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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

1. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. The pieces are then dressed round. --Contributed by J. Fig. 2. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. 2. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. until it is bound as shown in Fig. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. as shown in Fig. A piece of plank 12 in.Fig. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . as shown in Fig. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. apart. grasp it and hold the same as a club. Ontario. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. Noble. It is held in this curve until dry. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. away. 1. distant. 2 -. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. 1. long will make six boomerangs. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. with the hollow side away from you. E. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. Toronto. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. To throw a boomerang. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. wide and 2 ft.

thick. one inside of the circle and the other outside. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. which makes the building simpler and easier. made of 6-in. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. forcing it down closely. A wall. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. the block will drop out. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. A very light. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. If the snow is of the right consistency. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. long. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. but about 12 in. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. and it may be necessary to use a little water. and with a movable bottom. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. or rather no bottom at all. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. 6 in. dry snow will not pack easily. it is not essential to the support of the walls. minus the top. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. First. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. blocks . high and 4 or 5 in. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. however. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way.

Fig. which can be made of wood. a. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. --Contributed by Geo. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. which is about 1 ft. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. Goodbrod. 2. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. above the ground. wide. 3 -. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. and the young architect can imitate them. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. Fig. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. Union. D. The piece of wood.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. 1. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. long and 1 in. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. There is no outward thrust. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. 2. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. or an old safe dial will do.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. It also keeps them out. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. is 6 or 8 in. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. Fig. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. A nail. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . C. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. Ore. 3. 1. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial.

The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. If ordinary butts are used. Merrill. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. one pair of special hinges. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge.When taking hot dishes from the stove. New York. S. the box locked . The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. --Contributed by R. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. Syracuse. says the Sphinx. as the weight always draws them back to place. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string.

it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. as shown. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. smooth surface. Ga. Fig. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. 3. allowing each coat time to dry. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. All . It remains to bend the flaps. If they do not. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. With the metal shears. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. Alberta Norrell. Place the piece in a vise. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly.and the performer steps out in view. proceed as follows: First. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. 2. one for each corner. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. as shown in Fig. about 1-32 of an inch. as shown in Fig. If the measuring has been done properly. When the sieve is shaken. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. on drawing paper. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. -Contributed by L. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. 1. To make a design similar to the one shown. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. draw one-half of it. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Augusta.

such as are used for enameling bathtubs. Galbreath. H. causing it to expand. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. In boring through rubber corks. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. used for insulation. of No. heats the strip of German-silver wire. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. should be in the line. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. --Contributed by R. in diameter. 25 German-silver wire. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. B.the edges should be left smooth. Denver. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. about 6 in. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. To keep the metal from tarnishing. C. The common cork. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. After this has dried. 25 gauge German-silver wire. The current. R. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. A piece of porcelain tube. Colo. as shown at AA. from the back end. When the current is turned off. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. long. A resistance. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. and in the positions shown in the sketch. if rolled under the shoe sole. If a touch of color is desired. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. is fitted tightly in the third hole. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. which is about 6 in. in passing through the lamp. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter.

Kansas City. 3. with thin strips of wood. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Fig. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. leaving a space of 4 in. --Contributed by David Brown. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe.bottom ring. Mo. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. between them as shown in Fig. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Purchase two long book straps. . 2. 1. as shown in Fig. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs.

Pa. 36 in. having a gong 2-1/2 in. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. 1. and one weighing 25 lb. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well.. as . Place three paving bricks inside of the box. 2. Morse. are mounted on the outside of the box. Fig. Y. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. 3. and tack smoothly. C. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. Fig. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown.. which is the right weight for family use. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. long. 4.An ordinary electric bell. Fig. just the right weight for a woman to use. These are shown in Fig. Syracuse. Two strips of brass. When the aeroplane tips. --Contributed by James M. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. A. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. --Contributed by Katharine D. The folds are made over the string. The string is then tied. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. 1. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. Doylestown. to form a handle. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. Kane. 1. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. one weighing 15 lb. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. N. in diameter. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. and a pocket battery.

clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. if once used. Y. The saw. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. and many fancy knick-knacks. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. 3/32 or 1/4 in. Frame Made of a Rod . yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. N. four washers and four square nuts. in diameter. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. bent as shown in Fig. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. 2. --Contributed by Louis J. Day. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. such as brackets. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. AA. Floral Park. 2. two 1/8 -in. long. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. machine screws. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. 1. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically.

as well as brass and copper. though almost any color may be obtained. or silver. For etching. allowing each time to dry. A. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Of the leathers. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath.. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. it has the correct strength. use them in place of the outside nuts.may be made of either brass. copper. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. If it colors the metal red. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. using a swab and an old stiff brush. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. of course. after breaking up. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. treat it with color. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. File these edges.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. Apply two coats. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Rub off the highlights. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. --Contributed by W. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. of water in which dissolve. Silver is the most desirable but. of water. as well as the depth of etching desired. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. green and browns are the most popular. therefore. Watch Fob For coloring silver. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. 1 part nitric acid. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. 1 part sulphuric acid. The buckle is to be purchased. be covered the same as the back. Drying will cause this to change to purple. Michigan. In the design shown. the most expensive. if copper or brass. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. Detroit. Scranton. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. An Austrian Top [12] . the unshaded parts should not be etched and should.

F.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. . A 1/16-in. Ypsilanti. set the top in the 3/4 -in. 3/4 in. Tholl. Parts of the Top To spin the top. allowing only 1-1/4 in. hole in this end for the top. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. 1-1/4 in. 5-1/4 in. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. When the shank is covered. --Contributed by J. Michigan. pass one end through the 1/16-in. hole. thick. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. The handle is a piece of pine. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. long. Bore a 3/4-in. long. is formed on one end. A handle. starting at the bottom and winding upward. in diameter. wide and 3/4 in.

--A. tarts or similar pastry. Alberta Norrell. Mich. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. having no sides. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. A. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Ga. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Northville. --Contributed by Miss L. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Augusta.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. For black leathers. . to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. The baking surface. Houghton.

Stringing Wires [13] A. then solder cover and socket together. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. says Studio Light. glass fruit jar. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. Centralia. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . --Contributed by Irl Hicks. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. Mo. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. When you desire to work by white light. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. two turns will remove the jar. the same as shown in the illustration. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. The weight of the broom keeps it in position.

1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. Wis. 1-1/4 in. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides.for loading and development. as shown in the cross-section sketch. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. so it can be folded up. They are fastened. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. 4 Braces. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. Janesville. and not tip over. square by 62 in. square by 12 in. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. 4 Vertical pieces. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 1-1/4 in. 16 Horizontal bars. .

was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. --Contributed by Dr. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. after filling the pail with water. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. The front can be covered . New York. The whole. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. Rosenthal. After rounding the ends of the studs. Cincinnati. C. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. H. and a loop made in the end. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. from scrap material. If the loop is tied at the proper place. -Contributed by Charles Stem. Phillipsburg. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. O. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath.

small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. the mouth of which rests against a. The . The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. Wehr. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. thoroughly fix. sickly one. FIG. either for contact printing or enlargements. and. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. the color will be an undesirable. by all rules of the game. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. In my own practice. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. if you try to tone them afterward. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. Develop them into strong prints. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. you are. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. If the gate is raised slightly. principally mayonnaise dressing. By using the following method. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. 1 FIG. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. Md. The results will be poor. Baltimore. --Contributed by Gilbert A.

. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. when it starts to bleach.. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. --Contributed by T... When the desired reduction has taken place. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.. With a little practice.. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. long to admit the angle support.. San Francisco.... Iodide of potassium . 20 gr... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.. in this solution.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. It will bleach slowly and evenly.. 1 and again as in Fig.... this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. Gray....... but. wide and 4 in. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. The blotting paper can . Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper....bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. 2. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. without previous wetting. 2 oz.." Cyanide of potassium . transfer it to a tray of water... An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. etc... A good final washing completes the process. preferably the colored kind. Place the dry print.. three times.... Water . as it will appear clean much longer than the white... The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print..... 16 oz. to make it 5 by 5 in.. 5 by 15 in. where it will continue to bleach........ in size.. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. Cal..... The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes..... L...

and a length of 5 in. Canada. Make a design similar to that shown. --Contributed by L.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Monahan. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. 3. the head of which is 2 in. Oshkosh. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. having a width of 2-1/4 in. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Wisconsin. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. wide below the . the shaft 1 in. --Contributed by J. wide. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Corners complete are shown in Fig.J. 20 gauge.

1 Fig. Fig. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. After the sawing. being held perpendicular to the work.FIG. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. which gives the outline of the design Fig. Apply with a small brush. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. then coloring. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. For coloring olive green. but use a swab on a stick. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. after folding along the center line. 1 part sulphuric acid. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. 1 part nitric acid. With files. then trace the other half in the usual way. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. 4. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. Do not put the hands in the solution. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. With the metal shears. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. Pierce a hole with a small drill. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. deep. 2. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. as shown in Fig. Trace the design on the metal. Make one-half of the design. using turpentine. . After this has dried. using a small metal saw. freehand. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. 1. Allow this to dry. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. The metal must be held firmly. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. using carbon paper. 3. then put on a second coat.

Carl Cramer. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. attach brass handles. Cal. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. M. After the stain has dried. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. thick. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. Burnett. as shown. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. --Contributed by H. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Ii is an ordinary staple. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. When this is cold. Syracuse. Conn. New York. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. then stain it a mahogany color. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. it does the work rapidly. East Hartford. . the block is split and the pasteboard removed. on a chopping board. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. --Contributed by Katharine D. Morse. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. Richmond. --Contributed by M.

having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. A. Florida. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. Fig. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. --Contributed by W. 1/4 in. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. one shaft. in width at the shank. Richmond. --Contributed by Mrs. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. not over 1/4 in. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. about 3/16 in. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. indicating the depth of the slots. brass. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. thick. as shown at A. two enameled.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron.. also locate the drill holes. some pieces of brass. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. machine screws. 4. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. Atwell. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. and several 1/8-in. square. 53 steel pens. or tin. . sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. as shown in Fig. Cal. thick and 4 in. 1. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. Jaquythe. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. saucers or pans. WARNECKE Procure some brass. L. H. Kissimmee. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. holes.

Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. If metal dishes. These are connected to a 3/8-in. as in Fig. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. into the hole. hole in the center. with a 3/8-in. lead should be run into the segments. machine screws and nuts.. in diameter and 1/32 in. wide. hole. thick. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. Fig. A 3/4-in. 1. long by 3/4 in. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. There should be a space of 1/16 in. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. The shaft hole may also be filed square. 6. 5. using two nuts on each screw. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. 7. long and 5/16 in. Fig. as shown. wide and bend as shown in Fig. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. 2. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. with the face of the disk. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. brass and bolted to the casing. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. 2. each about 1 in. 3. and the ends filed round for the bearings. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. If the shaft is square. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. supply pipe. as shown in Fig. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. can be procured. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . The driven shaft should have a long bearing. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. thick. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. machine screws. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. hole is drilled to run off the water. and pins inserted. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. Bend as shown in Fig. 3. a square shaft used. Fig. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. about 1/32 in. with 1/8-in.

When assembling. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. screws. --Contributed by F. deep over all. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. or more in diameter. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Smith. With a string or tape measure. deep and 1-1/4 in. from the bottom end of the legs. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Cooke. three of which are in the basket. Now you will have the box in two pieces. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. Canada. Be sure to have the cover. Stain the wood before putting in the . allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. The four legs are each 3/4-in. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. make these seams come between the two back legs. long. Ill. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. square and 30-1/2 in. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. --Contributed by S. to make the bottom. 8-1/2 in. using four to each leg. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. La Salle. high and 15 in. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. we will call the basket. Fasten with 3/4-in. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Hamilton. from the top of the box. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. The lower part. V.

sewing on the back side. Baltimore. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. you can. The side. Fig. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket.2 Fig. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Md. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Sew on to the covered cardboards. If all the parts are well sandpapered. wide and four strips 10 in. Cover them with the cretonne. --also the lower edge when necessary. Packard. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Boston. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture.lining. as shown in the sketch. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. and gather it at that point. wide. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. The folded part in the center is pasted together. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. 2. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. Mass. -Contributed by Stanley H. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. 1. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. When making the display. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow.

a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. saving all the solid part. and. --Contributed by H. It is not difficult to . Fig. Crockett. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Orlando Taylor. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. It is cleanly. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Y. N. When through using the pad. L. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Gloversville. 3. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. with slight modifications. Mo. --Contributed by B. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Cross Timbers.

Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. it should be new and sharp. are shown in the diagram. Both of these methods are wasteful. across the face. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . After stirring. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. El Paso.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Bourne. and scrape out the rough parts. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. remove the contents. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. --Contributed by Edith E. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. S. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Lowell. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Texas. -Contributed by C. and secure it in place with glue or paste. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Lane. Mass. After this is done. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. or if desired. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. If a file is used.

A Postcard Rack [25]. --Contributed by Marion P. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Iowa. Ill. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. Canton. The insects came to the light. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Ill. He captured several pounds in a few hours. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. The process works well and needs no watching. Oak Park. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. circled over the funnel and disappeared.cooking utensil. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Turl. --Contributed by Loren Ward. After several hours' drying. Wheeler. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Oregon. Greenleaf. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. --Contributed by Geo. F. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. As these were single-faced disk records. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Those having houses . air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Des Moines.

place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. but for cheapness 3/4 in. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. Rosenberg. --Contributed by Thomas E. Mass. --Contributed by Wm. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. the bottom being 3/8 in.. Lay the floor next. The single boards can then be fixed. Conn. by 2 ft. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. 6 in. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. Glenbrook. and as they are simple in design. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Only three pieces are required. boards are preferable. and the second one for the developing bench. Dobbins.. material. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. thick. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. 6 in. and both exactly alike. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. one on each side of what will be the . plane and pocket knife. Worcester. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. Both sides can be put together in this way. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. will do as well. the best material to use being matched boards. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. not even with the boards themselves. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces.

8. and to the outside board of the sides. 11. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. wide. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. and should be zinc lined. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. which is fixed on as shown . The roof boards may next be put on.. below which is fixed the sink. 2 in section. so that the water will drain off into the sink. 10). as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. etc. The developing bench is 18 in. 6 and 9. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. and act as a trap for the light. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door.doorway. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. 9 by 11 in. Fig. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. At the top of the doorway. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. hinged to it. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. It is shown in detail in Fig. so that it will fit inside the sink. and the top as at C in the same drawing. by screwing to the floor. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. 6. 6. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. 3 and 4. as shown in Figs.. 7. In hinging the door. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. 5. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig.. brown wrapping paper. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. is cut. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. nailing them to each other at the ridge. and in the middle an opening. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. the closing side as at B. of the top of the door for the same reason. 9).

Details of the Dark Rook .

Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. Erie. In use. preferably maple or ash. Pennsylvania. mixing flour and water. 6. are fastened in the corners inside. screwing them each way into the boards. --Contributed by W. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. as shown in Fig. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. 15. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. Fig. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. 18. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. it is better than anything on the market. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G.in Fig. 13. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. as in Fig. 1. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. 19. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. these being shown in Fig. 16. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. For beating up an egg in a glass. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. after lining with brown paper. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. four coats at first is not too many. though this is hardly advisable. hole bored in the center for a handle. or red light as at K. Karl Hilbrich. as shown in the sections. as at M. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. 14. and a 3/8-in. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. 2. Fig. and a tank stand on it. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. as at I. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. which makes it possible to have white light. but not the red glass and frame. 13. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. if desired. The house will be much strengthened if strips. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. A circular piece about 2 in. Fig. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. The handle should be at least 12 in. 17. 20. or the room may be made with a flat roof. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. 16. Fig.

Eureka Springs. Kansas City. To operate. Mo. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . Schweiger. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. G. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Smith. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. D.copper should be. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. when put together properly is a puzzle. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. L. -Contributed by E. Yonkers. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. --Contributed by Wm. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. about 3/8 in. New York. Mitchell. as shown in the sketch. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. --Contributed by L. for a handle. which. Ark. long.

and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. Having completed the bare box. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. need them. holes should be drilled in the bottom. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. to make it set level. for the moment. 3. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. A number of 1/2-in. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. as is usually the case. which binds them together. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. as well as improve its appearance. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. 1. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. 3. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. The design shown in Fig. the box will require a greater height in front. in order to thoroughly preserve it. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. especially for filling-in purposes. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. If the sill is inclined. the rustic work should be varnished.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. The corks in use are shown in Fig. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. After the box is trimmed. 2. Each cork is cut as in Fig. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. .

being partly eaten into. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. F. as shown in Fig. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. and observe results. When the corn is gone cucumbers. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. 1. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. But I have solved the difficulty. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. cabbages. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. it's easy. drilled at right angles. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. 3. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. Traps do no good. life in the summer time is a vexation. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. too dangerous. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. etc. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. 2. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. Each long projection represents a leg. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. share the same fate. . 4. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. can't use poison.. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal.

tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. strips. cut some of it off and try again. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. Iowa. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. The solution can be used over and over again. cut in 1/2-in. long. of No.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. . If. -. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. by trial. About 9-1/2 ft. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. and made up and kept in large bottles. the coil does not heat sufficiently. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil.

Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. to cause the door to swing shut. Texas. Knives. N. hot-water pot. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. Doylestown. 1) removed. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. --Contributed by Katharine D. C. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. is a good size--in this compound. Morse. and a strip. Pa. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Do not wash them. it falls to stop G. In cleaning silver. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. but with unsatisfactory results. of whiting and 1/2 oz. forks. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Dallas. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. D. of oleic acid with 1 gal. . When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. of gasoline. Kane. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. as shown in the sketch. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. --Contributed by James M. Fig 2. Syracuse. Stir and mix thoroughly. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Y. coffee pot. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening.

--Contributed by Oliver S. Harrisburg. Waverly. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. Sprout. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. but unfixed. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. --Contributed by Theodore L. using the paper dry. of course.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Pa. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. negatives. La. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. . Ill. later fixed and washed as usual. Fisher. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. which is. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . New Orleans.

a harmonograph is a good prescription. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. In this uncertainty lies the charm. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. Fig.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. The harmonograph. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. then . No two hamonograms are exactly alike. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. metal. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. To obviate this difficulty. 1. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. graceful sweep of the long pendulum.

K. A weight.. what is most important.. is attached as shown at H. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. for instance. Arizona. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. 1. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. in the center of the circle to be cut. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. one-fourth. Another weight of about 10 lb. Chicago. A small weight. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. J. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. Ingham. which can be regulated. as long as the other. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. in diameter. --Contributed by Wm. A small table or platform. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. or the lines will overlap and blur. --Contributed by James T. to prevent any side motion. etc. with a nail set or punch. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. G. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. and unless the shorter pendulum is. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. A pedestal.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. makes respectively 3. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. R. The length of the short pendulum H. provides a means of support for the stylus. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. exactly one-third. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. 1. A length of 7 ft. that is. Rosemont. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. ceiling. Holes up to 3 in. Punch a hole. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. 1-3/4 by 2 in. as shown in Fig. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . Gaffney. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. as shown in the lower part of Fig. one-fifth. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. is about right for a 10-ft. such as a shoe buttoner. of about 30 or 40 lb.

Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. 3. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. 2.J. and proceed as before. The capacity of the vise. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. Fig. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. --Contributed by J. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. one for the sender and one for the receiver. of course. The two key cards are made alike. then put 2 at the top. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. dividing them into quarters. a correspondent of . 1. Fig. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. and 4 as in Fig. then 3 as in Fig.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. Cruger. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. 5. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. distributing them over the whole card. 4.H. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. Chicago. 6. -Contributed by W. N.J. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. Morey. Cape May City.

Augusta. After preparing the base and uprights. sheet of well made asbestos paper.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. long. drill 15 holes. 1/2 oz. 30 gr. Cut through the center. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. of ferricyanide of potash. To assemble. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. deep. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. of the uprights. Ga. wood-screws. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. of 18-per-cent No. respectively. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. Alberta Norrell. 1/4 in. Asbestos board is to be preferred. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. of water. acetic acid and 4 oz. from the top and bottom. 22 gauge German-silver wire. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. says Popular Electricity. --Contributed by L. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. After securing the tint desired. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. citrate of iron and ammonia. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Wind the successive turns of . the portion of the base under the coil. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. remove the prints. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. If constructed of the former. 6 gauge wires shown.

N. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. Ampere. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. Ward. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. square. Small knobs may be added if desired. --Contributed by Frederick E. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. The case may be made of 1/2-in. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. 14 gauge. cut and dressed 1/2 in. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. 16 gauge copper wire. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. screws. etc.. which. Y. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. as they are usually thrown away when empty. rivets. then fasten the upright in place.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. if one is not a smoker. but these are not necessary. Labels of some kind are needed.

C. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. . Eureka Springs. and labeled "Poison. --Contributed by W. of water. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. Larson. Kenosha. Wis. Richmond. tinner's acid. brass. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. B. G. or has become corroded. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. then to the joint to be soldered. Ark. S. sandpaper or steel wool. the pure muriatic acid should be used. Copper. If the soldering copper is an old one. of glycerine to 16 oz. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. --Contributed by A. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. D. A. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac.. tin. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. a piece of solder. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. and rub the point of the copper on it. zinc. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. being careful about the heat. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. and one made of poplar finished black. In soldering galvanized iron. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. This is considerable annoyance. E and F. galvanized iron. as shown in the sketch." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. --C. particularly so when the iron has once been used. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. lead. it must be ground or filed to a point. California. especially if a large tub is used. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. Heat it until hot (not red hot). or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face.14 oz. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. The parts are put together with dowel pins. The material can be of any wood. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. Jaquythe.

Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. with good results. I bind my magazines at home evenings. This completes the die. The dimensions shown in Fig. 1. C. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. N. in diameter. Fig. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. such as copper. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . The disk will come out pan shaped. and drill out the threads. The covers of the magazines are removed. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. This will leave a clear hole. W. Hankin. Six issues make a well proportioned book. a ring may be made from any metal. -Contributed by H. Troy. B. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. thick and 1-1/4 in. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. if such metals are in plate or sheet form.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. brass and silver. wide. round iron. Place the band. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. Brass rings can be plated when finished. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. in diameter. D. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. Y. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. 7/8 in. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. Fig. nut. The punch A. 2. which gives two bound volumes each year. however. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Take a 3/4-in. Apart from this.

The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. size 16 or larger. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. 2. 1. . Start with the front of the book. Five cuts. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. and a third piece. threaded double. Coarse white thread. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. allowing about 2 in. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. C. 1. If started with the January or the July issue. which is fastened the same as the first. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. 1/8 in. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. of the ends extending on each side. through the notch on the left side of the string No. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. 2. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. then back through the notch on the right side. The covering can be of cloth. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. is nailed across the top.4. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. deep. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. 1 in Fig. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. 1. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. on all edges except the back. The string No. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. is used for the sewing material. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. and place them against the strings in the frame. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. The covering should be cut out 1 in. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. 5. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. After drawing the thread tightly. Place the cardboard covers on the book. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. using . Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. as shown in Fig. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. The sections are then prepared for sewing. and then to string No. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick.

then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. and. --Contributed by Clyde E. Encanto. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. on which to hook the blade. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Nebr. Cal. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Tinplate. Divine. and mark around each one. College View. at opposite sides to each other. For the blade an old talking-machine . How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Place the cover on the book in the right position. round iron. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around.

as shown. Hays. hydraulic pipe. B. and a long thread plug. Ohio. thick. and 1/4 in. bore. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. Make the blade 12 in. On the upper side. at the same end. fuse hole at D. with 10 teeth to the inch. Miss. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. E. or double extra heavy. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. F. Then on the board put . C. by 4-1/2 in. and file in the teeth. A. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. by 1 in.. Moorhead. long. with a steel sleeve. -Contributed by Willard J. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose.. in order to drill the holes in the ends. thick. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. and another piece (B) 6 in. as it is sometimes called. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. and 1/4 in. Summitville.

leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. some sheet copper or brass for plates. as from batteries. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Connect up as shown. --Contributed by Chas. and some No. using about 8 in. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. of rubber-covered wire. Boyd.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. A lid may be added if desired. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. If you are going to use a current of low tension. the jars need not be very large. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. 4 jars. of wire to each coil. Philadelphia. high around this apparatus. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. H. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. about 5 ft. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . 18 gauge wire for the wiring.

See Fig. long. For the front runners these measurements are: A. thick. and plane it on all edges. Use no screws on the running surface. by 1-1/4 in. are important. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. On the door of the auto front put the . 27 B. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white.the way. wide. 1 on switch. however. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. The sled completed should be 15 ft. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. as they are not substantial enough. & S. Equip block X with screw eyes. long. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. 30 in. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. 11 in. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. Z. wide and 3/4 in. and bolt through. The stock required for them is oak. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. two pieces 14 in. by 1 in. The connection between point No. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. 3 in. steel rod makes a good steering rod. No. The illustration shows how to shape it. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. gives full current and full speed. 4 in. direct to wire across jars. An iron washer. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. by 2 in. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. 16-1/2 in. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. Use no nails. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. Fig. Put arm of switch on point No. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in... wide and 2 in. 7 in. 2 in. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. oak boards. B. 2. The top disk in jar No. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. two pieces 34 in. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. 2 is lower down than in No. apart. Let stand for three days and apply another coat.. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in.. 4. thick. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. For the brass trimmings use No. A variation of 1/16 in. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. C. B and C. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. 2. 15-1/2 in. Construct the auto front (Fig. C. A 3/4-in. by 2 in. two for each jar. 5 on switch. and for the rear runners: A. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. with the cushion about 15 in. First sandpaper all the wood. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. In proportioning them the points A. on No. 2. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. 2 and 3.. 4) of 3/4-in. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. is used to reduce friction. long. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. by 5 in. long by 22 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. making them clear those in the front runner. To wire the apparatus. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. by 6 in. 3 and No. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. At the front 24 or 26 in. . 1 is connected to point No. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. 1. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. The current then will flow through the motor. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. by 1-1/4 in. wide by 3/4 in. square by 14 ft. or source of current.. two pieces 30 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. as they "snatch" the ice. 34 in. beginning at the rear. sheet brass 1 in. 1 and so on for No. Their size also depends on the voltage. above the ground. 3. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. and four pieces 14 in. by 5 in.. long. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. B.

On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. to the wheel. If desired. fasten a cord through the loop. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. a brake may be added to the sled. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. etc. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. overshoes. such as used on automobiles. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. may be stowed within. long. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. lunch. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. or with these for $25. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. Then get some upholstery buttons. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. a number of boys may share in the ownership. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. by 1/2 in. such as burlap. which is somewhat moist. by 30 in. The best way is to get some strong. If desired. If the expense is greater than one can afford. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. Fasten a horn. cutting it out of sheet brass. cheap material. to improve the appearance. brass plated. parcels. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder.

and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. --Contributed by Stewart H. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. . Ill. Leland. Lexington.tree and bring. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written.

Draw a circle on paper. 2. London. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. outside diameter and 1/16 in. mild steel or iron. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. Fig. FC. with twenty-four teeth. sheet metal. the cut will be central on the line. The Model Engineer. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. CD. The straight-edge. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. so that the center of the blade. The first tooth may now be cut. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. which. 4). though more difficult. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. a compass. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. This guide should have a beveled edge. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. First take the case of a small gearwheel. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. With no other tools than a hacksaw. will be over the line FG. from F to G. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. E. some files. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. by drawing diameters. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. made from 1/16-in. 1. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. A small clearance space. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. when flat against it. thick. the same diameter as the wheel. 3. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . Fig. say 1 in. Fig.

