. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. D. long. 2 in. 2. long for the body of the operator. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. take the glider to the top of a hill. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. wide and 3 ft. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. several strips 1/2 in. 3/4 in. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. 16 piano wire. If 20-ft. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. Four long beams 3/4 in. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. 1-1/2 in. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. C. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. 2. thick. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. wide and 4 ft.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. To make a glide. thick. as shown in Fig. long. long. --Contributed by Edwin L. square and 8 ft long. slacken speed and settle. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. 1. both laterally and longitudinally. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. wide and 4 ft. and also to keep it steady in its flight. lengths and splice them. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. use 10-ft. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. as shown in Fig. 3. Connect as shown in the illustration.in. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. Powell. wide and 20 ft.

but this must be found by experience. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Glides are always made against the wind. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Of course. Great care should be . the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.gently on his feet.

The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. a creature of Greek mythology. half man and half horse. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. as shown in Fig. When heated a little. 2. M. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . --Contributed by L. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. Bellingham. 1.exercised in making landings. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. which causes the dip in the line. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. Olson. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from.

The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. long. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. long and about 3/8 in. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. outside the box. in diameter. about the size of stove pipe wire. The light from the . Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. at the other. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. this will cost about 15 cents. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. a piece of brass or steel wire. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. of small rubber tubing. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. square. will complete the material list. making it 2-1/2 in. 14 in. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. about the size of door screen wire.

After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. This is very simple when you know how. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. M. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. Dayton. while others will fail time after time. . If done properly the card will flyaway. 1. as shown in Fig. --Photo by M.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. 2. O. Hunting. as shown in the sketch.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. as shown in Fig.

one between the thumb and finger of each hand. as described. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. This game is played by five persons. Cool in water and dry. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure .How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. as before. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. When the desired shape has been obtained. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. closing both hands quickly. If a certain color is to be more prominent. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. as shown. hold the lump over the flame. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm." or the Chinese students' favorite game. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. then put it on the hatpin head. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. place the other two. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters.

After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. passing through neutralizing brushes. these sectors.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. distribute electric charges . or more in width. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines.

These pins. in diameter. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. long and the shank 4 in. in diameter. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. wide at one end. 3. Fig. long. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. in diameter. and this should be done before cutting the circle. wide. after they are mounted. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. in diameter. The two pieces. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. long and the standards 3 in. in diameter and 15 in. turned wood pieces. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. as shown in Fig. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. The plates. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. EE. are made from 7/8-in. 1. The drive wheels. are made from solid. Fig. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. The plates are trued up. Two pieces of 1-in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. 3/4 in. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. 2. and pins inserted and soldered. the side pieces being 24 in. long. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. 1 in. C C. in diameter. 1-1/2 in. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. brass tubing and the discharging rods. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. and the outer end 11/2 in. and of a uniform thickness.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. 4. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. The fork part is 6 in. to which insulating handles . RR. GG. Two solid glass rods. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. The collectors are made. 3. as shown in Fig. material 7 in. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. and 4 in. D. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. in diameter. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. free from wrinkles. from about 1/4-in. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. at the other. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. or teeth. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks.

KK. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. 12 ft. long. D. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. --Contributed by C. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. Lloyd Enos.. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes.are attached. in diameter. Colorado City. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. which are bent as shown. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. and the work was done by themselves. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. wide and 22 ft. one having a 2-in. Colo. ball and the other one 3/4 in. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence.

They can be used to keep pins and needles. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up.is a good one. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. pens . as at A. deep. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. and bore a hole 1/2 in. using a 1-in. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. string together. The key will drop from the string. bit. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. yet such a thing can be done.

adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. etc. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked.. Draw one-half the design free hand. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. or cigar ashes. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. 23 gauge. stamp the background promiscuously.. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. very rapid progress can be made. above the metal. flat and round-nosed pliers. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. 6. The second oblong was 3/4 in. also trace the decorative design. When the stamping is completed. Use . sharp division between background and design. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. file. 7. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. inside the second on all. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. 5. two spikes. above the work and striking it with the hammer. 9. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. This is to make a clean. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. inside the first on all. slim screw. Inside this oblong.and pencils. Raise the ends. unless it would be the metal shears. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. and the third one 1/4 in. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. etc. they make attractive little pieces to have about. about 3/4-in. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. 4. then the other side. Proceed as follows: 1. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. extra metal on each of the four sides. using a nail filed to chisel edge. 2. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. They are easily made. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. 3. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. Having determined the size of the tray. 8.

Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. 8. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. 10. first fingers. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . 6. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. 9. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. second fingers.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. In the first numbering. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. and fourth fingers. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. 7. third fingers. and the effect will be most pleasing. The eyes. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C.

The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. which tens are added. Put your thumbs together. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. above 20 times 20. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. as high as you want to go. 12.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. 25 times 25. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. the product of 12 times 12. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right.. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. which would be 16. but being simple it saves time and trouble. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. 2 times 2 equals 4. if we wish. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. . so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers.. etc. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. etc. there are no fingers above. 600. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. etc.. 400. or 80. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. thumbs. Still. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. above 15 times 15 it is 200. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. Let us multiply 12 by 12. first fingers. viz. which would be 70. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. or numbers above 10. and the six lower fingers as six tens. 11. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. Two times one are two. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. renumber your fingers. or the product of 8 times 9. At a glance you see four tens or 40. In the second numbering. or 60. or the product of 6 times 6. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44.

but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. the revolution seems to reverse. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. The inversion and reversion did not take place. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. any two figures between 45 and 55. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. the inversion takes place against his will. thumbs. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. whether the one described in second or third numbering. 75 and 85. forties. 21. in the case of a nearsighted person. the value of the upper fingers being 20. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. the value which the upper fingers have.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. which is the half-way point between the two fives. about a vertical axis. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. Proceed as in the second lumbering. the lump sum to add. 2. 3. when he removes his spectacles. at the will of the observer.. 7. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. Take For example 18 times 18. or from above or from below. being 80). and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. or what. and so on. first finger 17. And the lump sum to add. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. For figures ending in 6. however. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. twenties. lastly. as one might suppose. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. 8. adding 400 instead of 100. beginning the thumbs with 16. and. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. etc. further. not rotation. first fingers 22. thirties. . For example. It takes place also. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives.

one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. and putting a cork on the point. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. A flat slide valve was used. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. the other appearance asserts itself.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. as . The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. when he knows which direction is right. The ports were not easy to make. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. Looking at it in semidarkness. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. sometimes the point towards him. tee.

Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. If nothing better is at hand. and make in one end a hollow. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. it is easily built. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. if continued too long without proper treatment. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. The steam chest is round. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. -Contributed by W. Ill. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. across the head. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. inexpensive. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. deep.. The eccentric is constructed of washers. as in a vise. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. saw off a section of a broom handle. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. about 2 in. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. across and 1/2 in. in diameter. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. bottom side up. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. Fasten the block solidly. Next take a block of wood. pipe 10 in. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. Beating copper tends to harden it and. H. The tools are simple and can be made easily. pipe. . apart. secure a piece of No. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. such as is shown in the illustration. Springfield. While this engine does not give much power. Kutscher.

especially when the object is near to the observer. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. O. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. and. Hay. This process is called annealing. the other to the left. --Contributed by W. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. To overcome this hardness. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. Camden. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. To produce color effects on copper.will cause the metal to break. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. Vinegar. S. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. as it softens the metal. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. C.

" which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange.stereoscope. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. and lies to the right on the picture. as for instance red and green. orange. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. But they seem black. that for the right. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. from the stereograph. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. . Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. not two mounted side by side. the one for the left eye being blue. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. So with the stereograph. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. In order to make them appear before the card. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. it. and without any picture. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. in the proper choice of colors. the further from the card will the composite image appear. The further apart the pictures are. the left eye sees through a blue screen. although they pass through the screen. diameter. with the stereograph. they must be a very trifle apart. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. however. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. while both eyes together see a white background. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. only the orange rays may pass through. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. The red portions of the picture are not seen. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. It is just as though they were not there. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. because of the rays coming from them. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. because. disappears fully. would serve the same purpose.

in the shape of a crank. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. thick. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. etc. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. Cal. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. or the middle of the bottle. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. San Francisco. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. wide and 1 in. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. Place a NO. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. This should only be bored about half way through the block. in diameter. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. The weight of the air in round . 1/4 in. long and a hole drilled in each end. wireless. 12 gauge wire. A No. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil.

wide and 40 in.. or. the instrument. But if a standard barometer is not available. if you choose. high. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. Before fastening the scale. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. pine 3 in. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. Only redistilled mercury should be used. internal diameter and about 34 in. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. a glass tube 1/8 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. the contrary. . of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. In general. if accurately constructed.6) 1 in. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. and a slow fall. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. The 4 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury.numbers is 15 lb. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. long. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. high. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. long. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. will calibrate itself. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. wide and 4 in. square. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. 30 in. inside diameter and 2 in. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. 34 ft. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. high. square. or a column of mercury (density 13. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. long. thick. a bottle 1 in. but before attempting to put in the mercury. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather.

wide and 10 in. 2. 5. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. thick. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . which is slipped quickly over the end. 1. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. 6 and 7. Mark out seven 1-in. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. 3. and place them as shown in Fig. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. Number the pieces 1. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. a cover from a baking powder can will do. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. long.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. Procure a metal can cover. the size of the outside of the bottle. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in.

5's place. Move 8-Jump No. Move 15-Move No. 5 over No. Woolson. procure unbleached tent duck. 6 into No. Move 6-Move No. 2. which is the very best material for the purpose. 2. Move 2-Jump No. 1. 3 into No. 2 over No. Move 4-Jump No. Move 14-Jump No. l over No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 3. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. shaped like Fig. 3 to the center. 5's place. Cape May Point. To make such a tent. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 2 over No. 5. 2 . 7's place. L. 6 in. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. Move 10-Move No. Move 3-Move No. 7. 6. 2's place. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 6 to No. 5 over No. N. using checkers for men. 3 over No.J.-Contributed by W. Move 13-Move No. Move 9-Jump No. 1. as shown in Fig. 6. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 7 over No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. Move ll-Jump No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. long and 2 ft. in diameter. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces.Position of the Men move only one at a time. Make 22 sections. 2's place. 1 into No. 1 to No. Move 5-Jump No. 3. 3. This can be done on a checker board. 7 over No. Move 12-Jump No. Move 7-Jump No. each 10 ft. 6 over No.

high. Pa.. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. long and 4 in. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. round galvanized iron. diameter. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. fill with canvas edging. will do. --Contributed by G. Use blocks. wide at the bottom.in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. leaving the rest for an opening. 5. in diameter. 3 in. 6-in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Tress. as in Fig. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. 5) stuck in the ground. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Punch holes in the brass in . tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. from the top. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. wide at the bottom. Fig.J. Have the tent pole 3 in. As shown in the sketch. long. made in two sections. added. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Fig. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Emsworth. about 9 in. wide by 12 in. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. 2 in. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. 9 by 12 in. to a smooth board of soft wood. 6. These are ventilators. 2. After transferring the design to the brass. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. In raising the tent.

bend into shape. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. Chicago. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand.the spaces around the outlined figures. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. but before punching the holes. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. . The pattern is traced as before. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. excepting the 1/4-in. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. Corr. around the outside of the pattern. apart. When all the holes are punched. It will not. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. When the edges are brought together by bending. cut out the brass on the outside lines.

Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. E. Oregon. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. A 6-in. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. or. or less. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. Dunham. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. If a wheel is selected. allowing 2 ft. pipe is used for the hub.. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. pipe. better still.however. between which is placed the fruit jar. Mayger. --Contributed by Geo. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. These pipes are . --Contributed by H. A cast-iron ring. Badger. G. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. or center on which the frame swings. Que. partially filled with cream. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. Stevens.

This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. An extra wheel 18 in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. pipe clamps. bent to the desired circle. pipe. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. Four braces made from 1/2-in. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel.

The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. which was placed in an upright position. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. as shown in Fig. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. 3. 1. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. while doing this. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The performer. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. and dropped on the table. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. and the guide withdrawn. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box.

Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. and second. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. in a half circle. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Mo. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. it requires no expensive condensing lens. White. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. --Contributed by H. Harkins. -Contributed by C. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. The box can be made of selected oak or . Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Louis. 1. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. first. St. in diameter on another piece of tin.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. D. Denver. Colo. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. 2. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. F. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives.

The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. from each end. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. 3-1/2 in. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. wide. long. An open space 4 in. and 2 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. focal length. Two or three holes about 1 in. high and 11 in. If a camera lens is used. wide by 5 in. long and should be placed vertically. wide and 6-1/2 in. from each end of the outside of the box. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. fit into the runners. but not tight. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. as shown in Fig. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. long. AA. represented by the dotted line in Fig. 5-1/2 in. This will be 3/4 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. 1. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. wide and 5 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. 2. and. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. The door covering this hole in the back. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. high and must .mahogany.

The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. calling that knuckle January.. Ohio. and so on. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. June and November. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. This process is rather a difficult one. West Toledo. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger." etc. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. calling this February. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. --Contributed by Chas. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. the article may be propped up . but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. as it requires an airtight case. provided it is airtight. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. April.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. then the second knuckle will be March. and extending the whole height of the lantern. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. C. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 1. Bradley. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles.

The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. The top of a table will do. the lid or cover closed. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream.with small sticks. 1 and 2. Y. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. but waxed. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. Pour in a little turpentine. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. running small motors and lighting small lamps. H. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. one of lead and one of aluminum. Crawford. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. giving it an occasional stir. Schenectady. In both Fig. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. . The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. and the lead 24 sq. in. in. N. In each place two electrodes. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. and set aside for half a day. 1. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. fruit jars are required. or suspended by a string. --Contributed by J. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. taking care to have all the edges closed. 2. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration.

you remove the glass. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . After a few seconds' time. Cleveland.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. as you have held it all the time. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. he throws the other. You have an understanding with some one in the company. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. which you warm with your hands. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. at the time of request for handkerchiefs.. as well as others. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. He. O. This trick is very simple.

