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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

The pieces are then dressed round. 2. 2. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. until it is bound as shown in Fig. A piece of plank 12 in. 2 -. with the hollow side away from you. 1.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. wide and 2 ft. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . distant. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. 1. To throw a boomerang. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown.Fig. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. Fig. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. as shown in Fig. long will make six boomerangs. grasp it and hold the same as a club. It is held in this curve until dry. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. E. apart. Noble. Toronto. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. Ontario. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. away. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. 1. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention.

and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. forcing it down closely. it is not essential to the support of the walls. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. A very light. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. which makes the building simpler and easier. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. high and 4 or 5 in. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. blocks . or rather no bottom at all. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. long. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. dry snow will not pack easily. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. and it may be necessary to use a little water. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. If the snow is of the right consistency. thick. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. the block will drop out. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. minus the top. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. but about 12 in. one inside of the circle and the other outside. made of 6-in. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. however. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. A wall.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. 6 in. and with a movable bottom. First.

The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. above the ground. Fig. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. The piece of wood. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. which can be made of wood. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. 3. Union. is 6 or 8 in. long and 1 in. a. Fig. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. wide. 2. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. Ore. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. or an old safe dial will do. and the young architect can imitate them. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. --Contributed by Geo. A nail. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. C. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. 1. 2. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. There is no outward thrust. Goodbrod. Fig. 3 -. which is about 1 ft. 1. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. D. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. It also keeps them out.

The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. the box locked . The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. as the weight always draws them back to place. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. Syracuse. --Contributed by R. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. says the Sphinx. If ordinary butts are used. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. one pair of special hinges. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. Merrill. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. New York. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling.When taking hot dishes from the stove. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. S.

it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. When the sieve is shaken. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. If they do not. draw one-half of it. smooth surface. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner.and the performer steps out in view. about 1-32 of an inch. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. as shown in Fig. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. Alberta Norrell. Augusta. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. one for each corner. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. as shown. With the metal shears. 1. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. Place the piece in a vise. It remains to bend the flaps. proceed as follows: First. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. If the measuring has been done properly. 2. 3. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. Ga. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. as shown in Fig. To make a design similar to the one shown. All . on drawing paper. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. -Contributed by L. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Fig. allowing each coat time to dry. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard.

should be in the line. heats the strip of German-silver wire. as shown at AA. used for insulation. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. in passing through the lamp. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. H. Colo. and in the positions shown in the sketch. long. The current. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. in diameter.the edges should be left smooth. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. causing it to expand. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. C. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. A piece of porcelain tube. R. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. When the current is turned off. The common cork. 25 German-silver wire. from the back end. --Contributed by R. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. To keep the metal from tarnishing. Denver. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. if rolled under the shoe sole. If a touch of color is desired. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. which is about 6 in. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. of No. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . A resistance. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. is fitted tightly in the third hole. Galbreath. In boring through rubber corks. B. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. After this has dried. about 6 in. 25 gauge German-silver wire.

Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. 1. between them as shown in Fig. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. as shown in Fig. Kansas City. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. --Contributed by David Brown. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. Fig. leaving a space of 4 in. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Mo. 2.bottom ring. . and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Purchase two long book straps. 3. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. with thin strips of wood. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole.

36 in. --Contributed by James M. Morse.. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. Syracuse. Fig. Y. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. 1. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced.. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Fig. and tack smoothly. 4. to form a handle. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Two strips of brass. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. in diameter. The folds are made over the string. and one weighing 25 lb. Doylestown. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box.An ordinary electric bell. 2. C. which is the right weight for family use. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. long. N. Kane. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. having a gong 2-1/2 in. just the right weight for a woman to use. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. When the aeroplane tips. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Fig. are mounted on the outside of the box. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. 1. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. --Contributed by Katharine D. as . The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. one weighing 15 lb. These are shown in Fig. Pa. A. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. 3. and a pocket battery. 1. The string is then tied. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown.

which can be purchased at a local hardware store. 1. and many fancy knick-knacks. four washers and four square nuts. 3/32 or 1/4 in. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. 2. N.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. AA. bent as shown in Fig. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. 2. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. Frame Made of a Rod . Floral Park. Day. machine screws. Y. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. --Contributed by Louis J. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. such as brackets. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. if once used. long. two 1/8 -in. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. The saw. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. in diameter.

Scranton. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. therefore. Rub off the highlights. though almost any color may be obtained. or silver.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. of water. 1 part sulphuric acid. The buckle is to be purchased. Detroit. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. after breaking up. copper. In the design shown. of course. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. If it colors the metal red. be covered the same as the back. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. treat it with color. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. using a swab and an old stiff brush.may be made of either brass. it has the correct strength. allowing each time to dry. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. Apply two coats. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Silver is the most desirable but.. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. A. 1 part nitric acid. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. An Austrian Top [12] . the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. as well as the depth of etching desired. the most expensive. use them in place of the outside nuts. as well as brass and copper. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. --Contributed by W. green and browns are the most popular. Drying will cause this to change to purple. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Of the leathers. of water in which dissolve. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. Michigan. For etching. File these edges. if copper or brass. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. Watch Fob For coloring silver. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath.

1-1/4 in. hole in this end for the top. A 1/16-in. Michigan. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. thick. in diameter.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. . pass one end through the 1/16-in. starting at the bottom and winding upward. A handle. is formed on one end. allowing only 1-1/4 in. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. Tholl. long. long. hole. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood.F. 3/4 in. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. wide and 3/4 in. Parts of the Top To spin the top. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. set the top in the 3/4 -in. --Contributed by J. 5-1/4 in. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. Bore a 3/4-in. The handle is a piece of pine. When the shank is covered. Ypsilanti.

some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. For black leathers.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. --A. Houghton. Ga. --Contributed by Miss L. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Mich. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Alberta Norrell. Northville. Augusta. . The baking surface. A. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. having no sides. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. tarts or similar pastry. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork.

A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. Centralia. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. the same as shown in the illustration. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . then solder cover and socket together. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. Mo. Stringing Wires [13] A. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. When you desire to work by white light. glass fruit jar. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. says Studio Light. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. two turns will remove the jar. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power.

Wis. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. 1-1/4 in. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. 4 Braces. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. square by 12 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. 1-1/4 in. They are fastened. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. 16 Horizontal bars. 4 Vertical pieces. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. . A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. and not tip over. Janesville.for loading and development. so it can be folded up. as shown in the cross-section sketch. square by 62 in.

the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. and a loop made in the end. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. The front can be covered . and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. H. Rosenthal. Phillipsburg. Cincinnati. after filling the pail with water. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. After rounding the ends of the studs. The whole. If the loop is tied at the proper place. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. C. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. --Contributed by Dr. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. O. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. -Contributed by Charles Stem. New York. from scrap material. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water.

and. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. the mouth of which rests against a. principally mayonnaise dressing. Wehr. If the gate is raised slightly. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. by all rules of the game. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. you are. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. if you try to tone them afterward. The results will be poor. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. The . you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. Develop them into strong prints. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. thoroughly fix. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. 1 FIG. In my own practice. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. --Contributed by Gilbert A. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. FIG. Baltimore. By using the following method. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. Md. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. either for contact printing or enlargements. sickly one. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. the color will be an undesirable. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers.

...... being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain....... Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. preferably the colored kind. in size. without previous wetting... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. It will bleach slowly and evenly.. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper... Water . Place the dry print.. but.... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. etc. 2.. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes.... --Contributed by T..... L. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. to make it 5 by 5 in. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. When the desired reduction has taken place... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. A good final washing completes the process. 2 oz... The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table..... Gray. 5 by 15 in. Iodide of potassium .. 1 and again as in Fig. wide and 4 in. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.... The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper.... in this solution. three times. 20 gr.. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in.. San Francisco. long to admit the angle support... transfer it to a tray of water. when it starts to bleach. as it will appear clean much longer than the white. where it will continue to bleach..... The blotting paper can . Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. Cal...... With a little practice.... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.." Cyanide of potassium . 16 oz.. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.

Corners complete are shown in Fig. and a length of 5 in. Canada. Make a design similar to that shown. --Contributed by J. the shaft 1 in. Monahan. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. the head of which is 2 in. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. 20 gauge. Oshkosh.J. wide. 3. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. wide below the . --Contributed by L. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Wisconsin.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners.

Pierce a hole with a small drill. For coloring olive green. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. using turpentine. Apply with a small brush. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. 4. 1 Fig. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. 1 part nitric acid. 1. . With the metal shears. then coloring. After this has dried. being held perpendicular to the work. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. after folding along the center line. After the sawing. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. Make one-half of the design. then trace the other half in the usual way. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. 3. Allow this to dry. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. deep.FIG. Do not put the hands in the solution. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. The metal must be held firmly. freehand. then put on a second coat. Trace the design on the metal. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. using carbon paper. 2. using a small metal saw. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. but use a swab on a stick. as shown in Fig. 1 part sulphuric acid. Fig. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. With files. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. which gives the outline of the design Fig.

Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. on a chopping board. . The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. Morse. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. --Contributed by H. Conn. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. East Hartford. Ii is an ordinary staple. thick. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Cal. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. --Contributed by Katharine D. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. --Contributed by M. When this is cold. New York. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. After the stain has dried. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. it does the work rapidly. then stain it a mahogany color. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Burnett. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. M. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. Carl Cramer. Syracuse. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Richmond. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. attach brass handles. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. as shown.

one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. A. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. Fig. Kissimmee. not over 1/4 in. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. in width at the shank. as shown at A. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. 1. indicating the depth of the slots. about 3/16 in. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. or tin. --Contributed by Mrs. square. Atwell. . 1/4 in. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. saucers or pans. L. as shown in Fig. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. also locate the drill holes.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. WARNECKE Procure some brass. --Contributed by W. Jaquythe. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. some pieces of brass. H. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. 4. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. holes. two enameled.. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. thick and 4 in. one shaft. Cal. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. thick. Richmond. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. brass. 53 steel pens. and several 1/8-in. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. machine screws. Florida.

1. Fig. using two nuts on each screw. 2. long and 5/16 in. machine screws. long by 3/4 in. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. as in Fig. with 1/8-in. thick. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. 3. Fig. as shown in Fig. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. and the ends filed round for the bearings. hole is drilled to run off the water. 2. can be procured. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. There should be a space of 1/16 in. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. hole in the center. hole. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. If metal dishes. and pins inserted. machine screws and nuts. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. These are connected to a 3/8-in. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. 5. lead should be run into the segments. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. brass and bolted to the casing. The shaft hole may also be filed square. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . supply pipe. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. wide and bend as shown in Fig. Bend as shown in Fig. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt.. a square shaft used. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. with the face of the disk. Fig. into the hole. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. as shown. If the shaft is square. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. 7. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. 6. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. thick. A 3/4-in. with a 3/8-in. wide. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. 3. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. in diameter and 1/32 in. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. each about 1 in. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. about 1/32 in. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig.

The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. Smith. Fasten with 3/4-in. deep over all. --Contributed by S. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. make these seams come between the two back legs. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. Canada. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. When assembling. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. using four to each leg. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. high and 15 in. from the bottom end of the legs. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. three of which are in the basket. from the top of the box. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. deep and 1-1/4 in. to make the bottom. we will call the basket. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. Ill. The lower part. long. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. --Contributed by F. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. V. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Cooke. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Stain the wood before putting in the . Now you will have the box in two pieces. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. The four legs are each 3/4-in. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. screws.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. or more in diameter. With a string or tape measure. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. square and 30-1/2 in. 8-1/2 in. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Be sure to have the cover. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Hamilton. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. La Salle.

Fig. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. Sew on to the covered cardboards. Cover them with the cretonne. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Baltimore. When making the display. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture.2 Fig. The side. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. If all the parts are well sandpapered.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . wide. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. wide and four strips 10 in. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. --also the lower edge when necessary. and gather it at that point. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. The folded part in the center is pasted together. sewing on the back side. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. 2. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. -Contributed by Stanley H. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. as shown in the sketch. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Md. 1. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Mass. Boston. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. you can. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound.lining. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. Packard.

The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Gloversville. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Crockett. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Fig. and. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. --Contributed by H. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. N. L. Cross Timbers. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. 3. with slight modifications. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Mo. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. saving all the solid part. When through using the pad. It is not difficult to . It is cleanly. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Y. Orlando Taylor. --Contributed by B. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place.

and scrape out the rough parts. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . El Paso. Bourne. -Contributed by C. After stirring. Mass. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. S. Lane. or if desired. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. After this is done. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. remove the contents. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. are shown in the diagram. Texas. Lowell. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Both of these methods are wasteful. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. and secure it in place with glue or paste.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. --Contributed by Edith E. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. it should be new and sharp. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. If a file is used. across the face.