To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. 1. Focus the camera in the usual manner. 2. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. and the other outlet wire. some wire and some carbons. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. ground it with a large piece of zinc. B. No shock will be perceptible.Four Photos on One Plate of them. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. R. Make a hole in the other. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. B. transmitter. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. If there is no faucet in the house. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. . as shown in Fig. hold in one hand. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. as shown in Fig. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. electric lamp. A bright. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. each in the center. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. or several pieces bound tightly together. 1. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. as shown in Fig. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. either the pencils for arc lamps. Then take one outlet wire. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver.

and again wind the wire around it. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. One like a loaf of bread. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. under the gable. Wrenn. Ashland. --Contributed by Geo. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. or more of the latter has been used. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. are also needed. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. one at the receiver can hear what is said. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Emsworth. leaving about 10 in. Then set the whole core away to dry. J.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. But in this experiment. and will then burn the string C. They have screw ends. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. and about that size. serves admirably. Several battery cells. Ohio. 36 wire around it. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. as indicated by E E. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. If desired. as shown. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Dry batteries are most convenient. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. a transmitter which induces no current is used. D D are binding posts for electric wires. of course. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. Pa. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. A is a wooden block. For a base use a pine board 10 in. by 1 in. B. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . Slattery. at each end for terminals. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. by 12 in.

as shown. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. and switch. and one single post switch. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. C. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. At one side secure two receptacles. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F.. F. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. 1. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. D. B B. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. Newark. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. From the other set of binding-posts. 2. in parallel.wire. and the lamps. Fig. until the hand points to zero on the scale. C. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. for the . except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. Jr. The oven is now ready to be connected. Turn on switch. run a No. as shown. Place 16-cp. Connect these three to switch. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. 14 wire. These should have hollow ends. E. D. B B. connecting lamp receptacles. Fig. while C is open. 12 or No. The coil will commence to become warm. in series with bindingpost. The apparatus is now ready for operation. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. Ohio. First make a support. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. the terminal of the coil.

It is 1 in. inside measurements. 3 amperes. although brass is better. long. Fig. 7. is made of iron. a battery. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D.E. D. and D.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. E. 4. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. Fig. a variable resistance. The pointer or hand. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. is made of wire. At a point a little above the center. To make one. thick. A wooden box. 2. --Contributed by J. long. If for 3-way. to prevent it turning on the axle. Montreal. This is slipped on the pivot. wide and 1-3/4 in. although copper or steel will do. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. 5. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. high. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. D. The box is 5-1/2 in. but if for a 4way. Dussault. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. This may be made of wood. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. Fig. After drilling. drill in only to the opening already through. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. The core. Mine is wound with two layers of No. 4 amperes. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. 10 turns to each layer. 3. from the lower end. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. 1/4 in. long and make a loop. 14 wire. is then made and provided with a glass front. where A is the homemade ammeter. 1/2 in. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. B. remove the valve. etc. until the scale is full. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. 36 magnet wire instead of No. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. as shown in the cut. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. drill through the entire case and valve. 6. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. 5. 4 in. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. wind with plenty of No. Fig. drill a hole as shown at H. 1.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. deep. C. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. wide and 1/8 in. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns.. a standard ammeter. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. 14. 1.or 4-way valve or cock.

First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. One wire runs to the switch. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. D.performing electrical experiments. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. B. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. By connecting the motor. provided with a rubber stopper. and a metal rod. in thickness . It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. To start the light. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. high. as shown. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. in diameter. F. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. making two holes about 1/4 in. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. E. and the arc light. and the other connects with the water rheostat. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. This stopper should be pierced. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. which is used for reducing the current. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. A.

Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. 1. To insert the lead plate.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. as shown in C. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Having finished the interrupter. 2. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. If all adjustments are correct. where he is placed in an upright open . --Contributed by Harold L. Y. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. B. Turn on the current and press the button. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Carthage. as shown in B. N. As there shown. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. A. If the interrupter does not work at first. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. long. Fig. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. 2. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Fig. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Jones. 1. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Fig. 1. Fig. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. A piece of wood.

Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. which can be run by three dry cells. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. The model. and can be bought at Japanese stores. and must be thoroughly cleansed. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. as the entire interior. especially the joints and background near A. by 7 in. within the limits of an ordinary room. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. the illusion will be spoiled. L and M. giving a limp. A. with the exception of the glass. If everything is not black. Its edges should nowhere be visible. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. They need to give a fairly strong light. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. by 7-1/2 in. inside dimensions. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. is constructed as shown in the drawings. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away.coffin. from which the gong has been removed. to aid the illusion. The lights. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. could expect from a skeleton. All . inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. loosejointed effect. should be colored a dull black. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. high. figures and lights.. The glass should be the clearest possible. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. light-colored garments. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. should be miniature electric lamps. especially L. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. If it is desired to place the box lower down. dressed in brilliant. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. and wave his arms up and down. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. A white shroud is thrown over his body. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. The skeleton is made of papier maché. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. until it is dark there. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage.

Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. Cal. San Jose. as shown in the sketch. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green.that is necessary is a two-point switch. placed about a foot apart. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. W. Two finishing nails were driven in. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. square block. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. If a gradual transformation is desired. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. fat spark. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Fry. after which it assumes its normal color. --Contributed by Geo. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white.

This is a wide-mouth bottle. The plates are separated 6 in. A (see sketch). -Contributed by Dudley H. In Fig. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. 1. into the receiver G. One of these plates is connected to metal top. In Fig. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. Cohen. hydrogen gas is generated. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. If a lighted match . Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. by small pieces of wood. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. to make it airtight. soldered in the top. with two tubes. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. the remaining space will be filled with air. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. or a solution of sal soda. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. as shown. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. B and C. F.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. and should be separated about 1/8 in. New York. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B.

and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. One row is drilled to come directly on top. should be only 5/16 of an inch. 1-5/16 in. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. in diameter and 6 in. Fig.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. is then coiled around the brass tube. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. N. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. A. says the Model Engineer. is made by drilling a 1/8in. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. A 1/64-in. A. 2 shows the end view. from the bottom. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. which forms the vaporizing coil. or by direct contact with another magnet. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. If desired. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. A nipple. 1/2 in. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. long. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. of No. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. and the ends of the tube. N. London. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. C C. copper pipe. 36 insulated wire. B. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. copper pipe. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. A. as is shown in the illustration. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. A. either by passing a current of electricity around it. A piece of 1/8-in. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. by means of the clips. long. which is plugged up at both ends. 1. Fig. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. The distance between the nipple. then a suitable burner is necessary. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. P.

Turn the book over and paste the other side. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. at the front and back for fly leaves. boards and all. smoothly. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. about 8 or 10 in. but if the paper knife cannot be used. larger all around than the book. leaving the folded edge uncut. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. Cut four pieces of cardboard. Fig. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. this makes a much nicer book. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Fig. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. 3. duck or linen. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. cut to the size of the pages. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Fig. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. 1/4 in. fold and cut it 1 in. longer and 1/4 in. trim both ends and the front edge. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards.lamp cord. A disk of thin sheet-iron. taking care not to bend the iron. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. Take two strips of stout cloth. 2). Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. with a fine saw. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). 1. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . should be cut to the diameter of the can.

--Contributed by Joseph N. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Another can. deep. Ont. . Another tank. is perforated with a number of holes. is soldered onto tank A. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. B. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. is fitted in it and soldered. A. the joint will be gas tight. without a head. H. This will cause some air to be enclosed. Va. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. Noble. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. D. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. 4). 18 in. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. of tank A is cut a hole. in diameter and 30 in. C. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. and a little can. as shown in the sketch. or rather the top now. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. A gas cock.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. is turned on it. which will just slip inside the little can. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Toronto. pasting them down (Fig. is made the same depth as B. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. as shown. Bedford City. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Parker. E. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. In the bottom. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. but its diameter is a little smaller. --Contributed by James E.

either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. should be cut a little too long. The diagonal struts. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. If the pushbutton A is closed. to prevent splitting. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. S. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. The small guards. A. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. shows how the connections are to be made. are shown in detail at H and J. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. and the four diagonal struts. B. The wiring diagram. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. long. Fig. H is a square knot. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. by 1/2 in. Beverly. should be 1/4 in. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. B. with an electric-bell magnet. The bridle knots. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. B. thus adjusting the . and about 26 in. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. when finished. exactly 12 in. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. Fig. as shown at C. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. 1. should be 3/8 in. long. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. D. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position.. 2. J. and sewed double to give extra strength. A A. C. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. square by 42 in. which moves to either right or left. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. E.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. fastened in the bottom. The armature. making the width. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. N. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. tacks. Bott. If the back armature. D. The longitudinal corner spines. which may be either spruce. -Contributed by H. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. basswood or white pine.

E. D. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. Harbert. the batteries do not run down for a long time. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. can be made of a wooden . Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Stoddard. A bowline knot should be tied at J. and.lengths of F and G. that refuse to slide easily. to prevent slipping. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. and if a strong wind is blowing. If the kite is used in a light wind. with gratifying results. for producing electricity direct from heat. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. Kan. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. Clay Center. as shown. Chicago. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. --Contributed by A. thus shortening G and lengthening F. Closing either key will operate both sounders. --Contributed by Edw. however. shift toward F.

C. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. with a pocket compass. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. C. and also holds the pieces of wood. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. spark. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. --Contributed by A. When the cannon is loaded. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. Then. with a number of nails. Fasten a piece of wood. 14 or No. A and B. to the cannon. placed on top. and the current may then be detected by means.. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . by means of machine screws or. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. C. D. E. F. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. or parallel with the compass needle. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. A. 16 single-covered wire. in position. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire.frame. Chicago. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. E. A. which conducts the current into the cannon. The wood screw. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. B. A. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire.

with the long arm at L'. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Chicago. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. when in position at A'. B. To reverse. Keil. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. press the button. screw is bored in the block. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. . Bend the strips BB (Fig. A hole for a 1/2 in. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Ohio. 1. 1. A. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. but no weights or strings. Big Rapids. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. square and 3/8 in. Fig. to receive the screw in the center. now at A' and S'. 1. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. Mich. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. To lock the door. within the reach of the magnet. Marion. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. L. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. requiring a strong magnet. A and S. in this position the door is locked. --Contributed by Joseph B. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. Fig. Connect as shown in the illustration. where there is a staple. --Contributed by Henry Peck. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook.the current is shut off. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. In Fig. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. H. To unlock the door. A and S.

and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. J. When ready for use. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. about 18 in. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. and C is a dumbbell. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. and if desired the handles may . Mass. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. The standard and base. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. When the holes are finished and your lines set. or for microscopic work. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. Thread the other end of the pipe. gas-pipe. Rand. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. pipe with 1-2-in. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. long. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. hole. if enameled white on the concave side. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. and may be made at very slight expense. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. West Somerville. put in the handle. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. --Contributed by C. are enameled a jet black.

Warren. high by 1 ft. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. North Easton. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . Make a cylindrical core of wood. across. A. Fig. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. B. Mass. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. M. This peculiar property is also found in ice. 1. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. across. long and 8 in. while a new one will cost about 80 cents.be covered with leather. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. 8 in. as shown at A in the sketch. --Contributed by C.. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. with a cover. D. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. E. inside the pail. Fig. 1. which shall project at least 2 in.

It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. and varnish. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. 60%.-G. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. 2.mixture of clay. as dictated by fancy and expense. and 3/8 in. but it will burn a great deal of gas. say 1/4 in. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. if there is to be any glazing done. but will be cheaper in operation. in diameter. full length of iron core. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. sand. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. If the cover of the pail has no rim. layer of the clay mixture.. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. wider than the kiln. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. 1). with heavy paper and cover the core with same. C. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. 2 in. or make one yourself. 1390°-1410°. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. 3) with false top and bottom. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway.. long. carefully centering it. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. Whatever burner is used. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. Fit all the parts together snugly. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. When lighted. Set aside for a few days until well dried. of fine wire. L. Wind about 1/8 in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. if you have the materials. and your kiln is ready for business. hotel china. pipe 2-ft. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. and graphite. 1). such .. and with especial caution the first time. cutting the hole a little smaller. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. pack this space-top. Line the pail. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. pipe. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. passing wire nails through and clinching them. long over the lid hole as a chimney. bottom and sides. C. the point of the blue flame. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. hard porcelain. projecting from each end (Fig. 1330°. to hold the clay mixture. 25%. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. thick. as is shown in the sketch. After removing all the paper. and on it set the paper wrapped core. The 2 in. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. This done. thick. After finishing the core. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. diameter. which is the hottest part. W. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. and cut it 3-1/2 in. make two wood ends. the firing should be gradual. E. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. C. 15%. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. in diameter. Cover with paper and shellac as before. and 3/4 in. Fig. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. It is placed inside the kiln. about 1 in. strip of sheet iron. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. let this dry thoroughly.

C. D. R.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. 2. Then take the black cards. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. red and black. and divide it into two piles. and discharges into the tube. Of course. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. procure a new deck. 1. C. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. Chicago. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. 2). about 1/16 in. . bind tightly with black silk. diameter. You can display either color called for. Then.. 2. C. 8 in. The funnel. taking care to have the first card red. A. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. leaving long terminals. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. the next black. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. length of . the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. every alternate card being the same color. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. B.53 in. around the coil. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. square them up and place in a vise. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. and plane off about 1/16 in. with a plane. as in Fig. as in Fig. all cards facing the same way. and so on. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. square them up. Take the red cards. overlaps and rests on the body. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. Next restore all the cards to one pack. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. as shown in the sketch herewith. T. --Contributed by J. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. Washington. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A.

C. stove bolts. thus making all the holes coincide. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. B. through the holes already drilled. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. B. C. about 20 in. It should be placed in an exposed location. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. D. The cement. 1. Fig. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. N. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. All the horizontal pieces. E. Let .. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. angle iron for the frame. and this is inexpensive to build. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. To find the fall of snow. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. the first thing to decide on is the size. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. F. A. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. and then the frame is ready to assemble. The upright pieces. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. 1 gill of fine white sand. to form a dovetail joint as shown. the same ends will come together again. B. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. E. as the difficulties increase with the size. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. The bottom glass should be a good fit. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. Long Branch.J. of the frame. 1 gill of litharge. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. Drill all the horizontal pieces. stove bolts. so that when they are assembled. A. When the glass is put in the frame a space. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. It is well not to attempt building a very large one.

B. a centerpiece (A. having a swinging connection at C. Fig.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. on the door by means of a metal plate. and. if desired. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. to the door knob. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. Fasten the lever. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . A. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. D. Aquarium Finished If desired.

for the top. as at E. 26 in. B. Fig. but mark their position on the frame. Two short boards 1 in.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. 1. A small piece of spring brass. 6 in. 1 is the motor with one side removed. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. soldered to the end of the cylinder. 3 shows one of the paddles. Cut two pieces 30 in. hoping it may solve the same question for them. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. which is 15 in. 1 . One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. N. 2 is an end view. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. long. to form the slanting part. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. with a water pressure of 70 lb. Fig. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. approximately 1 ft. Cut two of them 4 ft. will open the door about 1/2 in. E. Buffalo. PAUL S. Fig. --Contributed by Orton E. from the outside top of the frame. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. 2 ft. White. another. wide by 1 in. according to the slant given C. to keep the frame from spreading. wide . to form the main supports of the frame. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. To make the frame. Y. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. showing the paddle-wheel in position. D. AA. long. another. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. long. several lengths of scantling 3 in. C. They are shown in Fig.. 2 at GG. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. Fig. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. Fig. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. and Fig. long. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. F. screwed to the door frame. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. I referred this question to my husband. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. and another. Fig. Do not fasten these boards now. thus doing away with the spring. 1.

and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. to a full 1/2 in. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. and a 1/4 -in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. holes. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. and drill a 1/8-in. Tack one side on. 24 in. take down the crosspieces. Now block the wheel. and drill a 1-in. by 1-1/2 in. 2) with a 5/8-in. iron 3 by 4 in. GG. (I. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. from one end by means of a key. tapering from 3/16 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). hole through the exact center of the wheel. then drill a 3/16-in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Fig. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. hole to form the bearings. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. 4. Make this hole conical. Fasten them in their proper position. pipe. When it has cooled. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. 2) and another 1 in. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in.along the edges under the zinc to form . iron. hole through their sides centrally. thick (HH. Fig.burlap will do -. with the wheel and shaft in place. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Fig. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. hole through its center. Take the side pieces. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. after which drill a 5/8 in. Drill 1/8-in. as shown in Fig.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. long to the wheel about 8 in. Next secure a 5/8-in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. hole through them. remove the cardboard. 2) form a substantial base. that is. These are the paddles. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. thick. 1. in diameter. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. steel shaft 12 in.

had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. Raise the window shade half way. light and the plate. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. remove any white curtains there may be. but now I put them in the machine. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame.a water-tight joint. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. If sheet-iron is used. on the lens. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. it would be more durable. The best plate to use is a very slow one. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. start the motor. Darken the rest of the window. ice-cream freezer. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. place the outlet over a drain. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. and leave them for an hour or so. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. of course. It is obvious that. Do not stop down the lens. and the subject may move. . a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. or what is called a process plate. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. Correct exposure depends. If the bearings are now oiled. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. says the Photographic Times. any window will do. as shown in the sketch at B. Focus the camera carefully. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. but as it would have cost several times as much. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. and as near to it as possible. drill press. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. Drill a hole through the zinc. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. shutting out all light from above and the sides. as this makes long exposure necessary. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. sewing machine. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place.

The current required is very small. D. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. with binding posts as shown. The core C. by twisting.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. as a slight current will answer. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. and a base. which is made of iron and cork. or wood. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. The glass tube may be a test tube. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. and without fog. A. 2. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. until the core slowly rises. a core. full of water. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. On completing . Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. or can be taken from an old magnet. C. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. the core is drawn down out of sight. or an empty developer tube. as shown in Fig. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. B. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. an empty pill bottle may be used. a glass tube. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. without detail in the face. 2. hard rubber. With a piece of black paper. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork.

An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. white lead. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. and one not easy to explain. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. The colors appear different to different people. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. 1 pt. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . 1 lb. water and 3 oz. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. This is a mysterious looking instrument. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. whale oil. finest graphite. is Benham's color top. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. 1. and are changed by reversing the rotation. according to his control of the current. and make a pinhole in the center.

nearly every time. especially if the deck is a new one. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. In making hydrogen. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. C. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. As this device is easily upset. Chicago. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch.L. deuce. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. before cutting. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. In prize games. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. B. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. fan-like. when the action ceases.. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more.B. A. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. thus partly filling bottles A and C. or three spot. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. -Contributed by D. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other.

to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. Detroit. W. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Detail of Phonograph Horn . Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. 10 in. S. long. long and 3 in. 2. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. Huron. 3). Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Fig. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. . Make a 10-sided stick. J. 9 in. that will fit loosely in the tube A.. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Dak. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. (Fig. Bently. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. 1.. S. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. in diameter. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. --Contributed by F. 12 in. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Jr. in length and 3 in. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by C. 4. Form a cone of heavy paper.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Fig. connecting the bottom by cross pieces.

But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. --Contributed by Reader. about the size of a leadpencil. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. and walk in. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. with a pin driven in each end. it is equally easy to block that trick. A. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. on one side and the top. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. C.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. will cause an increased movement of C. 6. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. Fortunately. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. Remove the form. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. push back the bolt. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. Cut out paper sections (Fig. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. allowing 1 in. A piece of tin. but bends toward D. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. making it three-ply thick. Denver. bend it at right angles throughout its length. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. long. Fig. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. A second piece of silk thread. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. E.

changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. B. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. Fremont Hilscher. Two wood-base switches. By this arrangement one. Minn. long. will last for several years. is connected each point to a battery.. while the lower switch. S. Jr. 4 ft. W. A. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. and rest on a brick placed under each end. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. The upper switch. S S. posts.. long. Paul. are made 2 by 4 in. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. B. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . put together as shown in the sketch. are 7 ft. or left to right. R. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. The reverse switch.strip. The feet. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. West St. as shown. S. --Contributed by J. The 2 by 4-in.

is an old bicycle pump. H and K. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. the size of the hole in the bearing B. and in Fig. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. The base is made of wood. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. and the crank bearing C. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. The piston is made of a stove bolt. Fig. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. In Fig. and has two wood blocks. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. either an old sewing-machine wheel. FF. with two washers. the other parts being used for the bearing B. or anything available. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. 3/8 in.every house. 2 and 3. The valve motion is shown in Figs. E. thick. 1. Fig. and valve crank S. The steam chest D. and a cylindrical . pulley wheel. 2. The hose E connects to the boiler. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. which is made of tin. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. cut in half. which will be described later.

Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. using the positive wire as a pen. G. 4. San Jose. 1. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. as shown in Fig. W. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. G. Fry. This engine was built by W. to receive the connecting rod H. Eustice. J. or galvanized iron. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. .piece of hard wood. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. --Contributed by Geo. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. as it is merely a trick of photography. Wis. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. C. Schuh and A. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. This is wound with soft string. and saturated with thick oil. powder can. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. 3. Fig. The boiler. Cal. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. can be an old oil can. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. at that. of Cuba. is cut out of tin. The valve crank S. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. and a very amusing trick. Fig. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. and the desired result is obtained. First.

B. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. Cut half circles out of each stave. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. to cross in the center. They may be of any size. C. diameter. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. 1 will be seen to rotate. as shown. The smaller wheel. B. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. and pass ropes around . The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. Fig. Fig. and Fig. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. 1 by covering up Figs. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. When turning. and place a bell on the four ends. Fig. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. as shown at AA.

When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. To make this lensless microscope. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury.M. This in turn will act on the transmitter. Mo. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. but not on all. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. From a piece of thin . which allows the use of small sized ropes. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. St. procure a wooden spool. --Contributed by H. which accounts for the sound. A (a short spool. long. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. such as clothes lines.G. from the transmitter..Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. produces a higher magnifying power). Louis. as shown in the illustration. W. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two.

in which hay has been soaking for several days. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. C. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. A. The spring. 1. or 64 times. e. E. held at arm's length. and at the center. the diameter will appear twice as large. Fig. (The area would appear 64 times as large. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. The pivot. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. . as in all microscopes of any power. the object should be of a transparent nature. which costs little or nothing to make. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. is fastened at each end by pins. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. fastened to a wooden base. and so on. The lever. can be made of brass and the armature. the diameter will appear three times as large. An innocent-looking drop of water. 2. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. To use this microscope. D. otherwise the image will be blurred. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after.) But an object 3/4-in. cut out a small disk.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. and look through the hole D. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. B. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. D. C. if the distance is reduced to one-third. Viewed through this microscope. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. B. by means of brads. darting across the field in every direction. place a small object on the transparent disk. if the distance is reduced to one-half. bent as shown. 3.. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. which are pieces of hard wood. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. is made of iron.. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. H. i.

nail soldered on A. fastened near the end. The door. wood: F. A switch. wide. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. similar to the one used in the sounder. thick. long by 16 in. KEY-A. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. wood: C. wide and about 20 in. F. can be made panel as shown. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. D. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. 16 in. wide and set in between sides AA. or a single piece. Each side. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in.SOUNDER-A. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. The back. coils wound with No. long and 14-1/2 in. connection of D to nail. 16 in. The base of the key. E. 1. DD. is cut from a board about 36 in. AA. brass. The binding posts. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. brass: B. which are made to receive a pivot. B. long. D. between the armature and the magnet. in length and 16 in. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. C. Cut the top. K. or taken from a small one-point switch. K. wide. brass: E. B. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. should be about 22 in. HH. 26 wire: E. binding posts: H spring The stop. . wide. D. C. brass or iron soldered to nail. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. 2. and are connected to the contacts. Fig. wood. wide. A. Fig. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. soft iron. FF.

brads. as shown in the sketch. with 3/4-in. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings.. long. When the electrical waves strike the needle. E. Ill. cut in them. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. 2 and made from 1/4-in. In operation. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. as shown. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. AA. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. material. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. Make 12 cleats. Garfield. 13-1/2 in. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one.

How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. B. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. Fairport. When the pipe is used. Y. --Contributed by R. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. through which a piece of wire is passed. will give a greater speed. the magnet. in order to increase the surface. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. A fairly stiff spring. J. N. when used with a motor. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. Ridgewood. and. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. Pushing the wire. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. --Contributed by John Koehler. filled with water. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. A. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . pulls down the armature. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. A (see sketch). down into the water increases the surface in contact. C. and thus decreases the resistance. Brown. F. E. N. A. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. The cord is also fastened to a lever.

while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. N. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Perry A. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. even those who read this description. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. Gachville. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. if desired. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. B. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door.for the secret contact. Of course. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Borden. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7.

The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. East Orange. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. From a piece of brass a switch. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Washington. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. Mangold. long and 5 in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. 2. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. 1. --Contributed by H. C. from the bottom. A. --Contributed by Dr. wide. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. The top board is made 28-in. for 10in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. wide. deep and 3/4 in. N. With about 9 ft. E. Dobson. Two drawers are fitted in this space. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. where the other end of wire is fastened. and on both sides of the middle shelf. C. Compton. Jr. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. long and full 12-in. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Nails for stops are placed at DD. thick and 12-in.whenever the bell rings. wide.. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. J. H. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. Cal. for 6-in. Connect switch to post B. D. . wide. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. records. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. wide. as shown in Fig. in a semicircle 2 in. as shown in Fig. records and 5-5/8 in. apart. The three shelves are cut 25-in.

E. which in operation is bent. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. Roanoke. Va. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. A. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. as shown by the dotted lines. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. as shown in Fig. B. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. 1.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. closed. When the cord is passed over pulley C. to which is fastened a cord. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D.

Figs. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. In the sides (Fig. wide and a little less than 7/8 in.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. thick. Fig. In these grooves place wheels. 3. but a larger one could be built in proportion. If the wheels fit too tightly. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. E. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. they will let the air through. they will bind. against which the rubber tubing. Figs. to turn on pins of stout wire. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Cut two grooves. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. deep. 1 in. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. deep and 1/2 in. B. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. one in each end. Do not fasten the sides too . which should be about 1/2 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. 1 in. is compressed by wheels. square and 7/8 in. 3). in diameter. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. it too loose. wide. The crankpin should fit tightly. These wheels should be 3/4 in. Fig. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. wide. through one of these holes. 1. in diameter. thick (A. in diameter. 5) when they are placed. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. apart. Now put all these parts together. Notice the break (S) in the track. Put the rubber tube. excepting the crank and tubing. in diameter. D. E. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. Fig. as shown in the illustration. Bore two 1/4 in. long. CC. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. holes (HH. 4 shows the wheel-holder.

15 in. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. from each end. B. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. For ease in handling the pump. because he can . are 3/4 by 1/4 in. and mark for a hole. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. costing 10 cents. 17-1/2 in. from that mark the next hole. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. iron. Fig. as shown in Fig. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. is all the expense necessary. Kan. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. AA. tubing. 2. of material. In the two cross bars 1 in. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. 1. the other wheel has reached the bottom. from each end. Two feet of 1/4-in. --Contributed by Dan H. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. 1. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. Fig. A in Fig. mark for hole and 3 in. The screen which is shown in Fig. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. Fig.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. a platform should be added. 1. If the motion of the wheels is regular. and 3-1/2 in. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. and are 30 in. beyond each of these two. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. as it gives steadiness to the motion. Hubbard. though a small iron wheel is better. Cut six pieces. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. mark again. Fig. from each end. long. To use the pump. the pump will give a steady stream. from the bottom and 2 in. stands 20 in. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. Then turn the crank from left to right. The three legs marked BBB. The animal does not fear to enter the box.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. Take the center of the bar. AA. 1. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. 1. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. 2. Idana.