How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Pull the ends quickly. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. but by being careful at shores. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. near a partition or curtain. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. if any snags are encountered. but in making one. Victor. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. Crocker.-Contributed by E.take the handiest one. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. J. Colo. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. put it under the glass. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. in diameter in the center. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. on a table. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Be sure that this is the right one. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. . This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear.

and the other 12 in. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 1 in. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . by 8 in. 4 outwales. Both ends are mortised. 1 piece. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 3 in. of 1-yd. Paint. long. 8 yd.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 14 rib bands. 1 mast. wide unbleached muslin. wide 12-oz. 1/8 in. the smaller is placed 3 ft. from each end to 1 in. are as follows: 1 keelson. and is removed after the ribs are in place. 7 ft. 2 gunwales. ducking. long. wide and 12 ft. clear pine. 1. 1 in. by 16 ft. of rope. 8 in. wide.. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. for the bow. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. for center deck braces. and. 1 piece. of 1-1/2-yd. 9 ft. 3 and 4. is 14 ft. from the stern. Fig. long. from the bow and the large one. 2 and braced with an iron band. by 16 ft. by 2 in. selected pine. 1 in. thick and 3/4 in. as illustrated in the engraving. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. at the ends. 50 ft. by 10 ft. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. 2 in. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. for the stern piece. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. by 15 ft. by 2 in. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. square by 16 ft. drilled and fastened with screws. The keelson. for cockpit frame. 1 in. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 11 yd. one 6 in. apart. screws and cleats.. by 12 in. 3 in. 1/4 in. long. wide and 12 ft. and fastened with screws.

The block is fastened to the keelson. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. wide and 24 in. wide. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. These are put in 6 in. 9. gunwales and keelson. also. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. 3-1/2 ft. long. A piece of oak. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. wide and 3 ft. 7 and 8. from the bow. . long. long. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. corner braces. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. Before making the deck. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. This block. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. thick 1-1/2 in. The deck is not so hard to do. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. 1 in. thick and 12 in.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. wide. is a cube having sides 6 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. Figs. 1 in. 1/4 in. 6. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. 6 and 7. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. The trimming is wood. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. A 6-in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. in diameter through the block. length of canvas is cut in the center. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. thick and 1/2 in. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. is cut to fit under the top boards. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. a piece 1/4 in. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. 4 in. 6 in. apart. and fastened to them with bolts. Braces. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. 5. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. They are 1 in. doubled. long is well soaked in water. A seam should be made along the center piece. thick. Fig. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. screws. Fig. wood screws. The 11-yd. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. wide and 14 in. A block of pine. thick.

Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. 10 with a movable handle. --Contributed by O. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. The keel. The house will accommodate 20 families. Tronnes. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. is 6 in. Ill. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. The mast has two side and one front stay. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. at the other. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. wide at one end and 12 in. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. in diameter and 10 ft. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. each 1 in. long. 12. wide. are used for the boom and gaff. long. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. . 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. E. A strip 1 in. 11. apart in the muslin. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. Fig. Wilmette. The sail is a triangle. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. thick by 2 in. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut.

one 11-1/2 in. long and five 1/2-in. as shown in Fig. and the other 18 in. flat-headed screws. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. 2-1/2 in. wide and 30 in. long. E. Take this and fold it over . The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. thick. 2-1/2 in. 2. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. 3. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. square. with the ends and the other side rounding. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. long. Cut the maple. 1 yd. wide. flat headed screws.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. --Contributed by O. Fig. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. Ill. about 5/16 in. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. wide. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in.into two 14-in. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. Bevel both sides of the pieces. Tronnes. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. five 1/2-in. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. 2 in. wide and 2 ft. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. 4. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. long. thick. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. Wilmette. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. and 3 ft. flat on one side. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. 1. thick. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. 5. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried.

F. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. forming an eye for a screw. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. long. as well as the edges around the opening. 1. 6-1/2 in. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. and make a turn in each end of the wires. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. The bag is then turned inside out. 5 from 1/16-in. long. long. and the four outside edges. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. wide and 3 ft. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. A. square. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. leaving a small opening at one corner. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. Fig. D. About 1/2 in. The sides are 3-1/4 in. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. thick. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. 3-1/4 in. 3 in. the mechanical parts can be put together. Mo. wide and 2-3/4 in. 1-1/4 in. long. pieces 2-5/8 in.once. Wind three layers of about No. long. then centered. wide and 5 in. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. Bliss. The front. E. long. C. St. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. about 3/8 in. thick and 3 in. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. When the glue is set. A. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. 3/8 in. wide and 4-1/2 in. Figs. of each end unwound for connections. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. square. thick. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. soaked with water and blown up. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. Louis. wide and 2-1/2 in. If carefully and neatly made. C. but can be governed by circumstances. long. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. this square box is well sandpapered. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. and take care that the pieces are all square. After the glue. Cut another piece of board. the top and bottom. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. Another piece. are rounded. B. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. wide and 6-1/2 in. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. Glue a three cornered piece. --Contributed by W. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. long. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. 2 and 3. wide and 6-3/4 in. is set. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. wide .

These wires should be about 1 in. long. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. Austwick Hall. W. 5. and the farther apart they will be forced. so it will just clear the tin. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. A pointer 12 in. F. 5-1/2 in. C. The end of the polar axis B. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. G. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling.S. The resistance is now adjusted to show . 4 is not movable. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. Richmond Hill.A. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. and fasten in place. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. the part carrying the pointer moves away. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. in diameter. Like poles repel each other. wide and 2-1/2 in. from one end. The stronger the current. When the current flows through the coil. Chapman. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. long. thick. Another strip of tin. 1/4 in. The base is a board 5 in. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity.R. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. showing a greater defection of the pointer. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. Fig. from the spindle. bored in the back. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. hole is fastened to the pointer.and 2-5/8 in. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. long. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. R. and as the part Fig. board. I. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. that has the end turned with a shoulder. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. 4. the same size as the first. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. Yorkshire. Fig. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. 4. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. L. wide and 9 in. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. 1/16 in. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. Place the tin. --Contributed by George Heimroth.

You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. The following formula will show how this may be found. 1881. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. thus: 9 hr. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. say Venus at the date of observation. A. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. shows mean siderial. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. 10 min. 10 min. at 9 hr. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. 30 min. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. and vice . M.

or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. if one of these cannot be had. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Conn.m. New Haven. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. . get a glazed vessel of similar construction. --Contributed by Robert W. Hall.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon.f. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. owing to the low internal resistance. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. or.

One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. cover up with the same. 1. arsenic to every 20 lb. put the fish among the ashes. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. as shown in the accompanying picture. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. The boring bar. Wet paper will answer. of alum and 4 oz. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. 3/8 in. inside diameter and about 5 in. Then. When the follower is screwed down. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. leaves or bark. especially for cooking fish. fresh grass. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. long. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. and heap the glowing coals on top. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. thick. 1-3/4 in. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. Fig. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine.

the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. fastened with a pin.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. pipe. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. when they were turned in. pipe. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. about 1/2 in. and threaded on both ends. thick. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore.

A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. as the one illustrated herewith. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. long. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. If the valve keeps dripping. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. the float is too high. 30 in. then it should be ground to a fit. square iron. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. Fig. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. however. a jump spark would be much better. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. Fig. It .valve stems. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. Iowa. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. was then finished on an emery wheel. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. A 1-in. 2. and which gave such satisfactory results. 3. wide. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. labor and time. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. 5. bent in the shape of a U. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. This plate also supports the rocker arms. The rough frame. but never one which required so little material. Fig. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. Clermont. 4. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. thick and 3 in.

12 ft. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. If it is to be used for adults. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. so it must be strong enough. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. The seats are regular swing boards. no matter what your age or size may be. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. set 3 ft. Use a heavy washer at the head. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. completes the merry-go-round. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. long. from the center. long is the pivot. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. This makes an easy adjustment. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. strengthened by a piece 4 in. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. for the "motive power" to grasp. rope is not too heavy. long. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. and a little junk. It looks like a toy.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. A 3/4 -in. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. hole bored in the post. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. in fact. long. square and 2 ft. The crosspiece is 2 in. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. extending above. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. from all over the neighborhood. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. The illustration largely explains itself. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. A malleable iron bolt. --Contributed by C. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. and. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage ." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. square. As there is no bracing. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. with no trees or buildings in the way. Nieman. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. 3/4 in. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. W. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. strong clear material only should be employed. in the ground with 8 ft." little and big. butting against short stakes. timber. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. being held in position by spikes as shown. in diameter and 15 in. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. square and 5 ft.

To wind the string upon the reel. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. and 18 in. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. if nothing better is at hand. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. square. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately.the fingers. as shown in Fig.2 emery. then it is securely fastened. Both have large reels full of . a wreck. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. These ends are placed about 14 in. The bow is now bent. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. 4. one for the backbone and one for the bow. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. 1/4 by 3/32 in. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. away. 1.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. 2. A reel is next made. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. The backbone is flat. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. long. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. and sent to earth. light and strong. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. Having placed the backbone in position. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching.

N. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Bunker. often several hundred yards of it. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Mass. First. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. the first tries to spear him by swift dives.-Contributed by S. If the second kite is close enough. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. Moody. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise.string. The handle end is held down with a staple. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. he pays out a large amount of string. common packing thread. Brooklyn. or glass-covered string. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. C. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. the balance. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. Newburyport. --Contributed' by Harry S. Y.

2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. --Contributed by Earl R. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. each the size of half the table top.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. square (Fig. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. such as mill men use. Corinth. then a dust protector. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. cutting the circular piece into quarters. make the pad as shown in the illustration. must be attached to a 3-ft. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Hastings. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Vt. then draw the string up tight. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. lengths (Fig. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. If the table is round. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. length of 2-in. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time.

and E to G.-Contributed by H. 2-1/4 in. Moisten the . Oakland. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. 6-1/4 in. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag.. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away.9-1/4 in. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. from C to D. trace the design carefully on the leather. Calif.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. from E to F. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working.. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. . 17-1/2 in. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. hard pencil. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side.. 16-1/4 in. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. E. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. Use a smooth. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. G to H. which spoils the leather effect. Wharton. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless.

lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Now cut narrow thongs. and E-G. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. I made this motor . get something with which to make a lining. Cut it the same size as the bag. and corresponding lines on the other side. about 1/8 in.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. To complete the bag. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. also lines A-G. with the rounded sides of the tools. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. H-B. and lace through the holes. place both together and with a leather punch. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. G-J. apart. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. is taken off at a time. if not more than 1 in. Trace the openings for the handles. wide.

2. as shown in Fig. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. 24 gauge magnet wire. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. Pasadena. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. B. --Contributed by J. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft.M. Shannon. iron. 1. long. D. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. .Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. in length. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. Calif. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. 2-1/4 in. 1. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. each being a half circle. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. of No. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead.

This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. 1. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. pasted in alternately. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. The gores for a 6-ft. and the gores cut from these. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . are the best kind to make. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. from the bottom end. balloon should be about 8 ft. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. high. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. near the center.

in diameter. A.widest point. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. Fig. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. so it will hang as shown in Fig. After washing. 2. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. B. leaving the solution on over night. coming through the small pipe A. as shown in Fig. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. The boat soon attains considerable speed. 5. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. lap on the edges. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. 1. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. In starting the balloon on its flight. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. using about 1/2-in. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. Staunton. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. In removing grease from wood. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. As the boat is driven forward by this force. as shown in Fig. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. after which the paint will adhere permanently. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. 3. leaving a long wake behind. These are to hold the wick ball. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. saturating it thoroughly. If the gores have been put together right. 4. The steam. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. E. somewhat larger in size. --Contributed by R. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke.

The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. as is shown in Fig. apart on these lines. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. if you have several copies of the photograph. There are three ways of doing this: First. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. long. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. 1. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. wide by 6 in. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. in bowling form. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware .Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. In using either of the two methods described. long and each provided with a handle. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. Second. high and 8 in. The blocks are about 6 in. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. Third. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw.

Albany. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Hellwig. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. thick. Y. not pointed down at the road at an angle. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Rinse the plate in cold water. N. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed .Fig. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. Fig. --Contributed by John A. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. being careful not to dent the metal. 2. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead.

long for the base. wide and 8 in. Va. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Paine. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost.upon any particular object. A circular piece of wood. 5 in. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. Corner irons. These corner irons are also screwed to. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. through which passes the set screw S. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. CC. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Richmond. thick. 1 Fig. In Fig. S. Break off the frame. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. with a set screw. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. 6 in. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. A. and not produce the right sound. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. A. With this device. are screwed to the circular piece. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. B. 2 the front view. is fastened to a common camera tripod. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. --Contributed by R. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. and. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. and Fig. wide and of any desired height. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. in diameter. which is 4 in. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do.

and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. pine boards.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. S. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. . A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. in diameter of some 1-in. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. -1. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. R. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. D. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. La Salle. Kidder. Ill. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. I made a wheel 26 in. thus producing sound waves. This horn. This will make a very compact electric horn. as only the can is visible. Lake Preston. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel.

Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. the same thickness as the coins. Fig. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. The frame is made of a heavy card. B. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. 1. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. 2. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Kane. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. O. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Purdy. Doylestown.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. If there is a large collection of coins. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. square. --Contributed by C. Ghent. 1. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. A. --Contributed by James R. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. thick and 12 in.

cut and grooved. they become uninteresting. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. If desired. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. of developer. A rivet punch is desirable. A lead pencil. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. --Contributed by August T. Smith. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. One Cloud. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. --Contributed by R. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. Milwaukee. a hammer or mallet. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. plus a 3/8-in. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. border all around. Canada. Wis. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. several large nails. Toronto. Neyer. thick. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. melted and applied with a brush. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. and then glued together as indicated. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. The material required is a sheet of No. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. --Contributed by J. into which to place the screws . Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. for after the slides have been shown a few times. though not absolutely necessary. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment.J. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box.E. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Noble. It will hold 4 oz. Cal. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in.

Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Take the nail. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. and file it to a chisel edge.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. draw one part. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. both outline and decoration. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. like the one shown. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. Remove the screws. using 1/2-in. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. screws placed about 1 in. never upon the metal directly. There are several ways of working up the design.

The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. The pedal. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. two lengths. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. . is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. Rivet the band to the holder. 1. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. each 1 in. long. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. About 1/2 yd. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. square and 181/2 in. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. square. of 11-in. Provide four lengths for the legs. square and 11 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. long. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. being ball bearing.wall. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. for the top. for the lower rails. l-1/8 in. 3/4 in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. 3. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. in the other. Do not bend it over or flatten it. using a 1/2in. up from the lower end. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. as shown in Fig. 2. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. and two lengths. long.

--Contributed by John Shahan. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. --Contributed by W. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . having quite a length of threads. Ala. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. F. Quackenbush. Attalla. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. New York City. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel.

long. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Assemble as shown in the sketch. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. the end of the other piece is folded over. D. college or lodge colors. using class. Two pieces of felt. and the other 2-3/4 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. --Contributed by C. and two holes in the other. wide and 4-1/4 in. Ironwood. The desired emblem. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. one about 1 in. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. initial. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. wide and 8-1/4 in. making a lap of about 1 in. Mich. in depth. from the end. and 3/8 in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. something that is carbonated. each 1-1/4 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Purchase a 1/2-in. Luther. from one end. long. long.. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied .

then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. about 2 in. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. in diameter and 2 in. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. A piece of lead.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. 1/4 in. Ind. or a pasteboard box. 2. Indianapolis. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. or more in height. as shown at B. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Fig. and the cork will be driven out. Punch two holes A. from the center and opposite each other. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. as shown in the sketch. in the cover and the bottom. 1. This method allows a wide range of designs. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Schatz. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. --Contributed by John H. which can be procured from a plumber. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. if desired by the operator.

thus storing the propelling power which makes it return.Rolling Can Toy lead. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. and the ends of the bands looped over them. putting in the design. 4. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. When the can is rolled away from you. A piece of thick glass. 1. metal. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. on both top and bottom. 5. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. allowing the two ends to be free. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. 3. Fig. The pieces of tin between the holes A. . so that it will indent without cutting the leather. or marble will serve. are turned up as in Fig. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. as shown in Fig. Columbus. it winds up the rubber band. O. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing.

Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. thicker than the pinion. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. After this has been done. and.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. 1 in. mark over the design. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . If it is desired to "line" the inside. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. wide and 20 in. from each end. deep in its face. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. I secured a board 3/4 in. New York City. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. hole through it. long and bored a 1/2-in. or more thick on each side. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. A pencil may be used the first time over. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. thick. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. Next place the leather on the glass. face up. 3 in. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. The edges should be about 1/8 in. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in.

A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. in diameter. 2 side rails. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in.in the board into the bench top. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 1 top board. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. much of the hard labor will be saved. 2 end rails. lag screws as shown. thick top board. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. Rice. 1 by 12 by 77 in. 1 piece. Syracuse. Y. M. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 2. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 3 by 3 by 36. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 1 piece for clamp. Brooklyn. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Make the lower frame first. Cut the 2-in. --Contributed by A. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. and fit it in place for the side vise. 1 top board. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 1 back board. countersinking the heads of the vise end. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. New York. pieces for the vise slides. 1. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. N. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 4 guides. 3 by 3 by 20 in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Now fit up the two clamps. 1 piece for clamp. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Fig. 1 screw block. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 2 crosspieces. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 3 by 3 by 6 in.

Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 24 in. 1 brace and set of bits.. 3 and 6 in. 1 cross cut saw. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 countersink. 1 wood scraper. 1 rip saw. 1 set gimlets. 1 marking gauge. rule. 1 2-ft. 1 nail set. The bench is now complete. 1 pair pliers. 24 in. as well as the pattern maker. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 claw hammer. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 monkey wrench. Only the long run. They can be purchased at a hardware store.. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 2 screwdrivers. 1 compass saw. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise.. If each tool is kept in a certain place.screws. 1 set chisels. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. in diameter. . The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. The amateur workman. 1 bench plane or jointer. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 pair dividers. 1 pocket level.

Doylestown. Pa. Fig. 2 and 00 sandpaper. will be easier to work. the projecting point A. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. 1 oilstone. but will not make . Kane. 3. after constant use. Fig. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. ---Contributed by James M.1 6-in. becomes like A. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. 1. try square. will sink into the handle as shown at D. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. Fig. being softer. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. 2. The calf skin. Fig. No.1. 1.

and the length 6-5/8 in. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. The form can be made of a stick of wood. then prepare the leather. First draw the design on paper. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. secure a piece of modeling calf. If calf skin is to be used. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. lay the design on the face. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. After the outlines are traced. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. cover it completely with water enamel and. . when dry. White. the same method of treatment is used. which steam. but a V-shaped nut pick. such as copper or brass. Turn the leather.as rigid a case as the cow skin. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. -Contributed by Julia A. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. Two pieces will be required of this size. New York City. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. If cow hide is preferred. will do just as well. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. water or heat will not affect. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. Having prepared the two sides.

Richmond. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. --Contributed by Chas. C. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Herrman. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Jaquythe. as shown in the sketch. and an adjustable friction-held loop. --Contributed by Chester L. Portland. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. New York City. --Contributed by W. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Cal. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Maine. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. . Cobb. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. A. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line.

or anyone that can shape tin and solder. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. --Contributed by Wm. Mass. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. --Contributed by Geo. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. Middletown. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. Cambridge. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. . Roberts.. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. for instance. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. was marked out as shown. Conn. Wright. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. an inverted stewpan. A thick piece of tin.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. B. This was very difficult. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction.

If any traces of the grease are left.. L. Indianapolis. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. of boiling water. The next morning there was no trace of oil. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. and quite new. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. Herbert. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. If the article is highly polished. such as chair seats. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. When dry. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. on a clear piece of glass. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. A beautifully bound book. F. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. and the grease will disappear. . Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. Bone. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. but only an odor which soon vanished. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. --Contributed by C. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Ind. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. so some bones were quickly calcined. Chicago. face down. pulverized and applied. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. apply powdered calcined magnesia. --Contributed by Paul Keller. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. which has been tried out several times with success. There was no quicklime to be had. but not running over. used as part of furniture. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. as shown. Illinois. well calcined and powdered. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow.

A.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. 2 in. New York. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. This coaster is simple and easy to make. Tarrytown.. thick. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. --Contributed by Geo. soft steel with the opening 6 in. deep and 5 in. The pieces marked S are single. says Scientific American.. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. Howe. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. If properly adjusted. long. set and thumbscrews. 6 in. wide and 12 in. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. high and are bolted to a block of wood. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. the pieces .

for sending to friends. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. no doubt. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. albums and the like. to the underside of which is a block. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. says Camera Craft. E. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. The seat is a board. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. they will look remarkably uniform. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. If the letters are all cut the same height. A sharp knife. Their size depends on the plate used. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate.

mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. photographing them down to the desired size. The puzzle is to get . and. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. So arranged. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. In cutting out an 0.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. So made. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. for example. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. pasting the prints on some thin card. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. after. mount them on short pieces of corks. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. using care to get it in the right position. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable.

snow or anything to hide it. with the longest end outside. hung on pivots.-Contributed by I. Bayley. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. long that will just fit are set in. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. squeezes along past the center of the tube. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . Old-Time Magic . jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. says the American Thresherman. G. He smells the bait. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. Cape May Point. N. of its top. A hole 6 or 7 in.J. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. so they will lie horizontal. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.

How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Pawtucket. then spread the string. Y. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. --Contributed by L. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Szerlip. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. E. Idaho. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Rhode Island. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Brooklyn. N. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Pocatello. --Contributed by L. Parker.faced up. then expose again. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Press the hands together.

full size. narrower. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. When the whole is quite dry. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value.. 3 Fig. whether he requires a single sword only. end of the blade. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. When the glue is thoroughly dry. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. and if carefully made. wipe the blade . The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. dark red. says the English Mechanic. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. using a straightedge and a pencil. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. The handle is next made. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. in width. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. they will look very much like the genuine article. The pieces. thick. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. The blade should be about 27 in. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. 1 Fig. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper.. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. or green oil paint. Glue the other side of the blade. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. 2 Fig. in building up his work from the illustrations. 1. or a complete suit of armor. 4 on the blade. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. wide and 2 in. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. near the point end. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. if any. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. long. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in.Genuine antique swords and armor.

with light strokes up and down several times. This sword is about 68 in. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. and 3 in. the other is flat or halfround. follow the directions as for Fig. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. 1. should be about 9 in. allowing for a good hold with both hands.. 1. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. In making. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. In the finished piece. the other is flat or half-round. Fig. the other two are identical. 4. in the widest part at the lower end. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. 2. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. 3. preferably of contrasting colors. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. not for use only in cases of tableaux. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. thick and 5 in. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. 3. square and of any length desired. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. long.. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. of course. in diameter. take two pieces of wood. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. The length of the handle. 2. 1. about 1-1/2 in. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. the illustration. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. shows only two sides. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. Both edges of the blade are sharp. as it is . drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. 1. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. In making this scimitar. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. the length of the blade 28 in. 1/8 in.

about 3/8 in. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. --Contributed by John Blake. square. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. Morse. Y. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. --Contributed by Katharine D. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. N. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. as can the pitch bed or block. Doctors probed for the button without success. It is made of a plank. piping and jackets by hard water. Syracuse. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. long. Both can be made easily. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. A piece of mild steel. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. and. The thinness of the plank. as shown in the sketch. Mass. each about 1 ft. On each edge of the board. or an insecure fastening. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. 2 in. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. A cold . as there was some at hand. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. in an attempt to remove it. Franklin. at the lower end. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. however. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. and if so.

plaster of Paris. secure a piece of brass of about No. Trim up the edges and file them . and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. When the desired form has been obtained. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. tallow. To put it in another way. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. design down. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. To remedy this. using a small metal saw. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. on the pitch. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. a file to reduce the ends to shape. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch.. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. 5 lb.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length.. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. 18 gauge. When this has been done. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. 5 lb. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design.

Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. in diameter (Fig. in diameter (Fig. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. space between the vessels with water. 30 ft. one 18 in. or 550 ft. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. but not to stop it. --Contributed by Harold H. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. over the smaller vessel. in the center. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. 1 ft. to keep it from floating. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Fill the 3-in. This in turn divided by 33. and hang a bird swing. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Clean the metal thoroughly. and still revolve. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. . in one second. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. per second. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Cutter. lb.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine.smooth. Before giving the description. lb. or fraction of a horsepower. 2). Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. living together in what seems like one receptacle. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. 1 ft. per minute. That is lifting 33. it may be well to know what horsepower means. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. make an unusual show window attraction. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. The smaller is placed within the larger. 3.000 lb. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. A. in one minute or 550 lb. using powdered pumice with lye. Fig. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. 1) and the other 12 in.000 ft. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel.

Diameter 12 in. --Contributed. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes.3 Fig. by L. Diameter Fig. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. Szerlip. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. F. Campbell.18 in. Mass. --Contributed by J. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. or on a pedestal. Somerville. 2 Fig.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. N. The effect is surprising. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Y. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Brooklyn. 1 Fig.

with the pliers. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. to keep the metal from tarnishing. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in.copper of No. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. and cut out the shape with the shears. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. the same as removing writing from a slate. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. with other defects. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. keeping the center high. which. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. Do not be content merely to bend them over. often render it useless after a few months service. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. unsatisfactory. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. Polish both of these pieces. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. and the clay . A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. which may be of wood or tin. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. Rivet the cup to the base. is. using any of the common metal polishes. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. In riveting. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. away from the edge. then by drawing a straightedge over it. after which it is ready for use. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. and then. as a rule. This compound is impervious to water.

Northville. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. DeLoof. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. Mich. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. 2. -Contributed by Thos. --Contributed by John T. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. Shettleston. The siphon is made of glass tubes. Dunlop. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. Grand Rapids. A. 3/4 in. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. It is made of a glass tube. --Contributed by A. Mich. 1. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Scotland.can be pressed back and leveled. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. the device will work for an indefinite time. long. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. in diameter and 5 in. as shown in Fig. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. . Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. Houghton.

FIG. in width and 2 in. As the handle is to .2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. 1. stilettos and battle-axes. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. This sword is 4 ft. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. London.1 FIG. long. put up as ornaments. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade.

The ball is made as described in Fig. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. The sword shown in Fig. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. in length. narrower. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. In Fig. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. This weapon is also about 1 ft. When the whole is quite dry. small rope and round-headed nails. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. in width. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. the upper part iron or steel. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. 8. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. with wire or string' bound handle. In Fig. very broad. 11 were used. This axe is made similar to the one . firmly glued on. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. A German stiletto. the axe is of steel. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. Cut two strips of tinfoil. sometimes called cuirass breakers. 3 is shown a claymore. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. string. long with a dark handle of wood. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. long. The lower half of the handle is of wood. 4. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. These must be cut from pieces of wood. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. with both edges of the blade sharp. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. studded with brass or steel nails. wood with a keyhole saw. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. 6. 20 spike. When the glue is thoroughly dry. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. paint it a dark brown or black. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. 5. A German poniard is shown in Fig.represent copper. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. This sword is about 4 ft. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. with both edges sharp. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. the same as used on the end of the handle. 7. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. This stiletto has a wood handle. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. The handle is of wood. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. When dry. The crossbar and blade are steel. 9. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. glue and put it in place. in length. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. which is about 2-1/2 ft. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. This weapon is about 1 ft. then glued on the blade as shown. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. Three large. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. Both handle and axe are of steel. is shown in Fig. one about 1/2 in. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. In Fig. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. sharp edges on both sides. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil.

Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. . so the contents cannot be seen. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. 10. 2.described in Fig. This will make a very good flexible belt. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. Chicago. --Contributed by E. When wrapped all the way around. W. such as braided fishline. high.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. the ends are tied and cut off. Old-Time Magic . will pull where other belts slip. Davis. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. together as shown in Fig.

The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Before the performance. Macdonald. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. in a few seconds' time. To make the flowers grow in an instant. There will be no change in color. S. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. four glass tumblers. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. about one-third the way down from the top. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. with the circle centrally located.J. Calif. or using small wedges of wood. an acid. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. some of the liquid. --Contributed by A. Oakland. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. Bridgeton. held in the right hand. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. 2. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. The dotted lines in Fig. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. apparently. N. causing the flowers to grow. filled with water. 1 and put together as in Fig. These wires are put in the jar.

The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. which are numbered for convenience in working. When many slides are to be masked. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. Richmond. unless some special device is used. 2 for height.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. says a correspondent of Photo Era. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . This outlines the desired opening. 4 for width and No. not only because of the fact just mentioned. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. A. Jaquythe. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. and kept ready for use at any time. --Contributed by W. practical and costs nothing. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. Cal. If the size wanted is No. and equally worthy of individual treatment. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record.

16 gauge. the paper is folded along the center line. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. possibly. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. may be changed. a little less acid than water. using the carbon paper. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. too. The decoration. With a stick. When etched to the desired depth. but they can be easily revived. or a pair of old tongs. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. about half and half. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. Draw a design. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. not the water into the acid. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. Secure a sheet of No. or. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. which is dangerous. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. This done. is about right for the No. paint the design. the margin and the entire back of the metal. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. and the extreme length 7 in. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. and do not inhale the fumes. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . The one shown is merely suggestive.

about 8 in. 3. Cut out a piece of tin. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. as in Fig. 3/8 in. Fig. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. as shown in Fig. When the button S is pressed. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. long and 1 ft. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. 2. the bell will ring. 0 indicates the batteries. 2. A. through it. The connections are simple: I. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. high. in diameter and 1/4 in. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. long. so that when it is pressed down. Fig. 24 parts water. Paint the table any color desired. to the table. 1. Nail a board. Fig. thick. . wide. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. C and D. as at H. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. 5. as shown in the illustration. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. 4. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. Fig. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. 5.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. it will touch post F. and bore two holes. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 2. or more wide. Fig. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. with the wires underneath. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. repeat as many times as is necessary. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. about 3 ft. and about 2-1/2 ft. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. about 2-1/2 in. J is another wire attached in the same way. attached to a post at each end. It may be either nailed or screwed down. about 1 in. wide and of the same length as the table. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. Then get two posts. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through.

long serves as the dowel. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. This weapon is about 22 in. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. After the glue is dry. such as . The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. The imitation articles are made of wood..Imitation Arms and Armor . The entire weapon. 2. the wood peg inserted in one of them. The circle is marked out with a compass. handle and all. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. but they are somewhat difficult to make. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. is to appear as steel. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. thick. says the English Mechanic. A wood peg about 2 in.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. long. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. 1. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. These rings can be carved out.

or the amateur cannot use it well.ornamental scrolls. The handle is of wood. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. as before mentioned. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. 2. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. The entire handle should be made of one piece. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. as described in Fig. covered with red velvet. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. The handle is of steel imitation. is shown in Fig. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. This weapon is about 22 in. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. used at the end of the fifteenth century. All of these axes are about the same length. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. as shown. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. etc. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. If such a tool is not at hand. also. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. flowers. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. the hammer and spike. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. 5. . or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. The spikes are cut out of wood. The axe is shown in steel. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The lower half of the handle is wood. leaves. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. 6. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. Its length is about 3 ft. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. 3. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. studded with large brass or steel nails. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. long. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. 8. with a sharp carving tool. The upper half of the handle is steel. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails.

7) calls for one out. Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 1. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. as in Fig. 4). as shown in Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. calls for a home run. then the other plays. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. 3. a three-base hit. the knife resting on its back.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. Chicago. 2. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. and so on for nine innings. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. 6. . Each person plays until three outs have been made. 5. The knife falling on its side (Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn.

He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. as shown in Fig.-Contributed by J. one of them burning . 2. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. Old-Time Magic . of water for an hour or two. F. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. It may be found that the negative is not colored. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. 3. of the rope and holds it. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. as shown in Fig. while the committee is tying him up. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. Mass. with the rope laced in the cloth. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. Campbell. If it is spotted at all. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. Somerville. hypo to 1 pt. This he does. 1. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig.

shades the light for a few seconds. of plumbago. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. with which he is going to light the other candle. 4 oz. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. 4 oz. the other without a light. thus causing it to light. . 3/4 in. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. The magician walks over to the burning candle. New York City. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. Thome.Contributed by Andrew G. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. Evans. of water and 1 oz. Brown. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. --Contributed by C. and. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. --Contributed by L. B. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. etc. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. Ky. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. thick.. invisible to them (the audience). with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. of sugar. showing that there is nothing between them. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. Louisville. bolt.brightly. Lebanon. He then walks over to the other candle. Ky. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. Drill Gauge screw. of turpentine.

A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. or blotting paper. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. long. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. thick. Y. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. In making up the solution. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. H. Its current strength is about one volt. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. To make the porous cell. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. which will give a strong. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. for the material. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. Denniston. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. Do not add water to the acid. into a tube of several thicknesses. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. Pulteney. 5 in. but is not so good. about 5 in. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. --Contributed by C. steady current. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . diameter. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. N.

All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. steel. long with a bearing at each end. a positive adjustment was provided. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. while the other end is attached by two screws. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. One hole was bored as well as possible. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. but somewhat lighter. steel. carrying the hour circle at one end. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace.station. After much experimentation with bearings. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The . A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. Finally. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described.) may be obtained. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. the other holding them apart. steel. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. one drawing them together. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. To insure this. As to thickness. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company.

once carefully made. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. The pointer is directed to Alpha. are tightened. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . All set screws. save the one in the pipe. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. All these adjustments. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. turn the pointer to the star. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph.. and 15 min. The pole is 1 deg. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. excepting those on the declination axis. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. Instead. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. Point it approximately to the north star." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. It is. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. Set the declination circle to its reading. Cassiopiae. apart. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. If the result is more than 24 hours. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture.. To find a star in the heavens. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas." Only a rough setting is necessary. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. When properly set it will describe a great circle. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. The aperture should be 1/4 in. 45 min. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. is provided with this adjustment. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. Each shaft. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. To locate a known star on the map. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. need not be changed. Declination is read directly. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. and if it is not again directed to the same point. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction." When this is done. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. subtract 24. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. in each direction from two points 180 deg. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg.

and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. then add 1 2-3 dr.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. the others . Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. benzole. New Orleans. The dance will begin. which is the one examined. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. Strosnider. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. If this will be too transparent. 3 or 4 in. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. Plain City. of ether. as shown in the sketch. Ohio. cannon balls. is the real cannon ball.. long. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. La. taking care not to add too much. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. add a little more benzole. a great effect will be produced. The ball is found to be the genuine article. -Contributed by Ray E. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. In reality the first ball. is folded several times. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes.

Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. --Contributed by J. taps. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . 1). Somerville. Fig. 2. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara.. Mass. In boxes having a sliding cover. San Francisco. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. F. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. etc. Wis. as shown in the illustration. small brooches. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Campbell.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. without taking up any great amount of space. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. Return the card to the pack. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. Milwaukee. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. Cal. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box.

and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. thus giving ample store room for colors. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Beller. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. from the bottom of the box. prints. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. Connecticut. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. This box has done good service. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. slides and extra brushes. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. . round pieces 2-1/4 in.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. as shown in the illustration. Hartford.

about threefourths full. costing 5 cents. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. and especially are the end pieces objectionable.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. Mass. with well packed horse manure. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. Fill the upper tub. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. . When the ends are turned under. 2). FIG. O.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. tacking the gauze well at the corners. will answer the purpose. holes in the bottom of one. West Lynn. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. -Contributed by C. 1). as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. or placed against a wall. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. Darke. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together.

If the following directions are carried out. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. and each bundle contains . Eifel. cutting the cane between the holes. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. they should be knocked out. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. when they are raised from the pan. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. if this is not available. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. Chicago. M. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. oil or other fluid. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. If plugs are found in any of the holes. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. --Contributed by L.

The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. after having been pulled tight. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. held there by inserting another plug. as it must be removed again. as shown in Fig. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. In addition to the cane. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. and. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. a square pointed wedge. No plugs . and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. then across and down. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. put about 3 or 4 in. it should be held by a plug. 1.

Fig. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. 4. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction.15+. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. Michigan. and for 1° it would be . When cool. -Contributed by E. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired.075 in. the next smallest.= 4. using the same holes as for the first layer. --Contributed by M. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. as the height of the line BC for lat. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. but the most common. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. All added to the lesser or 40°. 1. stretch the third one. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. This will make three layers.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. After completing the second layer.075 in. the height of which is taken from table No. it is 4. If you have a table of natural functions. Patrick. is the horizontal dial. and for lat. Fig.5 in. lat. in this case) times the . Their difference is . for 2°. the height of the line BC. No weaving has been done up to this time. It consists of a flat circular table. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. as shown in Fig. 1. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. Even with this lubrication. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. 42° is 4. we have 4. 3. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. as shown in Fig. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. There are several different designs of sundials. 1. The style or gnomon.3 in. 41°-30'. Detroit. 3. trim off the surplus rosin. as for example. During the weaving.2+. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. 5.42 in. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. D. and the one we shall describe in this article. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. R. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. called the gnomon. or the style. as it always equals the latitude of the place. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed.15 in. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time.2 in. 41 °-30'. 40°. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. is the base (5 in. From table No. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. 1 lat. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. W. 5 in. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. If handled with a little care.

82 3.27 2.30 2. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. long.56 .85 35 .11 3.64 4 8 3.44 44° 4.37 54° 6. Its thickness.14 5. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.26 4.46 3.20 60° 8.66 48° 5. and for this size dial (10 in.42 1.49 30 .50 26° 2.96 32° 3.32 6.82 2. 1.99 2.07 4.10 6. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. with a radius of 5 in. Chords in inches for a 10 in.97 5 7 4. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. according to the size of the dial.49 3.82 5. 2.46 . may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.88 36° 3.40 34° 3. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. or more.29 4-30 7-30 3. if of metal. For latitudes not given.63 56° 7.55 4.18 28° 2.55 5.16 1. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. an inch or two. Fig.33 .41 38° 3. Draw two semi-circles. base.66 latitude.76 1.94 1.19 1.87 4.57 1.87 1.23 6.55 30° 2.91 58° 8.02 1.42 .40 1. or if of stone.83 27° 2. To layout the hour circle.57 3.03 3.37 5. 2 for given latitudes.tangent of the degree of latitude.85 1.93 6.00 40° 4.33 42° 4. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. Table NO.79 4. 2.39 . The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.28 .77 2. gives the 6 o'clock points.38 .55 46° 5.42 45 . placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.06 2. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. and intersecting the semicircles. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .89 50° 5. using the points A and C as centers.66 1.16 40 .81 4.68 5-30 6-30 5. and perpendicular to the base or style. circle Sundial.30 1.59 2. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.93 2. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. Draw the line AD.12 52° 6. which will represent the base in length and thickness. .

and the .89 3.87 6. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. June 15. 3.57 1. adding to each piece interest and value. Sun time to local mean time.50 .98 4. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.24 5. after allowing for the declination.12 5. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.46 5.63 1. 900 Chicago.93 6. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. London.49 5.10 4.30 2. Sioux City. Sept. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.14 1. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.01 1.means that the dial is faster than the sun.60 4. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.79 6. if west. then the watch is slower.add those marked + subtract those Marked . Iowa. will enable one to set the dial.08 1. says the English Mechanic.46 4. 2 and Dec.49 3. Mitchell.77 3.71 2.68 3. An ordinary compass. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. each article can be labelled with the name. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.72 5. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. and for the difference between standard and local time. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.54 60 .82 3. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. --Contributed by J.34 5..37 2. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. As they are the genuine reproductions. it will be faster. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . This correction can be added to the values in table No. 3. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.50 55 .21 2. The + means that the clock is faster.53 1. 25. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. E.52 Table No. Each weapon is cut from wood.06 2.19 2.from Sundial lime. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. April 16.

brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. When putting on the tinfoil. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in.. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. Partisan. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. 1. . After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. the length of which is about 5 ft. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 3. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth.

long. 5. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. the holes being about 1/4 in. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The spear is steel. long with a round staff or handle. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands.which is square. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. It is about 6 ft. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. which are a part of the axe. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. about 4 in. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. used about the seventeenth century. The extreme length is 9 ft. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. 6 ft. 7. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. press it well into the carved depressions. sharp on the outer edges. long with a round wooden handle. 8. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in.. The length of this bar is about 5 in. This weapon is about 6 ft. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. . Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. A gisarm or glaive. long. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The edges are sharp. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. in diameter. is shown in Fig.

and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. This is important to secure neatness. H. or in holes punched in a leather strap. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. The twisted cross cords should . The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. apart. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. B. as shown in Fig. Substances such as straw. In Figs. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. Ohio. 5.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. They can be made of various materials. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. used for spacing and binding the whole together.-Contributed by R. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. Workman. the most durable being bamboo. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. are put in place. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Loudonville. are less durable and will quickly show wear. 4. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. 1. Cut all the cords the same length. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. the cross cords. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. 2 and 3.

wide.be of such material. as shown at B. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. for a length extending from a point 2 in. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. of the bottom. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. Harrer. To remedy this. Lockport. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. bamboo or rolled paper. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. below the top to within 1/4 in. La. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. New Orleans. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. The first design shown is for using bamboo. New York. 3 in. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. This was turned over the top of the other can. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. -Contributed by Geo. A slit was cut in the bottom. Four V-shaped notches were cut. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. shaped as shown at C. M. in which was placed a piece of glass.