These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. A Postcard Rack [25]. Ill. The insects came to the light. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. Turl. Des Moines. Greenleaf. Oregon. --Contributed by Geo. F. Ill. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Wheeler. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Canton. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. He captured several pounds in a few hours. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. The process works well and needs no watching. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. Iowa. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. --Contributed by Marion P. Those having houses . it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease.cooking utensil. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. After several hours' drying. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. As these were single-faced disk records. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. Oak Park. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. circled over the funnel and disappeared.

material. the bottom being 3/8 in. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. and the second one for the developing bench. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. thick. one on each side of what will be the . Dobbins. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. Rosenberg. will do as well. and both exactly alike. 6 in. Lay the floor next. not even with the boards themselves.. by 2 ft. Mass. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. boards are preferable. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. Conn. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. Glenbrook. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces.. Worcester. --Contributed by Wm. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. --Contributed by Thomas E. 6 in. but for cheapness 3/4 in. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. Both sides can be put together in this way. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. The single boards can then be fixed. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. and as they are simple in design. Only three pieces are required. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. plane and pocket knife. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. the best material to use being matched boards.

One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig.. which is fixed on as shown . The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. At the top of the doorway. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. and to the outside board of the sides. It is shown in detail in Fig.. and the top as at C in the same drawing. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. 8. 6 and 9. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. and should be zinc lined. In hinging the door. nailing them to each other at the ridge. below which is fixed the sink. 3 and 4. and in the middle an opening.doorway. The developing bench is 18 in. The roof boards may next be put on. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. wide. 10). but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. 5. brown wrapping paper. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. 2 in section. by screwing to the floor. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. as shown in Figs. 11. so that it will fit inside the sink.. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. 7. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. 9 by 11 in. etc. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. is cut. hinged to it. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. 9). They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. and act as a trap for the light. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. 6. of the top of the door for the same reason. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. the closing side as at B. so that the water will drain off into the sink. Fig. 6. A shelf for bottles and another for plates.

Details of the Dark Rook .

as at I. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. Karl Hilbrich. after lining with brown paper. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. Pennsylvania. screwing them each way into the boards. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. In use. and a tank stand on it. A circular piece about 2 in. 20. as shown in Fig. or the room may be made with a flat roof. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. as in Fig. as shown in the sections. 13. which makes it possible to have white light. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. The handle should be at least 12 in. mixing flour and water. 19. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. Fig. as at M. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. For beating up an egg in a glass. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. 2. hole bored in the center for a handle. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. are fastened in the corners inside. 6. The house will be much strengthened if strips.in Fig. 16. these being shown in Fig. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. 1. 16. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . and a 3/8-in. or red light as at K. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. 17. preferably maple or ash. it is better than anything on the market. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. but not the red glass and frame. Fig. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. Fig. if desired. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. --Contributed by W. 13. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. 15. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. though this is hardly advisable. Fig. Erie. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. 14. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. 18. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. four coats at first is not too many.

A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. for a handle.copper should be. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. --Contributed by L. New York. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. Mitchell. about 3/8 in. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. which. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Kansas City. L. Schweiger. long. Yonkers. Mo. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Smith. Eureka Springs. --Contributed by Wm. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. as shown in the sketch. Ark. G. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. -Contributed by E. when put together properly is a puzzle. To operate. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. D.

1. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. holes should be drilled in the bottom. need them. as is usually the case. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. After the box is trimmed. 3. Each cork is cut as in Fig. The corks in use are shown in Fig. which binds them together. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. as well as improve its appearance. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. . 3.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. A number of 1/2-in. The design shown in Fig. the rustic work should be varnished. Having completed the bare box. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. for the moment. in order to thoroughly preserve it. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. as shown in Fig. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. the box will require a greater height in front. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. to make it set level. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. If the sill is inclined. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. especially for filling-in purposes. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. as shown in Fig. 2.

the squirrels come in droves from far and near. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. 1. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. drilled at right angles.. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. cabbages. share the same fate. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. 2. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. 3. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. F. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. When the corn is gone cucumbers. But I have solved the difficulty. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. it's easy. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. Each long projection represents a leg. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. Traps do no good. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. life in the summer time is a vexation. 4. and observe results. as shown in Fig. . The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. etc. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. can't use poison. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. too dangerous. being partly eaten into. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes.

If. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. strips. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. of No. long.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. cut some of it off and try again. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. About 9-1/2 ft. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. by trial. . Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. -. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. the coil does not heat sufficiently. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. cut in 1/2-in. Iowa. The solution can be used over and over again. and made up and kept in large bottles.

Morse. but with unsatisfactory results. Stir and mix thoroughly. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Dallas. Y. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. it falls to stop G. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. 1) removed. In cleaning silver. --Contributed by Katharine D. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Doylestown. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. of gasoline. Syracuse. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. is a good size--in this compound. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. C. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. and a strip. Do not wash them. Pa. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. D. Fig 2. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. . The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. hot-water pot. coffee pot. Texas. to cause the door to swing shut. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. N. Knives. --Contributed by James M. as shown in the sketch. forks. Kane. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow.

negatives. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. which is. Pa. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. . the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. but unfixed. Ill. of course. Waverly. using the paper dry. Fisher. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Harrisburg. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Sprout. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. New Orleans. later fixed and washed as usual. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. --Contributed by Oliver S. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Theodore L. La.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film.

To obviate this difficulty. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. Fig. 1. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. a harmonograph is a good prescription. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. metal. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. then . The harmonograph. In this uncertainty lies the charm. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator.

Punch a hole. K. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. The length of the short pendulum H. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. Another weight of about 10 lb. what is most important. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. Rosemont. ceiling. Holes up to 3 in. to prevent any side motion. A length of 7 ft. that is. 1. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. A small weight.. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. Ingham. Chicago. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . A weight. one-fifth. or the lines will overlap and blur. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. provides a means of support for the stylus. R. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. as shown in the lower part of Fig. Arizona. for instance. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. and unless the shorter pendulum is. etc. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. is attached as shown at H. --Contributed by James T. A small table or platform. such as a shoe buttoner. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. as shown in Fig. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. as long as the other. of about 30 or 40 lb. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. in diameter. is about right for a 10-ft.. exactly one-third. A pedestal. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. G. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. in the center of the circle to be cut. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. 1. --Contributed by Wm. one-fourth. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. makes respectively 3. J.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. which can be regulated. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. with a nail set or punch. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. Gaffney. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. 1-3/4 by 2 in.

These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter.J. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. --Contributed by J. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. and proceed as before. a correspondent of . quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. Morey. then 3 as in Fig. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. 3. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. Fig. 5.H. 6.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. -Contributed by W. then put 2 at the top. N. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig.J. The two key cards are made alike. one for the sender and one for the receiver. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. Chicago. and 4 as in Fig. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. of course. Cape May City. distributing them over the whole card. 4. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. 2. dividing them into quarters. The capacity of the vise. Fig. 1. Cruger. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made.

rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. citrate of iron and ammonia. drill 15 holes. Cut through the center. acetic acid and 4 oz. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. --Contributed by L. Augusta. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. the portion of the base under the coil. sheet of well made asbestos paper. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. After preparing the base and uprights. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. 6 gauge wires shown. remove the prints. wood-screws. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. Asbestos board is to be preferred. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. says Popular Electricity. respectively. of 18-per-cent No. Wind the successive turns of . secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. deep. Ga. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. To assemble. long. of water. If constructed of the former. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. 30 gr. Alberta Norrell. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. 1/2 oz. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. of the uprights. After securing the tint desired. 1/4 in. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. 22 gauge German-silver wire. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. from the top and bottom. of ferricyanide of potash.

as they are usually thrown away when empty. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. Small knobs may be added if desired. 14 gauge. then fasten the upright in place. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. which. screws. but these are not necessary. etc. N. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. 16 gauge copper wire. --Contributed by Frederick E. Labels of some kind are needed. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage.. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. if one is not a smoker. Y. The case may be made of 1/2-in. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. cut and dressed 1/2 in. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. square. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. rivets.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . Ampere. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. Ward. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places.

A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. The parts are put together with dowel pins. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. Copper. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. Larson. especially if a large tub is used. The material can be of any wood. and rub the point of the copper on it. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all.14 oz. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. A. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. particularly so when the iron has once been used. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. This is considerable annoyance. S. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac.. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. and labeled "Poison. C. as shown in the sketch. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. or has become corroded. it must be ground or filed to a point. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. If the soldering copper is an old one. of water. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. of glycerine to 16 oz. brass. and one made of poplar finished black. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. Kenosha. --Contributed by W. then to the joint to be soldered. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. being careful about the heat. G. --C. . Richmond. tinner's acid. E and F. California. galvanized iron. Ark. zinc. --Contributed by A. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. a piece of solder." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. Eureka Springs. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. lead. Jaquythe. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. the pure muriatic acid should be used. B. Wis. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. sandpaper or steel wool. In soldering galvanized iron. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. D. tin. Heat it until hot (not red hot). a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac.

Place the band. Apart from this. The disk will come out pan shaped. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. round iron. 2. This will leave a clear hole. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. a ring may be made from any metal.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. I bind my magazines at home evenings. W. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. in diameter. The punch A. C. thick and 1-1/4 in. This completes the die. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. wide. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. 7/8 in. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . with good results. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. -Contributed by H. however. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. B. in diameter. D. brass and silver. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. The covers of the magazines are removed. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Troy. such as copper. Take a 3/4-in. The dimensions shown in Fig. Brass rings can be plated when finished. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. nut. Y. which gives two bound volumes each year. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. and drill out the threads. Fig. Hankin. N. Six issues make a well proportioned book. Fig. 1.

Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. and a third piece. After drawing the thread tightly. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. Start with the front of the book. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. as shown in Fig. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. 2. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. C. 1. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. 2. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. The string No. using . These sections are each removed in turn from the others. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. Place the cardboard covers on the book. which is fastened the same as the first. The sections are then prepared for sewing. The covering can be of cloth. is nailed across the top. deep. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. 1. 1/8 in. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. . making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. and place them against the strings in the frame. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. then back through the notch on the right side. through the notch on the left side of the string No. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. Coarse white thread. is used for the sewing material. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. 1. Five cuts. The covering should be cut out 1 in. If started with the January or the July issue. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. size 16 or larger. 1 in Fig.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. allowing about 2 in. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. threaded double. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. on all edges except the back. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. 5. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick.4. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. and then to string No. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. of the ends extending on each side.

zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. on which to hook the blade. --Contributed by Clyde E. Nebr. Tinplate. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Place the cover on the book in the right position. round iron. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Cal. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. and. at opposite sides to each other. Divine. and mark around each one. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. College View. Encanto. For the blade an old talking-machine . Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back.

Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. fuse hole at D. On the upper side. by 1 in. thick. and 1/4 in. Hays. hydraulic pipe. at the same end. F. Miss. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. A. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). Summitville. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. and another piece (B) 6 in. as shown. with 10 teeth to the inch. and 1/4 in.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. Moorhead. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. long. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. thick.. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. in order to drill the holes in the ends. Make the blade 12 in. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. C. -Contributed by Willard J. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. E. or double extra heavy. B. and a long thread plug. Then on the board put . as it is sometimes called. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. by 4-1/2 in. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. and file in the teeth. bore. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. with a steel sleeve. Ohio.. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead.

and some No. --Contributed by Chas. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Connect up as shown. H. the jars need not be very large. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. as from batteries. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. 4 jars. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. high around this apparatus. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. of rubber-covered wire. If you are going to use a current of low tension. Philadelphia. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. about 5 ft. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. Boyd. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. using about 8 in. A lid may be added if desired. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. of wire to each coil. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks.

apart. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. thick. 3 in. The current then will flow through the motor. 7 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. by 1 in. B. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. A 3/4-in. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. direct to wire across jars. two pieces 14 in. two pieces 34 in. beginning at the rear. above the ground. and plane it on all edges. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. 30 in. 1 on switch. C... refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. The top disk in jar No.. long. as they "snatch" the ice. 2 is lower down than in No. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. wide by 3/4 in.. two pieces 30 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. To wire the apparatus. No. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. 11 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. are important. wide and 2 in. square by 14 ft. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. . wide and 3/4 in. thick. and four pieces 14 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. by 2 in. 2 and 3. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. wide. by 1-1/4 in. 1 and so on for No. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. by 5 in.. or source of current. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. and for the rear runners: A. Their size also depends on the voltage. gives full current and full speed. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. The stock required for them is oak. 4) of 3/4-in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. The connection between point No. An iron washer. on No. 5 on switch. 34 in. and bolt through. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. is used to reduce friction. 3. sheet brass 1 in. Z. 27 B. A variation of 1/16 in. The sled completed should be 15 ft. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. long by 22 in. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. by 2 in. by 5 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. & S.. For the front runners these measurements are: A. B and C. Use no nails. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. 2. The illustration shows how to shape it. 2 in. by 6 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. by 1-1/4 in. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. with the cushion about 15 in. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. as they are not substantial enough. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. 1. In proportioning them the points A. 16-1/2 in. 1 is connected to point No. 2. Put arm of switch on point No. 4 in. 4. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. Use no screws on the running surface. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. B. 3 and No. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. two for each jar. C. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. long. long. At the front 24 or 26 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. Fig. 15-1/2 in. Construct the auto front (Fig. 2. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. making them clear those in the front runner. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. oak boards. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. For the brass trimmings use No.. On the door of the auto front put the . For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. First sandpaper all the wood. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. long. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. steel rod makes a good steering rod. See Fig.the way. however.

etc. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. Then get some upholstery buttons. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. parcels. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. to improve the appearance. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . a brake may be added to the sled. by 1/2 in. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. which is somewhat moist. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. Fasten a horn. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. overshoes. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. fasten a cord through the loop. long. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. by 30 in. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. such as used on automobiles. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. brass plated. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. to the wheel. a number of boys may share in the ownership. If desired. The best way is to get some strong. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. may be stowed within. lunch. If the expense is greater than one can afford. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. such as burlap. cheap material. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. If desired. or with these for $25. cutting it out of sheet brass.