This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. The truncated. To cause a flow of electricity. . It is useful for running induction coils. 14 copper wire. shuts him in. The mercury will adhere. rub the zinc well. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. of water dissolve 4 oz. Meyer. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. --Contributed by H. and the solution (Fig. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. When through using the battery. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. silvery appearance. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. dropping. and touches the bait the lid is released and. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. stirring constantly. some of it should be poured out. giving it a bright. If the solution touches the zinc. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc.see through it: when he enters. 2). of the top. sulphuric acid. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. add slowly. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. 1) must be prepared. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. or. When the bichromate has all dissolved. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. until it is within 3 in. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. however. The battery is now complete. If it is wet. Philadelphia. or small electric motors. The battery is now ready for use. long having two thumb screws. 4 oz. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. acid 1 part). take out the carbon and lower the zinc. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. C. If the battery has been used before. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. there is too much liquid in the jar. but if one casts his own zinc. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. potassium bichromate. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. Place the carbon in the jar. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw.

If. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. the jump-spark coil . with slight changes. i.Fig. e. the battery circuit. pressing the pedal closes the door. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. however. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. which opens the door. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. while the coal door is being opened. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door.. Wis. Madison. The price of the coil depends upon its size. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. After putting in the coal. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use.

It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. being a 1-in. 7). W W. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used.described elsewhere in this book. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. Now for the receiving apparatus. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. This coil. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. which is made of light copper wire. 5. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. in a partial vacuum. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. 7. made of No. in a straight line from top to bottom. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line.7. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. Change the coil described. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. coil. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. 6. Fig. 6. diameter. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. the full length of the coil. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. After winding. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. W W. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. while a 12-in. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. and closer for longer distances. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. apart. as shown in Fig. This will make an excellent receiver. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. as shown in Fig. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". 7. . along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals.

1 to 4. using an electric motor and countershaft. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). B the bed and C the tailstock. The writer does not claim to be the originator. after all. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. being vertical. I run my lathe by power. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. 1). No. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. only. being at right angles. For an illustration. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No.6 stranded. at any point to any metal which is grounded. but simply illustrates the above to show that. to the direction of the current. may be easily made at very little expense. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. . and hence the aerial line. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil.The aerial line. where A is the headstock. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. which will be described later. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. A large cone pulley would then be required. A. These circles. as it matches the color well. Figs. 90°. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. but it could be run by foot power if desired. in the air. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. above the ground. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. Run a wire from the other binding post. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. 90°. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. are analogous to the flow of induction. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection.

2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. If the bearing has been properly made. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. Heat the babbitt well. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. The bearing is then ready to be poured. tapered wooden pin. thick. After pouring. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. steel tubing about 1/8 in. Fig. The bolts B (Fig. 2 and 3. too. on the under side of the bed. one of which is shown in Fig. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. which pass through a piece of wood. and Fig. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . deep. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. 6 Headstock Details D. 5. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. B. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. and runs in babbitt bearings. 4. A. Fig. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. 6. pitch and 1/8 in. which are let into holes FIG. 4. The headstock. 5. and it is well to have the shaft hot. but not hot enough to burn it. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. just touching the shaft. To make these bearings. Fig. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. Fig. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A.

they may be turned up after assembling. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. lock nut. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. Take up about 5 ft. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. If not perfectly true. If one has a wooden walk. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. so I had to buy one. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. Newark.J. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. Oak Park. The tail stock (Fig. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. of the walk . --Contributed by Donald Reeves. A. and a 1/2-in. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory.other machines. B.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. This prevents corrosion. N. the alarm is easy to fix up. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. Ill. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. FIG. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. embedded in the wood.

Minn. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. --Contributed by R. Fig. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Then make the solution . and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. To avoid touching it. Finally. of water. hang the articles on the wires. S. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. leaving a clear solution. Jackson. Connect up an electric bell. to remove all traces of grease. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. to roughen the surface slightly. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Minneapolis. and the alarm is complete. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. 2). clean the articles thoroughly. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. before dipping them in the potash solution. silver or other metal. add potassium cyanide again. so that they will not touch. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. (A. save when a weight is on the trap. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. water.

thick by 3 in. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. as shown in Fig. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. of clothesline rope and some No. piece of broomstick. With an electric pressure of 3.up to 2 qt. an old electric bell or buzzer. 18 wire. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. silver can be plated direct. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. B should be of the same wood. To provide the keyhole. make a key and keyhole. must be about 1 in. about 25 ft. If accumulators are used. also. When all this is set up. if one does not possess a buffing machine. Fig. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. The wooden block C. German silver. I. Before silver plating. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. and the larger part (F. On brass. Then. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. of water. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. This solution. pewter. Make a somewhat larger block (E. square. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. The wooden catch. which . as at F. shaking. 1. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. a hand scratch brush is good. Fig. 3) strikes the bent wire L. Can be made of a 2-in. 3) directly over the hole. 3. hole in its center. Screw the two blocks together. which is advised. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. 1). must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. In rigging it to a sliding door. If more solution is required. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. long. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. Repeat six times. --Model Engineer. light strokes. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. 1 in. but opens the door. A (Fig. when the point of the key touches the tin. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. saw a piece of wood. Fig. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. zinc. such metals as iron. will serve for the key. from the lower end. and then treated as copper. copper. with the pivot 2 in.5 to 4 volts. A 1/4 in. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. which is held by catch B. nickel and such metals. long. 10 in. Having finished washing the precipitate. Take quick. lead. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. with water. and 4 volts for very small ones. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. 1 not only unlocks. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. use 2 volts for large articles. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. Fig. Where Bunsen cells are used. 1). it is only necessary to double all given quantities. with water. a circuit is completed.

top. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. H. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. or cave. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. floor. 2. and black art reigns supreme. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. The box must be altered first. and hands its contents round to the audience. Fig. and a slit. spoons and jackknives. Next. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. The magician stands in front of this. In front of you. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. cut in one side. such as forks. Fig. so much the better. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. Objects appear and disappear. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. the illumination in front must be arranged. 1. between the parlor and the room back of it. with a switch as in Fig. the box should be painted black both inside and out. he points with one finger to the box. Fig. which unlocks the door. in his shirt sleeves. and finally lined inside with black cloth. 2. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. enlarged. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. the requisites are a large soap box. no painting inside is required. On either side of the box. One end is removed. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. East Orange. half way from open end to closed end. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. surrounding a perfectly black space. B. 116 Prospect St. some black paint. although a little more trouble. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). to throw the light toward the audience. 0. should be cut a hole.. Next. Klipstein. 3. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. New Jersey. The interior must be a dead black. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. Receiving the bowl again. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. and plenty of candles. a few simple tools. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. Fig. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. To prepare such a magic cave. sides and end. 1. is the cut through which the rope runs. shows catch B. he tosses it into the cave. . with the lights turned low. Heavy metal objects. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. heighten the illusion. H. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. one-third of the length from the remaining end. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. H. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. Thus.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. --Contributed by E. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. He removes the bowl from the black box. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. One thing changes to another and back again. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. some black cloth. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick.

you must have an assistant. which can be made to dance either by strings. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. of course. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. if. The exhibitor should be . which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. Consequently. The illusion. is on a table) so much the better. The audience room should have only low lights. in which are oranges and apples. and pours them from the bag into a dish. was identical with this. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. one on each side of the box. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. the room where the cave is should be dark. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. But illusions suggest themselves. of course. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. and if portieres are impossible. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. and several black drop curtains. into the eyes of him who looks. a screen must be used. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. which are let down through the slit in the top. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black.Finally. had a big stage. as presented by Hermann. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. only he. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. his confederate behind inserts his hand.

a boy who can talk. Finally. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . respectively. making contact with them. Then. so arranged that. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. by 4 in. c3. vice versa. b1. held down on disk F by two other terminals. b3. at L. if you turn handle K to the right. f2. making contact with them as shown at y. and c4 + electricity. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. square. e1 and e2. and c2 to the zinc.. 1. c2. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. b2. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). On the disk G are two brass strips. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. 2. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. or b2.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. About the center piece H moves a disk. respectively. c1. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. A represents a pine board 4 in. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. respectively. with three brass strips. or binding posts. Fig. terminal c3 will show +. as shown in Fig. 1. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. their one end just slips under the strips b1. held down on it by two terminals. A. b3. FIG. 2). by means of two wood screws. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. and a common screw. b2. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. d. c4.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. held down by another disk F (Fig. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. terminal c3 will show . when handle K is turned to one side. 2. is shown in the diagram. and c1 – electricity. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance.

3. 4. from five batteries. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade).in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. -Contributed by A. Joerin. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Tuttle. jump spark coil. when A is on No. Jr. 1. from four batteries. and when on No. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. from three batteries. when on No. when on No. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. E. Ohio. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. B is a onepoint switch. thus making the message audible in the receiver. and then hold the receiver to your ear. and C and C1 are binding posts. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. When switch B is closed and A is on No. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. . Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer.. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. --Contributed by Eugene F. Newark. you have the current of one battery. 5.

B. Handy Electric Alarm . of Burlington. The device thus arranged. mark. per second. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. per second for each second. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. P. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. over the bent portion of the rule. E. as shown in the sketch. A. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. When you do not have a graduate at hand. New Orleans. and supporting the small weight. Wis. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening.. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. Thus. rule.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. so one can see the time. traveled by the thread. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. La. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. Redmond. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. A. and placed on the windowsill of the car. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. A. is the device of H. mark. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. which may be a button or other small object. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in.

which illuminates the face of the clock. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. Instead. for a wetting is the inevitable result. wrapping the wire around the can several times. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. When the alarm goes off. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. Lane. soldered to the alarm winder. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. . Pa. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. --Contributed by Gordon T. C. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. Then I sat down on the porch to wait.which has a piece of metal. Crafton. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. --C. B. but may be closed at F any time desired. S. and with the same result. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. Then if a mishap comes. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways.

models and miniature objects. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. as shown. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. With the easily made devices about to be described.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. L. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. which may. ornaments of various kinds. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. cannons. Two cleats. and many other interesting and useful articles. It is possible to make molds without a bench.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . 1 . as the sand is sure to get on the floor. AA. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. A. If there is no foundry Fig. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. and duplicates of all these. New York City. when it is being prepared. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. battery zincs. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. 1. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. BE. as shown in Fig. bearings. engines. Macey. small machinery parts. C. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. The first thing to make is a molding bench. --Contributed by A. whence it is soon tracked into the house. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. binding posts. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. but it is a mistake to try to do this.

After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. H. by 6 in. the "cope. The dowels. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. A A. but this operation will be described more fully later on. DD. The cloth bag. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. If desired the sieve may be homemade. is shown more clearly in Fig." or lower part. 1. If the box is not very strong. and the lower pieces. and the "drag. try using sand from other sources. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. 1. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose.How to Make a Mold [96] . giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. is nailed to each end of the cope. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. 2 . It is made of wood and is in two halves.near at hand. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. previous to sawing. The flask. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. 2. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. II . An old teaspoon. Fig. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. G. and this. and saw it in half longitudinally. high. as shown. is filled with coal dust. and a sieve. is made of wood. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. A slight shake of the bag Fig. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. A wedge-shaped piece. will be required." or upper half. white metal. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. E. a little larger than the outside of the flask. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. CC. D. which can be either aluminum. as shown. which can be made of a knitted stocking. is about the right mesh. say 12 in. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. CC. J. F. The rammer. Fig. makes a very good sieve. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. which should be nailed in. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. by 8 in. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together.

or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. and thus judge for himself. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. as shown at C. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. as described.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. the surface of the sand at . Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. as it is much easier to learn by observation. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. and if water is added." in position. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. as shown. and then more sand is added until Fig. After ramming. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. and scatter about 1/16 in. In finishing the ramming. Place another cover board on top. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. as shown at E. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. where they can watch the molders at work. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. in order to remove the lumps. or "drag. or "cope. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. turn the drag other side up. The sand is then ready for molding. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. as shown at D. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. and by grasping with both hands. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. It is then rammed again as before. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope.

The next operation is that of cutting the gate. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. as shown at F. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. it shows that the sand is too wet. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. in order to prevent overheating. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. and then pour. After drawing the pattern. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. as shown at H. thus making a dirty casting. after being poured. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. Place a brick or other flat. The "sprue. place the cope back on the drag. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. . the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. to give the air a chance to escape." or pouring-hole. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. as shown at G. wide and about 1/4 in. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. This is done with a spoon. as shown at H. made out of steel rod. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod.E should be covered with coal-dust. III. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. as shown at J. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. in diameter. Fig. as shown in the sketch. deep. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. is next cut. thus holding the crucible securely.

or from any adjacent pair of cells. although somewhat expensive. In my own case I used four batteries. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. Referring to the figure. battery zincs. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. may be used in either direction. 15% lead. Although the effect in the illustration . 5% zinc and 5% antimony. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. but any reasonable number may be used. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. and the casting is then ready for finishing. --Contributed by Harold S. used only for zinc. and. babbitt. is very desirable. the following device will be found most convenient. If a good furnace is available. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. white metal and other scrap available. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. Minneapolis. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. Morton. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them.

An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. Then replace the table. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. If desired. may be made of hardwood. 3/4 in. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. B. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. To make it take a sheet-iron band. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. backward. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. B. as shown in the illustration. as shown at A. connected by cords to the rudder. Chicago. Then walk down among the audience. Fig. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. outward. 2. The bearings. A. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . The brass rings also appear distorted. which will be sufficient to hold it. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. Put a sharp needle point. --Contributed by Draughtsman. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. shaft made. Make one of these pieces for each arm. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. By replacing the oars with paddles.

This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. spoiling its appearance. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting.melted babbitt. A block of ice. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. 2 and 3. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. when it will again return to its original state. but when in motion. and a weight. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. Snow. D. The covers. It may seem strange that ice . and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. should be made of wood. The hubs. 1. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. as shown in Fig. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. In the same way. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. or under pressure. A. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. Fig. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. 2. W. or the paint will come off. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. If galvanized iron is used. 1. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. 1. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. as shown in Fig. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. C. 3. If babbitt is used. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. being simply finely divided ice. E.

Crafton. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. it will gradually change from the original shape A. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. but. B. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below.should flow like water. The rate of flow is often very slow. sometimes only one or two feet a day. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. in. or supporting it in some similar way. Lane. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. as shown on page 65. no matter how slow the motion may be. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. P. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. whenever there is any connection made at all. by 5 in. Pa. brass. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. --Contributed by Gordon T. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. as per sketch. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. square. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. thus giving a high resistance contact. which resembles ice in this respect. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. Pressing either push button. by 1/4.. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. but by placing it between books. by 2 in. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. and assume the shape shown at B. by 1/2 in.

D. G. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. wooden supports. Wilkinsburg. weight. the battery. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. about the size used for automobiles. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. C. draft. F. A is the circuit breaker. and five dry batteries. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. B. Indianapolis. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. The parts are: A. draft chain. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires.000 ft. Pa. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. and C. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. horizontal lever. as shown. K . --Contributed by Coulson Glick.thumb screws. B. vertical lever. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. furnace. --Contributed by A. the induction coil. J. G. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. cord. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. alarm clock. pulleys. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. The success depends upon a slow current. E. as shown. In the wiring diagram. H. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. Ward. I.

If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. as well as the bottom. where house plants are kept in the home. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . Mich. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. 3. Kalamazoo. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. Artistic Window Boxes The top. material framed together as shown in Fig. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. 2 are dressed to the right angle. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. which will provide a fine place for the plants. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. such as used for a storm window. The frame (Fig. will fit nicely in them.

in diameter. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. in any system of lamps. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. The 1/2-cp. after a rest. It must be remembered. Grant. one can regulate the batteries as required. can be connected up in series. as if drawn upon for its total output. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. this must be done with very great caution.. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high.. Push the needle into the cork. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. which sells for 25 cents. by connecting them in series. N. Halifax. i. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. multiples of series of three. where they are glad to have them taken away. but maintain the voltage constant. so as to increase the current. and cost 27 cents FIG. S. e. W. is something that will interest the average American boy. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. and the instrument will then be complete. Thus.. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. and will give the . Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. A certain number of these. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. This is more economical than dry cells. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. 1. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. and a suitable source of power. since a battery is the most popular source of power. for some time very satisfactorily. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. However. as indicated by Fig. in this connection. 1 each complete with base. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. a cork and a needle. Canada. --Contributed by Wm. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. 1 cp. However. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch.

according to the water pressure obtainable. lamp. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. 2 shows the scheme. or 22 lights. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. especially those of low internal resistance. Chicago. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. 1-cp. In conclusion. Thus. Thus. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. although the first cost is greater. and running the series in parallel. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. each. 11 series. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. generates the power for the lights. to secure light by this method. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. making. lamps. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. FIG. double insulated wire wherever needed. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. . and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. and then lead No. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. lamps. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. If wound for 10 volts. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. which is the same as that of one battery. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. and diffused light in a room. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. by the proper combination of these. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. where the water pressure is the greatest. Fig.proper voltage. These will give 3 cp.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. and for Christmas trees. 18 B & S. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. if wound for 6 volts. as in Fig. we simply turn on the water. 3. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. However. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. So. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp.. for display of show cases.

bars of pole-changing switch. B. Parker. the letters indicate as follows: FF. Santa Clara. are cut just alike. brushes of motor. or a tempting bone. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. . Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. a bait of meat. A. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. --Contributed by F. DD. center points of switch. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. After I connected up my induction coil. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. and the sides. Plymouth. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. or from one pattern. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. CC. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. BB. thus reversing the machine. Cal. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. as shown in the sketch. outside points of switch. simply change the switch. AA. To reverse the motor. field of motor. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. and C. --Contributed by Leonard E. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. A indicates the ground. Emig. B. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. switch. we were not bothered with them. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. Ind.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense.

-Contributed by Claude B. If it is not. W. Melchior..Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. which is in the door. a hammer. Minn. The button can be hidden. and a table or bench. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. The experiment works best . Hutchinson. merely push the button E. San Jose. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. To unlock the door. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. When the circuit is broken a weight. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. Cal. A. one cell being sufficient. as it is the key to the lock. attached to the end of the armature B. a piece of string. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. 903 Vine St. Fry. or would remain locked. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. thus locking the door.

Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. Culebra. forming a loop. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. as shown in Fig. 1). D. 3. -. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. where it will remain suspended as shown. attached at the other end. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. in the ceiling and has a window weight. Brockville. Tie the ends of the string together. Canada. I. 2. --Contributed by Geo. Schmidt. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. W. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. which pulls the draft open. C. Madison. releasing the weight. P. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. the current flows with the small arrows. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. the stick falls away. . Wis. Porto Rico. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square.. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord.Contributed by F. the key turns. A. 18 Gorham St. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. Ontario. 3. run through a pulley. Crawford Curry. On another block of wood fasten two wires. 4).An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. When the alarm rings in the early morning. --Contributed by Edward Whitney.

grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. get two pieces of plate glass. Connect two wires to the transmitter. including the mouthpiece. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. Camden. and . The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. or tree. J. First.. and the other to the battery. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. The cut shows the arrangement. Jr. 6 in. N. thence to a switch. D. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. which fasten to the horn. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. R. and then to the receiver. made with his own hands. Use a barrel to work on. --Contributed by Wm. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. J.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. or from a bed of flowers. square and 1 in. running one direct to the receiver. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. S. Farley. and break the corners off to make them round. thick.

Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. melt 1 lb. L. When polishing the speculum. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. In a dark room. or it will not polish evenly. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. and a large lamp. a round 4-in. 2. twice the focal length away. wet till soft like paint. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. Fasten. wetting it to the consistency of cream. with pitch. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. also rotate the glass. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. and label. When dry. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place.. and is ready for polishing. Then warm and press again with the speculum. the coarse grinding must be continued. and the under glass or tool convex. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. or less. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. by the side of the lamp. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. then 8 minutes. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. unless a longer focal length is wanted. with 1/4-in. in length. When done the glass should be semitransparent. Use a binger to spread it on with. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge.. then take 2 lb. so the light . Fig. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. wide around the convex glass or tool. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. spaces. Have ready six large dishes. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. Fig. set the speculum against the wall. of water. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. using straight strokes 2 in. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. while walking around the barrel. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. 2. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. A. and spread on the glass. 1. as in Fig. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in.

With pitch. 39 gr. Two glass or earthenware dishes. as in K. If not. that was set aside. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. then ammonia until bath is clear. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. must be procured. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. or hills... 2. and pour the rest into the empty dish.. When the focus is found. 25 gr. Now add enough of the solution A. Solution D: Sugar loaf . if a hill in the center. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. Place the speculum. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. fill the dish with distilled water. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. The polishing and testing done.. longer strokes. touched with rouge. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. long to the back of the speculum.100 gr. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum).………………………………. 4 oz. add the ammonia solution drop by drop.. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. Fig. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. Silver nitrate ……………………………. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube.. Fig. deep.……………. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. 840 gr. from the lamp. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. When dry. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. 2.. face down. The knife should not be more than 6 in.. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. Then add 1 oz. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark.. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Then add solution B. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. the speculum is ready to be silvered. with distilled water. 100 gr. Place the speculum S. also how the rays R from a star . the speculum will show some dark rings.……………………………. Nitric acid . and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. cement a strip of board 8 in. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. 4 oz. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz.. Fig. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it.

The flatter they are the less they will distort. with an outlay of only a few dollars. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. and proceed as for any picture. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. My telescope is 64 in. deg. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. slightly wider than the lens mount. Place over lens. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. Make the tube I of sheet iron. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. using strawboard and black paper. Then I made the one described. Mellish. .are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube.. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. which proves to be easy of execution. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. cover with paper and cloth. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. is a satisfactory angle. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. Thus an excellent 6-in. stop down well after focusing.John E. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. two glass prisms. telescope can be made at home. About 20. long and cost me just $15.

Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. unobstructed light strike the mirror. push the button D. and reflect through the negative. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. add the plaster gradually to the water. Ill. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. To unlock. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. The paper is exposed. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. says the Master Painter. B. D. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. instead of the contrary. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. through the lens of the camera and on the board. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. complete the arrangement. . Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. as shown in Fig. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. Boody. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. 2. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. or powdered alum. Zimmerman. The rays of the clear. but will not preserve its hardening. A. Fig. then add a little sulphate of potash. 1. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. -Contributed by A. Do not stir it. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board.

also provide them with a handle. throw . This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. use a string. 1). as in Fig. 2. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. 3. Fasten on the switch lever. as at A and B. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. Then blow through the spool. 2. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. so that it can rotate about these points. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. but will remain suspended without any visible support. Fig.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. as shown in the sketch. To reverse. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner.

San Marcos. D. In the sketch. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. A is the electricbell magnet. -Contributed by Morris L. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. L. --Contributed by Geo. . Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. and E E. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Tex. C C. North Bend. Thomas. binding posts. although this is not necessary. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Push one end of the tire into the hole. the armature.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. Levy. Neb. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. wash in running water. Tex. and rub dry with linen cloth. carbon sockets. B. San Antonio. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. carbons. Go McVicker. as shown in the sketch. rinse in alcohol. Take out. --Contributed by R.

It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. Bell. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. Brooklyn. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. 16 magnet wire. 14 or No. By means of two or more layers of No. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. 36 magnet wire. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. long or more. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. --Contributed by Joseph B. wound evenly about this core.

The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. making two layers. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. The primary is made of fine annealed No. in length. No. 4. with room also for a small condenser. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. 1. This makes a condenser which may be folded. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. After the core wires are bundled. diameter. long and 2-5/8 in. and finally the fourth strip of paper.which would be better to buy ready-made. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. a box like that shown in Fig. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. about 6 in. which is an important factor of the coil. one piece of the paper is laid down. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. coil illustrates the general details of the work. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. or 8 in. and the results are often unsatisfactory. 2 yd. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. hole is bored in the center of one end. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. long and 5 in. The condenser is next wrapped . Beginning half an inch from one end. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. in diameter. as shown in Fig. In shaping the condenser. The following method of completing a 1-in. at a time. but if it is not convenient to do this work. the entire core may be purchased readymade. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. which is desirable. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. as the maker prefers. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. then the strip of tin-foil. When cut and laid in one continuous length. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. A 7/8-in. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. wide. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made.

then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. ready for assembling. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. battery . and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. The alarm key will turn and drop down. E. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. V-shaped copper strip. copper lever with 1-in. B. forms the other pole or terminal. the letters indicate as follows: A. lines H. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. by 12 in. bell. D. to the door. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. 4 in. Fig. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. I. switch. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. which allows wiring at the back. C. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. one from bell. B. wide. go. shows how the connections are made. round so that the inside . so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. and one from battery. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. which is insulated from the first.) The wiring diagram. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. spark. open switch C. 3. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. shelf for clock. F. long and 12 in. A. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection.securely with bands of paper or tape. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. long to key. flange turned on one side.. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. G. whole length. and the other sheet.

of zinc sulphate. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. of blue stone. Line the furnace. do not shortcircuit. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in.. but add 5 or 6 oz. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. Short-circuit for three hours. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. and the battery is ready for use. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. and then rivet the seam. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. 2 in. instead of close to it. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. Use a glass or metal shade. but with the circuit. The circuit should also have a high resistance. from the bottom. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side.diameter is 7 in. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. If desired for use immediately. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. This is for blowing. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. says the Model Engineer. That is what they are for. . London.

Try it and see. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. or think they can do the same let them try it. grip the stick firmly in one hand. affects . You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. To operate the trick. for others the opposite way. changes white phosphorus to yellow. herein I describe a much better trick. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. g. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. 2. oxygen to ozone. Enlarge the hole slightly. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. while for others it will not revolve at all. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. If too low. At least it is amusing. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. imparting to them a violet tinge. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. If any or your audience presume to dispute. porcelain and paper. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. and therein is the trick. 1.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. but the thing would not move at all. Ohio. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time.9 of a volt. thus producing two different vibrations. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. as in the other movement. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. This type of battery will give about 0. below the bottom of the zinc. square and about 9 in. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated." which created much merriment. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. the second finger along the side. Outside of the scientific side involved. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. and then. long.. for some it will turn one way.

carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. however. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. but not essential. but this is less satisfactory. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. but small flowers. a means for holding it vertical. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. and.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. chemicals. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . insects. says the Photographic Times. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. and one of them is photomicrography. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. if possible. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. earth. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. To the front board is attached a box. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. an old tripod screw. a short-focus lens. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone.

CD. 5 ft. 12 ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print.--Contributed by George C. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 65 4 lb. while it is not so with the quill. which is 15 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 10 ft 523 33 lb. or 31 ft.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 905 57 lb. 7-1/2 in. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. long and 3 ft. 268 17 lb. 697 44 lb. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. in Cu. 1. 9 ft. 113 7 lb. AB. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. If the balloon is 10 ft. Divide one-quarter of the circle . The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. wide from which to cut a pattern. 11 ft. 6 ft. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. Madison. Ft Lifting Power. balloon. 7 ft. 381 24 lb. 7-1/2 in. 8 ft. 179 11 lb. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Fig. in diameter. Cap. 5 in. and a line. or 3 ft. The following table will give the size. A line. Mass. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. Boston.