A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . Y. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. Cal. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. Sanford. Shay. the brass is loosened from the block. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. is shown in the accompanying sketch. --Contributed by W. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. --Contributed by Joseph H. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. do not throw away the gloves. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Schaffner. and two along the side for attaching the staff. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. giving the appearance of hammered brass. turned over but not fastened. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. wide. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. --Contributed by Chas. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. H. N. After this is finished. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. It would be well to polish the brass at first. Newburgh.tape from sticking to the carpet. This plank. This should be done gradually. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. Maywood. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. Ill. about 1/16 in. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. Pasadena. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges.

This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Richmond. in diameter. Ill. bent as shown. the pendulum swings . Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Jaquythe. --E.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. K. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. -Contributed by W. Marshall. A. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Unlike most clocks. Cal. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Oak Park.

C. wide. says the Scientific American. away. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. is an electromagnet. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. 6 in. --Contributed by V. to the first one with screws or glue. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. high. on the board B. bearing on the latter. bar. in diameter. Fasten another board. thick. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. long and at each side of this. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. such as this one. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. high. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. In using this method. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. are secured in the base bar. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. high and 1/4 in. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. A. Two uprights. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. wide that is perfectly flat. about 12 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. about 6 in. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. Chicago. by 1-5/16 in. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Secure a board. and the other two 2-5/8 in. The construction is very simple. 3/4 in. . Now place the board to be joined. Metzech. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. only have the opposite side up.. 5/16 in. 7-1/2 in. B. high. the center one being 2-3/4 in.

The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. wide and 1 in. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. 1. square. is fastened in the hole A. Vanderslice. square inside. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. or more. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. 3. from one end. 1. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. The trigger. Fig. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. plates should be made 8 in. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. Fig. whose dimensions are given in Fig. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. 4. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. Phoenixville. Pa. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. long. by driving a pin through the wood. --Contributed by Elmer A. 1. 2. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. . Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. as shown at A. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. wide and 5 in. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends.

by weight.A. if only two bands are put in the . This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. Ohio. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. Fostoria. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. rubbing varnish and turpentine. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. Simonis. square. as shown in the illustration. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. -Contributed by J. 5 parts of black filler. 2 parts of whiting. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. one-half the length of the side pieces. which allows 1/4 in.

In constructing helmets. If a plain glass is used. In use. London. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. Grand Rapids. It must be kept moist and well . G. 8 in. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. says the English Mechanic. --Contributed by Thos. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. and the picture can be drawn as described. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. Dartmouth. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. and it may be made as a model or full sized. No. which may be either of ground or plain glass. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. Mass. A piece of metal. A mirror. is necessary. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. in the opposite end of the box. deep. A double convex lens. place tracing paper on its surface. Michigan. There is no limit to the size of the helmet.lower strings. wide and about 1 ft. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. long. 1. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. is set at an angle of 45 deg. Shaw. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. preferably copper. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. -Contributed by Abner B. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. as shown in Fig. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. DeLoof. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. keeps the strong light out when sketching. II.

This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. and left over night to soak. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The clay. joined closely together. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. Scraps of thin. a few clay-modeling tools. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. shown in Fig. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. take. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. brown. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. on which to place the clay. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. 1. and the deft use of the fingers. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. or some thin glue. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses.kneaded. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. and continue until the clay is completely covered. All being ready. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. will be necessary. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . This being done. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. with a keyhole saw. 2. After the clay model is finished. 3. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. 1. the clay model oiled. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. as in bas-relief. and over the crest on top.

--Contributed by Paul Keller. as seen in the other part of the sketch. then another coating of glue. In Fig. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. which should be no difficult matter. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. When the helmet is off the model. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. the piecing could not be detected. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. This contrivance should be made of wood. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. owing to the clay being oiled. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. square in shape. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. 1. In Fig. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. Indianapolis. a crest on top. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. and so on. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. a few lines running down. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. Indiana. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. The center of the ear guards are perforated. or. with the exception of the vizor. as shown: in the design. The whole helmet. 5. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. They are all covered with tinfoil. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. should be modeled and made in one piece. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. the skullcap. and the ear guards in two pieces. When perfectly dry. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face.as possible. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . When dry. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. The band is decorated with brass studs. 9. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. one for each side. Before taking it off the model. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. will make it look neat. 7.

Punch holes in one of the pie plates. Fig. 4. AA. if the measurements are correct. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. with slits cut for the wires. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. AA. Fig. also the switch B and the fuse block C. two ordinary binding posts. If a neat appearance is desired. for connections. 4. 12 in. 4. the fuse block. 4. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. of fire clay. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. about 1 lb. 2. The two holes. screws. thick sheet asbestos. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. 4. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. about 80 ft. 4. one oblong piece of wood. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. Fig. and two large 3in. long. 3. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. Fig. until it is within 1 in.same size. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. German-silver wire is better. 1 in. of No. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. which can be bought from a local druggist. AA. 1. The plate. the holes leading to the switch. long. and. about 1/4 in. If asbestos is used. above the collar. long. 3 in. 4. of the top. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. Fig. if this cannot be obtained. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. Fig. as shown in Fig. thick. Fig. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. The reverse side of the base. as shown in Fig. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. one fuse block. This will allow the plate. 2. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. should extend about 1/4 in. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. as it stands a higher temperature. to receive screws for holding it to the base. 4 lb. and C. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. when they are placed in opposite positions. high. 2. one glass tube. This will make an open space between the plates. Fig. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. is shown in Fig. The mineral wool. GG. as shown in Fig. 1. wide and 15 in. each 4-1/2 in. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. 22 gauge resistance wire. 1. or. in diameter and 9 in. A round collar of galvanized iron. is then packed down inside the collar. 1. are allowed to project about 1 in. Fig. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. FF. Fig. one small switch. of mineral wool. 1. E and F. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. Fig. Fig. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . JJ. 1. The holes B and C are about 3 in. Fig.

one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. H. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. Jaquythe. A file can be used to remove any rough places. causing a short circuit. above the rim. allowing a space between each turn. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. Richmond. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. then. when cool. Catherines. When this is done. This completes the stove. St. Can. Cut a 1/2-in. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. As these connections cannot be soldered. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. --Contributed by W. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. when heated. This point marks the proper length to cut it. deep. The clay. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. It should not be set on end. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. Fig. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. it is not necessary to know the method of molding.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. so that the circuit will not become broken. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. Fig. Next. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. KK. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. using care not to get it too wet. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. II. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. as the turns of the wires. Cal. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. Cover over about 1 in. and pressed into it. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. will slip and come in contact with each other. it leaves a gate for the metal. 2. steam will form when the current is applied. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. When the tile is in place. Cnonyn. A. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. If it is not thoroughly dry. more wire should be added. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. --Contributed by R. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. While the clay is damp. It should not be left heated in this condition. If this is the case. 4. apart.

and the prints will dry rapidly. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. but 12 by 24 in. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. Thorne. constructed of 3/4-in. Louisville.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. says the Photographic Times. as shown. square material in any size. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. and the frame set near a window. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Ky. is large enough. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. the pie will be damaged. --Contributed by Andrew G. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Then clip a little off the . Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth.

is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. 1 and 3. thick and 3 in. Le Mars. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. 2. 22 gauge magnet wire. 14 in. thereby saving time and washing. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. 1. 2-1/2 in. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. as shown. The contact F is made of a strip of copper.Paper Funnel point. allowing each end to project for connections. each 1 in. An offset is bent in the center. in diameter and about 4 in. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. causing a break in the current. 1. The board can be raised to place . The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. high. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. Fig. Figs. Iowa. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. W. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. The upright B. Fig. The driving arm D. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. high. thick and 3 in. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. at GG. long. Herron. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. long. long. wide. slip on two cardboard washers. which are fastened to the base. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. which gives the shaft a half turn. 1. The connections are made as shown in Fig. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. A 1/8-in. 4 in. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. 1. 1/2 in. 3. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. open out. each 1/2 in. As the shaft revolves. Fig. long. high. in diameter. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. wide and 3 in. Two supports. -Contributed by S. 1/2 in. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. thick. wide and 7 in. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. for the crank. The connecting rod E.

wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. Dorchester. on a board. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. Stecher. --Contributed by William F. in height.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. Mass. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. 3 in. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. making a framework suitable for a roost. In designing the roost. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. One or more pots may be used. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. Place the pot. . as shown in the sketch. bottom side up. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers.

then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. Wind the . without any corresponding benefit. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. in diameter.. as shown in Fig. adopt the method described. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. 1. F. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. grills and gratings for doors. If the meter is warmed 10 deg.. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. that it is heated. windows. 1. F. will produce the pattern desired. shelves. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. The materials required are rope or. and give it time to dry.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. The bottom part of the sketch. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. when combined. paraffin and paint or varnish. ordinary glue. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. Fig. odd corners. if it is other than straight lines. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. preferably. etc.

Fig. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. cut and glue them together. -Contributed by Geo. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Lockport. M. Harrer. six designs are shown. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. 2. Y. Fig. N.

. says the English Mechanic. This piece of horse armor. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay.. 1. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. but no farther. As the .Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. London. which was used in front of a horse's head. etc. will be retained by the cotton. and the sides do not cover the jaws.. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. chips of iron rust. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. etc. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. when it will be observed that any organic matter. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in.

the rougher the better. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. An arrangement is shown in Fig. except the thumb and fingers. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. All being ready. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. 2. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 6 and 7. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. In Fig.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. which is separate. This triangularshaped support. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. as shown in the sketch. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. with the exception of the thumb shield. and therefore it is not described. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. 4. which can be made in any size. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. 2. as the surface will hold the clay. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. The armor is now removed from the model. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. and will require less clay. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. This will make the model light and easy to move around. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. but the back is not necessary. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. This being done. This can be made in one piece. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. but for . The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. and the clay model oiled. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. then another coat of glue. 8. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. the same as in Fig.

2. If it does not hold a charge. Goshen. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. Buxton. running down the plate. cut into the shape shown in Fig. Fasten a polished brass ball to. are better shown in Fig. 9. but 3-1/2 in. two in each jaw. A piece of board. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. two for the jaws and one a wedge. the top of the rod. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. N. Redondo Beach. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. Calif. long. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. --Contributed by Ralph L. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. When locating the place for the screw eyes.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. La Rue. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. in depth. Y. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. wide and 1/2 in. each about 1/4 in. 1/2 in. will be about right. the two pieces of foil will draw together. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. are glued to it. fastened to the rod. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. and the instrument is ready for use. --Contributed by John G. . The two pieces of foil. the foils will not move.

2-1/2 in. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. as this will cut under the water without splashing.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. M. At a point 6 in. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Texas. is made of a 1/4-in. A. about 15 in. silvered. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. from the smaller end. The can may be bronzed. When a fish is hooked. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. Bryan. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. as indicated in the . Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. as shown in the illustration. Corsicana. --Contributed by Mrs. long. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. pine board. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. enameled or otherwise decorated. hole bored through it. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham.

as shown. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. A good size is 5 in. wide by 6 in. Basswood or butternut. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears.Match Holder accompanying sketch. using a piece of carbon paper. Any kind of wood will do. will do as well as the more expensive woods. Having completed the drawing. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. then with a nail. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. Next prepare the metal holder. put a coat or two of wax and polish . they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. When it has dried over night. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. or even pine. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. 3/8 or 1/4 in. take a piece of thin wood. thick. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. 22 is plenty heavy enough. If soft wood. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. long over all. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. such as basswood or pine was used. Polish the metal. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. using powdered pumice and lye." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. punch the holes. and trace upon it the design and outline.

placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. Two wire nails. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. --Contributed by W. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. Instead of the usual two short ropes. Jaquythe. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. each 1 in. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. If carving is contemplated. is used for the base of this instrument. It is useful for photographers. Richmond. 1/2 in. are used for the cores of the magnets. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. 2 in. long. wide and 5 in. of pure olive oil. the whole being finished in linseed oil. A. . tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. long. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. thick. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. can be made on the same standards. Cal. If one has some insight in carving. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. yet protects the skin from the chemicals.

in the shape shown in the sketch. as shown by the dotted lines.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. similar to that used in electric bells. H. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. about No. then covered with red. A rubber band. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. All of the parts for the armor have been described. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. when the key is pushed down. except that for the legs. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. . as shown in Fig. A piece of tin. at A. cut in the shape of the letter T. acts as a spring to keep the key open. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. cloth or baize to represent the legs. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. About 1 in. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. Lynas. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. 1. 3. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. 25 gauge. leaving about 1/4 in. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. the paper covering put on. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. London. --Contributed by W. says the English Mechanic.

drill six 1/4-in. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. for the sake of lightness. and eight small holes. can be made in a few minutes' time. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. Silver paper will do very well. Take the piece shown in Fig. Fig. or ordinary plaster laths will do. holes. So set up. in the other end. These can be purchased at a stationery store. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. 1 in. flat headed carriage bolt. Cut them to a length or 40 in. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. long. 1 and drill a 1/4in. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. 3 in. In one end of the piece. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. one to another . make the same series of eight small holes and.. at each end. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. says Camera Craft. The two pieces are bolted together. apart. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. A 1/4-in. Secure two strips of wood. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. hole in the center. 2. not too tight. Instead of using brass headed nails. about 1 in. By moving the position of the bolt from. apart. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. completes the equipment.

Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. 2.of the larger holes in the strip. of the ends remain unwoven. taking the same start as for the square fob. doubled and run through the web of A. in Fig. but instead of reversing . almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. then B over C and the end stuck under A. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. as in portraiture and the like. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. 4. long. C over D and B. A round fob is made in a similar way. D over A and C. In this sketch. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. and the one beneath C. for instance. Then draw all four ends up snugly. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. Then take B and lay it over A. A is the first string and B is the second. 1. Start with one end. lay Cover B and the one under D. as shown in Fig. 2. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. and lay it over the one to the right. Fig. the one marked A. 2. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about.

as in making the square fob.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. over the one to its right. always lap one string. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. A loop. is to be made of leather. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. Ohio. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. as at A in Fig. is left out at the center before starting on one side. especially if silk strings are used. long. 3. 1-1/2 in. 5. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. the design of which is shown herewith. Rupp. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. The round fob is shown in Fig. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . --Contributed by John P. Other designs can be made in the same manner. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. Monroeville. as B.

Any smooth piece of steel. A. door facing or door panel. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. pressing it against the wood. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. When the supply of wax is exhausted. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. using the reverse side. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. beeswax or paraffin. Northville. filling them with wax. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. it can be easily renewed. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. -Contributed by A. such as a nut pick. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. . On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. Mich. Houghton. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face.

remaining above the surface of the board. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. but any kind that will not stick may be used. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Petersburg. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. Y. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. apart and driven in only part way. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. D. J. and about 12 in. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. long. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. Thompson. N. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Enough plaster should. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. if blueprints are used. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. and after wetting. The tacks should be about 1 in. those on matte paper will work best. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. although tin ones can be used with good success. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. thick. it is best to leave a plain white margin. Select the print you wish to mount. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. E and F. leaving about 1/4 in. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. Ill.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. place it face down in the dish. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. says Photographic Times. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. New York. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. --Contributed by O. Fold together on lines C. .

Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. filling the same about onehalf full. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. etc.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. violets. as shown in the right of the sketch. roses. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. without mixing the solutions. will be rendered perfectly white. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. One of the . and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Lower into the test tube a wire. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. as shown at the left in the sketch. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. bell flowers. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda.. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble.

The first point should be ground blunt. The sound box. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. --Contributed by L. 1. shading. but which will not wobble loose. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. When soldering these parts together. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. turned a little tapering. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. Millstown. as shown. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. should be soldered to the box. South Dakota. long and made of wood. 3. Shabino. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. as shown in the sketch. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. made of heavy tin. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. and at the larger end. about 1/8s in. L..most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. thick. The tin horn can be easily made. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. not too tightly. is about 2-1/2 in. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. A rod that will fit the brass tube. in diameter and 1 in. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. to keep the core from coming off in turning. or delicate tints of the egg. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. 1-7/8 in. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . 2. long. The diaphragm. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. Fig.

dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Chicago. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. and.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . put a board on top. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. and weighted it with a heavy stone. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. wondering what it was. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. mice in the bottom. Jr.Contributed by E. Ill. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. says the Iowa Homestead. Colo. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Victor. Gold. E. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy.

The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. Y. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. --Contributed by Lyndwode. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. Buffalo. . and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Pereira. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. Can. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Ottawa. N. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table.

Richmond. --Contributed by Thos. Put a small nail 2 in. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Mich. Jaquythe. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Grand Rapids. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. --Contributed by W. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. De Loof. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . a piece of tin. by means of a flatheaded tack. as shown. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. and at one end of the stick fasten. above the end of the dasher. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. as it can be made quickly in any size. This cart has no axle. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. Cal. longer than the length of the can. A. cut round. through which several holes have been punched.

Kane. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. The baseboard and top are separable. 1 ft. were below the level of the bullseye. apart. long. wide. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. wide and as long as the box. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. wide and 1/8 in. A wedge-shaped piece of . The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. of course. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. The candles. 2 in.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 1. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. thick. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. 2. 1/4 in. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. Doylestown. screwed it on the inside of a store box. wide and 3 ft. 2. deep and 3 in. as shown. 2. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. Notches 1/8 in. board. La.1. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. I reversed a door gong. New Orleans. Fig. --Contributed by James M. cut in the center of the rounding edge. 1-1/2 in. Pa. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye.

Ia. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. Wood. --Contributed by G. Needles. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. After completing the handle. by cutting away the ends. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. When not in use. 1. For the handle. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. stone or wood. dressing one surface of each piece. This device is very convenient for invalids. wide into each side of the casing. Mass. the shelf could not be put on the window. as shown in Fig. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end.Book Back Holders metal. After the glue has dried. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. etc. to prevent its scratching the desk top. it can be removed without marring the casing. wide rubber bands or felt. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. the reason being that if both were solid. can be picked up without any trouble. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. when placed as in Fig. Cover the block with rubber. the blade is put back into the groove . Worcester. take two pieces of hard wood. The block can also be used as a paperweight. West Union. A.. 3. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. scissors. will. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade.

to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Ohio. . Cleveland. as shown in Fig. Pa. --Contributed by H. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. A. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. -Contributed by W.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Erie. Hutchins. S. 1. as shown in Fig. long. Malden. If desired. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. 2. A notch is cut in one side. --Contributed by Maud McKee. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. square and 4 in. Mass. Jacobs. thus carrying the car up the incline. Each one is made of a hardwood block. 1 in.

N.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. If one such as is shown is to be used. The letters can be put on afterward. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. . This will insure having all parts alike. a board on which to work it. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen.. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. will be needed. 6 by 9-1/2 in.J. and an awl and hammer. Prepare a design for the front. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. One sheet of metal. Cape May Point. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first.

The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. 1/4 part. Remove the metal. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. placed on a table. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. So impressive are the results. applied by means of a brush. paste the paper design right on the metal. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. which is desirable. turpentine. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. 3/4 part. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. that can be worked in your own parlor. behind or through the center of a table leg. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. mandolin or guitar. On the back. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. as shown. in the waste metal. says Master Painter. The music will not sound natural. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. 2 parts white vitriol. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. to right angles. One coat will do.Fasten the metal to the board. if desired. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. or. a violin. varnish. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. The stick may be placed by the side of. but weird and distant. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. 1 part. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands." In all appearance. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. If any polishing is required. flat brush. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. only the marginal line is to be pierced. .

square bar iron. The longest piece. and is easy to construct. Two pairs of feet. round-head machine screws. long and measuring 26 in. long. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. without them. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. . 3. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. wide. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. thick by 1/2 in. are shaped as shown in Fig. 2. it might be difficult. across the top. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. apart. each 28 in. With proper tools this is easy. each 6 in. says Work. long and spread about 8 in. is bent square so as to form two uprights. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. London.

The design is formed in the lead. After the joints are soldered. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. cut a long piece of lead. better still. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. The glass. using rosin as a flux. B. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. as shown in Fig. 7. the latter being tapped to . The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. Fig. 6. The brads are then removed. Place the corner piece of glass. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. 4. While the piece of lead D. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. C. Fig. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. is held by the brads. in the grooves of the borders. D. 5. or. 5. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. lead. and the base border. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. A. special flux purchased for this purpose. After the glass is cut. on it as shown. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass.

square and of the length given in the drawing. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. in diameter and about 9 in. N. Jr.. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. long. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. This . if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. J. bolt. long. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. then flatten its end on the under side. and round the corners of one end for a ring. This ring can be made of 1-in. in diameter and 1/4 in. bolt. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. long. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. Bore a 5/8-in. Make three washers 3-in. A and B. wood screws in each washer. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. Secure a post. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. holes through their centers. one on each side and central with the hole. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. plates. not less than 4 in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Fasten the plates to the block B. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. thick and drill 3/4-in. Two styles of hand holds are shown. H. plank about 12 ft. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. then drill a 3/4-in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. 8. rounded at the top as shown. Camden. --Contributed by W. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. as shown in Fig. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in.the base of the clip. and two wood blocks. Dreier. Bore a 3/4-in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. The center pin is 3/4-in. rocker bolt.

as shown in the top view of the post Fig. long. screws. New Orleans. long. maple. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. by 2 ft. 1-1/4in. 4 in. hickory. apart for a distance of 3 ft. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. If trees are convenient. in diameter and 7 in. 9 in. long and 1 piece. by 6-1/2 ft. long. 1. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. The four 7-in. To substitute small. chestnut or ash. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 4 pieces. because it will not stand the weather. 4 pieces. 2 by 4 in. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. horse and rings. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. 1/2 in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. of 1/4-in. straight-grained hickory. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. square by 9-1/2 ft. boards along the side of each from end to end. 2-1/2 in. La. 3 in. Draw a line on the four 7-in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. can make a first class gymnasium. 16 screws. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. 7 in. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. long. from one edge. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. long. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. 4 filler pieces. bit. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. bolts and rope. and some one can swing an axe. 4 in. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 1 by 7 in. by 3 ft. 3/4 by 3 in.will make an excellent cover for a pot. long. shanks. 50 ft. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. square by 5 ft.

It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. each 3 ft.. piece of wood. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. at each end. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. 8 in. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. boards coincide. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. so the 1/2-in. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats.bored. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. from the end. 2. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. Bore a 9/16-in. apart. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones.. apart. deep and remove all loose dirt. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed.

one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. passing through a screweye at either end. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. W. disappearing only to reappear again. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. it follows the edge for about 1 in. And all he used was a black thread. He stretched the thread between two buildings.. was at its height. the effect is very striking. just visible against the dark evening sky. not even the tumbler. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. but most deceptive at dusk. If the tumbler is rotated. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room." which skimmed along the distant horizon. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. and then passes in a curve across the base. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. . Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. When the interest of the crowd. which at once gathered. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. apart. not much to look at in daytime. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. it is taken to the edge of the foot. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. and materially heightened the illusion. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. in an endless belt. about 100 ft. and ascends the stem.

2 by 3 in. Fig. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 4 wood screws. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. square and 6 ft. long. deep. by 10 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2 by 4 in. 2 side braces. 2 cross braces. Chisel out two notches 4 in. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. large spikes. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. long and 1 doz. 8 bolts. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. The cork will come out easily. wide and 1 in. 4 bolts. 6 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 2 in. 8 in. 4 in. 8 in. long. long. 1. 7 in. and turned in a spiral D. Bevel the ends of . These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. beginning at a point 9 in. long. 2 base pieces. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. by 7 ft. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. long. from either side of the center. long. by 3 ft. long. La. square and 51/2 ft. A wire about No. so the point will be on top. 2 by 4 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 8 in. 2 by 4 in. To make the apparatus. preferably cedar. 4 knee braces. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. long. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. 4 in. New Orleans. by 2 ft.

screws.the knee braces. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. jellies. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. The wood so treated will last for years. additional long. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. If using mill-cut lumber. . The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. as shown in the diagram. A large sized ladle. These will allow the ladle to be turned. ( To be Continued. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. A. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. Two endpieces must be made. leave it undressed. of 7 ft. --Contributed by W. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. Jaquythe.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. except the bars. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. which face each other. After the trenches are dug. equipped with a strainer. Cal.. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. Richmond. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. using four of the 7-in bolts. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. but even unpainted they are very durable. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. etc. so the bolts in both will not meet. leaving the strainer always in position. and countersinking the heads. save the bars.

A. it is necessary to place a stick. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. Oil. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. thus holding the pail as shown. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. which seems impossible. partly a barrier for jumps. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. or various cutting compounds of oil. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. of sufficient 1ength. drill press or planer. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. In order to accomplish this experiment. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. . partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. milling machine.

2 bases. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. stud cut rounding on one edge. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. Procure from a saw mill. 4-1/2 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. 2 by 4 in. beginning 1-1/2 in. to fasten the knee braces at the top. long. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. but 5 ft. is a good length. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 4 in. square by 5 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. 7 in. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. These are placed 18 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. piece of 2 by 4-in. These are well nailed in place. square by 5-1/2 ft. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. ten 1/2-in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. by 3 ft. 1 in. apart. To construct. 3 in. 4 knee braces. in the ground. The material required is as follows: Two posts. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. 4 in. long. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. from each end. long. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. two 1/2-in. 1 cross brace. wood yard or from the woods. and free from knots. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . bolts. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. bolts. long. long. The round part of this log must be planed. 2 by 4 in. bolt. apart in a central position on the horse. long. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. projections and splinters... long. in diameter--the larger the better. long. by 3 ft. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. by 3 ft. 2 adjusting pieces. 2 by 4 in. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. 4 in. bolts. Hand holds must be provided next.

One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union.--Contributed by W. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. over and around. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Cal. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. Such a hand sled can be made in a . Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. etc. such as a dent. A. it is caused by an overloaded shell. water. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. snow. but nevertheless. Richmond. no one is responsible but himself. then bending to the shape desired. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. Also. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. it is caused by some obstruction.horse top. pipe and fittings. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. Jaquythe.

Vener. 1/4 or 3/16 in. Toronto. --Contributed by James E. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. at E and F. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. thick. then run a string over each part. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. is much better than a wood sled. are all the tools necessary.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Noble. when straightened out. when complete. Mass. France. Boston. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. . in width and 1/32 in. Ontario. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. which. Joerin. Paris. --Contributed by Arthur E. 2. These. will give the length. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. The end elevation. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. 1. W. --Contributed by J. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers.

Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. AA and BB. nor that which is partly oxidized. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. The method shown in Figs. 4. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. 3. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. . It is best to use soft water. are nailed. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean.

Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. class ice-yacht. 2. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. 1). 2. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. Broad lines can be made. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. The materials used are: backbone. or various rulings may be made. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. . the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. Percy Ashley in Rudder. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. as shown in Fig.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. or unequal widths as in Fig. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. as shown in Fig. 3. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. 4. 8 and 9.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The point should extend about 11/2 in. about 30 in. bent and drilled as shown. a larger size of pipe should be used. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. a tee and a forging. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. Both the lower . The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. pipe. long. 1. but if it is made much longer. out from the collar. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. pins to keep them from turning. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. It can be made longer or shorter. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow.Fig. The headstock is made of two tees.

square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Fruitvale. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. 3/4 or 1 in. Held. thick as desired. . To do this. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. --Contributed by W. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. a corresponding line made on this. W. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. Musgrove. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. It is about 1 in. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. 2. 2. 2. Indiana. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. but also their insulating properties. 1. UpDeGraff. as shown in Fig. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. --Contributed by M. else taper turning will result. as shown in Fig.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. and will answer for a great variety of work. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. a straight line should be scratched Fig. Cal. Boissevain. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. or a key can be used as well. Laporte. Man. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. M.