. Lexington. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Leland. --Contributed by Stewart H. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Ill.tree and bring. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written.

The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. First take the case of a small gearwheel. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. CD. though more difficult. the cut will be central on the line. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. London. by drawing diameters. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . The first tooth may now be cut. thick. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. outside diameter and 1/16 in. a compass. The Model Engineer. The straight-edge. some files. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. when flat against it. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. This guide should have a beveled edge. mild steel or iron. the same diameter as the wheel. from F to G. A small clearance space. 3. Fig. with twenty-four teeth. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. 4). 2. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. 1. which. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. With no other tools than a hacksaw. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. E. Draw a circle on paper. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. sheet metal. Fig. say 1 in. made from 1/16-in. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. FC. Fig. so that the center of the blade. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. will be over the line FG.

and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. . This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. as shown in Fig. B. as shown in Fig. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. each in the center. Make a hole in the other. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. B. No shock will be perceptible. R. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. A bright. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners.Four Photos on One Plate of them. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. electric lamp. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. 2. and the other outlet wire. If there is no faucet in the house. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. some wire and some carbons. or several pieces bound tightly together. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. ground it with a large piece of zinc. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. as shown in Fig. Then take one outlet wire. hold in one hand. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. either the pencils for arc lamps. Focus the camera in the usual manner. 1. 1. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. transmitter.

D D are binding posts for electric wires. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. For a base use a pine board 10 in. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . leaving about 10 in. If desired. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. Pa. Then set the whole core away to dry. They have screw ends. J. as shown. Wrenn. One like a loaf of bread. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. --Contributed by Geo. serves admirably. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. and will then burn the string C. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. A is a wooden block. by 1 in. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. as indicated by E E. are also needed. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. one at the receiver can hear what is said. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. But in this experiment. B. at each end for terminals. Emsworth. and again wind the wire around it. or more of the latter has been used. and about that size. Slattery. under the gable. Ashland. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. by 12 in. 36 wire around it. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. Dry batteries are most convenient. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. Ohio. a transmitter which induces no current is used. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Several battery cells. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. of course. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. even though there are no batteries in the circuit.

and the lamps. Connect these three to switch. while C is open. E. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. Ohio. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. D. 14 wire. Newark. The apparatus is now ready for operation. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. run a No. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. 12 or No. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. From the other set of binding-posts.wire. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. and one single post switch. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. until the hand points to zero on the scale.. the terminal of the coil. These should have hollow ends. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. as shown. Fig. in parallel. Jr. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. in series with bindingpost. B B. 2. and switch. Fig. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. B B. D. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. The oven is now ready to be connected. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. At one side secure two receptacles. The coil will commence to become warm. connecting lamp receptacles. Place 16-cp. for the . 1. First make a support. C. F. Turn on switch. C. as shown.

it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. Mine is wound with two layers of No. until the scale is full. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. 14 wire. The box is 5-1/2 in. 3. although brass is better. This is slipped on the pivot. long. The core. 4 in. Montreal. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. although copper or steel will do. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. 36 magnet wire instead of No. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. is then made and provided with a glass front. 7. drill in only to the opening already through. --Contributed by J. E. 6. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. wide and 1-3/4 in. drill a hole as shown at H. Dussault. To make one. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. B. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. A wooden box. Fig. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. to prevent it turning on the axle. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. The pointer or hand. as shown in the cut. C. deep. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. 5. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. but if for a 4way. is made of iron. wind with plenty of No. 1. a battery. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. 4 amperes. D. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. 4. This may be made of wood. Fig. a variable resistance. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. 1. If for 3-way. is made of wire. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. drill through the entire case and valve. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. inside measurements. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . It is 1 in. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. wide and 1/8 in. 1/2 in. thick. 3 amperes. 2..or 4-way valve or cock. Fig. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. from the lower end. long.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. At a point a little above the center. etc. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. Fig. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple.E. After drilling. 14. high. long and make a loop. D. remove the valve. and D. where A is the homemade ammeter.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. 5. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. 10 turns to each layer. a standard ammeter. 1/4 in.

D. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. in diameter. By connecting the motor. A. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place.performing electrical experiments. B. which is used for reducing the current. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. E. high. and the other connects with the water rheostat. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. provided with a rubber stopper. To start the light. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. in thickness . It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. as shown. F. One wire runs to the switch. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. and the arc light. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. making two holes about 1/4 in. This stopper should be pierced. and a metal rod. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together.

as shown in B. If the interrupter does not work at first. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. where he is placed in an upright open . Carthage. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. 1. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. To insert the lead plate. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. Fig. N. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. 2. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. B. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. Having finished the interrupter. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. 2. If all adjustments are correct. Having fixed the lead plate in position. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. --Contributed by Harold L. A piece of wood. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Fig. 1. A. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Fig. 1. Turn on the current and press the button. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. As there shown.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Y. as shown in C. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. long. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Fig. Jones.

When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. by 7 in. The glass should be the clearest possible. the illusion will be spoiled. A white shroud is thrown over his body. The box containing the stage should be 14 in.. The lights. L and M. light-colored garments.coffin. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. dressed in brilliant. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. is constructed as shown in the drawings. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. A. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. within the limits of an ordinary room. as the entire interior. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. and can be bought at Japanese stores. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. to aid the illusion. and wave his arms up and down. The skeleton is made of papier maché. especially the joints and background near A. All . and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. giving a limp. and must be thoroughly cleansed. especially L. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. They need to give a fairly strong light. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. which can be run by three dry cells. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. If it is desired to place the box lower down. with the exception of the glass. by 7-1/2 in. should be miniature electric lamps. should be colored a dull black. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. until it is dark there. from which the gong has been removed. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. high. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. inside dimensions. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. loosejointed effect. figures and lights. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. Its edges should nowhere be visible. could expect from a skeleton. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. If everything is not black. The model. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view.

If a gradual transformation is desired. fat spark. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. San Jose. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. Fry. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps.that is necessary is a two-point switch. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. W. as shown in the sketch. square block. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. placed about a foot apart. Cal. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. --Contributed by Geo. Two finishing nails were driven in. after which it assumes its normal color. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white.

The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. and should be separated about 1/8 in. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. soldered in the top. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. to make it airtight. hydrogen gas is generated. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. or a solution of sal soda. This is a wide-mouth bottle. In Fig. The plates are separated 6 in. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. -Contributed by Dudley H. 1. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. In Fig. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. New York. B and C. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. by small pieces of wood. If a lighted match . about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. F. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. One of these plates is connected to metal top. the remaining space will be filled with air. with two tubes. A (see sketch). and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. into the receiver G. Cohen. as shown. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle.

in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. by means of the clips. and the ends of the tube. C C. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. If desired. which is plugged up at both ends. B. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. Fig. long. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. 36 insulated wire. 1/2 in. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. N. which forms the vaporizing coil. A. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. in diameter and 6 in. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. 1. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. long. copper pipe. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. of No. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. copper pipe. Fig. as is shown in the illustration. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. A piece of 1/8-in. London. A. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. says the Model Engineer. then a suitable burner is necessary. 2 shows the end view. A 1/64-in. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. P. 1-5/16 in. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. The distance between the nipple. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. A. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. N. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. is made by drilling a 1/8in. either by passing a current of electricity around it. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. A nipple. or by direct contact with another magnet. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. is then coiled around the brass tube. One row is drilled to come directly on top. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . should be only 5/16 of an inch. A. from the bottom.

Turn the book over and paste the other side. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. taking care not to bend the iron. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. but if the paper knife cannot be used. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. 1. duck or linen. leaving the folded edge uncut. this makes a much nicer book. cut to the size of the pages. 1/4 in. at the front and back for fly leaves. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. A disk of thin sheet-iron. longer and 1/4 in. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. 2). boards and all. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. should be cut to the diameter of the can. Fig. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. Fig. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. Fig. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). Take two strips of stout cloth. Cut four pieces of cardboard. larger all around than the book. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. 3. smoothly. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. with a fine saw. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. fold and cut it 1 in. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in.lamp cord. about 8 or 10 in. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. trim both ends and the front edge. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in.

pasting them down (Fig. Bedford City. Toronto. or rather the top now. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. is perforated with a number of holes. as shown. deep. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. D. A. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. H. B. is made the same depth as B. Parker. E. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by James E. 4). 18 in. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. of tank A is cut a hole. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. Another can. A gas cock. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. which will just slip inside the little can. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. . This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. Another tank. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. but its diameter is a little smaller. --Contributed by Joseph N. is fitted in it and soldered. Noble. Ont. Va. This will cause some air to be enclosed. without a head. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. in diameter and 30 in. and a little can. the joint will be gas tight. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. C. In the bottom. is soldered onto tank A. is turned on it.

by 1/2 in. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. B. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. making the width. J.. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. The armature. which moves to either right or left. A. and the four diagonal struts. Fig. The diagonal struts. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. with an electric-bell magnet. Beverly. tacks. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. B. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. should be 1/4 in. 2. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. should be cut a little too long. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. The longitudinal corner spines. 1. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. as shown at C. to prevent splitting. square by 42 in.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. D. and sewed double to give extra strength. E. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. long. N. If the back armature. Fig. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. Bott. A A. C. The bridle knots. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. -Contributed by H. basswood or white pine. S. exactly 12 in. should be 3/8 in. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. H is a square knot. shows how the connections are to be made. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. D. B. fastened in the bottom. The small guards. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. and about 26 in. are shown in detail at H and J. If the pushbutton A is closed. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. long. thus adjusting the . Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. when finished. The wiring diagram. which may be either spruce. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better.

Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. D. Chicago. shift toward F. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters.lengths of F and G. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Kan. --Contributed by Edw. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. can be made of a wooden . and. for producing electricity direct from heat. Harbert. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. the batteries do not run down for a long time. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. that refuse to slide easily. thus shortening G and lengthening F. A bowline knot should be tied at J. and if a strong wind is blowing. with gratifying results. Clay Center. however. Stoddard. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. E. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. Closing either key will operate both sounders. to prevent slipping. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. as shown. --Contributed by A. If the kite is used in a light wind.

E. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. Fasten a piece of wood. The wood screw. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. spark. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. to the cannon. C. A. in position.frame. which conducts the current into the cannon. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. F. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. by means of machine screws or. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. with a pocket compass. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. and the current may then be detected by means. 14 or No. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . --Contributed by A. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. with a number of nails. placed on top. E. A. Then. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. D. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore.. B. and also holds the pieces of wood. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. C. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. Chicago. When the cannon is loaded. A and B. C. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. A. or parallel with the compass needle. 16 single-covered wire.

A hole for a 1/2 in. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. To reverse. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. Big Rapids. Fig. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. requiring a strong magnet. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. In Fig. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. when in position at A'. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. --Contributed by Henry Peck. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. To lock the door. now at A' and S'. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. A. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. Chicago. A and S. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. Bend the strips BB (Fig. square and 3/8 in.the current is shut off. 1. in this position the door is locked. Connect as shown in the illustration. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. L. 1. A and S. Keil. B. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. to receive the screw in the center. . but no weights or strings. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. with the long arm at L'. Ohio. --Contributed by Joseph B. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. H. Fig. Marion. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. within the reach of the magnet. where there is a staple. To unlock the door. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. Mich. press the button. screw is bored in the block. 1. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders.

if enameled white on the concave side. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. The standard and base. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. When the holes are finished and your lines set. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. West Somerville. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. about 18 in. and may be made at very slight expense. pipe with 1-2-in. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. are enameled a jet black. and C is a dumbbell. When ready for use. put in the handle. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. and if the device is to be used on a polished table.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. gas-pipe. Mass. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. Thread the other end of the pipe. Rand. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. or for microscopic work. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. --Contributed by C. long. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. hole. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. J. and if desired the handles may .