This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. The pattern is now cut. 2. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. on the curved line from B to C. 4. The cloth segments are sewed together. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. Procure 1 gal. keeping the marked part on the outside. 70 thread. Repeat this operation four times. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. The amounts necessary for a 10- . boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. and so on. of beeswax and boil well together. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. cutting all four quarters at the same time. making a double seam as shown in Fig. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. and after marked is cut the same shape and size.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. This test will show if the bag is airtight. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. of the very best heavy body. 3. using a fine needle and No. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well.

ft. balloon are 125 lb. of gas in one hour.. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. 1 lb. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. with water 2 in. using a fine brush. leaving the hand quite clean. B. if it is good it will dry off. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. 150 gr. this should be repeated frequently. After washing a part. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. until no more dirt is seen. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. of water will make 4 cu. B. B. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. ]. above the level of the water in barrel A. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. Vegetable oils should never be used. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. A. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. 5 . or dusting with a dry brush. In the barrel. of sulphuric acid. A. or a fan. should not enter into the water over 8 in. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. . with the iron borings. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. to the bag. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. which may sound rather absurd. of iron borings and 125 lb. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. as shown in Fig. by fixing.Green Iron ammonium citrate . but if any grease remains on the hand.ft. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. 5. of iron. Water 1 oz. . The benzine should be clean and free from oil. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. pipe. Fill the other barrel. oil the spindle holes carefully. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. About 15 lb. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. A. capacity and connect them. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. a clean white rag. The outlet. 1 lb. When the clock has dried. All FIG. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. with 3/4in. C. C. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. The 3/4-in. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. it is not fit to use. pipe extending down into the cooling tank.

A cold. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. Port Melbourne. The negative pole. This aerial collector can be made in . The positive pole. A longer exposure will be necessary. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. and keep in the dark until used. or battery. at the time of employment. of any make.000 ft. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Dry in the dark.Water 1 oz. . Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Dry the plates in the dark. . fix in hypo. 20 to 30 minutes. or zinc. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. dry atmosphere will give best results. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. to avoid blackened skin. keeping the fingers out of the solution. and a vigorous negative must be used. The miniature 16 cp. toning first if desired. says the Moving Picture World. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Exposure.. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Printing is done in the sun. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. or carbon.

made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. and have the other connected with another aerial line. in diameter. long. lay a needle. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. 5 in. when left exposed to the air. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. If the wave ceases. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. This will complete the receiving station. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. both positive and negative. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. will soon become dry and useless. as described below. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. The storage cell. holes . File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. making a ground with one wire. the resistance is less.various ways. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. As the telephone offers a high resistance. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. forming a cup of the pipe. and as less current will flow the short way. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. If the waves strike across the needle. a positive and a negative. lead pipe.

Two binding-posts should be attached. This. When mixing the acid and water. one to the positive. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. or tube B. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. D. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. does not need to be watertight. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. This support or block. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. by soldering the joint. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. or tube C.as possible. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. B. This box can be square. on each end. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . and the other to the negative. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. an oblong one and a triangular one. a round one. says the Pathfinder. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. The other plate is connected to the zinc. namely: a square hole. except for about 1 in. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. of course.

C. This punt. leaving about 1/16 in. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. long. Ill. 1. deep and 4 ft. all around the edge. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. wide. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. C. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. as it is not readily overturned.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. The third piece of brass. thick cut two pieces alike. A and B. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. back and under. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. . Only galvanized nails should be used. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. 2. and has plenty of good seating capacity. about 20 in. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. is built 15 ft. 1. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. in place on the wood. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. 3. wide. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. were fitted by this one plug. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. Chicago. and match them together. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. 2.

Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . Wash. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. A. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Tacoma. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. In Fig. is cut 1 in. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. thick and 3-1/2 in. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. A piece of 1/4-in. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. gas pipe. square (Fig 2). rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. B. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point.

" has no connection with the outside circuit. or "rotor. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. without auxiliary phase. H. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . and to consume. no special materials could be obtained. which can be developed in the usual manner. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. if possible. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. it had to be borne in mind that. lamp. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. no more current than a 16-cp. In designing. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. The winding of the armature. with the exception of insulated wire. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor.--Contributed by Charles H. Wagner. may be of interest to some of our readers. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. says the Model Engineer. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. which the writer has made.

The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. A. 2. 3. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. 4. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. Holes 5-32 in. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. as shown in Fig. The stator is wound full with No. as shown in Fig. or "stator. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. holes. while the beginnings . this little machine is not self-starting. They are not particularly accurate as it is. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. C. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. thick. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. and all sparking is avoided. B. being used. no steel being obtainable. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. 5. Unfortunately. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. about 2-1/2 lb. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. were then drilled and 1/4-in. in diameter were drilled in the corners. to be filed out after they are placed together. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. bolts put in and tightened up." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. also varnished before they were put in. 1. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe.the field-magnet. After assembling a second time. and filled with rivets. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. wrought iron. with the dotted line. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine.

as shown in Fig. it would be very simple to build. If too late for alcohol to be of use. and would not easily get out of order. Newark. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. One is by contact. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. In making slides by contact. as a means of illustrating songs. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. 1. and as each layer of wire was wound. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. Jr. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. 2. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. The lantern slide is a glass plate. and the other by reduction in the camera. as before stated. and especially of colored ones. No starting resistance is needed. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. and as the motor runs at constant speed. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. The image should . has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. if applied immediately. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. This type of motor has drawbacks. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. film to film. and all wound in the same direction. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. 3-Contributed by C. N. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. a regulating resistance is not needed. having no commutator or brushes.. J. E. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. McKinney. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. The rotor is wound with No. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply.

they are much used by travelers. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. as shown in Fig. Select a room with one window. and development should be over in three or four minutes. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. 4. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. to use a plain fixing bath. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. if possible. a little extra work will be necessary. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. as shown in Fig. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. 2. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. about a minute. except that the binding is different. over the mat. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. Being unbreakable. and then a plain glass. 1. C. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. If the exposure has been correct. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. B. the formulas being found in each package of plates.appear in. These can be purchased from any photo material store. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. 3. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. It is best. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. Draw lines with a pencil. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. 5. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. D. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. Fig. A. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. also.

in diameter and 40 in. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. Corinth. Fig. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. from the center of this dot draw a star. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. long. These longer pieces can be made square. while the dot will be in front of the other. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. as shown at A. holes bored in the end pieces. or other stout cloth. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. wide and 50 in. 2. in diameter and 20 in. as shown at B. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. If the star is in front of the left eye. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. 1. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. A piece of canvas. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. Vt. from the end piece of the chair. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. is to be used for the seat.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. known as rods and cones. long. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. from the ends. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. long. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. Fig. 1. Hastings. 16 in.

and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. in thickness and 10 in. 1. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. Cal. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. per square inch. J. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. as well as to operate other household machines. as shown in Fig.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. made from an ordinary sash cord. . Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. Auburn. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. O'Gara.-Contributed by P. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. as shown in Fig. A disk 1 in. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. A belt. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. 2. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk.

with as fine a thread as possible. leaving it shaped like a bench. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. thick and 2-1/2 in. . wide. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. to the top of the bench. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. will be the thickness of the object. then removing the object. screwing it through the nut. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. The part of a rotation of the bolt. long. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. 3/4 in. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. and the construction is complete. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. or inconvenient to measure. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. divided by the number of threads to the inch. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. says the Scientific American. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. it serves a very useful purpose. Cut out a piece from the block combination. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. square for a support. Bore a 1/4-in. fairly accurate. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. direction. Put the bolt in the hole. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. A simple.

globe that has been thrown away as useless. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. long is used for the center pole. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. material 12 ft. beyond the end of the wood. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Bore a 3/4-in. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Place a 3/4-in. long. Santa Maria. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. bolt in each hole. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. Oal. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. piece of wood 12 ft. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. The wheel should be open . Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. which show up fine at night. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair.

is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. O. at the bottom. is soldered. C. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. Graham. wide and 1/8 in. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. thick. A cross bar. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. wide and 1/8 in. and the lower part 61/2 in. long. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. C. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in.Side and Top View or have spokes. Tex. H and J. which should be 1/4 in. long. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. long. L. 1/2 in. The spool . P. at the top and 4 in. and on its lower end a socket. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. from the ends. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. thick. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in.-Contributed by A. A piece of brass 2 in. made of the same material. in diameter. long. to be operated by the magnet coil. Fort Worth. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. The boards may be nailed or bolted. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. thick is used for the armature. The coil. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. B. square and 3 or 4 in. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. of the ends with boards. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. from the top end. A. pieces used for the spokes. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks.

--A. one without either rubber or metal end. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. and directly centering the holes H and J. This tie can be used on grain sacks. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil.J. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. B. D and E. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. S. A. This is a very neat trick if performed right. then with a firm. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. 2. R. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. long. which may be had by using German silver wire. that holds the lower carbon. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. and in numerous other like instances. S. by soldering. At the bottom end of the frame. or a water rheostat heretofore described. The armature. do it without any apparent effort. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. 2 the hat hanging on it. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post.E. . F. C. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. for insulating the brass ferrule. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. --Contributed by Arthur D. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig.000. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. Mass. and place it against a door or window casing.000 for irrigation work. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. is drilled. Randolph. 1. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. When you slide the pencil along the casing. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. A soft piece of iron. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. Bradlev. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S.is about 2-1/2 in.

with a 3/16-in. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. D. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. about 1 in. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. in diameter and 2 in. C. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. long and 1 in. The switch. 2.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. S. about 3/16 in. About 70 turns of No. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. may be made from a 3/8-in. is constructed in the usual manner. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. The core of the coil. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. The coil ends are made from cardboard. 1. for the secondary. wide. The vibrator. from the core and directly opposite. in diameter and 1/16 in. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. and then 1. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. A. F. The vibrator B. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. for the primary. Experiment with Heat [134] . apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. in diameter. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. leaving the projections as shown. 1. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. hole in the center. mixed with water to form a paste. about 1/8 in. S. B. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. Fig. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. for adjustment. thick. Fig. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg.500 turns of No. is connected to a flash lamp battery. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. in diameter. long.

therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. Fig. lighted. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. with which to operate the dial. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. The lock. which is cut with two holes. The three screws were then put in the hasp. . The water will rapidly rise in the glass. and the same distance inside of the new board. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. and then well clinched. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. it laps down about 8 in. long and when placed over the board. The hasp. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. 1. board. wide. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. was to be secured by only three brass screws. The tin is 4 in. which is only 3/8-in. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. between the boards. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. 16 in. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. which seemed to be insufficient. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. 2 to fit the two holes. as shown in the sketch. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. thick on the inside. as shown. in an ordinary water glass. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. 1. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial.Place a small piece of paper. The knob on the dial extends out too far. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. brass plate. A leather shield may be used for this purpose.

any article placed therein will be reflected in. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. high for use in window displays. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. When the rear part is illuminated. one in each division. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. which completely divides the box into two parts. square and 10-1/2 in. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. the glass. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. but when the front part is illuminated. square and 8-1/2 in.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. When making of wood. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. If the box is made large enough. not shiny. and the back left dark. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. black color. clear glass as shown. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. or in the larger size mentioned.

Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. When using as a window display. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. When there is no electric current available. alternately. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. a tank 2 ft. long and 1 ft. into the other.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. as it appears. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. as shown at A in the sketch. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. wide will be about the right size. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in.. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. above the top of the tank. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. and with the proper illumination one is changed. . Instead of changing the current operated by hand. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. as shown in the sketch.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

or ferrous sulphate. wide. Columbus. with a length of 13 in. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. using a 3/4-in. as shown. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. radius. square. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. 1 in. Three windows are provided. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. hole. Iron sulphate. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. 6 in. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. and boring two holes with a 1-in. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. one for each side. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. then use a red-hot iron to finish. The 13-in. hole bored the full length through the center. 2 ft. lines gauged on each side of each. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. is built on the front. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. wide. and 6 ft. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. bit. If a planing mill is near. Shape the under sides first. long. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. each. high. but with a length of 12 in. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. gauge for depth. This hole must be continued . thick and 3 in. A small platform. under sides together. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. is the green vitriol. 5 ft. and a door in front. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. This precipitate is then washed. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. bore from each end. dried and mixed with linseed oil. and a solution of iron sulphate added. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. O. however. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. two pieces 1-1/8 in. placed to either side of the 1/2-in.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. long. square and 40 in. from the ground. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. The pieces can then be taken out. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. -Contributed by Mack Wilson.

Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. thick and 3 in. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. if shade is purchased. For art-glass the metal panels are . To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Saw the two blocks apart. three or four may be attached as shown. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. Electric globes--two. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. When this is dry. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. If the parts are to be riveted. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. When the filler has hardened. Directions will be found on the filler cans. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. apply two coats of wax. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. square and drawing a diagonal on each. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal.through the pieces forming the base. The sketch shows one method of attaching. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. hole in each block. A better way. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler.

Construction of Shade .The Completed Lamp cut out. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. as brass. METAL SHADE . such as copper.

The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. the other. Figure 1 shows the side. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. and Fig. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The arms holding the glass. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. as shown in the sketch. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. one way and 1/2 in. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. as in ordinary devices. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. the object and the background. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. 2 the front view of this stand. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to .

They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. thus forming a 1/4-in. thick 5/8-in. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. long. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. Put the ring in place on the base. Before mounting the ring on the base. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. in diameter for a base. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. outside diameter. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. channel in the circumference of the ring. and swinging freely. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . wide and 6-5/16 in. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. An ordinary pocket compass. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. and an inside diameter of 9 in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. about 1-1/4 in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. as shown in the cut. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. If the light becomes dim. as it is very poisonous. Cut another circular piece 11 in. in diameter. uncork and recork again.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. wide and 11 in. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. pointing north and south. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. as shown in the sketch.

An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. in diameter and 8 in. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in.600 .375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country.182 . black oxide of copper.420 . to which a wire has been soldered for connections. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye.865 1. CC. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. The results given should be multiplied by 1. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. Corresponding mirrors. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. Place on top the so- . but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. AA. above the half can. B. 1 oz. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. into these cylinders. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.289 . of the top. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. are mounted on a base. and mirrors. EE. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere.500 . Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg.088 . from the second to the third. and north of the Ohio river.715 .

little crystals forming in the liquid. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. When renewing. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. 62 gr. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. alcohol. always remove the oil with a siphon. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. of pulverized campor. University Park. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . then they will not rust fast. In Fig. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. which otherwise remains clear. the wheel will revolve in one direction. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. 31 gr. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. slender bottle. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. Put the solution in a long. Colo. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. says Metal Worker. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. the threads should be painted with pure white lead.

a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. This is used in place of the spoon. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. floating on a solution. Solder in the side of the box . Attach to the wires. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. about 1-1/4 in. If zinc and copper are used. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. on the under side of the cork. Lloyd Enos. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. If two of them are floating on the same solution. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. will allow the magnet to point north and south. --Contributed by C. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. A paper-fastener box. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. If zinc and carbon are used.

can be made of oak. thick. The spring should be about 1 in. B. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. Rhamstine. 10 wire about 10 in. D. glass tubing . C. E. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. . Use a board 1/2. stained and varnished. C. E. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. The bottom of the box. Take a small piece of soft iron. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. 1/2. brass tubing. one on each side of the board. A circular piece of cardboard. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. D. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. To this standard solder the supporting wire. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. H. 1. 1-1/4 in. wide and 6 in. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. A. of wire on each end extending from the coil. Put ends.Contributed by J. long that has about 1/4-in. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. The standard. The base. F.in. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. is made from a piece of No. G--No.not shorter than 18 in. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . and connect the two wires from the coil to them. Bore holes for binding-posts. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. or made with a little black paint. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. C. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. and on the other around the glass tube. B. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. 3 in. long. and then solder on the cover. wide and 2-1/2 in.1-in. piece of 1/4-in. of No. If the hose is not a tight fit. hole.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. 14 wire will do. long. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. away. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. to it. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way.in. Wind evenly about 2 oz. A. D. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. Thos.

long. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. making a support as shown in Fig.of the coil. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. 2. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. of 8-oz. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig.--Contributed by R. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. Y. J. four hinges. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. two pieces 2 ft. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. of No. When the glass becomes soft. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. canvas. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. Smith. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. 5. 1. of mercury will be sufficient. Milwaukee. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. long are used for the legs. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. long. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. long. 3-in. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long. long. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. 3. Wis. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. . yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. N. as shown in Fig. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. 3 in. Teasdale. About 1-1/2 lb. is drawn nearer to the coil. The iron plunger. about 1 in. D.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. in diameter. E. from the right hand.--Contributed by Edward M. Cuba.

Can. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. --Contributed by David A.. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. 4. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. The tube now must be filled completely. Break off the piece of glass. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. leaving 8 in. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig.. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. thus leaving a. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. Toronto. expelling all the air. holding in the left hand. Measure 8 in. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. Take 1/2 in. Fig. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. small aperture in the long tube. of vacuum at the top. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. 5. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. 6. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. 2. 3. Keys. This tube as described will be 8 in. long.

thick. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. The large pulley is about 14 in. wood screws. Fig. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . These are bent and nailed. FIG. 3. Four blocks 1/4 in. 4. This forms a slot. as shown in Fig. thick. wide and 3 in. 2.6 -. long. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. 9 in. 6. as in Fig. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. thick. joint be accurately put together. 1. cut in the shape shown in Fig. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. in diameter. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. long.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. wide and 5 ft. wide and 5 ft. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. wide and 12 in. wide and 5 ft. from the end of same. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. 1 in. long. 1 in. with each projection 3-in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. 3 in. 4 in. material 2 in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. 3 in. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. 7. thick. 5. and 1/4 in. thick. but yellow pine is the best. A crosspiece 3/4-in. long. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background.

Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. says Photography. Welsh. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Water 1 oz. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. by 1-in. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. first removing the crank. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. R. . Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. above the runner level. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. Kan. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Manhattan. --Contributed by C. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. attach runners and use it on the ice.

How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. and very much cheaper. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. 1. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. 1 oz. Leominster. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. --Contributed by Wallace C. The print is washed. of water. also. . 2. Treasdale. Mass. --Contributed by Edward M. 3. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. Printing is carried rather far. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. as shown in Fig. Newton. as shown in Fig. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. from an ordinary clamp skate. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. This is done with a camel's hair brush. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed.

Place a 10-in. and to the bottom. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. Alexandria. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. causing the door to swing back and up. wide. and 3 ft. high. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. The swing door B. Church. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. Take two glass tubes. 2. The thread is broken off at the . say. fasten a 2-in. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. 1-1/2 ft. --Contributed by H. 1 ft. long. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. which represents the back side of the door. about 10 in. Fig. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. high for rabbits. from one end. hole. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. F. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. Fig. as shown in the sketch. A. wide and 4 in. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. Va. too. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. with about 1/8-in. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. and bend them as shown in the sketch. Then. 1. square piece. 1. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. extending the width of the box.

D. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. wide. Jr. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. being 1/8 in. Fig. B. wide. 2. wide and 5 in. Crilly. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. 3. in size. This opening. automobiles. Fig. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. A and B. . will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. camera and wish to use some 4. -Contributed by William M. shorter at each end. say 8 in. but cut it 1/4 in.proper place to make a small hole. in size. Chicago. inside of the opening. Out two rectangular holes. black surfaced if possible. 1. 1 in. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. says Camera Craft. plates. 10 in. Cut an opening in the other piece. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. Paste a piece of strong black paper. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in.by 7-in. shorter. long. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. long. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. and go in the holder in the same way. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. high and 12 in. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders.. to be used as a driving pulley. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Take two pieces of pasteboard. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. and exactly 5 by 7 in. trolley cars. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. as shown in Fig. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. C.by 5-in. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. from the edge on each side of these openings. horses and dogs. making the appearance of the ordinary stage.

. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. long and 6 in. making a . A cell of this kind can easily be made. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear.in. wide will be required. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. into which the dog is harnessed. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. The needle will then point north and south. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. if it has previously been magnetized. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. in diameter. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in.

fuel and packing purposes. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. pine. This makes the wire smooth. . Form a 1/2-in. of the top. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. fodder. only the joints. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. in diameter and 6 in. Do not paint any surface. short time. 1 lb. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. plaster of paris. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. and a notch between the base and the pan. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. one that will hold about 1 qt. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. when the paraffin is melted. Pack the paste in. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. Place the pan on the stove. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. of rosin and 2 oz. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. of the plate at one end. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin.in. pull out the wire as needed. in which P is the pan. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. zinc oxide. beeswax melted together. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. under the spool in the paraffin. F is a spool. A is a block of l-in. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. 1/4 lb. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. with narrow flanges. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. for a connection. of water. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. long which are copper plated. 3/4 lb. B is a base of 1 in. sal ammoniac.watertight receptacle. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. File the rods to remove the copper plate. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. says Electrician and Mechanic. leaving about 1/2-in. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. filter. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb.

To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. let them try it. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. thus producing two different vibrations. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. Try it and see. Toledo. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath.. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. 2. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Enlarge the hole slightly. grip the stick firmly in one hand. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. and one friend tells me that they were . Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. thus making the arm revolve in one direction.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. long. and then. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. and he finally. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. while for others it will not revolve at all. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. but the thing would not move at all. for some it will turn one way." which created much merriment. At least it is amusing. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. by the Hindoos in India. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Ohio. g. and therein is the trick. from vexation. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. as in the other movement. If any of your audience presume to dispute. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. square and about 9 in. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. for others the opposite way. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. or think they can do the same.

Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. p. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. A square stick with notches on edge is best. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. by means of a center punch. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. rotation was obtained. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. Speeds between 700 and 1. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. and. 6. The experiments were as follows: 1. no rotation resulted. 7. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. 2. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. 3. the rotation may be obtained. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. Thus a circular or . this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin.100 r. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. To operate. m.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. If the pressure was upon an edge. gave the best results. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. 5. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. 4. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. and I think the results may be of interest. secondly. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion.

D. D. Sloan. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. forming a handle for carrying. so far as can be seen from the photographs.. Ph. or greasy. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use.. unwetted by the liquid. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. --Contributed by M. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. is driven violently away. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. it will be clockwise. C. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. and the height of the fall about 6 in. and the resultant "basket splash. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. A wire is tied around the can. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. A. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. as shown. Minn. G. Lloyd. if the pressure is from the left. --Contributed by G. Duluth. the upper portion is. . a piece of wire and a candle. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. Washington. at first.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

about 2-5/8 in. in diameter. as shown in Fig. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. flange and a 1/4-in. thick and 1 in. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. Each wheel is 1/4 in.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. long. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . 1. with a 1/16-in. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. as shown. hole drilled in the center. axle. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal.

The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. and the locomotive is ready for running. bent as shown. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. as shown in Fig. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. of No. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. Fuller. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. bottom side up. Texas. These ends are fastened together. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail.50. 5. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . The other binding-post is connected to the frame. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. 2. wood. 3. 4. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. 1 from 1/4-in. which must be 110 volt alternating current. are shown in Fig. The current. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. If the ends are to be soldered.brass. 2. 3/4 in. lamp in series with the coil. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. is made from brass. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. with cardboard 3 in. 3. as shown in Fig. Fig. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. The parts. --Contributed by Maurice E. each in its proper place. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. is made from a piece of clock spring. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. holes 1 in. long. wide and 16 in. Fig. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. This will save buying a track. put together complete. A trolley. San Antonio. 6. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. The first piece. The motor is now bolted. or main part of the frame. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit.

Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. as shown in Fig.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. and holes drilled in them. as shown in Fig. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. the length of a paper clip. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. 1. but do not heat the center. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. O. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Fig. Cincinnati. and as this end . Fig 1. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. 2. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. When cold treat the other end in the same way. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. 3. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. The quarter will not go all the way down. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. then continue to tighten much more.

A pair of centers are fitted. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. When the cutter A. and adjusted . In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. or apparent security of the knot. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. When the trick is to be performed. or should the lathe head be raised. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. has finished a cut for a tooth. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. In the sketch. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. 2 and 1 respectively. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel.

Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. such as brass or marble. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. blotter back. swing lathe. coin purse. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. and a nut pick. Fold over along these center lines. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. (4. draw center lines across the required space. Bott. watch fob ready for fastenings.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. (6. lady's belt bag.) Place the paper design on the leather and. (5. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. trace the outline. if but two parts.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. N. (2. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. (3. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. 2. Brooklyn. note book. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. or one-half of the design. When connecting to batteries. (1. gentleman's card case or bill book. Bunker. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). tea cosey.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. long. --Contributed by Samuel C. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. if four parts are to be alike. at the same time striking light. In this manner gears 3 in.to run true. above the surface. lady's card case. Second row: -Two book marks. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord.) Make on paper the design wanted. 1. Fig. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. The frame holding the mandrel. about 1-1/2 in. An ordinary machine will do. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. twisted around itself and soldered. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. Y. --Contributed by Howard S. dividing it into as many parts as desired. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. holding it in place with the left hand. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. tea cosey. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. book mark.

How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle. Secure . some heavy rubber hose.

The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground.C. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. a distance of 900 miles. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. Thrust a pin. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. If the needle is not horizontal. Florida. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. and bore a hole through the center. into which fit a small piece of tube. The electrodes are made . from Key West. where it condenses. C. B. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites.. and push it through a cork. D. A.

The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. both laterally and longitudinally. 16 piano wire. by 3/4 in. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. 12 uprights 1/2 in. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. --Contributed by Edwin L. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth.in. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. 3/4 in. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. lengths and splice them. thick. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. 1-1/2 in. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. long. Four long beams 3/4 in. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. wide and 4 ft. 2 in. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. thick. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. wide and 4 ft long. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. lumber cannot be procured. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. take the glider to the top of a hill. Connect as shown in the illustration. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. long. thick. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. thick. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. 2. wide and 4 ft. thick. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. wide and 20 ft. and also to keep it steady in its flight. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. or flying-machine. 2. as shown in Fig. To make a glide. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. C. free from knots. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. long. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. as shown in Fig. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. 1-1/4 in. apart and extend 1 ft. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. which is tacked to the front edge. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. long. All wiring is done with No. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. long. several strips 1/2 in. wide and 3 ft. 2 arm sticks 1 in. long for the body of the operator. 1/2. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. D. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. using a high resistance receiver. wide and 3 ft. Washington. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. 1. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. slacken speed and settle. 1. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. Powell. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. square and 8 ft long. use 10-ft. 1. The operator can then land safely and . the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. 3. as shown in Fig. If 20-ft. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig.

Great care should be . but this must be found by experience.gently on his feet. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Of course. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Glides are always made against the wind. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps.

Bellingham. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. a creature of Greek mythology. 1. which causes the dip in the line. Olson. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. --Contributed by L. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. M. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead.exercised in making landings. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. half man and half horse. When heated a little. as shown in Fig. 2.

The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. long and about 3/8 in. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. will complete the material list. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. of small rubber tubing.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. about the size of stove pipe wire. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. in diameter. While at the drug store get 3 ft. at the other. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. about the size of door screen wire. long. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. outside the box. The light from the . Cut a strip of tin 2 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. 14 in. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. square. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. this will cost about 15 cents. a piece of brass or steel wire. making it 2-1/2 in. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. When through with the lamp place the cover over it.

A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. Hunting. This is very simple when you know how. 1. --Photo by M. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. 2. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. M. If done properly the card will flyaway. as shown in the sketch. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. as shown in Fig. O. . door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. as shown in Fig. Dayton.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. while others will fail time after time.

If a certain color is to be more prominent. hold the lump over the flame. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball." or the Chinese students' favorite game.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. This game is played by five persons. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. as shown. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. place the other two. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. as before. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. then put it on the hatpin head. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. When the desired shape has been obtained. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. as described. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. closing both hands quickly. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. Cool in water and dry. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl.