Ft. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. Ark. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. Smith. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . long. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. The handle is of pine about 18 in. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. To obviate this. J. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. In use.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. as shown. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. Cline. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. --Contributed by E.

To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. After being entered. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. Colo.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. face off the end of the piece. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. on starting the lathe. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. centering is just one operation too many. if this method is followed: First. New Orleans. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. Denver. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. La. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. the drill does not need the tool. which should be backed out of contact. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. White. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. and when once in true up to its size. take . --Contributed by Walter W. This prevents the drill from wobbling.

Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. The glass tube B. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. by applying caustic soda or . The handkerchief rod. as shown in D. and this given to someone to hold. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. all the better. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. and can be varied to suit the performer. It can be used in a great number of tricks. shorter t h a n the wand. unknown to the spectators. a bout 1/2 in. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. vanishing wand. says the Sphinx.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. the cap is placed over the paper tube. is put into the paper tube A. In doing this. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. After the wand is removed. a long piece of glass tubing. shown at C. after being shown empty. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover.

Cut a piece of hard wood. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. The sides. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. Glue the neck to the box. cut to any shape desired. The brace at D is 1 in. 1 End. thick. and if care is taken in selecting the material. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. As the cement softens. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. and glue it to the neck at F. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. square and 1-7/8 in. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. This dimension and those for the frets . can be made by the home mechanic. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines.potash around the edges of the letters. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. as shown by K. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. 1. Glue strips of soft wood. by 14 by 17 in. 2 Sides. long. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. End. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. With care and patience. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. 1 Bottom. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. with the back side rounding. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. across the front and back to strengthen them. 1/4 in. preferably hard maple. 3/16. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. 1 Neck. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in.

but it is not. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. and beveled . Norwalk. long is used for a keel. Frary. -Contributed by J. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. wide and 11-1/2 ft. 1) on which to stretch the paper. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. H. in diameter. O. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. thick and about 1 ft. A board 1 in. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. E. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. When it is completed you will have a canoe. 3/16 in.Pa. Six holes. toward each end. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins.should be made accurately. --Contributed by Chas. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Carbondale. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Stoddard. or backbone. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place.

Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. with long stout screws. C. . when made of green elm. 2. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. some tight strips of ash. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. b. Fig. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. a. two twigs may be used to make one rib. Fig. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. Any tough. Fig. b. wide by 26 in. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. Fig. in thickness and should be cut. B. the loose strips of ash (b. 3. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. but before doing this. or similar material. will answer nearly as well. as they are apt to do. Green wood is preferable. 1 and 2. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. 3). 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. such as is used for making chairbottoms. are next put in. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. procure at a carriage factory. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. or other place. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. such as hazel or birch. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. thick. C. 3). They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. which are easily made of long. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. slender switches of osier willow. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. thick. but twigs of some other trees. as before described. Shape these as shown by A.) in notches. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. Fig. 2). and so. long. buy some split cane or rattan. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. two strips of wood (b. as shown in Fig. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. and. in such cases. For the gunwales (a. probably. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. Osiers probably make the best ribs. apart. In drying. Fig. These are better. Fig. 1. and are not fastened. 13 in. and notched at the end to receive them (B. 4. by means of a string or wire. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. 3/8 in. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. twigs 5 or 6 ft. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board.. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. b. as shown in Fig. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. 3. The cross-boards (B. 4). Fig. 2). so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. The ribs. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. Fig. long are required.

sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. after wetting it.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. If not. The paper is then trimmed. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. When thoroughly dry. wide. It should be smooth on the surface. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. if it has been properly constructed of good material. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Fig. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. tacking it to the bottom-board. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. but neither stiff nor very thick. It should be drawn tight along the edges. preferably iron. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. and very tough. and light oars. If the paper be 1 yd. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. When the paper is dry. Being made in long rolls. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. and steady in the water. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. and held in place by means of small clamps. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. and as soon as that has soaked in. however. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Then take some of the split rattan and. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. 5). B. You may put in . Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. apply a second coat of the same varnish. but with less turpentine. of very strong wrapping-paper.

Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. We procured a box and made a frame. Fig. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. Fig. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. 5). 1 and the end in . A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. 2. to fit it easily. they will support very heavy weights. Fig. and make a movable seat (A. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. 5. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. and if driven as shown in the cut. Drive the lower nail first.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. 1. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. fore and aft.

more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. this makes the tube airtight. Pittsburg. This way has its drawbacks. and the result is. being softer where the flame has been applied. This is an easy . a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. 5. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. Close the other end with the same operation. 4. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. Pa. A good way to handle this work. and the glass. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. 3.Fig. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat.

very rapid progress can be made. Oswald. three. then reverse. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . above the work and striking it with the hammer. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. Sixth. with a piece of carbon paper. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. second. or six arms. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. The candle holders may have two. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. extra metal all around.way to make a thermometer tube. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. After the bulb is formed. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. metal shears. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Give the metal a circular motion. rivet punch. flat and round-nosed pliers. fifth. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. third. file. above the metal. thin screw. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. -Contributed by A. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. 23 gauge. four. Seventh. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. also trace the decorative design. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. fourth.

The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. How To Make a Hectograph [326] .Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. Metal polish of any kind will do. drip cup. Having pierced the bracket. and holder. Small copper rivets are used. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done.

and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. Shiloh. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. glycerine 4 parts. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. the stick at the bottom of the sail. and in a week . and water 24 parts. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. Soak 1 oz. using a steel pen. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. Twenty cents was all I spent. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. Fifty. and other things as they were needed. is a broomstick. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. deep. and brace and bit were the tools used. thus it was utilized. sugar 1 part. all the rest I found. and add the gelatine. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. Mother let me have a sheet. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. smooth it down and then remove as before. F. J. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. The boom. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. if it has not absorbed too much ink. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. on a water bath. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. I steer with the front wheel. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. when it will be ready for use. alcohol 2 parts. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. The gaff. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. except they had wheels instead of runners. of glycerine to about 200 deg. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. N. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. and it will be ready for future use. A saw. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. hammer. Heat 6-1/2 oz. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. winding the ends where they came together with wire.

Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. a projecting lens . A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.

circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. or a lens of 12-in. This ring is made up from two rings. If a small saw is used. describe a 9-in. 8 in. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. or glue. long. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. are . and a projecting lens 2 in. and the work carefully done. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. 3. A and B. at a distance of 24 ft. about 2 ft. and 14 in. 1. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. as desired. G. H. Fig. provided the material is of metal. high. thick. and. well seasoned pine. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. wide and 15 in. slide to about 6 ft. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. at a point 1 in. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. The board is centered both ways. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. but if such a box is not found. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. wire brads.. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. and the lens slide. focus enlarging a 3-in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. above the center. wide. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. A table. 1/2 to 3/4 in. The slide support. E. DD. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens.

Small strips of tin. light burning oil. The arrangement is quite safe as. and when the right position is found for each. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. but not long enough. of safe. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. placed on the water.constructed to slip easily on the table. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. A sheet . How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. E. the strips II serving as guides. JJ. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. To reach the water. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. apply two coats of shellac varnish. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. Minn. St. should the glass happen to upset. Paul.-Contributed by G. P. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. the water at once extinguishes the flame. B.

as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. 3.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. Schenectady. 3. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 9 in. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. Fig. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. form a piece of wire in the same shape. by 12 ft. 1. --Contributed by J. 4. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. 2. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. N. 12 ft. I ordered a canvas bag.. from a tent company. Fig. then the corners on one end are doubled over. to cover the mattresses. Crawford. If one of these clips is not at hand. Y.H. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. 3 in.

as shown in Fig. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Denver. first mark the binding-post A. to the coil of small wire for volts. 1/2 in. 2. An arc is cut in the paper. long and 3/16 in. 3/4 in. through which the indicator works. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. To calibrate the instrument. so as to form two oblong boxes. Attach a piece of steel rod. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. in the center coil. to keep it from unwinding. drill two 3/16 in. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. 1/2 in. A rubber band. thick.each edge. open on the edges. 3 to swing freely on the tack. wide. C. --Contributed by Walter W. D. A Film Washing Trough [331] . apart. Fasten the wire with gummed label. 2. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. and insert two binding-posts. Fig. 2. Warren. V. Fold two strips of light cardboard. for amperes and the other post. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. Do not use too strong a rubber. Pa. insulating them from the case with cardboard. White. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. 1. 3/4 in. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. Colo. Teasdale. Fig. --Contributed by Edward M. 1. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. holes in the edge. long. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter.

A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. O. Dayton. Place this can on one end of the trough. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. as shown. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Cut a 1/4-in. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Hunting. Wood Burning [331] . with the large hole up. --Contributed by M. M.

When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. then into this bottle place. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. mouth downward. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids.

This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. Place the small bottle in as before. Auburn. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. Ala. If the small bottle used is opaque. many puzzling effects may be obtained. This will make a very pretty ornament. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. If the cork is adjusted properly. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. 1. N. provided the bottle is wide. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. wide and 4 in. but not very thick. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . 2.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. --Contributed by Fred W. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. Whitehouse. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. --Contributed by John Shahan. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. Upper Troy. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. long. 3/4 in. thick. as shown in the sketch.Y.

such as blades and pulleys. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. 4. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. 1 in. The bearing blocks were 3 in. or ordinary telephone transmitters. --Contributed by D. even in a light breeze. Fig. long. On a 1000-ft.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. I. Milter. The shaft C. were constructed of 1-in. Fig. which was 6 in. Fig. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. 1. was 1/4in. B. 1. wide. which gave considerable power for its size. pulley. thick. in diameter and 1 in. 1. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. iron rod. 3. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. The wire L was put . which was nailed to the face plate. as shown in Fig. thick and 3 in. G. thick. line. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. by the method shown in Fig. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. pulley F. high without the upper half. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. K. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. 1. sugar pine on account of its softness. 1. which extended to the ground. The 21/2-in. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. 2 ft. Fig. Fig. A staple. 2. Both bearings were made in this manner. Its smaller parts. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. to the shaft. If a transmitter is used. W. was keyed to shaft C.

Fig. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. 6. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. pine 18 by 12 in. with all parts in place. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. Fig. top down also. To make the key. wide and 1 in. Two washers were placed on shaft C. The bed plate D. apart in the tower. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. for instance. when the windmill needed oiling. square to the board P at the top of the tower. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. strips. long and bend it as . so that the 1/4-in. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. The other lid. 1. Fig. There a 1/4-in. R. through the latter. This completes the receiver or sounder.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. 6. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. 1. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Fig. as. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. with brass headed furniture tacks. in the center of the board P. 2. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. 1) 4 in. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. across the thin edge of a board. long and bend it as shown at A. This fan was made of 1/4-in. 1. H. 1. was tacked. Fig. The power was put to various uses. providing one has a few old materials on hand. long and 3 in. hole for the shaft G was in the center. Fig. cut out another piece of tin (X. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. washers were placed under pulley F. G. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. 25 ft. 5. was 2 ft. a 1/2-in. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. To lessen the friction here. 3 in. in diameter. and was cut the shape shown. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. Fig. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. long. hole was bored for it. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. If you have no bell. 0. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. The smaller one. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. This board was 12 in. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. long and 1/2 in. long.

as indicated. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. and. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. McConnell. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. at the front. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. -Contributed by John R. fitted with paddles as at M. although it can be made with but two. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. 2. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K.shown. Thus a center drive is made. as shown at Water. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. leaving the other wire as it is. By adjusting the coils. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. The rear barrels are. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. using cleats to hold the board frame. 1. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Going back to Fig. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. When tired of this instrument. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. Before tacking it to the board. causing a buzzing sound. Now. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. like many another device boys make. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish.

copper piping and brass tubing for base. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. can be built. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. There is no danger. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. as shown in Fig. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. feet on the pedals. which will give any amount of pleasure. 3. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. To propel it.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. The speed is slow at first. 1. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . or even a little houseboat. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. there will not be much friction. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. If the journals thus made are well oiled.