This peculiar property is also found in ice. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. North Easton. A. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Warren. high by 1 ft. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. Make a cylindrical core of wood. across. Fig. as shown at A in the sketch.be covered with leather. B. long and 8 in. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . inside the pail. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. M. Mass. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. D. 1. 8 in.. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. which shall project at least 2 in. --Contributed by C. Fig. with a cover. across. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. 1. E. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug.

It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. pipe 2-ft. sand. passing wire nails through and clinching them. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. 3) with false top and bottom. C. 1). hotel china. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. thick. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. if there is to be any glazing done. carefully centering it. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. and 3/4 in. about 1 in. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. projecting from each end (Fig. The 2 in. which is the hottest part. long over the lid hole as a chimney. 1). should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. in diameter. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. but it will burn a great deal of gas. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. E. L. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in.-G. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. 60%. diameter. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in.mixture of clay. and with especial caution the first time. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. and on it set the paper wrapped core. the point of the blue flame. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. of fine wire. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. if you have the materials. or make one yourself. cutting the hole a little smaller. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. hard porcelain. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning.. full length of iron core. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. 25%. Set aside for a few days until well dried. layer of the clay mixture. and 3/8 in. as dictated by fancy and expense. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. W. pack this space-top. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. If the cover of the pail has no rim. and varnish. wider than the kiln. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. make two wood ends. C. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. such . 1390°-1410°. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. long. the firing should be gradual. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. as is shown in the sketch. Cover with paper and shellac as before. and graphite. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. and your kiln is ready for business. Wind about 1/8 in. Fit all the parts together snugly. strip of sheet iron. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. pipe. let this dry thoroughly. in diameter. It is placed inside the kiln. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end.. Fig. say 1/4 in. 2. and cut it 3-1/2 in. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. This done. to hold the clay mixture. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. thick. but will be cheaper in operation. 2 in. When lighted. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. 1330°. Line the pail. bottom and sides. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. C.. After finishing the core. Whatever burner is used. After removing all the paper. 15%.

about 1/16 in. C. with a plane. square them up. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. Chicago. around the coil. the next black. and so on. Then take the black cards. square them up and place in a vise. C. Take the red cards. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. You can display either color called for. red and black. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. Washington. and plane off about 1/16 in. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. Of course. as in Fig. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. R. . taking care to have the first card red. all cards facing the same way. Next restore all the cards to one pack. and discharges into the tube. --Contributed by J. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall.. length of . 2. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. D. 2. bind tightly with black silk.53 in. 1. overlaps and rests on the body. T. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. diameter. C. as shown in the sketch herewith. The funnel. A. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. 8 in. and divide it into two piles. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. B. procure a new deck. leaving long terminals. as in Fig. 2). we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. every alternate card being the same color. Then. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black.

Long Branch. The bottom glass should be a good fit. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. Drill all the horizontal pieces. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. F. E. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. 1 gill of fine white sand. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. B. through the holes already drilled. stove bolts. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. It should be placed in an exposed location. All the horizontal pieces. C. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. A. B. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter.J. Fig.C. 1. A. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. 1 gill of litharge. When the glass is put in the frame a space. of the frame. Let . so that when they are assembled. The cement. and then the frame is ready to assemble. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. stove bolts. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. E. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. the first thing to decide on is the size. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. To find the fall of snow. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. The upright pieces. the same ends will come together again. as the difficulties increase with the size. It is well not to attempt building a very large one.. B. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. D. thus making all the holes coincide. N. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. to form a dovetail joint as shown. about 20 in. and this is inexpensive to build. angle iron for the frame. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris.

and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. A. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Fig. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. a centerpiece (A. and.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. Fasten the lever. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. if desired. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. to the door knob. Aquarium Finished If desired. B. having a swinging connection at C. D. on the door by means of a metal plate.

Fig. 2 is an end view. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. Fig. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. To make the frame. --Contributed by Orton E. and another. will open the door about 1/2 in. Do not fasten these boards now. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. C. 6 in. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. wide by 1 in. showing the paddle-wheel in position. Fig. PAUL S. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. long. Fig. D. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. approximately 1 ft. and Fig. according to the slant given C. White. several lengths of scantling 3 in. another. B. 2 at GG. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. screwed to the door frame. Buffalo. Two short boards 1 in. soldered to the end of the cylinder. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. Cut two pieces 30 in. 2 ft. They are shown in Fig. long. 1. 1 . Y. to keep the frame from spreading. with a water pressure of 70 lb. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this.. another. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. long. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. Fig. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. from the outside top of the frame. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. 1.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. thus doing away with the spring. 1 is the motor with one side removed. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. Cut two of them 4 ft. I referred this question to my husband. 26 in. for the top. long. Fig. as at E. to form the slanting part. 3 shows one of the paddles. which is 15 in. to form the main supports of the frame. wide . F. AA. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. A small piece of spring brass. but mark their position on the frame. E. N. hoping it may solve the same question for them. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location.

after which drill a 5/8 in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. long to the wheel about 8 in. tapering from 3/16 in. hole through its center. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. Fasten them in their proper position. GG. and drill a 1-in. to a full 1/2 in. thick (HH. steel shaft 12 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. (I. These are the paddles. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Fig. Fig. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Now block the wheel. long and filling it with babbitt metal. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. iron. Make this hole conical. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in.along the edges under the zinc to form . When it has cooled. Next secure a 5/8-in. 2) form a substantial base. pipe. with the wheel and shaft in place. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. hole through them. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. hole from the tops to the 1-in.burlap will do -. 24 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Tack one side on. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. then drill a 3/16-in. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Take the side pieces.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. 1. and drill a 1/8-in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. 4. 2) and another 1 in. hole through their sides centrally. iron 3 by 4 in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. in diameter. Drill 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. 2) with a 5/8-in. thick. Fig. from one end by means of a key. remove the cardboard. take down the crosspieces. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. that is. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. hole to form the bearings. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. by 1-1/2 in. and a 1/4 -in. holes.

Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. as this makes long exposure necessary. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera.a water-tight joint. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. Do not stop down the lens. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. any window will do. Raise the window shade half way. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. . a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. it would be more durable. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. Darken the rest of the window. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Focus the camera carefully. but as it would have cost several times as much. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. light and the plate. The best plate to use is a very slow one. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. and leave them for an hour or so. and the subject may move. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. on the lens. of course. drill press. but now I put them in the machine. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. place the outlet over a drain. start the motor. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. and as near to it as possible. sewing machine. or what is called a process plate. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. remove any white curtains there may be. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. Drill a hole through the zinc. as shown in the sketch at B. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. shutting out all light from above and the sides. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. ice-cream freezer. says the Photographic Times. Correct exposure depends. If the bearings are now oiled. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. It is obvious that. If sheet-iron is used.

and without fog. or can be taken from an old magnet. a glass tube. C. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. 2. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. A. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. B. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. with binding posts as shown. or wood. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. which is made of iron and cork. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. D. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. until the core slowly rises. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. by twisting. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. The glass tube may be a test tube. without detail in the face. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. On completing . The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. full of water. The current required is very small. a core. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. and a base. With a piece of black paper. hard rubber. or an empty developer tube. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. The core C. an empty pill bottle may be used. 2. as shown in Fig. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. as a slight current will answer. the core is drawn down out of sight. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong.

1 lb. and are changed by reversing the rotation. and one not easy to explain. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. whale oil.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. white lead. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. finest graphite. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. This is a mysterious looking instrument. is Benham's color top. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. and make a pinhole in the center. according to his control of the current. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. 1. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. The colors appear different to different people. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. 1 pt. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. water and 3 oz.

players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. nearly every time. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. especially if the deck is a new one. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. when the action ceases. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base.B. or three spot. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken.L. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. B. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . before cutting. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. As this device is easily upset. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. deuce. -Contributed by D. Chicago.. In making hydrogen. C. thus partly filling bottles A and C. fan-like.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. A. In prize games.

Make ten pieces about 1 ft. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Detail of Phonograph Horn . (Fig. long and 3 in. 4. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. J. --Contributed by C. as shown in Fig. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. 12 in. long. Form a cone of heavy paper. . 2. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Make a 10-sided stick. Bently. in diameter.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together.. 1. Fig. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 3). Jr. Dak. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. in length and 3 in. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. S. Huron. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. that will fit loosely in the tube A. S. --Contributed by F. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Detroit. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw.. 10 in. 9 in. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. W. Fig. connecting the bottom by cross pieces.

long. push back the bolt. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. E. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. C. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. --Contributed by Reader. with a pin driven in each end. A. Fig. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. A piece of tin. A second piece of silk thread. Fortunately. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. it is equally easy to block that trick. bend it at right angles throughout its length. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. Cut out paper sections (Fig. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. Remove the form. but bends toward D. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. on one side and the top. making it three-ply thick. about the size of a leadpencil. will cause an increased movement of C. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. and walk in. allowing 1 in. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. Denver. 6.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale.

put together as shown in the sketch. is connected each point to a battery. or left to right. W. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. The upper switch. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. R.strip.. Paul. long. 4 ft. By this arrangement one. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. --Contributed by J. while the lower switch. A. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. as shown. B. and rest on a brick placed under each end. S. S S. Fremont Hilscher. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . long. The reverse switch. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. The 2 by 4-in. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. The feet. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. Two wood-base switches. will last for several years. posts. are 7 ft. S. Minn. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. West St. Jr. B. are made 2 by 4 in..

The valve motion is shown in Figs. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. and the crank bearing C. The piston is made of a stove bolt. thick. H and K. the other parts being used for the bearing B. with two washers. 1. The hose E connects to the boiler. which will be described later. which is made of tin.every house. 2. and valve crank S. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. or anything available. either an old sewing-machine wheel. In Fig. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. is an old bicycle pump. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. Fig. 2 and 3. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. The steam chest D. and has two wood blocks. E. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. pulley wheel. FF. the size of the hole in the bearing B. and in Fig. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. Fig. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. 3/8 in. and a cylindrical . cut in half. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. The base is made of wood.

or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. powder can. and the desired result is obtained. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. --Contributed by Geo. to receive the connecting rod H. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. Fig. is cut out of tin. using the positive wire as a pen. G. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. of Cuba. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Wis. C. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. San Jose. 4. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. The boiler. Fig. as shown in Fig. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. Eustice. 3. 1. can be an old oil can. The valve crank S. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. or galvanized iron. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. and a very amusing trick. Schuh and A. W. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. J. This is wound with soft string. Fry. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E.piece of hard wood. G. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. Cal. First. as it is merely a trick of photography. and saturated with thick oil. . at that. This engine was built by W.

The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. Fig. Fig. to cross in the center. 1 will be seen to rotate. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. and Fig. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. Fig. C. The smaller wheel. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. as shown. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. They may be of any size. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. Cut half circles out of each stave. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. and pass ropes around . Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. 1 by covering up Figs. B. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. as shown at AA. and place a bell on the four ends. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. When turning. B. diameter. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. considering the nature of the material employed in making it.

thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two.. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. St. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. produces a higher magnifying power). long. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. procure a wooden spool. Mo. --Contributed by H. W. which allows the use of small sized ropes.G. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. Louis. as shown in the illustration. which accounts for the sound. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. A (a short spool. from the transmitter. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E.M. To make this lensless microscope. From a piece of thin . such as clothes lines. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. This in turn will act on the transmitter. but not on all.

fastened to a wooden base. bent as shown. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. The lever. B. D. D. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. The spring. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. by means of brads. . Fig. place a small object on the transparent disk. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. the diameter will appear twice as large. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. can be made of brass and the armature. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms.. and look through the hole D. (The area would appear 64 times as large. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. E. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. i. B. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. 3. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. The pivot. if the distance is reduced to one-third. otherwise the image will be blurred. the diameter will appear three times as large. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. 2. C. or 64 times. 1. C. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. Viewed through this microscope. as in all microscopes of any power. darting across the field in every direction. To use this microscope. An innocent-looking drop of water. and at the center. A. cut out a small disk.. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. which costs little or nothing to make. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. H. and so on.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. held at arm's length. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig.) But an object 3/4-in. is made of iron. e. the object should be of a transparent nature. is fastened at each end by pins. which are pieces of hard wood. in which hay has been soaking for several days. if the distance is reduced to one-half.

fastened near the end. or taken from a small one-point switch. or a single piece. wide and about 20 in. brass: E. Fig.SOUNDER-A. 26 wire: E. similar to the one used in the sounder. long and 14-1/2 in. binding posts: H spring The stop. K. brass: B. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. D. wood: F. long by 16 in. which are made to receive a pivot. long. wide. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. D. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. wood: C. AA. connection of D to nail. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. The door. coils wound with No. HH. A switch. The back. 16 in. 1. wide. in length and 16 in. 2. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. soft iron. and are connected to the contacts. brass. A. The binding posts. wide and set in between sides AA. C. thick. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. B. E. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. brass or iron soldered to nail. should be about 22 in. 16 in. F. D. K. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. wood. C. The base of the key. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. wide. Each side. wide. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. between the armature and the magnet. . Cut the top. can be made panel as shown. KEY-A. FF. DD. is cut from a board about 36 in. B. nail soldered on A. Fig.