How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. passing through neutralizing brushes. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. these sectors. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. distribute electric charges . or more in width.

the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. GG. 1 in. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. RR. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. and this should be done before cutting the circle. Two pieces of 1-in. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. as shown in Fig. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. The drive wheels. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. 4. material 7 in. and the outer end 11/2 in. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. and pins inserted and soldered. turned wood pieces. in diameter. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. are made from solid. free from wrinkles. at the other. and of a uniform thickness. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. in diameter. The two pieces. 1-1/2 in. D. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. in diameter and 15 in. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. or teeth. wide. The collectors are made. 1. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. long and the standards 3 in. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. from about 1/4-in. in diameter. the side pieces being 24 in. after they are mounted. in diameter. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. The plates. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. in diameter. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. 3/4 in. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. 3. long and the shank 4 in. These pins. The plates are trued up. to which insulating handles . as shown in Fig. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. 2. C C. Fig. Two solid glass rods. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. The fork part is 6 in. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. in diameter. 3. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. brass tubing and the discharging rods. Fig. long. EE. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. wide at one end. and 4 in. are made from 7/8-in. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. long. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass.

Colo. ball and the other one 3/4 in.. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. D. 12 ft. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. wide and 22 ft. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. --Contributed by C. one having a 2-in. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. KK. Lloyd Enos. Colorado City. long. which are bent as shown. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . and the work was done by themselves.are attached. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. in diameter. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall.

The key will drop from the string. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb.is a good one. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. They can be used to keep pins and needles. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. deep. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. yet such a thing can be done. string together. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. as at A. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. using a 1-in. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. and bore a hole 1/2 in. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. pens . The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. bit. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand.

flat and round-nosed pliers. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. and the third one 1/4 in. Having determined the size of the tray. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. two spikes. they make attractive little pieces to have about. using a nail filed to chisel edge. Use . Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. above the work and striking it with the hammer. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. unless it would be the metal shears. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. Raise the ends. then the other side. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. Proceed as follows: 1. above the metal. 5. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle.and pencils. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. extra metal on each of the four sides. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. 3. 9. sharp division between background and design. 6. 4. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. 7. slim screw. They are easily made. When the stamping is completed. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. or cigar ashes. etc. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in.. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. Inside this oblong. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. stamp the background promiscuously. Draw one-half the design free hand. This is to make a clean. file. inside the first on all. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. inside the second on all. also trace the decorative design. 23 gauge. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. The second oblong was 3/4 in. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. 8. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. very rapid progress can be made.. about 3/4-in. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. 2. etc. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off.

A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. and fourth fingers. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. and the effect will be most pleasing. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. 10. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. 9. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. third fingers. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. second fingers. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. 8. 6. 7. In the first numbering. first fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. The eyes. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9.

At a glance you see four tens or 40. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. viz. but being simple it saves time and trouble.. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. etc. the product of 12 times 12. . 600. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. Put your thumbs together.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. 400.. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. 11. etc. 12. above 15 times 15 it is 200. first fingers. 25 times 25. which would be 16. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. there are no fingers above. and the six lower fingers as six tens. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. or the product of 6 times 6. or the product of 8 times 9. which tens are added. etc. In the second numbering. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. thumbs. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. Let us multiply 12 by 12. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. or 60. or 80. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. if we wish. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. Still. The addition of 100 is arbitrary.. above 20 times 20. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. renumber your fingers. as high as you want to go. 2 times 2 equals 4. or numbers above 10. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. Two times one are two. which would be 70.

in the case of a nearsighted person. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. and. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. first fingers 22. beginning the thumbs with 16. 2. the lump sum to add. or what. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. And the lump sum to add. further. the revolution seems to reverse. thumbs. lastly. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. about a vertical axis. The inversion and reversion did not take place. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. when he removes his spectacles. For example. 3. as one might suppose.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. the value of the upper fingers being 20. Take For example 18 times 18. twenties. the value which the upper fingers have. 21. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. Proceed as in the second lumbering. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens.. the inversion takes place against his will. 75 and 85. etc. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. or from above or from below. not rotation. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. adding 400 instead of 100. . being 80). For figures ending in 6. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. It takes place also. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. at the will of the observer. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. which is the half-way point between the two fives. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. however. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. 7. first finger 17. forties. and so on. any two figures between 45 and 55. thirties. whether the one described in second or third numbering. 8. such as an used for lighting gas-burners.

the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. A flat slide valve was used. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. as . Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. tee. The ports were not easy to make. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. and putting a cork on the point.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. Looking at it in semidarkness. when he knows which direction is right. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. the other appearance asserts itself. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. sometimes the point towards him.

beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. apart. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. about 2 in. if continued too long without proper treatment. as in a vise. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. Kutscher. in diameter. Beating copper tends to harden it and. pipe 10 in. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. Ill. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. inexpensive. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. Next take a block of wood. bottom side up.. saw off a section of a broom handle. such as is shown in the illustration. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. The eccentric is constructed of washers. Fasten the block solidly. it is easily built. Springfield. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. The tools are simple and can be made easily. deep. The steam chest is round. secure a piece of No. across the head. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. -Contributed by W. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. pipe. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. . How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. If nothing better is at hand. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. and make in one end a hollow. While this engine does not give much power. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. H. across and 1/2 in.

S. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. --Contributed by W. the other to the left. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. especially when the object is near to the observer. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. To overcome this hardness. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. C. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. O. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. To produce color effects on copper. This process is called annealing.will cause the metal to break. Hay. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. Camden. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. Vinegar. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. and. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. as it softens the metal.

and then with the left eye through the blue glass. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. that for the right. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. In order to make them appear before the card. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. The further apart the pictures are. although they pass through the screen. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. in the proper choice of colors. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. But they seem black. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. however. would serve the same purpose. they must be a very trifle apart. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. it. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. diameter. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. with the stereograph. and lies to the right on the picture. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. not two mounted side by side. because of the rays coming from them. and without any picture. from the stereograph. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. It is just as though they were not there. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. the further from the card will the composite image appear. orange. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils.stereoscope. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. The red portions of the picture are not seen. while both eyes together see a white background. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. only the orange rays may pass through. So with the stereograph. the left eye sees through a blue screen." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. disappears fully. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. because. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. as for instance red and green. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. . the one for the left eye being blue. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground.

etc. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. in the shape of a crank.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. Place a NO. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. San Francisco. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. The weight of the air in round . The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. wireless. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. long and a hole drilled in each end. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. 12 gauge wire. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. or the middle of the bottle. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. A No. thick. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. 1/4 in. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. wide and 1 in. This should only be bored about half way through the block. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. Cal. in diameter.

high. 30 in. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. or. if accurately constructed. pine 3 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. The 4 in. wide and 40 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. the contrary. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. But if a standard barometer is not available. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. long. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. and a slow fall. if you choose. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in.. Before fastening the scale. high. square. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. Only redistilled mercury should be used. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. but before attempting to put in the mercury. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. internal diameter and about 34 in.6) 1 in. thick. square. wide and 4 in. or a column of mercury (density 13. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. a glass tube 1/8 in. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. In general. a bottle 1 in. 34 ft. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. inside diameter and 2 in. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. will calibrate itself. long.numbers is 15 lb. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. . while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. long. the instrument. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. high.

6 and 7. thick. 5. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Procure a metal can cover. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. Number the pieces 1. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . long. 1. Mark out seven 1-in. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. 3. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. wide and 10 in. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. which is slipped quickly over the end. the size of the outside of the bottle. 2. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. a cover from a baking powder can will do. and place them as shown in Fig. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle.

6 over No. 5's place. Move 7-Jump No. Make 22 sections. Move 6-Move No. Move 3-Move No. in diameter. 3 into No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 3. Move 4-Jump No. Move 10-Move No. 3 to the center. 2. 2 over No. as shown in Fig. Move 5-Jump No. each 10 ft. 6. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Move 2-Jump No. Move 8-Jump No. 7 over No. Woolson. 3 over No. 7.J. This can be done on a checker board. using checkers for men. Move 14-Jump No. L. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. To make such a tent. 6 in. Move 13-Move No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. Move 12-Jump No. 3. shaped like Fig. 1 into No. 2 . 5. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places.-Contributed by W. 1. l over No. 5 over No. 2's place. 1 to No. 2's place. N. Move 9-Jump No. 3. procure unbleached tent duck. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 6 into No. Move ll-Jump No. long and 2 ft. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. which is the very best material for the purpose. 5's place. 5 over No. Cape May Point. 2. 7 over No. 6 to No. 2 over No. Move 15-Move No. 6. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 7's place. 1.

5. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. long. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. 6-in.. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. as in Fig. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. leaving the rest for an opening. These are ventilators. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. long and 4 in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. Fig. round galvanized iron. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. wide by 12 in. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass.in. 3 in.J. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. --Contributed by G. After transferring the design to the brass. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. 6. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. Tress. to a smooth board of soft wood. diameter. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. 9 by 12 in. made in two sections. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. 2 in. wide at the bottom. As shown in the sketch. will do. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. wide at the bottom. Pa. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. high. Punch holes in the brass in . 2. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. Nail a thin sheet of brass. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Have the tent pole 3 in. about 9 in. 5) stuck in the ground. In raising the tent. Emsworth. fill with canvas edging. Fig. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. Use blocks. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. in diameter. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. added. from the top.

I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. cut out the brass on the outside lines. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. It will not. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. Corr. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. apart. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. around the outside of the pattern. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. When all the holes are punched. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. bend into shape. excepting the 1/4-in. The pattern is traced as before.the spaces around the outlined figures. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. but before punching the holes. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. . The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. Chicago. When the edges are brought together by bending.

partially filled with cream. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. A cast-iron ring. allowing 2 ft. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. Stevens. G. E. Dunham. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. Que. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. or less. or center on which the frame swings. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in.however.. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. Badger. pipe. pipe is used for the hub. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. between which is placed the fruit jar. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. --Contributed by H. Mayger. If a wheel is selected. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. better still. These pipes are . The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. A 6-in. or. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. --Contributed by Geo. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Oregon.

pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. pipe clamps. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. pipe. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. An extra wheel 18 in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . Four braces made from 1/2-in. bent to the desired circle.

while doing this. The performer. 1. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. as shown in Fig. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. which was placed in an upright position. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. and dropped on the table. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. and the guide withdrawn. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. 3. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes.

the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Denver. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. Colo. Louis. The box can be made of selected oak or . -Contributed by C. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. in diameter on another piece of tin. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. 2. it requires no expensive condensing lens. and second. in a half circle. F. St. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Mo. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Harkins. first. 1. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. White. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. --Contributed by H. D.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. These leaves can be made up in regular book form.

high and 11 in. 2. This will be 3/4 in. AA. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. wide and 6-1/2 in. high and must . from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. If a camera lens is used. and 2 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. and. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. The door covering this hole in the back. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. 1. long. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. wide. An open space 4 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. but not tight. long and should be placed vertically. from each end of the outside of the box. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. long. represented by the dotted line in Fig. Two or three holes about 1 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. fit into the runners. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. 5-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. wide and 5 in.mahogany. focal length. from each end. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. 3-1/2 in. wide by 5 in.

The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. Ohio. the article may be propped up . The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. and so on. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. Bradley. provided it is airtight. 1.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. This process is rather a difficult one. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. C." etc. April. calling that knuckle January. --Contributed by Chas. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. West Toledo. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown.. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. then the second knuckle will be March. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. calling this February. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. June and November. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. as it requires an airtight case. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. and extending the whole height of the lantern.

The top of a table will do. In both Fig. but waxed. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. 2. fruit jars are required. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. H. giving it an occasional stir. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. in. 1. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. the lid or cover closed. 1 and 2. Crawford. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. in. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. In each place two electrodes. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. one of lead and one of aluminum. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt.with small sticks. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. N. --Contributed by J. . The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. or suspended by a string. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. Schenectady. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. and set aside for half a day. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. running small motors and lighting small lamps. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. Y. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. Pour in a little turpentine. and the lead 24 sq. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. taking care to have all the edges closed.

He. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. you remove the glass. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. he throws the other. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. O. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. This trick is very simple. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Cleveland. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. as you have held it all the time.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. You have an understanding with some one in the company. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. which you warm with your hands. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. as well as others. After a few seconds' time. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated.. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug.

How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. in diameter in the center. . Be sure that this is the right one. Colo. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Crocker. Pull the ends quickly. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. but in making one.-Contributed by E. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. on a table. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. put it under the glass. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. but by being careful at shores. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. if any snags are encountered. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. J. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. near a partition or curtain. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Victor. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole.take the handiest one. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out.

3 in. 1.. Fig. 9 ft. for cockpit frame. and. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. of 1-yd. 1/8 in. as illustrated in the engraving. selected pine. screws and cleats. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. long. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. 14 rib bands. Both ends are mortised. 3 and 4. 2 in. by 12 in. 2 and braced with an iron band. by 2 in. by 2 in. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. for the stern piece. 2 gunwales. 3 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. are as follows: 1 keelson. by 16 ft. and the other 12 in. 1 in. by 8 in. 50 ft. wide. drilled and fastened with screws. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. by 10 ft. from each end to 1 in. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. 11 yd. 4 outwales. ducking. 1/4 in. by 16 ft. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. from the stern. wide and 12 ft. one 6 in. 1 in. The keelson. clear pine. long. 1 in. long. 8 in. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. from the bow and the large one. for center deck braces. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. long. of 1-1/2-yd. by 15 ft. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. apart. square by 16 ft. of rope. for the bow. thick and 3/4 in. 1 mast. 7 ft. and fastened with screws. 1 piece. wide unbleached muslin. wide 12-oz. and is removed after the ribs are in place. Paint. the smaller is placed 3 ft. 1 piece. wide and 12 ft. is 14 ft. 8 yd. at the ends.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops .. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. 1 in.

A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. doubled. is a cube having sides 6 in. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. 3-1/2 ft. They are 1 in. 4 in. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. Fig. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. . These are put in 6 in. wide and 14 in. Before making the deck. Fig. The 11-yd. wood screws. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. A block of pine. A piece of oak. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. long. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. is cut to fit under the top boards. The block is fastened to the keelson. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. 1 in. wide. 1/4 in. 7 and 8. wide and 3 ft. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. thick and 1/2 in. 9. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. 6 in. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. a piece 1/4 in. in diameter through the block. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. 1 in. thick. long is well soaked in water. 6. long. length of canvas is cut in the center. 6 and 7. long. 5. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. Braces. corner braces. screws. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. The trimming is wood. also. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. thick. wide. thick and 12 in. A seam should be made along the center piece. thick 1-1/2 in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. and fastened to them with bolts. gunwales and keelson. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. A 6-in. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. apart. Figs. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. wide and 24 in. This block. The deck is not so hard to do. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. from the bow.

Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. 10 with a movable handle. 11. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. are used for the boom and gaff. The keel. long. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. Tronnes. each 1 in. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. Ill. wide at one end and 12 in. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. Wilmette. is 6 in. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. at the other. long. The mast has two side and one front stay. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. wide. Fig. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. E. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. The house will accommodate 20 families. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. --Contributed by O. in diameter and 10 ft. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. The sail is a triangle. A strip 1 in. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. . thick by 2 in. apart in the muslin. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. 12.The rudder is made as shown in Fig.

The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. about 5/16 in. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. long. thick. one 11-1/2 in. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. Cut the maple. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. Fig. 2. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. wide. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. long and five 1/2-in. 5.into two 14-in. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. flat headed screws. --Contributed by O. E. wide. 1. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. 2 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. Tronnes. 3. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. wide and 30 in. Wilmette. as shown in Fig. 1 yd. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. Bevel both sides of the pieces. Ill. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. thick. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. long. Take this and fold it over . long. wide and 2 ft. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. with the ends and the other side rounding. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. flat-headed screws. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. and the other 18 in. flat on one side. and 3 ft. 2-1/2 in. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. thick.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. five 1/2-in. 2-1/2 in. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. 4. square.

Cut another piece of board. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. Louis. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. long. wide and 3 ft. long. long. Bliss. Glue a three cornered piece. the top and bottom. 3/8 in. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. forming an eye for a screw. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. thick. 6-1/2 in. and make a turn in each end of the wires. Make a double stitch all around the edge. and take care that the pieces are all square. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. 5 from 1/16-in. square. A. about 3/8 in. Fig. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. the mechanical parts can be put together. wide and 2-1/2 in. Wind three layers of about No. C. wide . The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. thick and 3 in. After the glue. long. 3-1/4 in. as well as the edges around the opening. A. soaked with water and blown up. wide and 6-3/4 in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. F. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. 1. is set. are rounded. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. pieces 2-5/8 in. square. E. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. Another piece. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. thick. The front. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. When the glue is set. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. St. this square box is well sandpapered. D. long. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. 3 in. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. of each end unwound for connections. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. C. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. then centered. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. long. leaving a small opening at one corner. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. long. long. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-3/4 in. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. Mo. 2 and 3. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. wide and 5 in. If carefully and neatly made. The sides are 3-1/4 in. The bag is then turned inside out. About 1/2 in. B. wide and 4-1/2 in.once. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. but can be governed by circumstances. and the four outside edges. Figs. --Contributed by W.

Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete.R. long. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. in diameter. 4 is not movable. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. The base is a board 5 in. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. wide and 9 in. Chapman. When the current flows through the coil. hole is fastened to the pointer. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. long. Richmond Hill. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. Fig. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . --Contributed by George Heimroth.S. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. wide and 2-1/2 in. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. from the spindle. R. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. C. F. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. Like poles repel each other. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. G. The stronger the current. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. Yorkshire. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. and fasten in place. the part carrying the pointer moves away. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. 1/4 in. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. 4. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. Fig.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. so it will just clear the tin. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. Place the tin. L. 1/16 in. that has the end turned with a shoulder. long. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. The end of the polar axis B. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. bored in the back. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. Austwick Hall.A. board. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. and the farther apart they will be forced. Another strip of tin. 4. 5. 5-1/2 in. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. The resistance is now adjusted to show . the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. A pointer 12 in. the same size as the first. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. W. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in.and 2-5/8 in. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. These wires should be about 1 in. showing a greater defection of the pointer. and as the part Fig. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. thick. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. from one end. I.

1881. shows mean siderial. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. 10 min. say Venus at the date of observation. A. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. and vice . at 9 hr. The following formula will show how this may be found. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. 30 min. thus: 9 hr. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. M. 10 min. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object.

Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. if one of these cannot be had. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. owing to the low internal resistance. . Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. get a glazed vessel of similar construction.m. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in.f. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Hall. Conn. or. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. and then verify its correctness by measurement. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. --Contributed by Robert W. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. New Haven.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down.

thick. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . and heap the glowing coals on top. of alum and 4 oz. cover up with the same. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. 3/8 in. inside diameter and about 5 in. arsenic to every 20 lb. especially for cooking fish. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. Then. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. put the fish among the ashes. 1-3/4 in.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. leaves or bark. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. Fig. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. Wet paper will answer. fresh grass. as shown in the accompanying picture. long. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. When the follower is screwed down. 1. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. The boring bar. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand.

bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. fastened with a pin. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. thick. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. about 1/2 in. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. when they were turned in. pipe. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. and threaded on both ends. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. pipe.

bent in the shape of a U. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. but never one which required so little material. a jump spark would be much better. the float is too high. 30 in. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. Fig.valve stems. 5. If the valve keeps dripping. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. labor and time. 4. Iowa. then it should be ground to a fit. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. 2. long. and which gave such satisfactory results. Fig. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. wide. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. square iron. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. A 1-in. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. thick and 3 in. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. was then finished on an emery wheel. This plate also supports the rocker arms. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. The rough frame. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. Clermont. 3. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. It . and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. Fig. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. however. as the one illustrated herewith. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off.

strong clear material only should be employed. set 3 ft. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. being held in position by spikes as shown. The illustration largely explains itself. square. W. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. no matter what your age or size may be. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. square and 2 ft. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. The crosspiece is 2 in. rope is not too heavy. long. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. from all over the neighborhood. If it is to be used for adults. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. strengthened by a piece 4 in. in fact. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. 3/4 in. for the "motive power" to grasp. A 3/4 -in. --Contributed by C. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. long is the pivot. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. and a little junk. Use a heavy washer at the head. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. long. 12 ft. Nieman. timber. It looks like a toy. from the center. The seats are regular swing boards. so it must be strong enough. hole bored in the post. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. This makes an easy adjustment. in the ground with 8 ft. long. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. completes the merry-go-round. with no trees or buildings in the way. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. and. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . A malleable iron bolt. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. in diameter and 15 in. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion." little and big. square and 5 ft. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. extending above. butting against short stakes. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in.was erected in our back yard one afternoon." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. As there is no bracing.

a wreck. These ends are placed about 14 in. long.the fingers. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. Having placed the backbone in position. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. one for the backbone and one for the bow. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. if nothing better is at hand. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. A reel is next made. 4. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. as shown in Fig.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. The bow is now bent. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. To wind the string upon the reel. and sent to earth. 1/4 by 3/32 in. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. The backbone is flat. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. away. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. square. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. 2. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. then it is securely fastened. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. and 18 in.2 emery. light and strong. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. 1. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. Both have large reels full of . and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other.

Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Newburyport. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. N. common packing thread.string. --Contributed' by Harry S. Bunker. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. If the second kite is close enough. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. often several hundred yards of it. Mass. C. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise.-Contributed by S. the balance. First. or glass-covered string. he pays out a large amount of string. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. The handle end is held down with a staple. Y. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. Moody. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. Brooklyn. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites.

lengths (Fig. then a dust protector. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. such as mill men use. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. each the size of half the table top. Vt. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. cutting the circular piece into quarters. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. square (Fig. If the table is round. must be attached to a 3-ft. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . make the pad as shown in the illustration. then draw the string up tight. --Contributed by Earl R. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. length of 2-in.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Hastings. Corinth. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening.

Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. trace the design carefully on the leather.-Contributed by H. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. which spoils the leather effect. Calif. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Moisten the . 17-1/2 in. G to H. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. from C to D. Use a smooth.. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. . trace this or some other appropriate design on it. 16-1/4 in. from E to F. and E to G. Wharton.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. 6-1/4 in. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. E. hard pencil. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. Oakland. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag.. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern.. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp.9-1/4 in. 2-1/4 in. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. If leaves are wanted in extending the table.

H-B. Now cut narrow thongs. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. I made this motor . Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. apart. Cut it the same size as the bag. G-J. Cut out the leather for the handle openings.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. To complete the bag. place both together and with a leather punch. also lines A-G. with the rounded sides of the tools. if not more than 1 in. is taken off at a time. and corresponding lines on the other side. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. wide. and E-G. get something with which to make a lining. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. about 1/8 in. Trace the openings for the handles. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. and lace through the holes.

Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. iron. Shannon. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. --Contributed by J. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. as shown in Fig. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. in length. 24 gauge magnet wire. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. Pasadena. Calif. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig.M. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. . The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. 1. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. B. each being a half circle. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. of No. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. 2-1/4 in. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. 2. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. 1. long. D.

from the bottom end. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. The gores for a 6-ft. are the best kind to make. near the center. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . The widest part of each gore is 16 in. pasted in alternately. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. and the gores cut from these. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. high. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. balloon should be about 8 ft. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. 1.

and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. 2. --Contributed by R. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. Fig. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . as shown in Fig. somewhat larger in size.widest point. in diameter. 3. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. B. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. After washing. leaving a long wake behind. using about 1/2-in. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. E. 5. A. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. In removing grease from wood. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. 1. saturating it thoroughly. after which the paint will adhere permanently. so it will hang as shown in Fig. Staunton. coming through the small pipe A. The boat soon attains considerable speed. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. In starting the balloon on its flight. As the boat is driven forward by this force. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. leaving the solution on over night. 4. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. as shown in Fig. If the gores have been put together right. lap on the edges. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. The steam. These are to hold the wick ball. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores.

1. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. apart on these lines. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. if you have several copies of the photograph. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. There are three ways of doing this: First. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. high and 8 in. Second. wide by 6 in. in bowling form. long and each provided with a handle. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. long. In using either of the two methods described. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. Third. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. as is shown in Fig. The blocks are about 6 in.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters.

Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead.Fig. Albany. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . --Contributed by John A. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Hellwig. Rinse the plate in cold water. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. thick. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. N. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Y. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. being careful not to dent the metal. 2. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Fig.

The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. with a set screw. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. 6 in. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. 2 the front view. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. through which passes the set screw S. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. A circular piece of wood. and. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. and not produce the right sound. is fastened to a common camera tripod. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. and Fig. wide and 8 in. CC. 1 Fig. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . A. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. are screwed to the circular piece. wide and of any desired height. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations.upon any particular object. --Contributed by R. which is 4 in. Paine. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. Richmond. thick. Break off the frame. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. These corner irons are also screwed to. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. Corner irons. A. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. Va. long for the base. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. S. 5 in. in diameter. B. In Fig. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. With this device. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G.

in diameter of some 1-in. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. R. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Ill. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. thus producing sound waves. pine boards.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. . If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. S. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. Lake Preston. This will make a very compact electric horn. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. La Salle. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. Kidder. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. I made a wheel 26 in. D. -1. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. as only the can is visible.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. This horn. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery.

The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Kane. 2. A. --Contributed by James R. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Doylestown. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. the same thickness as the coins. Purdy. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Fig. thick and 12 in. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. square. 1. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. O. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. --Contributed by C. The frame is made of a heavy card. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. 1. B. If there is a large collection of coins. Ghent. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. The drawers can be taken out and turned over.

several large nails. Toronto. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. If desired. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder.J. One Cloud. cut and grooved. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. a hammer or mallet. The material required is a sheet of No. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. of developer. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. for after the slides have been shown a few times. though not absolutely necessary. melted and applied with a brush.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. thick. Wis. and then glued together as indicated. plus a 3/8-in. --Contributed by J. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. and a stout board upon which to work up the design.E. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. they become uninteresting. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. border all around. Milwaukee. --Contributed by August T. Noble. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. Cal. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. It will hold 4 oz. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. A rivet punch is desirable. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. into which to place the screws . Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Smith. A lead pencil. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. --Contributed by R. Canada. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. Neyer.

This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. like the one shown. and file it to a chisel edge. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. never upon the metal directly. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. both outline and decoration. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. draw one part. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. There are several ways of working up the design. Remove the screws. using 1/2-in. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. screws placed about 1 in. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. Take the nail. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block.

for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. of 11-in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. 3/4 in. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. and two lengths. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. l-1/8 in. About 1/2 yd. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. as shown in Fig. long. two lengths. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. 2. using a 1/2in. square. long. for the top. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. square and 181/2 in. Rivet the band to the holder. each 1 in. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. for the lower rails. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. in the other. . long. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. up from the lower end. Provide four lengths for the legs. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. being ball bearing.wall. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. square and 11 in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. The pedal. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. 1. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. 3. Do not bend it over or flatten it. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed.

F. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. having quite a length of threads. --Contributed by John Shahan. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. Attalla. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . Ala. --Contributed by W. New York City. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. Quackenbush. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator.

something that is carbonated. long. making a lap of about 1 in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. from one end. wide and 8-1/4 in. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. The desired emblem. and the other 2-3/4 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. and 3/8 in. initial. long. using class. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Two pieces of felt. wide and 4-1/4 in. from the end. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. --Contributed by C. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. college or lodge colors. stitched on both edges for appearance. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. in depth. D. Assemble as shown in the sketch. Ironwood. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. the end of the other piece is folded over. Luther. Mich. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. each 1-1/4 in..This novelty watch fob is made from felt. and two holes in the other. long. one about 1 in.