For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. B. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. D. Then melt out the rosin or lead. Fig. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. If magnifying glass cannot be had. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. Place one brass ring in cylinder. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. 1. If it is desired to make the light very complete. 2. 2. Fig. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. A. and so creating a false circuit. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. Turn a small circle of wood. C. or it may be put to other uses if desired. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder.of pleasure for a little work. 2. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. 1. then the glass disc and then the other ring. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. Fig. Shape small blocks of boxwood. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. 1. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. Fig.

by having the switch on the baseboard. Chatland. wire from batteries to switch. after setting alarm. or 1/4in. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. brass rod. which stops bell ringing. I. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. some glue will secure them. The parts indicated are as follows: A. To throw on light throw levers to the left. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. shelf. --Contributed by C. brass strip. F. thick. if too small. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. copper tubing. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. When alarm goes off. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. 3/8 in. T. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. long. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. long. bell. Throw lever off from the right to center. 4 in. contact post. Brinkerhoff. such as is used for cycle valves. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. wire from light to switch.india rubber tubing. set alarm key as shown in diagram. 5-1/4 by 10 in. To get the cylinder into its carriage. Utah. Ogden. and pulled tight. wide and 1/16 in. B. wire from bell to switch. To operate this. X. J. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. D. key of alarm clock. dry batteries. Swissvale.. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. S. switch. 4-1/2 in. bracket. In placing clock on shelf. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . G. near the bed. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. --Contributed by Geo. Pa. after two turns have been made on the key. C. C. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . H. E. while lying in bed. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring.

as at B. about 3-1/2 in. Fig. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Having finished this. Minn. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. will do the heating. letting it extend 3/4 in. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. 1.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. Chapman. Make a shoulder. as . S. This is to form the fuse hole. Fig. 1. gives the heater a more finished appearance. beyond the end of the spindle. as in Fig. in diameter. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. All that is required is a tin covering. 1/4 in. a bed warmer. Pull out the nail and stick. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. in diameter. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. 4 in. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. from one end. Make the spindle as in Fig. as at A. place stick and all in a pail of sand. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. 2. A small lamp of about 5 cp. for instance. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. --Contributed by Chas. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. which can be made of an old can. Fig. as at A. Lanesboro. making it as true and smooth as possible. 3. 2. about 6 in. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. wide. being careful not to get the sand in it. A flannel bag. long.

some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. 3/8 in. 5/8 in. ash. thick. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. The illustration shows how this is done. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. --Contributed by Arthur E. Joerin. thick. wide and 3 ft. good straight-grained pine will do. 1 in. 6 in. spring and arrows. this is to keep the edges from splitting. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. long. will be sufficient to make the trigger. but if this wood cannot be procured. wide and 6 ft. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. wide and 3/8 in. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. A piece of tin. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. long. long. 11/2 in. The material must be 1-1/2 in. thick. 1. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. or hickory. A piece of oak. The bow is made from straight-grained oak.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. deep.

hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. The stick for the bow. To throw the arrow. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. When the trigger is pulled. and one for the trigger 12 in. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. 2. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. 7. A spring. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. Fig. thick. having the latter swing quite freely. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. wide at each end. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Fig. The bow is not fastened in the stock. 3. 8.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. Ill. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. better still. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. Wilmette. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. from the end of the stock. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. Trownes. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. Fig. it lifts the spring up. place the arrow in the groove. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. 9. in diameter. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. as shown in Fig. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. 4. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. E. --Contributed by O. or through the necessity of. To shoot the crossbow. which is 1/4 in. The trigger. Such a temporary safe light may be . from the opposite end. 6. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger.

it is the easiest camp to make. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. The hinged cover E. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. making lighting and trimming convenient. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. says Photo Era. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. the bark lean-to is a . This lamp is safe. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. respectively. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. C. or only as a camp on a short excursion. apart. and nail it in position as shown at A. Remove one end. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. By chopping the trunk almost through. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. since the flame of the candle is above A. Moreover. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. The cut should be about 5 ft. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. from the ground. make the frame of the wigwam. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. is used as a door. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. and replace as shown at B. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. Remove the bottom of the box.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. from the ground. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice.

wide. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. wide and 6 ft. In the early summer. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. long and 1-1/2 in. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. thick. For a foot in the middle of the stick. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. and split the tops with an ax. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. will dry flat. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. and when the camp is pitched. deep and covered with blankets. 6 ft. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. 3 ft. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. and cedar. are a convenient size for camp construction. make the best kind of a camp bed. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. selecting a site for a camp. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. nails are necessary to hold it in place. Sheets of bark. long and 2 or 3 ft. a 2-in. Tongs are very useful in camp. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. makes a good pair of tongs. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. For a permanent camp. long.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. A piece of elm or hickory. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. . Where bark is used. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. spruce. piled 2 or 3 ft. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks.

hinges. .Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. and affording accommodation for several persons. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves.

At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. I drove a small cork. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. to another . connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. B. Fig. wide. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. --Contributed by James M.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. deep and 4 in. changing the water both morning and night. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. Pa. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth.. A. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. the interior can. about 4 in. and provide a cover or door. Kane. B. Doylestown. 1.

2. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. This makes . 3. to pass through an increasing resistance. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. for instance. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. Fig. The diagram. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. fused into one side. 2. E. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. C. which project inside and outside of the tube. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. until. if necessary. limit.glass tube. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. 4 and 5). such as ether. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. for instance. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. The current is thus compelled. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. a liquid. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together.

It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. assemble and rivet them solidly. Before removing the field from the lathe. they will make a frame 3/4 in. Michigan. clamp the template. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. in diameter. When the frame is finished so far. as shown in the left-hand sketch. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. A. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. bent at right angles as shown. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. thicker. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. screws. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. in diameter. therefore. is composed of wrought sheet iron. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. After the template is marked out. mark off a space. hole is . Fig. which may be of any thickness so that. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. A 5/8in. but merely discolored. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. thick. 2. brass. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. 3. Fig. or even 1/16 in. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. as shown in Fig. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. on a lathe. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. 1. These holes are for the bearing studs. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. and for the outside of the frame. when several pieces are placed together. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. set at 1/8 in. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. 3-3/8 in.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. Alpena. thick. The bearing studs are now made. making it 1/16 in. drill the four rivet holes. tap. 4-1/2 in. two holes. by turning the lathe with the hand. or pattern. If the thickness is sufficient. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. which will make it uniform in size. Then the field can be finished to these marks. 3-3/8 in. cannot be used so often. to allow for finishing. After cleaning them with the solution. between centers. brass or iron. larger than the dimensions given.

and drilled to receive the armature shaft. The shaft of the armature. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. When the bearings are located. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. Fig. 4. and build up the solder well. file them out to make the proper adjustment. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. into which a piece of 5/8-in. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel .The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. solder them to the supports. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. brass rod is inserted. soldered into place. is turned up from machine steel. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. or otherwise finished.

bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. thick are cut like the pattern. Rivet them together. as shown in Fig. thick and 1/4 in. as shown in Fig.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. The sides are also faced off and finished. and then they are soaked in warm water. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. Make the core 3/4 in. 7. and held with a setscrew. wide. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. 5. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. deep and 7/16 in. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. After the pieces are cut out. Procure 12 strips of mica. then drill a 1/8-in. The pins are made of brass. as shown in Fig. 8. sheet fiber. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. threaded. When annealed. hole and tap it for a pin. 3/4 in. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. 3. 1/8 in. Find the centers of each segment at one end. thick. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. holes through them for rivets. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. as shown in Fig. Armature-Ring Core. washers. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. 6. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. 9. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. thick. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. inside diameter. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. After they . being formed for the ends. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores.. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. 6. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. or segments. to allow for finishing to size. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. 3. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. thick. by 1-1/2 in. brass rod. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. wide. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. 1-1/8 in. as shown m Fig. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. When this is accomplished. until they become flexible enough to be put in place.

and bring the end of the wire out at B. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. In starting to wind. are soldered together. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side.have dried. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. thick. which will take 50 ft. shown at B. After one coil. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. or side. 1. after the motor is on the stand. sheet fiber. about 100 ft. 8 in. All connections should be securely soldered. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. This winding is for a series motor. 6 in. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. Run one end of the field wire. 1. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. being required. The two ends are joined at B. shown at A. sheet fiber. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. of the end to protrude. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. When the glue is set. To connect the wires. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. The source of current is connected to the terminals. of the wire. the two ends of the wire. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. The winding is started at A. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. they are glued to the core insulation. The field is wound with No. Fig. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. of No. 5. until the 12 slots are filled. by bending the end around one of the projections. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. and wind on four layers. wide and 1 in. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. yet it shows a series of . is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. Fig. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. long.

If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. and one. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. Nine wires run from the timer. still more simply. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. A 1/2-in. is fastened to the metallic body. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. one from each of the eight contacts. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . as in the case of a spiral. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. which serves as the ground wire. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. or. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described.

thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. board. Without this attachment. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing.The Wind Vane. circle. long. of the dial. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. 6 in. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. thus giving 16 different directions. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. 45 deg. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. Covering these is a thin. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. It should be . The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill.

" Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. Place the leather on some level. will be sufficient. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used.about 6 ft. though a special knife. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. will be enough for the two sides. will answer the purpose just as well. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. Buffalo. thus making a universal joint. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. Before tacking the fourth side. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. To make it. is most satisfactory. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. N. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. or. Y. -Contributed by James L. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. according to who is going to use it. long to give the best results. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. Blackmer. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. high. 14 by 18 in. . Cut 3-in. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. however. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. Fill the box with any handy ballast. also a piece of new carpet. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. called a chip carving knife. and securely nail on the top of the box. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. making it heavy or light. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. and about 6 in. if not too high. To work these outlines. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather.

A good leather paste will be required. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. An ordinary sewing-machine . Paste the silk plush to the inner side. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show.

Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. Morse. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. and fasten the feathers inside of it. and tie them together securely at the bottom. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. can be thrown away when no longer needed. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. a needle and some feathers. N. away from it. square and tying a piece of . Y. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. or a hip that has been wrenched. of common salt and 10 lb. rather than the smooth side. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. of water. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. If a fire breaks out. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. B. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames.will do if a good stout needle is used. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. --Contributed by Katharine D. as in cases of a sprained ankle. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Syracuse. temporary lameness. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch.

and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. is cut on the wood. N. which is the essential part of the instrument. E. setting traps. etc. A small wooden or fiber end. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. The body of the receiver. . It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. laying poisoned meat and meal. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. Albany.. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. Paterson. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. F. commonly called tintype tin. This not only keeps the rats out. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. G. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. wide and 1/16 in. thus helping the rats to enter. Hellwig. made up of four layers of No.J. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. deep. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. When the distance to produce the right sound is found.string to each corner. letting it go at arm's length. --Contributed by John A. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. long. cut to the length of the spool. Gordon Dempsey. One end is removed entirely. The strings should be about 15 in. --Contributed by J. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. Wis. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. The end is filed to an edge. and a coil of wire. long. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. The diaphragm C. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. The coil is 1 in. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. and the receiver is ready for use. high. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. B. There is a 1-in. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. 1/8 in. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. board all around the bottom on the inside. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. as shown. but not sharp. the corners being wired. and tacked it to the boards. Y. A. wound on the head end. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. N. Ashland. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in.

then dry and polish with a linen cloth. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. The vase is to have three supports. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. A single line will be sufficient. a piece of small wire. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. better still. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. begin with the smallest scrolls. and bend each strip in shape. Take a piece of string or. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. To clean small articles. wide. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. to . gold. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution.

3-1/4 in. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Fold the leather on the line EF. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. Press or model down the leather all around the design. Work down the outside line of the design. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1.. 3-1/2 in. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B.. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. sharp pencil. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. as shown in the sketch. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. using a duller point of the tool. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. 6-3/8 in. About 1 in. wide when stitching up the purse. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily.which the supports are fastened with rivets. from the lines EF on the piece. Trace also the line around the purse. After taking off the pattern. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. from C to D. through which to slip the fly AGH. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. from E to F. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. thus raising it. and does not require coloring. 4-1/4 in. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. .

and which will be very interesting. the "open" side.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. all the way around. Fit this to the two . Now take another piece of wood. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. It is neat and efficient. and. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. 1/2 in. When it is finished. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and cut out a wheel. leaving the lug a. being cast in wooden molds. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. following the dotted lines. square. around the wheel. First. 2. b. and a model for speed and power. long. deep. deep. Cut off six pieces 12 in. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. It can be made without the use of a lathe.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. 3. This also should be slightly beveled. as well as useful. 1. then place the square piece out of which Fig. with a compass saw. and tack the other piece slightly. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. with pins or small nails. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. and the projections B. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. thick. with the open side down. Then nail the wheel down firmly. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. as shown in Fig. then nail it. by 12 ft. Make the lug 1/4 in. with the largest side down. 1 was cut.

in the center of it. bolts. Take the mold apart. as shown by the black dots in Fig. slightly beveled. and clean all the shavings out of it. deep. square pieces of wood. and boring a 3/8-in. and bore six 1/4-in. 1. Now put mold No. one of which should have a 3/8-in. After it is finished. hole 1/4 in. place it between two of the 12-in. 4. hole entirely through at the same place. square pieces of wood. as shown by the . then bolt it together.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. hole bored through its center. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. and cut it out as shown in Fig.pieces just finished. holes through it. and lay it away to dry. Now take another of the 12-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in.

Put this together in mold No. put the top of the brace through this hole. screw down. place it under the drill.2. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. This is mold No. 1. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. and drill it entirely through. Commencing 1-1/2 in. Then bolt the castings together. until it is full. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. 6. b. holes at d. A piece of mild steel 5 in. B. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. in diameter must now be obtained. one in the lug. and 3/8-in.2. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. and pouring metal in to fill it up. take an ordinary brace. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings.1. wide and 16 in. as shown in illustration. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. one in the projections. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press.black dots in Fig. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. Pour metal into mold No. place the entire machine in a vise. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. This will cast a paddle-wheel. and the exhaust hole in projection b. Now cut out one of the 12-in. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. true it up with a square. where the casting did not fill out. and drill them in the same manner. long. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. 4. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. over the defective part. d. and bore three 1/4-in. 6. so that it will turn easily. and the other in the base. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. and pour babbitt metal into it. After it is fitted in. only the one is left-handed. from the one end. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. and connect to the boiler. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. 5. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. drill in it. as shown by the black dots in Fig. see that the bolts are all tight. holes. long. the other right-handed.1. and two 1/4-in. and lay it away to dry. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. Let it stand for half an hour. lay it on a level place. This is the same as Fig. This is for a shaft. Using the Brace . Fig. fasten a 3/8-in. and run in babbitt metal again.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. instead of the right-handed piece. Now take mold No.

and with three small screw holes around the edge. Then take a knife or a chisel. Plan of Ice Boat . How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in.. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. and. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. while it is running at full speed. one 6 ft. and the other 8 ft. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. with a boss and a set screw. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. At each end of the 6ft. will do good service. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. piece and at right angles to it. turn the wheel to the shape desired. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. long.

plank at the end with the grain running crosswise.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. at the top. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . plank nail 8-in. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. The tiller. 8 a reef point knot. 2 by 3 in. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. The spar should be 9 ft. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. tapering to 1-1/2 in. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. Run the seam on a machine. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. Make your runners as long as possible. 3. Over the middle of the 6-ft. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. at the end. plank. should be of hardwood. which may come in handy in heavy winds. at the butt and 1 in. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. To the under side of the 8-ft. so much the better will be your boat. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. distant. Fig. Fig. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. and about 8 in.