Garfield. Ill. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. long. material. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. 13-1/2 in. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. When the electrical waves strike the needle. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. as shown in the sketch. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. Make 12 cleats. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. E. with 3/4-in. 2 and made from 1/4-in. cut in them. brads. In operation. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. as shown. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver.. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . AA.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig.

in order to increase the surface. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. A (see sketch). J. down into the water increases the surface in contact. N. Ridgewood. and. Pushing the wire. A fairly stiff spring. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. Y.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. Brown. N. When the pipe is used. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. pulls down the armature. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. A. --Contributed by R. The cord is also fastened to a lever. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . A. E. and thus decreases the resistance. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. will give a greater speed. F. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. when used with a motor. through which a piece of wire is passed. --Contributed by John Koehler. C. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. Fairport. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. B. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. filled with water. the magnet. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire.

When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Gachville. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. B. --Contributed by Perry A. N. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. Of course. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. even those who read this description. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Borden. if desired. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other.for the secret contact. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door.

and on both sides of the middle shelf. 1. from the bottom. With about 9 ft. Washington. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. Jr. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. where the other end of wire is fastened. wide. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. Mangold. as shown in Fig. East Orange. Connect switch to post B. C. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Compton. J. . wide bore holes about 1/4 in. --Contributed by H. The top board is made 28-in. Cal. for 10in. wide. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. E. A. for 6-in. C. records and 5-5/8 in.whenever the bell rings. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. H. wide. --Contributed by Dr. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. The three shelves are cut 25-in. in a semicircle 2 in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. Dobson. Two drawers are fitted in this space. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. From a piece of brass a switch. wide.. records. wide. N. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. apart. thick and 12-in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. as shown in Fig. long and 5 in. long and full 12-in. deep and 3/4 in. D. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. 2. Cut the end pieces each 36-in.

When the cord is passed over pulley C. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . as shown in Fig. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. 1. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. Roanoke. Va. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. which in operation is bent. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. closed. A. B. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. to which is fastened a cord. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. E. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. as shown by the dotted lines.

1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. The crankpin should fit tightly. which should be about 1/2 in. 1 in. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. Figs. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. Bore two 1/4 in. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. thick. but a larger one could be built in proportion. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. wide. D. in diameter. E. Fig. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. square and 7/8 in. apart. 1. Fig. one in each end. holes (HH. 1 in. CC. If the wheels fit too tightly. in diameter. wide. to turn on pins of stout wire. is compressed by wheels. long. they will let the air through. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. deep. it too loose. in diameter. as shown in the illustration. These wheels should be 3/4 in. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. thick (A. excepting the crank and tubing. Notice the break (S) in the track. through one of these holes. In the sides (Fig. B. 3. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. they will bind. E. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. against which the rubber tubing. Figs. Put the rubber tube. In these grooves place wheels. Cut two grooves. Now put all these parts together. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. deep and 1/2 in. in diameter. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. 3). Do not fasten the sides too . Fig. 5) when they are placed. 4 shows the wheel-holder. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. having the same center as the first circle (Fig.

Hubbard. Fig. iron. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. A in Fig. because he can . In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. 17-1/2 in. from the bottom and 2 in. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. and are 30 in. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. --Contributed by Dan H. and mark for a hole. Take the center of the bar. as it gives steadiness to the motion. 1. 1. Fig. stands 20 in. mark for hole and 3 in. tubing. mark again. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. If the motion of the wheels is regular. Fig. 1. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. from each end. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. B. a platform should be added. 2. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. 1. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. Kan. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. beyond each of these two. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. from each end. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. the pump will give a steady stream. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. the other wheel has reached the bottom. Then turn the crank from left to right. In the two cross bars 1 in. as shown in Fig. from that mark the next hole. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. To use the pump. Cut six pieces. The screen which is shown in Fig. Idana. and 3-1/2 in. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. long. AA. costing 10 cents. For ease in handling the pump. Fig. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. The animal does not fear to enter the box. and 1/2 by 1/4-in.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. is all the expense necessary. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. AA. 15 in. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. 1. though a small iron wheel is better. Two feet of 1/4-in.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. 2. from each end. The three legs marked BBB. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. of material.

Place the carbon in the jar. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. dropping. silvery appearance. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire.see through it: when he enters. however. or small electric motors. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. 4 oz. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. 14 copper wire. rub the zinc well. giving it a bright. and the solution (Fig. or. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. Philadelphia. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. The battery is now complete. It is useful for running induction coils. The truncated. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. potassium bichromate. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. there is too much liquid in the jar. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. of water dissolve 4 oz. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. sulphuric acid. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. --Contributed by H. add slowly. long having two thumb screws. To cause a flow of electricity. and touches the bait the lid is released and. but if one casts his own zinc. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. When the bichromate has all dissolved. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. shuts him in. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. The mercury will adhere. 2). at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. acid 1 part). When through using the battery. 1) must be prepared. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. stirring constantly. C. of the top. If the battery has been used before. Meyer. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. until it is within 3 in. If it is wet. The battery is now ready for use. some of it should be poured out. . If the solution touches the zinc. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries.

e. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor.. the jump-spark coil . one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. pressing the pedal closes the door. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W.Fig. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. If. however. with slight changes. The price of the coil depends upon its size. while the coal door is being opened.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. After putting in the coal. which opens the door. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. i. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Madison. Wis. the battery circuit.

An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. 6. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. W W. After winding. Change the coil described. diameter. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. W W. while a 12-in. the full length of the coil. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core.described elsewhere in this book. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. and closer for longer distances. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. This coil. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. as shown in Fig. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. 5. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. 6. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. 7. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. apart. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. Fig. . while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line.7. made of No. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. Now for the receiving apparatus. in a partial vacuum. being a 1-in. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. coil. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. as shown in Fig. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. 7. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. 7). coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. This will make an excellent receiver. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. which is made of light copper wire. in a straight line from top to bottom. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig.

to the direction of the force that caused the circles. I run my lathe by power. Figs. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. 90°. may be easily made at very little expense. 1 to 4. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. 90°. as it matches the color well. are analogous to the flow of induction. to the direction of the current. where A is the headstock. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). using an electric motor and countershaft. only. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. at any point to any metal which is grounded. These circles. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. being vertical. A large cone pulley would then be required. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft.6 stranded. after all. B the bed and C the tailstock. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. 1). being at right angles. For an illustration. which will be described later. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. A. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. The writer does not claim to be the originator. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. No. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. but it could be run by foot power if desired. . Run a wire from the other binding post. above the ground. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. and hence the aerial line. in the air.The aerial line. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. but simply illustrates the above to show that.

on the under side of the bed.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. 4. Fig. 2 and 3. After pouring. B. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. but not hot enough to burn it. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. Fig. which are let into holes FIG. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. one of which is shown in Fig. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. and runs in babbitt bearings. too. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. 6 Headstock Details D. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. 4. The bearing is then ready to be poured. deep. If the bearing has been properly made. The bolts B (Fig. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. A. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. and it is well to have the shaft hot. thick. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. 5. pitch and 1/8 in. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. To make these bearings. 6. Fig. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. 5. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. tapered wooden pin. Fig. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. just touching the shaft. steel tubing about 1/8 in. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. and Fig. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. Heat the babbitt well. which pass through a piece of wood. The headstock. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side.

--Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. FIG. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. and a 1/2-in. the alarm is easy to fix up. This prevents corrosion. they may be turned up after assembling. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. Ill. A. Newark. If not perfectly true. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. embedded in the wood. Oak Park. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary.J. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. of the walk . except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. so I had to buy one. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. The tail stock (Fig. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue.other machines. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. If one has a wooden walk. Take up about 5 ft. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. B. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. N. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. lock nut.

American ash in 1-1/2 pt.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Minn. Minneapolis. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. to remove all traces of grease. Finally. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. and the alarm is complete. leaving a clear solution. Jackson. hang the articles on the wires. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. add potassium cyanide again. To avoid touching it. (A. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. silver or other metal. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. to roughen the surface slightly. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Connect up an electric bell. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Fig. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. save when a weight is on the trap. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. --Contributed by R. clean the articles thoroughly. water. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. 2). Then make the solution . before dipping them in the potash solution. S. of water. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. so that they will not touch.

A (Fig. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. about 25 ft. Make a somewhat larger block (E. an old electric bell or buzzer. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. with water. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. 10 in. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. To provide the keyhole. Having finished washing the precipitate. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. of water. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. With an electric pressure of 3. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. if one does not possess a buffing machine. Then. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. and the larger part (F. If accumulators are used. 3) strikes the bent wire L. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. copper. zinc. 1 not only unlocks. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. This solution. Fig. nickel and such metals. as at F. a circuit is completed. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. square. when the point of the key touches the tin. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. Repeat six times. When all this is set up. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. saw a piece of wood. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. of clothesline rope and some No. from the lower end. shaking. piece of broomstick. long. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. 1 in. Can be made of a 2-in. which is advised. If more solution is required. which . The wooden catch. Screw the two blocks together. 1). I. hole in its center. 18 wire. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. also. thick by 3 in. Fig. On brass. with water. must be about 1 in. with the pivot 2 in. a hand scratch brush is good. Fig. --Model Engineer. Where Bunsen cells are used. B should be of the same wood. 3) directly over the hole. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. A 1/4 in.5 to 4 volts. 1. such metals as iron. and 4 volts for very small ones. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. will serve for the key. 1). German silver. In rigging it to a sliding door. The wooden block C. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. as shown in Fig. which is held by catch B. Before silver plating. make a key and keyhole. light strokes. use 2 volts for large articles. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. and then treated as copper. 3. lead. but opens the door. Take quick. long.up to 2 qt. pewter. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. Fig. silver can be plated direct. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center.

and a slit. 1. is the cut through which the rope runs. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. --Contributed by E. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house.. which unlocks the door. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. 2. 2. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. One thing changes to another and back again. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. with a switch as in Fig. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. H. spoons and jackknives. he tosses it into the cave. B. between the parlor and the room back of it. the box should be painted black both inside and out. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. some black paint. Fig. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. Next. the requisites are a large soap box. New Jersey. floor. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. one-third of the length from the remaining end. Receiving the bowl again. Fig. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. One end is removed. the illumination in front must be arranged. top. Fig. no painting inside is required. 3. should be cut a hole. sides and end. heighten the illusion. such as forks. Heavy metal objects. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. and hands its contents round to the audience. 1. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. and plenty of candles. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. The box must be altered first. The magician stands in front of this. half way from open end to closed end. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. East Orange. H. enlarged. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. and finally lined inside with black cloth. cut in one side. On either side of the box. Objects appear and disappear. To prepare such a magic cave. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. Thus. He removes the bowl from the black box. surrounding a perfectly black space. 116 Prospect St. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). or cave. . a few simple tools. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. in his shirt sleeves. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. although a little more trouble. to throw the light toward the audience. he points with one finger to the box. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. Next. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. 0. Fig. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. shows catch B. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. H. and black art reigns supreme. so much the better. In front of you. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. Klipstein. The interior must be a dead black. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. some black cloth. with the lights turned low.

The illusion. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. had a big stage. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. if. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. in which are oranges and apples. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. of course. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background.Finally. is on a table) so much the better. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. which can be made to dance either by strings. Consequently. and several black drop curtains. The audience room should have only low lights. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. But illusions suggest themselves. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. was identical with this. which are let down through the slit in the top. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. and pours them from the bag into a dish. The exhibitor should be . a screen must be used. only he. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. the room where the cave is should be dark. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. of course. as presented by Hermann. and if portieres are impossible. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. one on each side of the box. you must have an assistant. into the eyes of him who looks. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. his confederate behind inserts his hand.

so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. as shown in Fig. c2. f2. b2. when handle K is turned to one side. and a common screw. square. vice versa. c1. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. making contact with them as shown at y. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. respectively. terminal c3 will show . and c4 + electricity. b2. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . by means of two wood screws. A. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). 2). making contact with them. is shown in the diagram.. or b2. their one end just slips under the strips b1. On the disk G are two brass strips. terminal c3 will show +. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. 2. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. b3. respectively. with three brass strips. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. c3. About the center piece H moves a disk. respectively. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. so arranged that. 2. d. by 4 in. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. FIG. 1. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. Finally. Then. b1. and c2 to the zinc. at L. and c1 – electricity. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. held down on disk F by two other terminals. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. c4. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. Fig.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. e1 and e2. if you turn handle K to the right. held down by another disk F (Fig. held down on it by two terminals. 1. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. or binding posts.a boy who can talk. A represents a pine board 4 in. b3.