1/4 in. which can be procured from a plumber. and the cork will be driven out. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. This method allows a wide range of designs. 1. in the cover and the bottom. from the center and opposite each other. in diameter and 2 in. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. 2. if desired by the operator. Indianapolis. as shown at B. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. about 2 in. Ind. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. --Contributed by John H. or more in height. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. A piece of lead. Punch two holes A. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. as shown in the sketch.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. or a pasteboard box. Fig. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Schatz. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid.

A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. A piece of thick glass. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. are turned up as in Fig. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. The pieces of tin between the holes A. Columbus. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. . There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. 4. When the can is rolled away from you. 1. and the ends of the bands looped over them. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. as shown in Fig. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. or marble will serve. 5. O. metal. Fig. 3. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. putting in the design. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. it winds up the rubber band. on both top and bottom.Rolling Can Toy lead. allowing the two ends to be free.

face up. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. or more thick on each side. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. hole through it. mark over the design. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. from each end. I secured a board 3/4 in. deep in its face. The edges should be about 1/8 in. 1 in. Next place the leather on the glass. After this has been done. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. thicker than the pinion. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. thick. If it is desired to "line" the inside. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. long and bored a 1/2-in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. 3 in.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. wide and 20 in. A pencil may be used the first time over. and. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. New York City.

in diameter. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. lag screws as shown. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . New York. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. Syracuse. 2 side rails. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 1 piece. thick top board.in the board into the bench top. 1 back board. Fig. 2 by 12 by 77 in. --Contributed by A. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. countersinking the heads of the vise end. M. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Rice. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 1 top board. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 1 piece for clamp. 1 screw block. 1 by 9 by 80 in. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. pieces for the vise slides. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 2 crosspieces. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 1 top board. 2. Now fit up the two clamps. Cut the 2-in. Make the lower frame first. 1 piece for clamp. 3 by 3 by 36. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. and fit it in place for the side vise. much of the hard labor will be saved. Y. Brooklyn. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 4 guides. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 1. 3 by 3 by 20 in. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 2 end rails. N. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip.

. Only the long run. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 2-ft. 1 cross cut saw.screws. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 24 in. 1 claw hammer. 1 compass saw. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. They can be purchased at a hardware store. as well as the pattern maker. in diameter. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 pocket level. 1 monkey wrench. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 2 screwdrivers. it can be easily found when wanted. rule.. 1 marking gauge. 1 pair dividers. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 nail set. 1 rip saw. 1 countersink. 1 wood scraper. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 jack plane or smoother. . 1 set gimlets. 3 and 6 in. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. If each tool is kept in a certain place. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 pair pliers. The amateur workman. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools.. 24 in. The bench is now complete. 1 set chisels.

Doylestown. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. being softer. but will not make . and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness.1 6-in. The calf skin. will sink into the handle as shown at D. Pa. 3. Fig.1. No. 1 oilstone. Fig. 1. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. becomes like A. the projecting point A. ---Contributed by James M. 2 and 00 sandpaper. will be easier to work. 2. Fig. try square. Kane. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. after constant use. Fig. 1.

and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. If calf skin is to be used. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. when dry. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. . Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. cover it completely with water enamel and. -Contributed by Julia A. Two pieces will be required of this size. Having prepared the two sides. Turn the leather. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper.as rigid a case as the cow skin. First draw the design on paper. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. and the length 6-5/8 in. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. If cow hide is preferred. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. secure a piece of modeling calf. New York City. but a V-shaped nut pick. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. then prepare the leather. which steam. water or heat will not affect. lay the design on the face. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. After the outlines are traced. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. White. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. such as copper or brass. will do just as well. the same method of treatment is used. The form can be made of a stick of wood.

This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. A. Maine. Cobb. C. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Richmond. Portland. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Jaquythe. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. --Contributed by Chester L. and an adjustable friction-held loop. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Herrman. --Contributed by Chas. .Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. --Contributed by W. Cal. New York City. as shown in the sketch. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down.

B. . was marked out as shown. Wright. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. This was very difficult. --Contributed by Wm. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. Mass. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. an inverted stewpan. Cambridge. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. Roberts. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. A thick piece of tin. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. Conn. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. for instance. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. --Contributed by Geo.. Middletown.

of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. Chicago. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. and quite new. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. The next morning there was no trace of oil. of boiling water. --Contributed by C. apply powdered calcined magnesia. F. so some bones were quickly calcined. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. pulverized and applied. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. but only an odor which soon vanished. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. Herbert. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. --Contributed by Paul Keller. which has been tried out several times with success. and the grease will disappear. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. face down.. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. Indianapolis. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. used as part of furniture. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. Ind. . such as chair seats. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. A beautifully bound book. There was no quicklime to be had. If the article is highly polished. When dry. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. well calcined and powdered. but not running over. as shown. Bone. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. on a clear piece of glass. L. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. If any traces of the grease are left.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. Illinois. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease.

Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. soft steel with the opening 6 in. 6 in. high and are bolted to a block of wood.. says Scientific American. New York. deep and 5 in. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. thick. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make. Tarrytown. 2 in.. A. --Contributed by Geo. the pieces . Howe. If properly adjusted. The pieces marked S are single. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. set and thumbscrews. wide and 12 in. long. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel.

The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. for sending to friends. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. to the underside of which is a block. The seat is a board. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. A sharp knife. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. no doubt. albums and the like. E. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. they will look remarkably uniform. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. If the letters are all cut the same height. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. says Camera Craft. Their size depends on the plate used.

and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. So arranged. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. mount them on short pieces of corks. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. photographing them down to the desired size. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. after.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. pasting the prints on some thin card. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. So made." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. for example. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. In cutting out an 0. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. using care to get it in the right position. The puzzle is to get . they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind.

J. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. N. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. G.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made.-Contributed by I. squeezes along past the center of the tube. Cape May Point. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. Bayley. says the American Thresherman. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. of its top. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. long that will just fit are set in. snow or anything to hide it. Old-Time Magic . The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. A hole 6 or 7 in. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. with the longest end outside. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . so they will lie horizontal. hung on pivots. He smells the bait. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week.

or rub the hands a little before doing so. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Pocatello. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Idaho. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. E. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Brooklyn. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. --Contributed by L. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. then spread the string. --Contributed by L. Y. Szerlip. Rhode Island. --Contributed by Charles Graham. then expose again. Press the hands together. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. N.faced up. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Pawtucket. Parker.

tapering down to 1-1/2 in.Genuine antique swords and armor. wipe the blade . The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. in building up his work from the illustrations.. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. wide and 2 in. 3 Fig. using a straightedge and a pencil. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. narrower. in width.. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. 1. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. 4 on the blade. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. The blade should be about 27 in. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. The handle is next made. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. whether he requires a single sword only. near the point end. or a complete suit of armor. says the English Mechanic. full size. and if carefully made. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. dark red. they will look very much like the genuine article. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. or green oil paint. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. The pieces. end of the blade. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. When the glue is thoroughly dry. 1 Fig. Glue the other side of the blade. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. if any. thick. long. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. 2 Fig. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. When the whole is quite dry.

long. 2. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. 1. In making. In the finished piece. and 3 in. allowing for a good hold with both hands. 1. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. square and of any length desired. The length of the handle. In making this scimitar. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. 1. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. in the widest part at the lower end. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. the length of the blade 28 in. the illustration. shows only two sides. This sword is about 68 in. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. should be about 9 in. 4. the other is flat or half-round. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. 1. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. about 1-1/2 in.. 1/8 in. thick and 5 in. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. as it is . in diameter. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. Both edges of the blade are sharp. the other two are identical. the other is flat or halfround. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. Fig. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. 2. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. preferably of contrasting colors. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord.with light strokes up and down several times. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. not for use only in cases of tableaux. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. 3. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. take two pieces of wood. 3. of course. follow the directions as for Fig..

piping and jackets by hard water. each about 1 ft. Morse. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. and if so. --Contributed by Katharine D. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. long. Franklin. On each edge of the board. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. as can the pitch bed or block. or an insecure fastening. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. as there was some at hand. It is made of a plank.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. however. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. at the lower end. Doctors probed for the button without success. Syracuse. The thinness of the plank. as shown in the sketch. about 3/8 in. 2 in. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. Mass. Y. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. N. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. A cold . Both can be made easily. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. --Contributed by John Blake. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. in an attempt to remove it. square. and. A piece of mild steel.

The illustration shows an iron receptacle. secure a piece of brass of about No. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown.. When the desired form has been obtained. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass.. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. using a small metal saw. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. When this has been done. plaster of Paris. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. Trim up the edges and file them . Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. on the pitch. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. 5 lb. To put it in another way. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. design down. 5 lb. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. 18 gauge. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. tallow. To remedy this. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. a file to reduce the ends to shape. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees.

it may be well to know what horsepower means. space between the vessels with water. or 550 ft. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. lb. This in turn divided by 33. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. The smaller is placed within the larger. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. over the smaller vessel. Fill the 3-in. make an unusual show window attraction.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. --Contributed by Harold H. 30 ft. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33.000 ft. per second. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. and hang a bird swing. Cutter. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. or fraction of a horsepower. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. and still revolve. but not to stop it.000 lb. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. in diameter (Fig. 3. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. one 18 in. 1) and the other 12 in. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. 2). 1 ft. 1 ft. to keep it from floating. Before giving the description. in one minute or 550 lb. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Fig. in one second. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. A. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Clean the metal thoroughly. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. in the center. lb. using powdered pumice with lye. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. per minute. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. . long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass.smooth. in diameter (Fig. That is lifting 33. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor.

Y. by L. or on a pedestal.3 Fig. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. --Contributed by J. Brooklyn. --Contributed. Diameter Fig. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Campbell. F. Mass. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. Diameter 12 in.18 in. Somerville. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Szerlip. N. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. The effect is surprising. 1 Fig. 2 Fig.

as a rule. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. Do not be content merely to bend them over. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. This compound is impervious to water. then by drawing a straightedge over it. away from the edge. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. and cut out the shape with the shears. with other defects. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. and then. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. the same as removing writing from a slate. Rivet the cup to the base. after which it is ready for use. which. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. with the pliers. using any of the common metal polishes. unsatisfactory. to keep the metal from tarnishing. In riveting. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. Polish both of these pieces. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. which may be of wood or tin. keeping the center high. often render it useless after a few months service. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. is. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet.copper of No. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. and the clay .

Houghton. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. 2. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. long.can be pressed back and leveled. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. -Contributed by Thos. 1. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. Grand Rapids. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. It is made of a glass tube. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. --Contributed by A. Shettleston. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. the device will work for an indefinite time. in diameter and 5 in. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. Scotland. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. Dunlop. A. DeLoof. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. . Northville. as shown in Fig. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. Mich. The siphon is made of glass tubes. 3/4 in. Mich. --Contributed by John T. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube.

in width and 2 in. London.FIG. 1. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. This sword is 4 ft. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. stilettos and battle-axes.1 FIG. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. As the handle is to . put up as ornaments. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. long. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords.

Three large. studded with brass or steel nails. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. When the whole is quite dry. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. the same as used on the end of the handle. 5. When the glue is thoroughly dry. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. 6. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. small rope and round-headed nails. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. with both edges sharp. In Fig. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. A German stiletto. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. 20 spike. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. 4. This stiletto has a wood handle. In Fig. the upper part iron or steel. sometimes called cuirass breakers. paint it a dark brown or black. very broad. The lower half of the handle is of wood. These must be cut from pieces of wood. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. is shown in Fig. string. long. with wire or string' bound handle. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. A German poniard is shown in Fig. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. 11 were used. 3 is shown a claymore. which is about 2-1/2 ft. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. long with a dark handle of wood. sharp edges on both sides. This sword is about 4 ft. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. narrower. Both handle and axe are of steel. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. The ball is made as described in Fig. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. then glued on the blade as shown. with both edges of the blade sharp. In Fig. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft.represent copper. glue and put it in place. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. in length. The handle is of wood. 8. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. This weapon is about 1 ft. The sword shown in Fig. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. This weapon is also about 1 ft. 9. in length. Cut two strips of tinfoil. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. When dry. 7. This axe is made similar to the one . the axe is of steel. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. in width. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. The crossbar and blade are steel. one about 1/2 in. wood with a keyhole saw. firmly glued on.

and as the tension members are all protected from wear. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. . Old-Time Magic . Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. such as braided fishline. the ends are tied and cut off. Chicago. high. 2. Davis. When wrapped all the way around.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. together as shown in Fig. --Contributed by E. so the contents cannot be seen. This will make a very good flexible belt. 10.described in Fig. will pull where other belts slip. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. W. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil.

Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. The dotted lines in Fig. S. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. Bridgeton. filled with water. 1 and put together as in Fig. about one-third the way down from the top. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. Calif. some of the liquid. Before the performance. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. causing the flowers to grow.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Macdonald. in a few seconds' time. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. To make the flowers grow in an instant. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Oakland. held in the right hand. an acid. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. There will be no change in color. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. with the circle centrally located. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. N. These wires are put in the jar. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. --Contributed by A. 2. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails.J. apparently. four glass tumblers. As zinc is much lighter than iron. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . or using small wedges of wood. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers.

which are numbered for convenience in working. 4 for width and No. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. A. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . and equally worthy of individual treatment. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. says a correspondent of Photo Era. --Contributed by W. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. not only because of the fact just mentioned. When many slides are to be masked. unless some special device is used. Cal. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. and kept ready for use at any time. This outlines the desired opening. If the size wanted is No. Richmond. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. practical and costs nothing. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. 2 for height. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. Jaquythe. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately.

Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. too. but they can be easily revived. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. is about right for the No. The decoration. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. the paper is folded along the center line. using the carbon paper. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. about half and half. a little less acid than water. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . This done. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. Draw a design. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. Secure a sheet of No. The one shown is merely suggestive. or a pair of old tongs. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. With a stick. may be changed. 16 gauge. and do not inhale the fumes. the margin and the entire back of the metal. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. not the water into the acid. paint the design. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. or. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. which is dangerous. possibly. and the extreme length 7 in. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. When etched to the desired depth.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in.

4. Fig. C and D. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. . and bore two holes. Then get two posts. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Fig. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. 5. so that when it is pressed down. about 8 in. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. it will touch post F. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. high. Nail a board. attached to a post at each end. Fig. 5. and about 2-1/2 ft. Paint the table any color desired. 0 indicates the batteries. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. wide. long. When the button S is pressed. 1. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. 24 parts water. wide and of the same length as the table. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. Fig. thick. 2. The connections are simple: I. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. in diameter and 1/4 in. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. It may be either nailed or screwed down. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. about 1 in. Fig. long and 1 ft. about 2-1/2 in. repeat as many times as is necessary. as in Fig. through it. to the table. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. or more wide. the bell will ring. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. Cut out a piece of tin. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. as shown in Fig. about 3 ft. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. with the wires underneath. A. as at H. 2. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. 3. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. J is another wire attached in the same way.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. as shown in the illustration. 2. 3/8 in.

2. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. 1. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. the wood peg inserted in one of them. The entire weapon. The imitation articles are made of wood. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. This weapon is about 22 in. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set.Imitation Arms and Armor . Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. such as . The circle is marked out with a compass. handle and all. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. long serves as the dowel. A wood peg about 2 in. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. says the English Mechanic. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. thick.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. These rings can be carved out. After the glue is dry. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary.. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. long. but they are somewhat difficult to make. is to appear as steel.

The lower half of the handle is wood. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. 6. is shown in Fig. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. 5. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The spikes are cut out of wood. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. 2. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. If such a tool is not at hand. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. 3. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. etc. studded with large brass or steel nails. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. as before mentioned. as described in Fig. The handle is of wood. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. Its length is about 3 ft. All of these axes are about the same length. The upper half of the handle is steel. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle is of steel imitation. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. . The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. The entire handle should be made of one piece. covered with red velvet.ornamental scrolls. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. The axe is shown in steel. the hammer and spike. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. 8. as shown. with a sharp carving tool. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. also. used at the end of the fifteenth century. flowers. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. This weapon is about 22 in. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. leaves. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. or the amateur cannot use it well. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. long. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.

6. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. . Each person plays until three outs have been made. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. then the other plays. Fig. the knife resting on its back. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. 4). and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. 1. 5. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. a three-base hit. and so on for nine innings. 2. as shown in Fig. The knife falling on its side (Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. as in Fig. 7) calls for one out.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. calls for a home run. 3. Chicago.

with the rope laced in the cloth. hypo to 1 pt. as shown in Fig. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. as shown in Fig. It may be found that the negative is not colored. Campbell. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. while the committee is tying him up.-Contributed by J. 1. F. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. This he does. of the rope and holds it. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. 2. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. Somerville. If it is spotted at all. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. Mass. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. Old-Time Magic . When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. 3. one of them burning . of water for an hour or two.

thus causing it to light. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. of water and 1 oz. 4 oz.brightly. of sugar. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. showing that there is nothing between them. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. shades the light for a few seconds. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Evans. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire.Contributed by Andrew G. He then walks over to the other candle. --Contributed by L. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. bolt. invisible to them (the audience). the lamp having been removed and the back opened. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. with which he is going to light the other candle. Lebanon. of plumbago. --Contributed by C. Brown. thick. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. and. Louisville. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. Thome. 3/4 in. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. New York City. Drill Gauge screw. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. The magician walks over to the burning candle. of turpentine. 4 oz. B. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. Ky. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. the other without a light. . When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. Ky.. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. etc.

Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. H. long. In making up the solution. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. which will give a strong. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Denniston. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. diameter. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. --Contributed by C. Its current strength is about one volt. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Pulteney. 5 in. steady current. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. thick. but is not so good. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . for the material. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. To make the porous cell. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. Do not add water to the acid.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. about 5 in. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. Y. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. N. or blotting paper. into a tube of several thicknesses.

carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. steel. After much experimentation with bearings. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. steel. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. To insure this. As to thickness. one drawing them together. while the other end is attached by two screws. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described.station. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. steel. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. long with a bearing at each end. a positive adjustment was provided. Finally. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The . One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. the other holding them apart. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. carrying the hour circle at one end. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. but somewhat lighter.) may be obtained. One hole was bored as well as possible. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument.

" the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. is provided with this adjustment. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. excepting those on the declination axis. All set screws. subtract 24. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. To find a star in the heavens. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. turn the pointer to the star. If the result is more than 24 hours. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. once carefully made. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. 45 min. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph.. The pointer is directed to Alpha." Only a rough setting is necessary. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. To locate a known star on the map.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. are tightened. Set the declination circle to its reading. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. and if it is not again directed to the same point. The aperture should be 1/4 in. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. save the one in the pipe.. All these adjustments. Point it approximately to the north star. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. when the pointer should again cut at the same place." When this is done. Cassiopiae. in each direction from two points 180 deg. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . need not be changed. apart. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. Declination is read directly. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. Instead. It is. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. The pole is 1 deg. Each shaft. and 15 min. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. When properly set it will describe a great circle.

a great effect will be produced. is the real cannon ball. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. of ether. taking care not to add too much. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. which is the one examined. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. The ball is found to be the genuine article. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. is folded several times. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. -Contributed by Ray E. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. New Orleans. Ohio. La. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. The dance will begin. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper.. In reality the first ball. as shown in the sketch. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. cannon balls. add a little more benzole. benzole. then add 1 2-3 dr. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. If this will be too transparent. Plain City. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. long. 3 or 4 in. the others . Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. Strosnider.

Somerville. 2. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. --Contributed by J. Mass. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band.. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. In boxes having a sliding cover. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. 1). take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. F. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . Campbell. as shown in the illustration. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. taps. without taking up any great amount of space. Milwaukee. Wis. Return the card to the pack. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. etc. small brooches. San Francisco. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. Fig. Cal.

The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. This box has done good service. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. from the bottom of the box. round pieces 2-1/4 in. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. Hartford.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Connecticut. . Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. prints. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. slides and extra brushes. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. Beller. as shown in the illustration. thus giving ample store room for colors. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in.

Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. -Contributed by C. with well packed horse manure. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. Fill the upper tub. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. West Lynn. or placed against a wall. . tacking the gauze well at the corners. costing 5 cents. Darke. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. FIG. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. When the ends are turned under. Mass. O. about threefourths full. 2). 1). The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. will answer the purpose. holes in the bottom of one. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet.

If the following directions are carried out. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. oil or other fluid. and each bundle contains . Chicago. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. M. when they are raised from the pan. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. they should be knocked out. cutting the cane between the holes. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. if this is not available. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. Eifel. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. --Contributed by L.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. If plugs are found in any of the holes. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and.

No plugs . it should be held by a plug. 1. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. after having been pulled tight. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. held there by inserting another plug. as shown in Fig. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. In addition to the cane. as it must be removed again. then across and down. put about 3 or 4 in. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. a square pointed wedge. and. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. Whenever the end of one strand is reached.

The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. 5 in. the next smallest. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. 1 lat. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. and for 1° it would be . The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. 41°-30'. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. and the one we shall describe in this article. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed.2 in. 1. the height of which is taken from table No. No weaving has been done up to this time. There are several different designs of sundials. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. --Contributed by M. or the style. 4. Patrick. Even with this lubrication.42 in. From table No. 1. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. Their difference is . as for example. as shown in Fig. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. After completing the second layer. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. All added to the lesser or 40°. D. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. the height of the line BC. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. is the base (5 in. Fig.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. This will make three layers. The style or gnomon. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. in this case) times the . 3. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. 1. Detroit. it is 4. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. 40°. we have 4. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or .075 in. stretch the third one. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. R. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. Michigan. When cool. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC.5 in. W. 5. 3. for 2°. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. During the weaving. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. lat.075 in. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third.15 in. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. and for lat. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs.2+. 42° is 4. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. but the most common. as shown in Fig. trim off the surplus rosin. If handled with a little care.3 in. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. 41 °-30'. called the gnomon. is the horizontal dial. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. Fig. If you have a table of natural functions. -Contributed by E. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. as the height of the line BC for lat. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. using the same holes as for the first layer. It consists of a flat circular table.= 4. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. as it always equals the latitude of the place.15+.

85 35 .66 latitude. 1.10 6. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.33 .64 4 8 3. an inch or two.19 1.30 2.66 1. if of metal. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.20 60° 8. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.82 3.02 1.44 44° 4.42 .76 1.23 6. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.46 3.91 58° 8.57 1.96 32° 3.89 50° 5.26 4.16 40 .29 4-30 7-30 3. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.33 42° 4.07 4. gives the 6 o'clock points. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .42 45 . and perpendicular to the base or style. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.49 3. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.93 6. circle Sundial. Its thickness. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.99 2. Fig.46 .55 30° 2.57 3. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.42 1.82 5.18 28° 2.00 40° 4.55 4.14 5.27 2. and for this size dial (10 in. For latitudes not given.81 4.38 .28 .79 4.16 1. and intersecting the semicircles.32 6.40 34° 3.11 3.03 3.77 2.94 1. To layout the hour circle.12 52° 6.87 1. 2.50 26° 2. or more.85 1.37 54° 6. using the points A and C as centers. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. Draw the line AD.87 4.66 48° 5. according to the size of the dial.59 2. 2.tangent of the degree of latitude. .30 1. 2 for given latitudes.63 56° 7.82 2. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.55 5. which will represent the base in length and thickness.49 30 .83 27° 2.93 2. Draw two semi-circles. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.06 2.88 36° 3.68 5-30 6-30 5. Table NO. or if of stone. Chords in inches for a 10 in.56 .41 38° 3. long.39 . base.40 1.55 46° 5.97 5 7 4. with a radius of 5 in.37 5. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.

Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. 900 Chicago.93 6.53 1.37 2.30 2. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.60 4. says the English Mechanic.08 1. will enable one to set the dial.add those marked + subtract those Marked . --Contributed by J. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.06 2. An ordinary compass. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . 3 Corrections in minutes to change.98 4. after allowing for the declination.79 6. The + means that the clock is faster. Sun time to local mean time.. and for the difference between standard and local time. Sept. Mitchell.49 3. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. it will be faster. and the . if west.14 1.50 .63 1. then the watch is slower. 2 and Dec.46 5. As they are the genuine reproductions. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.77 3. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. London. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position.50 55 . The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Sioux City.01 1.from Sundial lime. Each weapon is cut from wood.87 6.10 4. adding to each piece interest and value.72 5.68 3. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.89 3. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.means that the dial is faster than the sun. each article can be labelled with the name.49 5.82 3. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.54 60 . The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. April 16. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.21 2. June 15.71 2. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. 3. This correction can be added to the values in table No.57 1.19 2.24 5.34 5. 3. Iowa. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. 25.12 5. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.52 Table No. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. E.46 4.

The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. the length of which is about 5 ft. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. Partisan. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. long from the point where it is attached to the handle.. When putting on the tinfoil. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. . 1. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. 3. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in.

is shown in Fig. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. press it well into the carved depressions. used about the seventeenth century. long with a round staff or handle. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear.. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. in diameter. . This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The edges are sharp. The length of this bar is about 5 in. about 4 in. which are a part of the axe. sharp on the outer edges. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. 7. The extreme length is 9 ft. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. the holes being about 1/4 in. This weapon is about 6 ft. long. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. 6 ft. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. A gisarm or glaive. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. 8. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. 5. The spear is steel. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. long. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. It is about 6 ft. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. long with a round wooden handle. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig.which is square.

As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. used for spacing and binding the whole together. apart. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. 2 and 3. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. 5. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. are less durable and will quickly show wear. Workman. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. Substances such as straw. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead.-Contributed by R. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. The twisted cross cords should . This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. This is important to secure neatness. Loudonville. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. the most durable being bamboo. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. 1. as shown in Fig. the cross cords. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. B.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. or in holes punched in a leather strap. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. H. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. Ohio. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. Cut all the cords the same length. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. In Figs. They can be made of various materials. are put in place. 4.

below the top to within 1/4 in. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. for a length extending from a point 2 in. A slit was cut in the bottom. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . as shown at B. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. New York. shaped as shown at C. wide. The first design shown is for using bamboo. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle.be of such material. 3 in. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. To remedy this. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. Lockport. M. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. in which was placed a piece of glass. -Contributed by Geo. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. bamboo or rolled paper. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. Harrer. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. This was turned over the top of the other can. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. New Orleans. La. of the bottom. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. Four V-shaped notches were cut.

sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. H. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. and two along the side for attaching the staff. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. Cal. wide. about 1/16 in. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. It would be well to polish the brass at first. Sanford. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. turned over but not fastened. --Contributed by Chas. --Contributed by W. is shown in the accompanying sketch.tape from sticking to the carpet. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. Pasadena. This plank. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. Maywood. the brass is loosened from the block. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. do not throw away the gloves. After this is finished. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. N. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. Shay. Ill. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. Y. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. This should be done gradually. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. giving the appearance of hammered brass. Newburgh. Schaffner. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. --Contributed by Joseph H. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy.

bent as shown. Richmond. Ill. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. A. --E. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. the pendulum swings . Oak Park. Unlike most clocks.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. -Contributed by W. in diameter. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Jaquythe. Cal. Marshall. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. K.

Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. and the other two 2-5/8 in. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. In using this method. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. 5/16 in. . and the result is not only novel but well worth while. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. bar. to the first one with screws or glue. Now place the board to be joined. bearing on the latter. is an electromagnet. high. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. on the board B. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. 7-1/2 in. --Contributed by V. wide that is perfectly flat. wide. are secured in the base bar.. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. The construction is very simple. the center one being 2-3/4 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. says the Scientific American. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. B. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. Metzech. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. in diameter. Chicago. C. about 6 in. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. only have the opposite side up. thick. about 12 in. high. Two uprights. high and 1/4 in. away. Fasten another board. such as this one. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. 6 in. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. long and at each side of this. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Secure a board. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. high. 3/4 in. A. by 1-5/16 in.

The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. wide and 1 in. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. whose dimensions are given in Fig.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. 4. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. 1. 3. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. Vanderslice. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. or more. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. as shown at A. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. Pa. plates should be made 8 in. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. square. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. Fig. 1. Fig. is fastened in the hole A. --Contributed by Elmer A. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. The trigger. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. 2. by driving a pin through the wood. Phoenixville. wide and 5 in. 1. square inside. from one end. . attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. long.

5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. -Contributed by J. as shown in the illustration. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. 5 parts of black filler. rubbing varnish and turpentine. one-half the length of the side pieces.A. Simonis.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. square. if only two bands are put in the . and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. 2 parts of whiting. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. which allows 1/4 in. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. Fostoria. Ohio. by weight. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull.

as shown in Fig. Shaw. is necessary. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. A mirror. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. preferably copper. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. London. No. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. Mass. DeLoof. --Contributed by Thos. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. In use. Dartmouth. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. Grand Rapids. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. keeps the strong light out when sketching. G. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. It must be kept moist and well . In constructing helmets. long. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. wide and about 1 ft. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. Michigan. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. says the English Mechanic. 8 in. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. is set at an angle of 45 deg.lower strings. in the opposite end of the box. -Contributed by Abner B. place tracing paper on its surface. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. A double convex lens. and it may be made as a model or full sized. deep. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. II. If a plain glass is used. A piece of metal. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. and the picture can be drawn as described. 1. which may be either of ground or plain glass.

1. 2. All being ready. brown. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. The clay. the clay model oiled. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. and the deft use of the fingers. shown in Fig. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. as shown in Fig. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly .kneaded. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. and over the crest on top. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. will be necessary. After the clay model is finished. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. 3. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. and left over night to soak. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. Scraps of thin. as in bas-relief. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. and continue until the clay is completely covered. take. a few clay-modeling tools. with a keyhole saw. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. 1. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. or some thin glue. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. This being done. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. on which to place the clay. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. joined closely together.

the piecing could not be detected. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. which should be no difficult matter. 7. When perfectly dry. a few lines running down. a crest on top. The whole helmet. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. 5. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. When dry. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. then another coating of glue. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. 9. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. Before taking it off the model. as seen in the other part of the sketch. When the helmet is off the model. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. --Contributed by Paul Keller. will make it look neat. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. and so on. The center of the ear guards are perforated. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. with the exception of the vizor. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. In Fig. as shown: in the design. should be modeled and made in one piece. Indianapolis. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. Indiana. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. and the ear guards in two pieces. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. They are all covered with tinfoil. square in shape. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. This contrivance should be made of wood. owing to the clay being oiled. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. or. The band is decorated with brass studs. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. the skullcap. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel.as possible. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. 1. one for each side. In Fig. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces.

3 in. if the measurements are correct. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. long. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. the fuse block. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. of mineral wool. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . screws. Fig. The plate. Fig. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. 1. thick sheet asbestos. AA. 12 in. FF. A round collar of galvanized iron. in diameter and 9 in. are allowed to project about 1 in. Fig. should extend about 1/4 in. GG. each 4-1/2 in. one oblong piece of wood. The holes B and C are about 3 in. long. Fig. for connections. long. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. 1. 2. as shown in Fig. Fig. also the switch B and the fuse block C. of the top. with slits cut for the wires. 1. Fig. AA. 4. Fig. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. above the collar.same size. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. 4. This will allow the plate. Fig. of No. German-silver wire is better. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. about 80 ft. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. Fig. and C. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. is then packed down inside the collar. Fig. Fig. If a neat appearance is desired. and. as shown in Fig. or. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. two ordinary binding posts. to receive screws for holding it to the base. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. The two holes. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. as shown in Fig. high. 1. thick. 1 in. one small switch. of fire clay. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. 22 gauge resistance wire. wide and 15 in. the holes leading to the switch. E and F. 4. and two large 3in. AA. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. Fig. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. 2. one glass tube. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. 3. 4 lb. 2. 4. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. 4. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. Fig. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. when they are placed in opposite positions. JJ. This will make an open space between the plates. 4. 4. 1. as it stands a higher temperature. about 1/4 in. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. The reverse side of the base. about 1 lb. until it is within 1 in. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. If asbestos is used. 1. which can be bought from a local druggist. is shown in Fig. if this cannot be obtained. one fuse block. The mineral wool. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it.

allowing a space between each turn. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. If it is not thoroughly dry. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. and pressed into it. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. H. St. Fig. will slip and come in contact with each other. A. using care not to get it too wet. --Contributed by W. as the turns of the wires. When the tile is in place. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. more wire should be added. A file can be used to remove any rough places. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. causing a short circuit. it leaves a gate for the metal. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. II. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. so that the circuit will not become broken. Cnonyn. Can. It should not be set on end. apart. Jaquythe. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. If this is the case. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. 4. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. Cal. Next. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. --Contributed by R. This point marks the proper length to cut it. then. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. Fig. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. When this is done. It should not be left heated in this condition. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. The clay. Catherines. While the clay is damp. Cut a 1/2-in. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. This completes the stove. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. when cool. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. As these connections cannot be soldered. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. steam will form when the current is applied. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. Cover over about 1 in. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. KK. deep.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. 2. above the rim. Richmond. when heated.

is large enough. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. Thorne. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. says the Photographic Times. but 12 by 24 in. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. Louisville. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. as shown. Ky. and the frame set near a window. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Then clip a little off the . square material in any size. constructed of 3/4-in. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. --Contributed by Andrew G. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. and the prints will dry rapidly. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. the pie will be damaged. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame.

is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. thick and 3 in. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. causing a break in the current. in diameter. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. which are fastened to the base. as shown. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. long. 2. at GG. wide and 7 in. The upright B. An offset is bent in the center. The board can be raised to place . -Contributed by S. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. allowing each end to project for connections. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. each 1 in. 22 gauge magnet wire. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. long. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. high. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. 4 in. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. 1. Fig. high. long. As the shaft revolves. high. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. Herron. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. Le Mars. wide and 3 in. thick and 3 in. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. The driving arm D. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. The connecting rod E. long. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. 3. Figs. 14 in. slip on two cardboard washers. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. 1 and 3. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. thick. 1. Iowa. 2-1/2 in. 1. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. Fig. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. wide. for the crank. Fig. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. 1/2 in. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. 1/2 in. open out. W. The connections are made as shown in Fig. A 1/8-in. Two supports. 1. which gives the shaft a half turn. each 1/2 in. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. in diameter and about 4 in.Paper Funnel point. thereby saving time and washing.

and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. in height. 3 in. Place the pot. making a framework suitable for a roost. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. --Contributed by William F. Stecher. One or more pots may be used. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. Dorchester. . The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. bottom side up. as shown in the sketch. on a board. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. Mass. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. In designing the roost.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird.

shelves. Wind the . Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. adopt the method described. and give it time to dry. F. grills and gratings for doors. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. when combined. ordinary glue. that it is heated. will produce the pattern desired. paraffin and paint or varnish. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. preferably. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects.. The materials required are rope or. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. etc. if it is other than straight lines. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. The bottom part of the sketch. 1..Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. in diameter. 1. Fig. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. as shown in Fig. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. without any corresponding benefit. odd corners. F. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. windows.

Harrer. N. Fig. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig.Fig. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Y. six designs are shown. Lockport. M. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . cut and glue them together. -Contributed by Geo. 2. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer.

will be retained by the cotton. when it will be observed that any organic matter. This piece of horse armor. which was used in front of a horse's head. London. As the . The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. 1.. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made.. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. etc. says the English Mechanic.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. and the sides do not cover the jaws. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. but no farther. chips of iron rust.. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. etc. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.

brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. An arrangement is shown in Fig. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. 2. 4. which is separate. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. then another coat of glue. In Fig. which can be made in any size.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. This will make the model light and easy to move around. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. the rougher the better. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. and the clay model oiled. but for . If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. 2. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. This triangularshaped support. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. All being ready. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. as the surface will hold the clay. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. except the thumb and fingers. the same as in Fig. but the back is not necessary. 6 and 7. This can be made in one piece. This being done. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. The armor is now removed from the model. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. with the exception of the thumb shield. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. and therefore it is not described. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. and will require less clay. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 8. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece.

will be about right. the foils will not move. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. running down the plate. --Contributed by John G. the top of the rod. 9. and the instrument is ready for use. . each about 1/4 in. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. N. the two pieces of foil will draw together. 1/2 in. fastened to the rod. but 3-1/2 in. --Contributed by Ralph L. Goshen. The two pieces of foil. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. wide and 1/2 in.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. long. two in each jaw. When locating the place for the screw eyes. are glued to it. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. 2. Redondo Beach. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. cut into the shape shown in Fig. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. are better shown in Fig. Buxton. Calif. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. If it does not hold a charge. in depth. two for the jaws and one a wedge. La Rue. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. Y. A piece of board. Fasten a polished brass ball to.

wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. The can may be bronzed. At a point 6 in. enameled or otherwise decorated. as this will cut under the water without splashing. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. --Contributed by Mrs. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. When a fish is hooked. 2-1/2 in. Bryan. about 15 in. silvered. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. as indicated in the . Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. Texas. long. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. is made of a 1/4-in. Corsicana. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. as shown in the illustration. A. M. hole bored through it. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. pine board. from the smaller end.

Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. punch the holes. and trace upon it the design and outline. using a piece of carbon paper.Match Holder accompanying sketch. Basswood or butternut. thick. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. Polish the metal. take a piece of thin wood. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. wide by 6 in. using powdered pumice and lye. When it has dried over night. Any kind of wood will do. will do as well as the more expensive woods. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. then with a nail. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. A good size is 5 in. as shown. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. such as basswood or pine was used. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. or even pine. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Having completed the drawing. long over all. 3/8 or 1/4 in. If soft wood. Next prepare the metal holder. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. put a coat or two of wax and polish . 22 is plenty heavy enough." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on.

It is useful for photographers. are used for the cores of the magnets. each 1 in. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. Richmond. A. long. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. can be made on the same standards. If one has some insight in carving. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. of pure olive oil. wide and 5 in. Jaquythe. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. . At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. --Contributed by W. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. the whole being finished in linseed oil. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. Two wire nails. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. If carving is contemplated. Instead of the usual two short ropes. 2 in.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. is used for the base of this instrument. Cal. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. 1/2 in. thick. long. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones.

. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. then covered with red. A piece of tin. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. acts as a spring to keep the key open. H. in the shape shown in the sketch. when the key is pushed down. cut in the shape of the letter T. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. 25 gauge. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. similar to that used in electric bells. A rubber band. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. says the English Mechanic. as shown by the dotted lines. about No. cloth or baize to represent the legs. except that for the legs. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. All of the parts for the armor have been described. London. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. About 1 in. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. 1. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. the paper covering put on. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. 3. leaving about 1/4 in. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. as shown in Fig. Lynas. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. --Contributed by W.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. at A. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood.

flat headed carriage bolt. apart.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. at each end. Silver paper will do very well. long. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. Take the piece shown in Fig. one to another . Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. says Camera Craft. So set up. about 1 in. The two pieces are bolted together. drill six 1/4-in. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. Instead of using brass headed nails.. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. in the other end. Fig. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. Cut them to a length or 40 in. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. 3 in. hole in the center. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. or ordinary plaster laths will do. These can be purchased at a stationery store. 1 in. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. By moving the position of the bolt from. 1 and drill a 1/4in. for the sake of lightness. In one end of the piece. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. not too tight. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. A 1/4-in. can be made in a few minutes' time. Secure two strips of wood. completes the equipment. 2. apart. holes. make the same series of eight small holes and. and eight small holes. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position.

The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. of the ends remain unwoven. 2. as in portraiture and the like. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. lay Cover B and the one under D. 1. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. 4. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. and the one beneath C. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. Then take B and lay it over A. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. but instead of reversing . and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. D over A and C. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. taking the same start as for the square fob.of the larger holes in the strip. and lay it over the one to the right. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Fig. A is the first string and B is the second. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. long. Start with one end. 2. A round fob is made in a similar way. In this sketch. as shown in Fig. for instance. doubled and run through the web of A. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. the one marked A. 2. C over D and B. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. then B over C and the end stuck under A. in Fig. Then draw all four ends up snugly.

5. 1-1/2 in. The round fob is shown in Fig.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . 3. the design of which is shown herewith. is to be made of leather. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. over the one to its right. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. Other designs can be made in the same manner. Rupp. always lap one string. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. --Contributed by John P. A loop. Ohio. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. is left out at the center before starting on one side. long. as in making the square fob. especially if silk strings are used. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. as B. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. as at A in Fig. Monroeville. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat.

The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. Any smooth piece of steel. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. A. Northville. beeswax or paraffin. . trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. Houghton.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. -Contributed by A. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. it can be easily renewed. When the supply of wax is exhausted. pressing it against the wood. filling them with wax. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. using the reverse side. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. such as a nut pick. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. Mich. door facing or door panel.

nearly as wide as the envelope is long. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. leaving about 1/4 in. place it face down in the dish. N. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. says Photographic Times. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. long. Y. if blueprints are used. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. apart and driven in only part way. Select the print you wish to mount. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. Fold together on lines C. The tacks should be about 1 in. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. New York. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. thick. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. D. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. it is best to leave a plain white margin.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. . J. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. E and F. those on matte paper will work best. and after wetting. remaining above the surface of the board. Enough plaster should. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. although tin ones can be used with good success. and about 12 in. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. --Contributed by O. Ill. but any kind that will not stick may be used. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. Petersburg. Thompson. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast.

Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. as shown at the left in the sketch. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. bell flowers. One of the . at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water.. as shown in the right of the sketch. will be rendered perfectly white. filling the same about onehalf full. without mixing the solutions. Lower into the test tube a wire. etc. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. violets. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. roses. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes.

should be soldered to the box. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. 2. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in.. as shown in the sketch. A rod that will fit the brass tube. as shown. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. The first point should be ground blunt. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. 1. about 1/8s in. The sound box. Fig. L. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. thick. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. Millstown. --Contributed by L. South Dakota. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. 3. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. is about 2-1/2 in. made of heavy tin. long. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. but which will not wobble loose. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. shading. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. to keep the core from coming off in turning. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. and at the larger end. in diameter and 1 in. 1-7/8 in. long and made of wood. When soldering these parts together. or delicate tints of the egg. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. Shabino. turned a little tapering. The tin horn can be easily made. The diaphragm. not too tightly. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed.

mice in the bottom. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. and. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. Colo. Gold. Chicago. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. and weighted it with a heavy stone. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Victor. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Ill. while playing in the yard close to a grain house.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. wondering what it was. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Jr. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. put a board on top. says the Iowa Homestead.Contributed by E. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . E.

N. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. --Contributed by Lyndwode. Can. Buffalo. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Y. . To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. Ottawa. Pereira. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen.

Jaquythe. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. --Contributed by Thos. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. De Loof. cut round. This cart has no axle. a piece of tin. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. as shown. Cal. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. longer than the length of the can. Mich. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Put a small nail 2 in. as it can be made quickly in any size. Grand Rapids. and at one end of the stick fasten.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. through which several holes have been punched. A. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. --Contributed by W. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. by means of a flatheaded tack. above the end of the dasher. Richmond.

1. 1/4 in. The baseboard and top are separable. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. wide and 1/8 in. apart. New Orleans. deep and 3 in. 2. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. as shown. wide and 3 ft. wide. 2 in. I reversed a door gong. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. Pa. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. --Contributed by James M. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. Kane. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock.1. 2. screwed it on the inside of a store box. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. board. cut in the center of the rounding edge. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. 2.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. of course. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. 1 ft. Notches 1/8 in. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. La. wide and as long as the box. thick. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. A wedge-shaped piece of . long. The candles. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Fig. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. Doylestown. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. were below the level of the bullseye. 1-1/2 in.

when placed as in Fig. Worcester. This device is very convenient for invalids. the reason being that if both were solid. it can be removed without marring the casing. Ia. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. After completing the handle. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. A. will. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. dressing one surface of each piece. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. Wood. wide rubber bands or felt. etc. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. 3. take two pieces of hard wood. After the glue has dried. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants.. --Contributed by G. by cutting away the ends. scissors. to prevent its scratching the desk top. When not in use.Book Back Holders metal. stone or wood. as shown in Fig. the blade is put back into the groove . the shelf could not be put on the window. Cover the block with rubber. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. 1. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Needles. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. can be picked up without any trouble. Mass. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. The block can also be used as a paperweight. wide into each side of the casing. West Union. For the handle.

so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Cleveland. long. --Contributed by H. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. --Contributed by Maud McKee. S. 1. square and 4 in. as shown in Fig. Erie. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. thus carrying the car up the incline. . Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. is shown in the accompanying sketch. 2. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. A. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Hutchins. Malden. If desired. Mass. Jacobs. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Each one is made of a hardwood block. 1 in. Ohio.and sharpened to a cutting edge. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. A notch is cut in one side. Pa. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. -Contributed by W. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. as shown in Fig.

The letters can be put on afterward. If one such as is shown is to be used. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. Prepare a design for the front. N. and an awl and hammer. This will insure having all parts alike. Cape May Point.J. . 6 by 9-1/2 in. will be needed. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. a board on which to work it.. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. One sheet of metal. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first.

mandolin or guitar. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. as shown. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. 1/4 part. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. behind or through the center of a table leg. 1 part. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. On the back. that can be worked in your own parlor. flat brush. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. says Master Painter. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. The music will not sound natural. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. placed on a table. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. if desired. So impressive are the results. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. applied by means of a brush. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. to right angles. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. If any polishing is required. paste the paper design right on the metal. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. a violin. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. only the marginal line is to be pierced. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. in the waste metal. 3/4 part. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. but weird and distant. turpentine. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. The stick may be placed by the side of. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. 2 parts white vitriol. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. which is desirable. One coat will do. Remove the metal. ." In all appearance. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. varnish.Fasten the metal to the board. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. or.

These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. With proper tools this is easy. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. square bar iron. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. long. . wide. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. round-head machine screws. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. long and spread about 8 in. The longest piece. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. London. 3. long and measuring 26 in. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. says Work. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. each 28 in. and is easy to construct. 2. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. apart. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. each 6 in. without them. Two pairs of feet. are shaped as shown in Fig. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. is bent square so as to form two uprights. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. it might be difficult. across the top. thick by 1/2 in. One thing is always at hand and that is wood.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood.

A. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. 6. While the piece of lead D. Fig. as shown in Fig. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. 7. The design is formed in the lead. Place the corner piece of glass. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. lead. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. better still. is held by the brads. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. on it as shown. special flux purchased for this purpose. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. using rosin as a flux. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. The brads are then removed. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. The glass. the latter being tapped to . B. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. 4. cut a long piece of lead. After the glass is cut. 5. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. and the base border. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. After the joints are soldered. D. in the grooves of the borders. Fig. C. 5. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. or.

in diameter and about 9 in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. Dreier. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. plates. one on each side and central with the hole. holes through their centers. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. Jr. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. rocker bolt. N. Two styles of hand holds are shown. bolt. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. bolt. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. rounded at the top as shown. long. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. square and of the length given in the drawing. Bore a 3/4-in. --Contributed by W. then drill a 3/4-in. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post.the base of the clip. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. as shown in Fig. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. long. Secure a post. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. A and B. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. plank about 12 ft. not less than 4 in. 8. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. in diameter and 1/4 in. Fasten the plates to the block B. The center pin is 3/4-in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. J.. Make three washers 3-in. Camden. and two wood blocks. thick and drill 3/4-in. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. and round the corners of one end for a ring. long. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. then flatten its end on the under side. This ring can be made of 1-in. wood screws in each washer. Bore a 5/8-in. H. This .

from one edge. 4 filler pieces. because it will not stand the weather. long. 7 in. square by 5 ft. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. long and 1 piece. long. bit. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. La. horse and rings. by 6-1/2 ft. 1/2 in. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. shanks. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. To substitute small. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. long. Draw a line on the four 7-in. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. 3/4 by 3 in. 50 ft. maple. and some one can swing an axe. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. square by 9-1/2 ft. long. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. by 2 ft. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. 4 in. hickory. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. 9 in. 1-1/4in. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . the money outlay will be almost nothing. 1 by 7 in. long. bolts and rope. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. straight-grained hickory. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. 16 screws. by 3 ft. 1. screws. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. The four 7-in. of 1/4-in. 4 pieces. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 4 in. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak.will make an excellent cover for a pot. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. can make a first class gymnasium. in diameter and 7 in. 2-1/2 in. long. chestnut or ash. 2 by 4 in. boards along the side of each from end to end. New Orleans. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. 3 in. 4 pieces. If trees are convenient.

Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. from the end. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. piece of wood. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. deep and remove all loose dirt. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. apart. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. Bore a 9/16-in. 2. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. at each end. apart. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. 8 in. each 3 ft. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in.bored. boards coincide.. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. so the 1/2-in. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut..

In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. which at once gathered. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. passing through a screweye at either end. . disappearing only to reappear again. and ascends the stem. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. in an endless belt. not much to look at in daytime.. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. and then passes in a curve across the base. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. but most deceptive at dusk. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. He stretched the thread between two buildings. not even the tumbler. apart. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. W. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. And all he used was a black thread. If the tumbler is rotated. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. was at its height. about 100 ft. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. just visible against the dark evening sky. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. and materially heightened the illusion. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference." which skimmed along the distant horizon. it is taken to the edge of the foot. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. the effect is very striking. When the interest of the crowd. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. it follows the edge for about 1 in.

To make the apparatus. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 7 in. 4 in. 6 in. square and 51/2 ft. 8 in. 2 base pieces. beginning at a point 9 in.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. square and 6 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2 by 3 in. by 3 ft. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 1. 8 bolts. 2 by 4 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. and turned in a spiral D. by 2 ft. 2 in. by 7 ft. so the point will be on top. 2 by 4 in. 4 in. preferably cedar. New Orleans. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 2 side braces. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. by 10 ft. 2 cross braces. from either side of the center. long. Fig. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 4 wood screws. long. A wire about No. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 8 in. La. 4 bolts. Bevel the ends of . Chisel out two notches 4 in. long. 8 in. long. long and 1 doz. long. long. wide and 1 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. long. deep. large spikes. The cork will come out easily. 4 knee braces. long. 2 by 4 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles.

and in the winter they should be removed and stored. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. --Contributed by W. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. using four of the 7-in bolts. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. Two endpieces must be made.. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. A. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. except the bars. If using mill-cut lumber.the knee braces. These will allow the ladle to be turned. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. so the bolts in both will not meet. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. jellies. but even unpainted they are very durable. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. equipped with a strainer. The wood so treated will last for years. Jaquythe. etc. Richmond. After the trenches are dug. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. ( To be Continued. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. leaving the strainer always in position. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. which face each other. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. Cal. additional long. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. A large sized ladle. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. screws. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. of 7 ft. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. as shown in the diagram. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. save the bars. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. and countersinking the heads. leave it undressed. . A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration.

milling machine. thus holding the pail as shown. A. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. of sufficient 1ength. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. drill press or planer. which seems impossible. Oil. partly a barrier for jumps.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. . is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. In order to accomplish this experiment. or various cutting compounds of oil. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. it is necessary to place a stick. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog.

long. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. long. Procure from a saw mill. 2 by 4 in. two 1/2-in. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. bolts. bolt. and free from knots. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. by 3 ft. To construct. by 3 ft. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 4-1/2 in. 4 in. square by 5 ft. long. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. apart. apart in a central position on the horse. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. 2 by 4 in. long. These are well nailed in place. 3 in. long. The material required is as follows: Two posts.. 2 by 4 in. but 5 ft. long. 4 in. 1 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. piece of 2 by 4-in. 4 knee braces. square by 5-1/2 ft. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. 4 in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. long. 1 cross brace. 2 adjusting pieces. stud cut rounding on one edge. long..The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . 2 bases. wood yard or from the woods. These are placed 18 in. projections and splinters. ten 1/2-in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. is a good length. to fasten the knee braces at the top. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. The round part of this log must be planed. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. Hand holds must be provided next. from each end. bolts. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. 7 in. in diameter--the larger the better. beginning 1-1/2 in. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. in the ground. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. bolts. by 3 ft. layout the bases as shown in the drawing.

Such a hand sled can be made in a . Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. no one is responsible but himself. says the Sporting Goods Dealer.horse top. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. snow. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Jaquythe. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. pipe and fittings. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. it is caused by some obstruction. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. A. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. such as a dent. Also. then bending to the shape desired. Cal. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. water.--Contributed by W. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Richmond. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. it is caused by an overloaded shell. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. etc. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. over and around. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. but nevertheless. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle.

This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. Paris. --Contributed by Arthur E. are all the tools necessary. . which. Ontario. France. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. thick. These. is much better than a wood sled. when complete. 1. Joerin. then run a string over each part. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. in width and 1/32 in. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. --Contributed by James E. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Noble. Toronto. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. at E and F. The end elevation. --Contributed by J. Mass. 1/4 or 3/16 in. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. 2. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Boston. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. when straightened out. will give the length. Vener. W.

4. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. are nailed. . Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. AA and BB. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. 3. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. It is best to use soft water. nor that which is partly oxidized. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The method shown in Figs.

The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. or unequal widths as in Fig. 3. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. Percy Ashley in Rudder. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. or various rulings may be made. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. 8 and 9. 1). Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. . class ice-yacht. Broad lines can be made. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 4. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. 2. 2. The materials used are: backbone. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. long. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. but if it is made much longer. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. a tee and a forging. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. about 30 in. Both the lower . pins to keep them from turning. It can be made longer or shorter. a larger size of pipe should be used.Fig. A good and substantial homemade lathe. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. 1. out from the collar. pipe. The headstock is made of two tees. bent and drilled as shown. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. 1-Details of Lathe sort. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch.

It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. a corresponding line made on this. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. a straight line should be scratched Fig. as shown in Fig. To do this. thick as desired. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. or a key can be used as well. It is about 1 in. but also their insulating properties. W. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. M. Laporte. 3/4 or 1 in. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. 2. Cal. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. Boissevain. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. as shown in Fig. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. Man. Indiana. else taper turning will result. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. and will answer for a great variety of work. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. Musgrove. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. Held. --Contributed by M. --Contributed by W. 1. 2. 2. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. UpDeGraff. . Fruitvale. --Contributed by W.

The handle is of pine about 18 in. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . as shown. Smith. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. In use. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. long. Ark. Cline. --Contributed by E. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. To obviate this. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. J. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. Ft. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side.

face off the end of the piece. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. New Orleans. centering is just one operation too many. Colo. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. which should be backed out of contact. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. White. La. the drill does not need the tool. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. Denver. take . and when once in true up to its size. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. on starting the lathe. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. This prevents the drill from wobbling. After being entered. --Contributed by Walter W. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. if this method is followed: First. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap.

a long piece of glass tubing. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. the cap is placed over the paper tube. after being shown empty. as shown in D. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. It can be used in a great number of tricks. and can be varied to suit the performer. In doing this. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. After the wand is removed. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. vanishing wand. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. a bout 1/2 in. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. The handkerchief rod. says the Sphinx. and this given to someone to hold. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. shown at C. unknown to the spectators. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. all the better. The glass tube B. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. shorter t h a n the wand. by applying caustic soda or . is put into the paper tube A. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given.

1. This dimension and those for the frets . and if care is taken in selecting the material. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. The brace at D is 1 in.potash around the edges of the letters. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. by 14 by 17 in. 3/16. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. across the front and back to strengthen them. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. Glue the neck to the box. 1 Neck. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. The sides. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. 2 Sides. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. preferably hard maple. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. End. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. 1 End. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. 1 Bottom. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. as shown by K. and glue it to the neck at F. with the back side rounding. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. 1/4 in. Cut a piece of hard wood. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. With care and patience. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. long. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. Glue strips of soft wood. square and 1-7/8 in. can be made by the home mechanic. cut to any shape desired. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. As the cement softens. thick. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top.

are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. but it is not. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Six holes. 3/16 in. Frary. and beveled . H. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Stoddard. Carbondale.Pa. toward each end. Norwalk. wide and 11-1/2 ft. When it is completed you will have a canoe. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. 1) on which to stretch the paper. E. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. -Contributed by J. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. O. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. in diameter. --Contributed by Chas.should be made accurately. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. thick and about 1 ft. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. or backbone. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. A board 1 in. long is used for a keel.

probably. a. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. 2). Fig. In drying. Green wood is preferable. but twigs of some other trees. 2. buy some split cane or rattan. These are better. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. by means of a string or wire. which are easily made of long. C. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. C. 1 and 2. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire.. long are required. twigs 5 or 6 ft. 13 in. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. will answer nearly as well. Fig. . Osiers probably make the best ribs. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. such as hazel or birch. and are not fastened. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. Any tough. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. such as is used for making chairbottoms. b. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. 4. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. 3. or other place. Fig. two twigs may be used to make one rib. wide by 26 in. b. thick. when made of green elm. some tight strips of ash. 4). Fig. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. 3. thick. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. and so. procure at a carriage factory. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. in thickness and should be cut. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. The cross-boards (B. as shown in Fig. b. 1. slender switches of osier willow. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. 2). 3). winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. and notched at the end to receive them (B. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. and. are next put in. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. or similar material. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig.) in notches. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. 3/8 in. Fig. B. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. Fig. Fig. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. with long stout screws. apart. 3). For the gunwales (a. The ribs. as before described. Fig. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. long. but before doing this. two strips of wood (b. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. Fig. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. as shown in Fig. in such cases. Shape these as shown by A. the loose strips of ash (b. as they are apt to do.

Fig. When thoroughly dry. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. If not. 5). cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. however. When the paper is dry. of very strong wrapping-paper. and steady in the water. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. but with less turpentine. but neither stiff nor very thick. If the paper be 1 yd. Then take some of the split rattan and. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. Being made in long rolls. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. after wetting it. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. apply a second coat of the same varnish. preferably iron. wide. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. tacking it to the bottom-board. You may put in . The paper is then trimmed. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. and light oars. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. if it has been properly constructed of good material. and very tough. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. and held in place by means of small clamps. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. and as soon as that has soaked in. It should be drawn tight along the edges. B. It should be smooth on the surface.

Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. Fig. 1 and the end in . and if driven as shown in the cut. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. 1. We procured a box and made a frame. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. 2. Fig. Fig. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. and make a movable seat (A. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. they will support very heavy weights. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. to fit it easily. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. 5. 5). The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. fore and aft. Drive the lower nail first.

is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. Pa.Fig. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. 3. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. 5. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. 4. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. This is an easy . The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. Pittsburg. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. being softer where the flame has been applied. and the glass. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. This way has its drawbacks. and the result is. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. A good way to handle this work. this makes the tube airtight. Close the other end with the same operation.

trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. third. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. Seventh. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. file. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. fourth. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. or six arms. -Contributed by A. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. with a piece of carbon paper. rivet punch. fifth. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. above the metal. Oswald. flat and round-nosed pliers. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. very rapid progress can be made. 23 gauge. After the bulb is formed. The candle holders may have two. four. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. extra metal all around. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. metal shears. second. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. Sixth. thin screw. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. three. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. also trace the decorative design.way to make a thermometer tube. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. Give the metal a circular motion. above the work and striking it with the hammer. then reverse.

Small copper rivets are used. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. Having pierced the bracket. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. and holder. drip cup. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Metal polish of any kind will do.

Fifty. The gaff. hammer. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. except they had wheels instead of runners. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. and brace and bit were the tools used. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. thus it was utilized. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. of glycerine to about 200 deg. Heat 6-1/2 oz. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. glycerine 4 parts. F. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. and add the gelatine. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. and other things as they were needed. Mother let me have a sheet. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. if it has not absorbed too much ink. A saw. sugar 1 part. deep. on a water bath. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. all the rest I found. alcohol 2 parts. the stick at the bottom of the sail. and in a week . being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. Twenty cents was all I spent. smooth it down and then remove as before. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. N. J.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. and it will be ready for future use. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. when it will be ready for use. Soak 1 oz. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. I steer with the front wheel. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. Shiloh. is a broomstick. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. winding the ends where they came together with wire. they were like an ice boat with a sail. using a steel pen. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. and water 24 parts. The boom.

a projecting lens .Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.

and the lens slide. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. are . above the center. wide. but if such a box is not found. focus enlarging a 3-in. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. thick. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. H. The slide support. E. or glue. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. describe a 9-in. well seasoned pine. G. high. This ring is made up from two rings. long. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. as desired. Fig. and. If a small saw is used. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw.. 1. The board is centered both ways. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. slide to about 6 ft.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. provided the material is of metal. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. and 14 in. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. 3. wide and 15 in. DD. at a point 1 in. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. A and B. about 2 ft. 8 in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. or a lens of 12-in. wire brads. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. and a projecting lens 2 in. 1/2 to 3/4 in. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. and the work carefully done. at a distance of 24 ft. A table. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light.

The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. JJ. St. To reach the water.constructed to slip easily on the table. E. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. apply two coats of shellac varnish. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. Small strips of tin. light burning oil. A sheet . are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. the water at once extinguishes the flame. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. the strips II serving as guides. Paul. Minn. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. but not long enough. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E.-Contributed by G. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. should the glass happen to upset. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. of safe. B. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. P. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. The arrangement is quite safe as. and when the right position is found for each. placed on the water. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil.

12 ft. 3. If one of these clips is not at hand. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. by 12 ft. from a tent company. --Contributed by J. 1. 4. to cover the mattresses. Crawford. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along .H. 9 in. Y. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. Schenectady. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 3. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. 2. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. 3 in. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. I ordered a canvas bag. form a piece of wire in the same shape.. Fig. N. Fig. then the corners on one end are doubled over. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid.

holes in the edge. apart. Warren. 2. 2. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. 3/4 in. White. and insert two binding-posts. Do not use too strong a rubber. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. 3 to swing freely on the tack. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. long. 2. To calibrate the instrument. to keep it from unwinding. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Edward M. C. Fig. wide. 1.each edge. Pa. D. --Contributed by Walter W. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. Denver. open on the edges. 1. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. 1/2 in. Fasten the wire with gummed label. in the center coil. Fig. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. thick. first mark the binding-post A. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. so as to form two oblong boxes. An arc is cut in the paper. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. long and 3/16 in. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Teasdale. A Film Washing Trough [331] . insulating them from the case with cardboard. 1/2 in. V. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. to the coil of small wire for volts. Fold two strips of light cardboard. A rubber band. through which the indicator works. Colo. drill two 3/16 in. 3/4 in. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. for amperes and the other post. Attach a piece of steel rod.

Cut a 1/4-in. O. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. with the large hole up. as shown.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. --Contributed by M. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. M. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Wood Burning [331] . Place this can on one end of the trough. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Hunting. Dayton.

When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . then into this bottle place. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. mouth downward.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle.

This will make a very pretty ornament. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. N.Y. 3/4 in. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. Auburn. thick. many puzzling effects may be obtained. as shown in the sketch.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. wide and 4 in. 1. Upper Troy. Place the small bottle in as before. If the cork is adjusted properly. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. --Contributed by Fred W. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. If the small bottle used is opaque. 2. Whitehouse. --Contributed by John Shahan. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. Ala. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. but not very thick. provided the bottle is wide. long. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will.

Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. which extended to the ground. thick and 3 in. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. Its smaller parts. were constructed of 1-in. was keyed to shaft C. If a transmitter is used. The bearing blocks were 3 in. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. which gave considerable power for its size. by the method shown in Fig. I. Both bearings were made in this manner. 4. as shown in Fig. pulley. W. iron rod. such as blades and pulleys. The shaft C. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. long. or ordinary telephone transmitters. to the shaft. 1. thick. wide. pulley F. --Contributed by D. Fig. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. 3. 1. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. thick. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. which was 6 in. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. The 21/2-in. Fig. The wire L was put . was 1/4in. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. high without the upper half. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. Fig. which was nailed to the face plate. Milter. G. line. in diameter and 1 in. 2 ft. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. 1. 1 in. even in a light breeze. 1. Fig. B. Fig. On a 1000-ft. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. 2. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. A staple. K. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. sugar pine on account of its softness. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. 1.

The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. Fig. wide and 1 in. 6. long and 3 in. Fig. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. square to the board P at the top of the tower. Two washers were placed on shaft C. Fig. was 2 ft. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. as. and was cut the shape shown. apart in the tower. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. There a 1/4-in. 1) 4 in. with brass headed furniture tacks. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. This fan was made of 1/4-in. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. was tacked. washers were placed under pulley F. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. Fig. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. Fig. in diameter. 0. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. long and bend it as shown at A. This completes the receiver or sounder. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. in the center of the board P. To make the key. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. R. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. 5. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. hole was bored for it. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. The power was put to various uses. H. across the thin edge of a board. long. The other lid. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. 1. 1. 1. a 1/2-in. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. The bed plate D. 6. through the latter. with all parts in place. hole for the shaft G was in the center. 1. 25 ft. The smaller one. providing one has a few old materials on hand. If you have no bell. This board was 12 in. 3 in. when the windmill needed oiling. long and 1/2 in. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. Fig. strips. Fig. so that the 1/4-in. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. long and bend it as . long. cut out another piece of tin (X. for instance. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. 2. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. To lessen the friction here. top down also. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. G. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. pine 18 by 12 in.

consisting of four pieces of board nailed . -Contributed by John R. like many another device boys make. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. as shown at Water. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. causing a buzzing sound. leaving the other wire as it is. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. and. after the manner of bicycle wheels. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. When tired of this instrument. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. at the front. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. using cleats to hold the board frame. 2. McConnell. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. Now. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. Thus a center drive is made. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. 1. although it can be made with but two.shown. fitted with paddles as at M. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. By adjusting the coils. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. The rear barrels are. as indicated. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Going back to Fig. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Before tacking it to the board.

How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. There is no danger. 1. The speed is slow at first. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. as shown in Fig. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. copper piping and brass tubing for base. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. feet on the pedals. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. or even a little houseboat. there will not be much friction. which will give any amount of pleasure. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. If the journals thus made are well oiled. 3. can be built. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. To propel it. thin sheet brass for the cylinder.

A. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. C. Fig. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. If it is desired to make the light very complete. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. D. Turn a small circle of wood. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. 2. Shape small blocks of boxwood. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. 2. Fig. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. 1. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. then the glass disc and then the other ring. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. 2. Fig. and so creating a false circuit. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. If magnifying glass cannot be had. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. 1. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. Then melt out the rosin or lead. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far.of pleasure for a little work. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. B. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. or it may be put to other uses if desired. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. 1. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. Fig. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. Place one brass ring in cylinder. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose.

bell. some glue will secure them. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. X. Chatland. long. 3/8 in. B. if too small. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. C. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. Pa. or 1/4in. wide and 1/16 in. near the bed. Utah. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. set alarm key as shown in diagram. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . Brinkerhoff. The parts indicated are as follows: A. J. E. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. When alarm goes off. 5-1/4 by 10 in. To get the cylinder into its carriage. D. 4-1/2 in. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. contact post.india rubber tubing.. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. To operate this. long. Swissvale. brass strip. Ogden. bracket. H. switch. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . --Contributed by Geo. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. by having the switch on the baseboard. To throw on light throw levers to the left. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. thick. I. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. brass rod. shelf. 4 in. wire from bell to switch. S. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. and pulled tight. wire from batteries to switch. C. copper tubing. such as is used for cycle valves. G. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. T. key of alarm clock. wire from light to switch. --Contributed by C. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. after two turns have been made on the key. In placing clock on shelf. Throw lever off from the right to center. which stops bell ringing. F. dry batteries. after setting alarm. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. while lying in bed.

--Contributed by Chas.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. beyond the end of the spindle. about 6 in. will do the heating. A small lamp of about 5 cp. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Minn. Make a shoulder. Fig. 3. 4 in. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. A flannel bag. in diameter. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. about 3-1/2 in. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Pull out the nail and stick. wide. Make the spindle as in Fig. being careful not to get the sand in it. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. from one end. as . letting it extend 3/4 in. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. Fig. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. which can be made of an old can. 1. 2. This is to form the fuse hole. 1/4 in. a bed warmer. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. as at A. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. for instance. Lanesboro. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. Fig. All that is required is a tin covering. as in Fig. as at A. Having finished this. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. S. gives the heater a more finished appearance. 2. 1. as at B. long. making it as true and smooth as possible. place stick and all in a pail of sand. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. Chapman. in diameter.

Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . 1 in. 1. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. wide and 3 ft. 5/8 in. this is to keep the edges from splitting. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. will be sufficient to make the trigger. but if this wood cannot be procured. long. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. The illustration shows how this is done. long. spring and arrows. Joerin. good straight-grained pine will do. 6 in. deep. long. A piece of oak. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. The material must be 1-1/2 in. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. thick. thick. thick. 3/8 in. wide and 6 ft. 11/2 in. A piece of tin. --Contributed by Arthur E. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. or hickory. ash. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. wide and 3/8 in. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch.

as shown in Fig. wide at each end. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. To shoot the crossbow. Such a temporary safe light may be . Wilmette. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. 8. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. 4. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. To throw the arrow. Ill. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. in diameter. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. place the arrow in the groove. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. Fig. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. thick. better still. 9. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. 7. from the opposite end. The stick for the bow. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 2. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. and one for the trigger 12 in. When the trigger is pulled. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. --Contributed by O. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. having the latter swing quite freely. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. 6. Fig. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. or through the necessity of. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. The trigger. E. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. which is 1/4 in. A spring. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. from the end of the stock. 3. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. Fig. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. Trownes. The bow is not fastened in the stock. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. it lifts the spring up.

Remove the bottom of the box. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. make the frame of the wigwam. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. By chopping the trunk almost through. is used as a door.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. The hinged cover E. says Photo Era. The cut should be about 5 ft. apart. C. from the ground. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. making lighting and trimming convenient. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. the bark lean-to is a . it is the easiest camp to make. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. This lamp is safe. Remove one end. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. and nail it in position as shown at A. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. or only as a camp on a short excursion. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. respectively. since the flame of the candle is above A. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. Moreover. from the ground. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. and replace as shown at B. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built.

quickly constructed and serviceable camp. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. Tongs are very useful in camp. make the best kind of a camp bed. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. piled 2 or 3 ft. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. thick. Sheets of bark. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. a 2-in. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. will dry flat. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. long and 1-1/2 in. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. and split the tops with an ax. wide and 6 ft. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. nails are necessary to hold it in place. In the early summer. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. 6 ft. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. A piece of elm or hickory. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. are a convenient size for camp construction. Where bark is used. spruce. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. selecting a site for a camp. For a permanent camp. For a foot in the middle of the stick. long. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. and cedar. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. wide. 3 ft. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. . the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. makes a good pair of tongs. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. long and 2 or 3 ft. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. and when the camp is pitched. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. deep and covered with blankets. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones.

A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. . and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. hinges. and affording accommodation for several persons. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats.

connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. deep and 4 in. wide. about 4 in. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. 1. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. --Contributed by James M. I drove a small cork. to another . the interior can. B. Kane. Fig. changing the water both morning and night.. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. B. and provide a cover or door. Pa. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. A. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. Doylestown.

fused into one side. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. for instance. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. such as ether. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. 4 and 5). for instance. The diagram. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. to pass through an increasing resistance. if necessary. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. This makes . which project inside and outside of the tube. Fig. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. 2. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. C. E. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together.glass tube. a liquid. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. 2. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. limit. 3. The current is thus compelled. until. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5.

Fig. 3-3/8 in. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. when several pieces are placed together. cannot be used so often. screws. but merely discolored. is composed of wrought sheet iron. After cleaning them with the solution. in diameter. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. to allow for finishing. drill the four rivet holes. 1. larger than the dimensions given. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. Michigan. 4-1/2 in. A. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. therefore. brass or iron. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. If the thickness is sufficient. which will make it uniform in size. clamp the template. making it 1/16 in. thicker. Fig. hole is . The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. they will make a frame 3/4 in. These holes are for the bearing studs. and for the outside of the frame. Before removing the field from the lathe. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. thick. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. bent at right angles as shown. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. The bearing studs are now made. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. set at 1/8 in. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. as shown in the left-hand sketch. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. two holes.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. 3-3/8 in. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. Alpena. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. or even 1/16 in. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. as shown in Fig. tap. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. on a lathe. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. by turning the lathe with the hand. When the frame is finished so far. assemble and rivet them solidly. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. which may be of any thickness so that. thick. brass. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. between centers. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. in diameter. or pattern. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. mark off a space. A 5/8in. After the template is marked out. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. Then the field can be finished to these marks. 2. 3.

Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . and build up the solder well. solder them to the supports. file them out to make the proper adjustment. Fig. or otherwise finished. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. When the bearings are located. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. 4. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. is turned up from machine steel. The shaft of the armature. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. into which a piece of 5/8-in. soldered into place. brass rod is inserted.

The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. 3. After the pieces are cut out. 6. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. as shown in Fig. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. then drill a 1/8-in. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. thick. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. wide. Procure 12 strips of mica. being formed for the ends. Find the centers of each segment at one end. Rivet them together. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. After they . inside diameter. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. by 1-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The pins are made of brass. thick are cut like the pattern. 8. and held with a setscrew. as shown in Fig. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. When annealed. wide. 9. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. When this is accomplished. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. 3/4 in. 1/8 in. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. as shown m Fig. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. washers. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. holes through them for rivets. The sides are also faced off and finished. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. 3/4 in. 6. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. hole and tap it for a pin. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. thick. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. 7. 5. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. or segments. to allow for finishing to size. 3. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. Make the core 3/4 in. thick and 1/4 in. brass rod. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. thick. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. threaded.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. sheet fiber. Armature-Ring Core. 1-1/8 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars.. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. as shown in Fig. and then they are soaked in warm water. deep and 7/16 in.

Fig. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. shown at A. being required. until the 12 slots are filled. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. The winding is started at A. they are glued to the core insulation. wide and 1 in. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. This winding is for a series motor. 5. After one coil. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. 6 in. sheet fiber. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. The two ends are joined at B. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. In starting to wind. of the wire. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. To connect the wires.have dried. shown at B. long. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. of No. after the motor is on the stand. by bending the end around one of the projections. 8 in. All connections should be securely soldered. yet it shows a series of . which will take 50 ft. The field is wound with No. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. Run one end of the field wire. sheet fiber. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. of the end to protrude. 1. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. and wind on four layers. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. the two ends of the wire. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. When the glue is set. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. or side. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. Fig. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. 1. The source of current is connected to the terminals. are soldered together. about 100 ft. thick. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A.

Nine wires run from the timer. A 1/2-in. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. or. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. one from each of the eight contacts. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. and one. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. as in the case of a spiral. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. still more simply. is fastened to the metallic body. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. which serves as the ground wire.

The Wind Vane. thus giving 16 different directions. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. circle. It should be . perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. of the dial. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. 45 deg. board. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. Covering these is a thin. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. 6 in. long. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. Without this attachment. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing.

It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. called a chip carving knife. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. long to give the best results. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. also a piece of new carpet. according to who is going to use it. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. however. high. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. making it heavy or light. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. . The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. Buffalo. will answer the purpose just as well. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. To work these outlines. N. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. -Contributed by James L. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. Blackmer. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. though a special knife. thus making a universal joint. will be enough for the two sides. or. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. if not too high. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. To make it. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets.about 6 ft. 14 by 18 in. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. Place the leather on some level. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. Before tacking the fourth side. Fill the box with any handy ballast. is most satisfactory. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. and about 6 in. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. Cut 3-in. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. Y. and securely nail on the top of the box. will be sufficient. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown.

Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. An ordinary sewing-machine .Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. A good leather paste will be required.

Syracuse. rather than the smooth side. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. a needle and some feathers. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. If a fire breaks out. of common salt and 10 lb. Y. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft.will do if a good stout needle is used. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. B. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. --Contributed by Katharine D. and tie them together securely at the bottom. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. square and tying a piece of . of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Morse. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. temporary lameness. and fasten the feathers inside of it. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. can be thrown away when no longer needed. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. of water. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. as in cases of a sprained ankle. away from it. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. or a hip that has been wrenched. N.

and a coil of wire. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. commonly called tintype tin. deep.string to each corner. cut to the length of the spool. the corners being wired. Y. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. Albany.. board all around the bottom on the inside. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. letting it go at arm's length. Paterson. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. is cut on the wood. Ashland. A small wooden or fiber end. long. A. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. 1/8 in. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in.J. thus helping the rats to enter. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. E. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. N. setting traps. Gordon Dempsey. and tacked it to the boards. laying poisoned meat and meal. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. long. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. wide and 1/16 in. The strings should be about 15 in. wound on the head end. but not sharp. as shown. The body of the receiver. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. high. There is a 1-in. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. F. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. made up of four layers of No. --Contributed by John A. The coil is 1 in. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. The end is filed to an edge. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. The diaphragm C. --Contributed by J. B. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. N. which is the essential part of the instrument. etc. Hellwig. G. Wis. and the receiver is ready for use. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. This not only keeps the rats out. . One end is removed entirely. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax.

and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. To clean small articles. gold. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. to . As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. and bend each strip in shape. begin with the smallest scrolls. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. a piece of small wire. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. A single line will be sufficient. The vase is to have three supports. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. wide. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. Take a piece of string or. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. better still. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together.

The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. from E to F. as shown in the sketch. Trace also the line around the purse. from C to D. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. from the lines EF on the piece. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. 3-1/2 in.. using a duller point of the tool. and does not require coloring. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. wide when stitching up the purse. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. After taking off the pattern. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. thus raising it. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Press or model down the leather all around the design. 6-3/8 in. Work down the outside line of the design. About 1 in. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. Fold the leather on the line EF. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. 4-1/4 in. sharp pencil. through which to slip the fly AGH. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together.which the supports are fastened with rivets. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. 3-1/4 in. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water.. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. .

First. It can be made without the use of a lathe. and a model for speed and power. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. 1 was cut. then nail it. When it is finished. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. around the wheel. 3. Fit this to the two . being cast in wooden molds. long. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. leaving the lug a. with the open side down. Then nail the wheel down firmly. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. b. This also should be slightly beveled. and tack the other piece slightly. with a compass saw. the "open" side. 1. thick. and cut it out as shown in Fig. following the dotted lines. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. 1/2 in.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. Make the lug 1/4 in. Now take another piece of wood.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. all the way around. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. square. and the projections B. by 12 ft. and which will be very interesting. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. with pins or small nails. and cut out a wheel. deep. Cut off six pieces 12 in. with the largest side down. 2. then place the square piece out of which Fig. It is neat and efficient. and. deep. as well as useful. as shown in Fig.

and clean all the shavings out of it. Now take another of the 12-in. hole bored through its center. 4. After it is finished. hole entirely through at the same place. Take the mold apart. square pieces of wood. square pieces of wood. bolts. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. as shown by the . and cut it out as shown in Fig. place it between two of the 12-in. Now put mold No. holes through it. deep. one of which should have a 3/8-in. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. and boring a 3/8-in. and lay it away to dry. then bolt it together. and bore six 1/4-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise.pieces just finished. 1. hole 1/4 in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. slightly beveled. in the center of it.

Fig. and the other in the base. Put this together in mold No. as shown in illustration. 6. 5. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Pour metal into mold No. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. and pouring metal in to fill it up. in diameter must now be obtained. holes. and pour babbitt metal into it. see that the bolts are all tight. and two 1/4-in.1. Let it stand for half an hour. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. 1. one in the projections. b. instead of the right-handed piece. long. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles.2. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. take an ordinary brace. true it up with a square. one in the lug. the other right-handed. This will cast a paddle-wheel. After it is fitted in. This is mold No. drill in it. Using the Brace . This is the same as Fig. and 3/8-in. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings.1. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. and drill it entirely through. Commencing 1-1/2 in. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. Now cut out one of the 12-in. place the entire machine in a vise. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. holes at d. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. and connect to the boiler. Now take mold No. and the exhaust hole in projection b. where the casting did not fill out. over the defective part.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. and lay it away to dry. only the one is left-handed. until it is full. screw down. 6. This is for a shaft. d. and bore three 1/4-in. A piece of mild steel 5 in. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. B. place it under the drill. long. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. and run in babbitt metal again.black dots in Fig.2. put the top of the brace through this hole. lay it on a level place. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. so that it will turn easily. from the one end. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. and drill them in the same manner. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. wide and 16 in. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. 4. fasten a 3/8-in. Then bolt the castings together. Also bore the port-hole in projection B.

bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. will do good service. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. and. long. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Then take a knife or a chisel. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. with a boss and a set screw. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Plan of Ice Boat . piece and at right angles to it. and with three small screw holes around the edge. and the other 8 ft. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. while it is running at full speed. turn the wheel to the shape desired.. and if instructions have been carefully followed. At each end of the 6ft. one 6 ft.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam.

On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. in diameter at the base. Over the middle of the 6-ft. bolt the 8-ft. and about 8 in. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. 2 by 3 in. 8 a reef point knot. as the runners were fastened. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. distant. so much the better will be your boat. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. tapering to 1-1/2 in. leaving 1 ft. in diameter in the center. where they often did considerable damage. projecting as in Fig. piece and at right angles to it. in diameter. at the butt and 1 in. at the end. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. 3. To the under side of the 8-ft. Fig. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. in front of the rudder block. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. long. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. The spar should be 9 ft. plank nail 8-in. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. which may come in handy in heavy winds. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. long and 2-1/2 in. The tiller. in the top before the skate is put on. 1. should be of hardwood. long. Fig. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. This fits in the square hole. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. Run the seam on a machine. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. Make your runners as long as possible. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. at the top. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. boards to make the platform. plank.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. 1.

but one that will afford any amount of amusement. R. and the alarm bell will ring. B. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. Its parts are as follows: A. Phoenix. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by John D. The arrangement proved quite too effective. allowing the springs to contact at C.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. to block B. Ariz. S S. Pa. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. bent into a hook at each end. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. small piece of wood. and place it behind a stove. P. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. Mechanicsburg. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. Adams. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. P. --Contributed by J. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. Comstock. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. block of wood nailed to A. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. so that they come in contact at C. wide. The . binding-posts fastening the springs S S. in the air and let out a terrific squeak.

in diameter. including the .center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. says the American Boy. Gild the pan all over. The stump makes the best support. The seat arms may be any length desired. and make it into a clock to hang on the wall. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. 1. Then get a 10-cent frying pan. The center pole should be 10 ft. 6 in. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an un