The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. jump spark coil. and then hold the receiver to your ear. 3. Jr. --Contributed by Eugene F. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. Newark. when on No. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. you have the current of one battery. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. from four batteries. and C and C1 are binding posts. When switch B is closed and A is on No. B is a onepoint switch. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. thus making the message audible in the receiver. when A is on No. 1. from five batteries. from three batteries. 5.. 4. -Contributed by A. when on No. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). 2 you receive the current from two batteries. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . Ohio. Joerin. E. . Tuttle. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. and when on No.

in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. A. New Orleans.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. La. traveled by the thread. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. and supporting the small weight. The device thus arranged. mark. per second. and placed on the windowsill of the car. A. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. over the bent portion of the rule. so one can see the time. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. Thus. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. Redmond. When you do not have a graduate at hand. B. mark. per second for each second. P. as shown in the sketch. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. rule. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. E. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. which may be a button or other small object. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft.. A. of Burlington. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. is the device of H. Wis. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. Handy Electric Alarm . will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. The alarm clock rests on a shelf.

but may be closed at F any time desired. B. Pa. Lane. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. and with the same result. for a wetting is the inevitable result. --C. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. wrapping the wire around the can several times. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. --Contributed by Gordon T. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. Instead. C. Then if a mishap comes.which has a piece of metal. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. When the alarm goes off. S. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. . Crafton. soldered to the alarm winder. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. which illuminates the face of the clock. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point.

L. 1. New York City. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. Two cleats. It is possible to make molds without a bench. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. and many other interesting and useful articles. and duplicates of all these. when it is being prepared. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. which may. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. BE. small machinery parts. C. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. models and miniature objects. as shown in Fig.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. AA. cannons. binding posts. A. With the easily made devices about to be described. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. 1 . The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. bearings. --Contributed by A. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. as shown. engines. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. The first thing to make is a molding bench. whence it is soon tracked into the house. battery zincs. If there is no foundry Fig. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . as the sand is sure to get on the floor. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. but it is a mistake to try to do this. Macey. ornaments of various kinds.

An old teaspoon. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. previous to sawing." or lower part. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. a little larger than the outside of the flask. by 8 in. say 12 in. 1. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. and saw it in half longitudinally. Fig. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. but this operation will be described more fully later on. is filled with coal dust. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. H. If the box is not very strong. CC. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. 2. and the "drag. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. and the lower pieces. by 6 in. 2 . as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. the "cope. is about the right mesh. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. The dowels. will be required. makes a very good sieve. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. CC. A A. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. The rammer. A wedge-shaped piece.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. It is made of wood and is in two halves." or upper half. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. as shown. A slight shake of the bag Fig. 1. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. which can be made of a knitted stocking. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. The flask.How to Make a Mold [96] . In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. is made of wood.near at hand. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. and a sieve. D. Fig. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. II . are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. try using sand from other sources. J. If desired the sieve may be homemade. high. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. F. white metal. DD. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. The cloth bag. is nailed to each end of the cope. which can be either aluminum. G. is shown more clearly in Fig. which should be nailed in. E. as shown. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. and this. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips.

3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. and thus judge for himself.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. or "cope. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask." in position. It is then rammed again as before. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. as shown at E. as shown. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. in order to remove the lumps. as shown at C. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. as shown at D. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. After ramming. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. In finishing the ramming. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. as it is much easier to learn by observation. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. the surface of the sand at . A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. and by grasping with both hands. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. Place another cover board on top. The sand is then ready for molding. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. or "drag. and scatter about 1/16 in. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. and then more sand is added until Fig. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. turn the drag other side up. and if water is added. where they can watch the molders at work. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. as described.

4 -Pouring the Metal If. This is done with a spoon. After drawing the pattern. deep. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. is next cut. The "sprue. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. it shows that the sand is too wet. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. as shown at F. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. . Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. place the cope back on the drag. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. made out of steel rod. and then pour. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. as shown at G. in diameter. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. to give the air a chance to escape. as shown at J. III. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. thus making a dirty casting. thus holding the crucible securely. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. wide and about 1/4 in. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. Place a brick or other flat. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. Fig. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. in order to prevent overheating.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening.E should be covered with coal-dust. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold." or pouring-hole. as shown at H. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. as shown at H. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. after being poured. as shown in the sketch.

although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. white metal and other scrap available. Although the effect in the illustration . In my own case I used four batteries. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. the following device will be found most convenient. and. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. babbitt. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. although somewhat expensive. and the casting is then ready for finishing. is very desirable. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. If a good furnace is available. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. 15% lead. --Contributed by Harold S. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. battery zincs. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. Minneapolis. may be used in either direction. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. or from any adjacent pair of cells. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. but any reasonable number may be used. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. used only for zinc. Referring to the figure. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. Morton.

B. --Contributed by Draughtsman. B. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. Make one of these pieces for each arm. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. connected by cords to the rudder. Fig. as shown in the illustration. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . Chicago. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. Then replace the table. If desired. which will be sufficient to hold it. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. may be made of hardwood. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. Then walk down among the audience. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. A. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. 3/4 in. To make it take a sheet-iron band. outward. backward. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. as shown at A. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. shaft made. Put a sharp needle point. 2. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. By replacing the oars with paddles. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. The brass rings also appear distorted. The bearings. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat.

2 and 3. when it will again return to its original state. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. as shown in Fig. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. 1. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. A. but when in motion. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. A block of ice. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. as shown in Fig. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. should be made of wood. If babbitt is used. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. or under pressure. E. C. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. Fig. D. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. or the paint will come off. The covers. It may seem strange that ice . such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. 1. W. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. 3. 2. 1. The hubs. spoiling its appearance. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. Snow. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. and a weight.melted babbitt. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. If galvanized iron is used. being simply finely divided ice. In the same way.

by 1/4. as shown on page 65. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. it will gradually change from the original shape A. by 5 in. Crafton. no matter how slow the motion may be. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. B.. P. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. Pressing either push button. thus giving a high resistance contact. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. and assume the shape shown at B. by 2 in. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight.should flow like water. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. by 1/2 in. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. which resembles ice in this respect. square. Lane. or supporting it in some similar way. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . whenever there is any connection made at all. Pa. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. sometimes only one or two feet a day. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. as per sketch. but by placing it between books. in. but. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. The rate of flow is often very slow. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. brass. --Contributed by Gordon T. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions.

as shown. the battery. horizontal lever. J. vertical lever. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. --Contributed by A. H. and five dry batteries. draft chain. I. K . Ward. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. B. Indianapolis. as shown. and C. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. pulleys. C. The parts are: A. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. In the wiring diagram. Wilkinsburg.000 ft. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. A is the circuit breaker. the induction coil. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. about the size used for automobiles.thumb screws. cord. wooden supports. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. Pa. furnace. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. weight. draft. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. B. F. The success depends upon a slow current. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. E. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. G. alarm clock. D. G.

which will provide a fine place for the plants. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. material framed together as shown in Fig. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. Mich. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . will fit nicely in them. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. Kalamazoo. where house plants are kept in the home. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. 3. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. such as used for a storm window. as well as the bottom. Artistic Window Boxes The top. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. The frame (Fig. 2 are dressed to the right angle. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on.

as if drawn upon for its total output. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. a cork and a needle. so as to increase the current. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. and will give the . This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. in this connection. e. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. Canada. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. in any system of lamps. as indicated by Fig.. 1 cp. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. is something that will interest the average American boy. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. in diameter. A certain number of these. Halifax.. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. where they are glad to have them taken away. This is more economical than dry cells. and the instrument will then be complete. one can regulate the batteries as required. this must be done with very great caution. --Contributed by Wm. and cost 27 cents FIG. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. It must be remembered. since a battery is the most popular source of power. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. S. However. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. Push the needle into the cork. N. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. i. W. and a suitable source of power. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. 1 each complete with base. for some time very satisfactorily. multiples of series of three. which sells for 25 cents. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. by connecting them in series. but maintain the voltage constant. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. 1. Grant. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. The 1/2-cp. after a rest. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. However. can be connected up in series.. Thus. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs.

or 22 lights.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. to secure light by this method. and then lead No. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. as in Fig. These will give 3 cp. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. which is the same as that of one battery. So. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. generates the power for the lights. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. 18 B & S. Fig. 1-cp. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. each. If wound for 10 volts. by the proper combination of these. Thus. 11 series. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. In conclusion. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. 3. Chicago. especially those of low internal resistance. if wound for 6 volts. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. . and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. and diffused light in a room. However. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. lamp. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. 2 shows the scheme. we simply turn on the water. although the first cost is greater. lamps. making. Thus. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. where the water pressure is the greatest. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. according to the water pressure obtainable. and for Christmas trees.proper voltage. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. lamps. double insulated wire wherever needed. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. and insert in the nearest lamp socket.. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. and running the series in parallel. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. FIG. for display of show cases. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp.

Santa Clara. Cal. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. as shown in the sketch. . brushes of motor. are cut just alike. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. the letters indicate as follows: FF. Parker. B. Emig. --Contributed by Leonard E. thus reversing the machine. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. we were not bothered with them. --Contributed by F. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. and the sides. A indicates the ground. field of motor. a bait of meat. BB. center points of switch. Plymouth. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. CC. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. switch. To reverse the motor. or from one pattern. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. bars of pole-changing switch. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. outside points of switch. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. After I connected up my induction coil. Ind. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. A. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. B.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. simply change the switch. or a tempting bone. DD. and C. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. AA.

The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. 903 Vine St. and a table or bench. Cal. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. Fry.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. W. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. The button can be hidden. If it is not. a hammer. which is in the door. When the circuit is broken a weight. as it is the key to the lock. thus locking the door. Melchior. or would remain locked. Hutchinson. attached to the end of the armature B. San Jose. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. -Contributed by Claude B. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. one cell being sufficient. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. The experiment works best . a piece of string.. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. merely push the button E. A. To unlock the door. Minn.

the key turns. 1). Culebra. in the ceiling and has a window weight. W. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Tie the ends of the string together. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. A. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. Brockville.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head.Contributed by F. Canada. run through a pulley. Crawford Curry. the stick falls away. forming a loop. D. where it will remain suspended as shown. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. which pulls the draft open. Schmidt. 18 Gorham St. Wis. as shown in Fig. When the alarm rings in the early morning. P. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. C. . the current flows with the small arrows. I. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. 4). When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Madison. On another block of wood fasten two wires. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. 3. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. --Contributed by Geo. -. Porto Rico. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. Ontario. attached at the other end. 2. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. 3. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. releasing the weight..

running one direct to the receiver.. and . grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. N. thick. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. thence to a switch. or from a bed of flowers. S. Connect two wires to the transmitter. and break the corners off to make them round. get two pieces of plate glass. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. and the other to the battery. made with his own hands. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. R. and then to the receiver. J. which fasten to the horn. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. D. including the mouthpiece. --Contributed by Wm. square and 1 in. 6 in. Farley. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. or tree. J. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. Camden. The cut shows the arrangement. First. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. Jr. Use a barrel to work on. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret.

Have ready six large dishes. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. When polishing the speculum. a round 4-in. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. Fig. or it will not polish evenly. unless a longer focal length is wanted. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. of water. 1. then take 2 lb. wet till soft like paint. L. Fasten. in length. Then warm and press again with the speculum. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. the coarse grinding must be continued. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. and spread on the glass. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. with pitch. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. and the under glass or tool convex. Use a binger to spread it on with. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in.. and is ready for polishing. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. melt 1 lb. set the speculum against the wall. as in Fig. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. spaces. and a large lamp. with 1/4-in. 2. also rotate the glass.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. When dry. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. twice the focal length away. so the light . it should be tested with the knife-edge test. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. In a dark room. then 8 minutes. Fig. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. A. wetting it to the consistency of cream. or less. and label. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. wide around the convex glass or tool. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. When done the glass should be semitransparent. using straight strokes 2 in. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. while walking around the barrel. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. by the side of the lamp. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in.. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. 2.

. Place the speculum. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. longer strokes. or hills. with distilled water.. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in.……………. then ammonia until bath is clear. Solution B: Distilled water …………………………….……………………………. The polishing and testing done. Fig. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. Now add enough of the solution A. if a hill in the center. Fig.. 39 gr.. 25 gr. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube.. 2. face down. Nitric acid .Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. Then add solution B.. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. 100 gr. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. Two glass or earthenware dishes. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. cement a strip of board 8 in.. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. Place the speculum S. the speculum will show some dark rings. that was set aside. Fig. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. must be procured. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. the speculum is ready to be silvered. as in K. in the bath and leave until the silver rises.. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water.. 4 oz. When dry. The knife should not be more than 6 in. deep. 4 oz. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. Then add 1 oz. also how the rays R from a star . touched with rouge. and pour the rest into the empty dish. With pitch. fill the dish with distilled water. When the focus is found. 840 gr. Solution D: Sugar loaf . Alcohol (Pure) ……………. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. from the lamp.……………………………….. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. long to the back of the speculum.100 gr. If not. 2. Silver nitrate ……………………………. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke.

. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. and proceed as for any picture. using strawboard and black paper. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. two glass prisms. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass.John E. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. Thus an excellent 6-in. which proves to be easy of execution. Mellish. with an outlay of only a few dollars. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. Place over lens. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. slightly wider than the lens mount. stop down well after focusing. My telescope is 64 in. About 20. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. is a satisfactory angle. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. Then I made the one described.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. Make the tube I of sheet iron. The flatter they are the less they will distort. cover with paper and cloth. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. long and cost me just $15. deg. . telescope can be made at home.

D. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. as shown in Fig. add the plaster gradually to the water. The rays of the clear. To unlock. The paper is exposed. through the lens of the camera and on the board. Zimmerman. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. Ill. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. B. Do not stir it. -Contributed by A. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. Boody. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. unobstructed light strike the mirror. or powdered alum. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. complete the arrangement. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. A. push the button D. 1. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. but will not preserve its hardening. . says the Master Painter.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. and reflect through the negative. 2. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. then add a little sulphate of potash. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. Fig. instead of the contrary.

thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. Then blow through the spool. as shown in the sketch. To reverse. use a string.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. Fig. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. 3. throw . also provide them with a handle. but will remain suspended without any visible support. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. 2. as at A and B. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. so that it can rotate about these points. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. 2. Fasten on the switch lever. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. as in Fig. 1). Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass.

and rub dry with linen cloth. the armature. Neb. Go McVicker. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Thomas. carbons. C C. San Antonio. --Contributed by R. . In the sketch. binding posts. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Take out. although this is not necessary. carbon sockets. Push one end of the tire into the hole. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. and E E. A is the electricbell magnet. -Contributed by Morris L. B. San Marcos. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. L. Tex. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. wash in running water. Tex. rinse in alcohol. D. as shown in the sketch. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. --Contributed by Geo. North Bend. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Levy.

It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. 14 or No. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. wound evenly about this core. --Contributed by Joseph B. 36 magnet wire. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. Bell. Brooklyn. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. 16 magnet wire. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. long or more. By means of two or more layers of No. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No.

The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. and finally the fourth strip of paper. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added.which would be better to buy ready-made. at a time. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. The primary is made of fine annealed No. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. The condenser is next wrapped . which is desirable. diameter. as shown in Fig. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. coil illustrates the general details of the work. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. Beginning half an inch from one end. making two layers. then the strip of tin-foil. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. wide. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. When cut and laid in one continuous length. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. A 7/8-in. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. the entire core may be purchased readymade. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. or 8 in. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. hole is bored in the center of one end. but if it is not convenient to do this work. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. After the core wires are bundled. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. 4. one piece of the paper is laid down. and the results are often unsatisfactory. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. 1. This makes a condenser which may be folded. In shaping the condenser. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. as the maker prefers. in length. 2 yd. long and 5 in. about 6 in. No. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. in diameter. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. which is an important factor of the coil. The following method of completing a 1-in. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. with room also for a small condenser. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. a box like that shown in Fig. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. long and 2-5/8 in. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch.

B. wide. to the door.. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. G.) The wiring diagram. the letters indicate as follows: A. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. flange turned on one side. one from bell. and the other sheet. forms the other pole or terminal. round so that the inside . and one from battery. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. ready for assembling. A. 4 in. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. long and 12 in. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. which allows wiring at the back. 3. F. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. lines H. long to key. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. by 12 in. C. B. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E.securely with bands of paper or tape. I. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. whole length. V-shaped copper strip. D. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. E. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. The alarm key will turn and drop down. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. copper lever with 1-in. battery . shelf for clock. open switch C. switch. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. spark. bell. shows how the connections are made. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. go. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. which is insulated from the first. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. Fig.

Use a glass or metal shade. of zinc sulphate. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. of blue stone. do not shortcircuit. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. 2 in. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. and then rivet the seam. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. That is what they are for. This is for blowing. but add 5 or 6 oz. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. . from the bottom. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. Short-circuit for three hours. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. and the battery is ready for use. London. If desired for use immediately. instead of close to it. The circuit should also have a high resistance.. but with the circuit.diameter is 7 in. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. Line the furnace. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. says the Model Engineer.

imparting to them a violet tinge. or think they can do the same let them try it. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. and then. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. oxygen to ozone. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Try it and see. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Enlarge the hole slightly. herein I describe a much better trick. grip the stick firmly in one hand. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. To operate the trick. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. affects . and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made.. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. If any or your audience presume to dispute. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. 1. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. the second finger along the side. g. 2. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. This type of battery will give about 0. Ohio. for some it will turn one way. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. and therein is the trick." which created much merriment. porcelain and paper. If too low. square and about 9 in. Outside of the scientific side involved. thus producing two different vibrations. below the bottom of the zinc. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. changes white phosphorus to yellow. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. while for others it will not revolve at all.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. as in the other movement. long. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. but the thing would not move at all. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. At least it is amusing. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. the thumb and second finger changing places: e.9 of a volt. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. for others the opposite way.

It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. To the front board is attached a box. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. a means for holding it vertical. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. a short-focus lens. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. insects. if possible. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. says the Photographic Times. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. and one of them is photomicrography. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. chemicals. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. however. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. earth. but this is less satisfactory. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . an old tripod screw.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. and. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. but not essential. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. but small flowers.

1. Cap. 7-1/2 in. 7 ft. AB. CD. A line. Ft Lifting Power. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 5 in. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 6 ft. 12 ft.--Contributed by George C. 10 ft 523 33 lb. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 5 ft. 11 ft. Boston. which is 15 ft. in diameter. or 31 ft. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. Mass. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 8 ft. 9 ft. 697 44 lb. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. wide from which to cut a pattern. 905 57 lb. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 381 24 lb. in Cu. 113 7 lb. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. balloon. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. If the balloon is 10 ft. 65 4 lb. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 7-1/2 in.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. or 3 ft. while it is not so with the quill. 268 17 lb. long and 3 ft. The following table will give the size. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. and a line. Madison. Fig. 179 11 lb.

of the very best heavy body. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. making a double seam as shown in Fig. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. of beeswax and boil well together. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. The amounts necessary for a 10- .Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. cutting all four quarters at the same time. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. This test will show if the bag is airtight. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. on the curved line from B to C. The cloth segments are sewed together. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. using a fine needle and No. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. Repeat this operation four times. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. 4. keeping the marked part on the outside. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. and so on. 3. The pattern is now cut. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. Procure 1 gal. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. 2. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. 70 thread. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well.

capacity and connect them. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. a clean white rag. of iron borings and 125 lb. with 3/4in. to the bag. with the iron borings. or dusting with a dry brush. or a fan. B. of iron. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. About 15 lb. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. until no more dirt is seen. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. 150 gr. When the clock has dried. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. with water 2 in. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. it is not fit to use.ft. . of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. balloon are 125 lb. A. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. pipe extending down into the cooling tank.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. 5. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. The outlet. Fill the other barrel. of water will make 4 cu. should not enter into the water over 8 in. In the barrel. A.. ft. B. using a fine brush. if it is good it will dry off. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. A. by fixing. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. The 3/4-in. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. Water 1 oz. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. C. of sulphuric acid. . You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. After washing a part. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. All FIG. this should be repeated frequently. of gas in one hour. oil the spindle holes carefully.Green Iron ammonium citrate . pipe. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. above the level of the water in barrel A. 5 . which may sound rather absurd. ]. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. C. Vegetable oils should never be used. 1 lb. but if any grease remains on the hand. as shown in Fig. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. B. 1 lb. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. leaving the hand quite clean.

Port Melbourne. . 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. A cold. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. The miniature 16 cp. Dry the plates in the dark. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. This aerial collector can be made in . JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. and a vigorous negative must be used. fix in hypo. at the time of employment. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. toning first if desired. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. The negative pole. keeping the fingers out of the solution. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. of any make. Exposure. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. dry atmosphere will give best results. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. and keep in the dark until used. says the Moving Picture World.Water 1 oz.000 ft. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. A longer exposure will be necessary.. or battery. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. The positive pole. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. or zinc. Printing is done in the sun. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. 20 to 30 minutes. to avoid blackened skin. . or carbon. Dry in the dark. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe.

To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. the resistance is less. will soon become dry and useless. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. forming a cup of the pipe. This will complete the receiving station. as described below. As the telephone offers a high resistance. lead pipe. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. holes . If the waves strike across the needle. when left exposed to the air. both positive and negative. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made.various ways. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. making a ground with one wire. long. 5 in. and as less current will flow the short way. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. The storage cell. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. and have the other connected with another aerial line. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. in diameter. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. If the wave ceases. lay a needle. a positive and a negative.

does not need to be watertight. D. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. This. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block.as possible. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. Two binding-posts should be attached. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. of course. says the Pathfinder. a round one. B. on each end. The other plate is connected to the zinc. This box can be square. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. by soldering the joint. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. or tube C. an oblong one and a triangular one. except for about 1 in. This support or block. namely: a square hole. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. or tube B. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. and the other to the negative. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. one to the positive. When mixing the acid and water.

In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. wide.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. 2. and match them together. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. This punt. were fitted by this one plug. thick cut two pieces alike. as shown in Fig. Ill. 3. 2. back and under. C. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. leaving about 1/16 in. The third piece of brass. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. Chicago. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. deep and 4 ft. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. as shown in Fig. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. as it is not readily overturned. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. 1. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. A and B. 1. and has plenty of good seating capacity. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. . all around the edge. C. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. is built 15 ft. about 20 in. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. in place on the wood. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. long. wide. Only galvanized nails should be used. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig.

-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. thick and 3-1/2 in. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Wash. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. A piece of 1/4-in. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. is cut 1 in. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. A. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. gas pipe. In Fig. Tacoma. square (Fig 2). Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. B. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity.

or "rotor. In designing." has no connection with the outside circuit. says the Model Engineer. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate.--Contributed by Charles H. which can be developed in the usual manner. H. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. no special materials could be obtained.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. The winding of the armature. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. which the writer has made. no more current than a 16-cp. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. it had to be borne in mind that. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. lamp. may be of interest to some of our readers. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. with the exception of insulated wire. without auxiliary phase. and to consume. Wagner. if possible. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens.

The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. 3. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. also varnished before they were put in. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. Holes 5-32 in. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. 1. no steel being obtainable. about 2-1/2 lb. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. Unfortunately. or "stator. A. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. 2. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. C. B. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. After assembling a second time. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. 4. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. as shown in Fig. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. were then drilled and 1/4-in. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. They are not particularly accurate as it is. with the dotted line. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. The stator is wound full with No. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. this little machine is not self-starting. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. being used. to be filed out after they are placed together. in diameter were drilled in the corners. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. holes. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. and all sparking is avoided. and filled with rivets. while the beginnings . probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. 5. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. as shown in Fig. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. bolts put in and tightened up. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. thick. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. wrought iron. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be.the field-magnet.

Newark. and the other by reduction in the camera. as shown in Fig. 3-Contributed by C. 1. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. N. as before stated. If too late for alcohol to be of use. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. if applied immediately. and as the motor runs at constant speed. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. having no commutator or brushes. McKinney. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. This type of motor has drawbacks. E. as a means of illustrating songs. The image should . and would not easily get out of order. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. a regulating resistance is not needed. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. it would be very simple to build. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. and as each layer of wire was wound. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. J. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. The rotor is wound with No. and all wound in the same direction. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high.. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. The lantern slide is a glass plate. One is by contact. film to film. 2. Jr. and especially of colored ones. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. No starting resistance is needed. In making slides by contact. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover.

The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. as shown in Fig. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. A. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. 1. C. they are much used by travelers. Draw lines with a pencil. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture.appear in. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . 4. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. 2. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. It is best. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. Fig. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. as shown in Fig. Select a room with one window. 3. and development should be over in three or four minutes. to use a plain fixing bath. 5. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. if possible. If the exposure has been correct. D. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. and then a plain glass. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. the formulas being found in each package of plates. also. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. a little extra work will be necessary. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. about a minute. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. except that the binding is different. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. Being unbreakable. over the mat. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. B. These can be purchased from any photo material store. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide.

The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. Vt. 1. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. known as rods and cones. as shown at B. as shown in Fig. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . wide and 50 in. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. Fig. If the star is in front of the left eye.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. 16 in. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. or other stout cloth. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. Fig. from the ends. from the end piece of the chair. long. in diameter and 40 in. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. Corinth. long. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. in diameter and 20 in. while the dot will be in front of the other. These longer pieces can be made square. 2. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. 1. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. A piece of canvas. Hastings. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. as shown at A. is to be used for the seat. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. from the center of this dot draw a star. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. holes bored in the end pieces. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. long. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in.

per square inch. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. 1. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. . in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. as shown in Fig. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. A belt. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. J. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. as well as to operate other household machines. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. made from an ordinary sash cord. Auburn. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley.-Contributed by P. O'Gara.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. in thickness and 10 in. as shown in Fig. Cal. 2. A disk 1 in.

Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. long.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. with as fine a thread as possible. wide. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. The part of a rotation of the bolt. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. leaving it shaped like a bench. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. says the Scientific American. or inconvenient to measure. will be the thickness of the object. screwing it through the nut. fairly accurate. divided by the number of threads to the inch. . Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. and the construction is complete. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. 3/4 in. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. to the top of the bench. square for a support. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. Put the bolt in the hole. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. A simple. thick and 2-1/2 in. direction. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. then removing the object. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. it serves a very useful purpose. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. Cut out a piece from the block combination. Bore a 1/4-in.

When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. which show up fine at night. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. long. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. bolt in each hole. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Oal. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. piece of wood 12 ft. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. The wheel should be open . the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Santa Maria. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Bore a 3/4-in. Place a 3/4-in. beyond the end of the wood. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. material 12 ft. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. long is used for the center pole. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. globe that has been thrown away as useless. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan.

1/2 in. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. in diameter. from the ends. square and 3 or 4 in. and on its lower end a socket. long. at the top and 4 in. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. C. Fort Worth. H and J. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. A cross bar. Graham. of the ends with boards. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. thick is used for the armature. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. and the lower part 61/2 in. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. Tex. to be operated by the magnet coil. A. wide and 1/8 in. thick. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. long. pieces used for the spokes. C. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. from the top end. A piece of brass 2 in. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. The boards may be nailed or bolted. L. thick.Side and Top View or have spokes. at the bottom. P. B. The spool . is soldered. which should be 1/4 in. long. The coil. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. made of the same material. wide and 1/8 in. long. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No.-Contributed by A. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. O. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in.

then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. R. When you slide the pencil along the casing. F. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. and directly centering the holes H and J. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. B. 1. This is a very neat trick if performed right. is drilled. A soft piece of iron. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S.J. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection.000 for irrigation work. one without either rubber or metal end. for insulating the brass ferrule. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. long. do it without any apparent effort. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. and in numerous other like instances. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. This tie can be used on grain sacks. or a water rheostat heretofore described. D and E. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. which may be had by using German silver wire. that holds the lower carbon. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. and place it against a door or window casing. then with a firm. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. 2. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. At the bottom end of the frame.E. --Contributed by Arthur D. Mass. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. C. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. S. Bradlev. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it.000. . which is also connected to the brass ferrule. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. S. The armature.is about 2-1/2 in. A. by soldering. Randolph.--A. 2 the hat hanging on it.

1. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. is constructed in the usual manner. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. mixed with water to form a paste. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. 1. in diameter. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. with a 3/16-in. long and 1 in. may be made from a 3/8-in. The switch. Fig. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home.500 turns of No. hole in the center. D. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. About 70 turns of No. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. The coil ends are made from cardboard. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. 2. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. about 1 in. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. for adjustment. thick. in diameter. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. for the secondary. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. and then 1. C. The vibrator B. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. S. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. about 1/8 in. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. F. S. for the primary. The core of the coil. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. long.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. about 3/16 in. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. wide. leaving the projections as shown. Experiment with Heat [134] . Fig. is connected to a flash lamp battery. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. A. The vibrator. in diameter and 1/16 in. from the core and directly opposite. B. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. in diameter and 2 in. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket.

and then well clinched. it laps down about 8 in. The hasp.Place a small piece of paper. which is only 3/8-in. with which to operate the dial. Fig. as shown. was to be secured by only three brass screws. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. as shown in the sketch. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. and the same distance inside of the new board. between the boards. The knob on the dial extends out too far. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. 16 in. 2 to fit the two holes. The tin is 4 in. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. thick on the inside. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. wide. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. in an ordinary water glass. lighted. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. The three screws were then put in the hasp. The lock. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. which is cut with two holes. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. 1. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. board. which seemed to be insufficient. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. brass plate. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. long and when placed over the board. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. 1. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. .

The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. high for use in window displays. When the rear part is illuminated.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. or in the larger size mentioned. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. When making of wood. and the back left dark. If the box is made large enough. the glass. not shiny. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. clear glass as shown. any article placed therein will be reflected in. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . which completely divides the box into two parts. black color. but when the front part is illuminated. square and 10-1/2 in. square and 8-1/2 in. one in each division. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view.

as shown in the sketch. into the other. and with the proper illumination one is changed.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. alternately. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water.. a tank 2 ft. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. as shown at A in the sketch. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. When using as a window display. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. as it appears. wide will be about the right size. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. long and 1 ft. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. When there is no electric current available. . above the top of the tank. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. place the goods in one part and the price in the other.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

2 ft. bit. O. 1 in. lines gauged on each side of each. and boring two holes with a 1-in. Shape the under sides first. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. and 6 ft. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. using a 3/4-in. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. gauge for depth. wide. but with a length of 12 in. 5 ft. thick and 3 in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. 6 in. with a length of 13 in. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. hole bored the full length through the center. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. high. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. bore from each end. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. from the ground. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. Iron sulphate. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. hole. This precipitate is then washed. The 13-in. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. wide. dried and mixed with linseed oil. each. and a solution of iron sulphate added. then use a red-hot iron to finish. square. and a door in front. long. two pieces 1-1/8 in. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. square and 40 in. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. however. or ferrous sulphate. This hole must be continued . The pieces can then be taken out. under sides together. radius. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. is built on the front. Columbus. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. long. If a planing mill is near. Three windows are provided. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. A small platform. is the green vitriol. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. one for each side. as shown.

Directions will be found on the filler cans. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Electric globes--two. Saw the two blocks apart. apply two coats of wax. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. A better way. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. thick and 3 in. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. three or four may be attached as shown. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. When this is dry. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. square and drawing a diagonal on each. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. When the filler has hardened. For art-glass the metal panels are . if shade is purchased. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect.through the pieces forming the base. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. hole in each block. If the parts are to be riveted.

such as copper.The Completed Lamp cut out. METAL SHADE . as brass.Construction of Shade . Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.

The arms holding the glass. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. and Fig. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. 2 the front view of this stand. as in ordinary devices. the object and the background. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. one way and 1/2 in. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. as shown in the sketch. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. the other. Figure 1 shows the side. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows.

the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. wide and 11 in. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. in diameter for a base. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. as shown in the sketch. about 1-1/4 in. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. channel in the circumference of the ring. Cut another circular piece 11 in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Put the ring in place on the base. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. Before mounting the ring on the base. in diameter. and swinging freely. as shown in the cut. thus forming a 1/4-in. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. uncork and recork again. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. pointing north and south. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. as it is very poisonous. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. If the light becomes dim.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. An ordinary pocket compass. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. outside diameter. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. thick 5/8-in. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. and an inside diameter of 9 in. long. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. wide and 6-5/16 in. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely.

Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. Place on top the so- . How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg.500 . The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. are mounted on a base. into these cylinders. AA. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. Corresponding mirrors.289 . from the second to the third. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. The results given should be multiplied by 1. B. black oxide of copper.715 . 1 oz.182 .420 . The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. and north of the Ohio river. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. in diameter and 8 in. CC.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. of the top. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. above the half can. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. and mirrors. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in.600 . Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.865 1. EE.088 .

-Contributed by Robert Canfield. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. says Metal Worker. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. which otherwise remains clear. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. Put the solution in a long. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. 62 gr. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. of pulverized campor. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. 31 gr. alcohol. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. Colo. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. always remove the oil with a siphon. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. When renewing. University Park. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. little crystals forming in the liquid.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . slender bottle. the wheel will revolve in one direction. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. In Fig. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. then they will not rust fast.

Solder in the side of the box . If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. --Contributed by C. This is used in place of the spoon. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. If zinc and carbon are used. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. A paper-fastener box. If two of them are floating on the same solution. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. on the under side of the cork. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. Lloyd Enos. Attach to the wires. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. floating on a solution. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. about 1-1/4 in. If zinc and copper are used. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. will allow the magnet to point north and south. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet.

On one side bend the wire around the tube B. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. 3 in. A. B. 1/2.in. is made from a piece of No. one on each side of the board. A. To this standard solder the supporting wire. F. to it. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. H.in. C. wide and 2-1/2 in. D. The base. 10 wire about 10 in. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. D. brass tubing. of wire on each end extending from the coil. long. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. The bottom of the box. away. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron.1-in. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. Use a board 1/2. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. stained and varnished. or made with a little black paint.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. E. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. Take a small piece of soft iron. piece of 1/4-in. and then solder on the cover. hole. glass tubing . as shown in Fig. 1. wide and 6 in. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. A circular piece of cardboard. of No. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. The standard. long. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. G--No. thick. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. Bore holes for binding-posts. 1-1/4 in. long that has about 1/4-in. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. C. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. E. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. can be made of oak. D. Wind evenly about 2 oz. B. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . Rhamstine. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in.not shorter than 18 in. . The spring should be about 1 in. If the hose is not a tight fit. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. Put ends. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. and on the other around the glass tube. Thos. 14 wire will do. C. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire.Contributed by J.

and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. of No. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. Wis. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. About 1-1/2 lb. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. about 1 in. Smith. as shown in Fig. Cuba. 1. making a support as shown in Fig. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. 3 in.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. of mercury will be sufficient. long. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. J. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. long. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. from the right hand. is drawn nearer to the coil. Teasdale. two pieces 2 ft. The iron plunger. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work.--Contributed by R. 5. canvas. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. 3-in. long are used for the legs. of 8-oz. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. D. long. N. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. long.of the coil. in diameter. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. 2.--Contributed by Edward M. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. . When the glass becomes soft. Milwaukee. E. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. four hinges. Y. 3. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig.

Keys. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. small aperture in the long tube. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. 5. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. expelling all the air. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. long. This tube as described will be 8 in. Can. Break off the piece of glass. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. --Contributed by David A. leaving 8 in. Fig. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft.. The tube now must be filled completely. thus leaving a. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. 3. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. 6. Take 1/2 in.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. holding in the left hand. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Measure 8 in. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig.. Toronto. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. 2. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. of vacuum at the top. 4. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level.

Fig. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. 9 in. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. 7. material 2 in. Four blocks 1/4 in. FIG. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. 4 in. wide and 5 ft. 1. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. thick. long. long. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. joint be accurately put together. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. The large pulley is about 14 in. 2. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. thick. 4. 5. thick. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. 6. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. This forms a slot. wood screws. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. as in Fig. A crosspiece 3/4-in. as shown in Fig. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. 3 in. 3. in diameter. cut in the shape shown in Fig. wide and 5 ft. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. with each projection 3-in. 3 in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. as shown in Fig. long. from the end of same. These are bent and nailed.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. and the single projection 3/4 in. wide and 12 in. 1 in.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda.6 -. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. 1 in. thick. but yellow pine is the best. long. wide and 5 ft. thick. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. and 1/4 in. wide and 3 in.

--Contributed by C. . Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. Manhattan. first removing the crank. attach runners and use it on the ice. R. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. by 1-in. Welsh. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. says Photography. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Kan. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. above the runner level. Water 1 oz. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. leaving the greater part of the screw extending.

How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. and very much cheaper. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. as shown in Fig. 1 oz.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. . 2. also. 1. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Mass. The print is washed. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. as shown in Fig. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. 3. --Contributed by Edward M. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. from an ordinary clamp skate. Newton. Leominster. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Printing is carried rather far. --Contributed by Wallace C. of water. Treasdale. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased.

A. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. fasten a 2-in. high. Take two glass tubes. square piece. and bend them as shown in the sketch. long. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. 1 ft. hole. Church. Fig. The thread is broken off at the . causing the door to swing back and up. The swing door B. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. with about 1/8-in. and to the bottom. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. 1-1/2 ft. Place a 10-in. say. Then. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. about 10 in. wide and 4 in. --Contributed by H. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. 1. Alexandria. wide. from one end. Va. as shown in the sketch. 1. and 3 ft. Fig. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. which represents the back side of the door. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. 2. too. extending the width of the box. high for rabbits. F.

On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. long. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. 2. camera and wish to use some 4. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. Chicago. Fig. Fig. from the edge on each side of these openings. . high and 12 in. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. 3. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. Take two pieces of pasteboard. 1 in. horses and dogs. Paste a piece of strong black paper. in size. wide and 5 in. -Contributed by William M. black surfaced if possible. inside of the opening. D. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Cut an opening in the other piece. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. to be used as a driving pulley. C. This opening. but cut it 1/4 in. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. shorter at each end. shorter. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. and go in the holder in the same way. as shown in Fig. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape.. Out two rectangular holes. say 8 in. Jr.by 5-in. long. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. and exactly 5 by 7 in. wide. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. automobiles. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. A and B. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. plates. trolley cars. B. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. says Camera Craft. wide. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. being 1/8 in. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. Cut a piece of thin black cloth.by 7-in. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. 10 in. 1. Crilly. in size.proper place to make a small hole.

long and 6 in." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. in diameter. if it has previously been magnetized. A cell of this kind can easily be made.in. wide will be required. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. into which the dog is harnessed. The needle will then point north and south. making a . This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2.. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles.

Place the pan on the stove. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. says Electrician and Mechanic. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. of the plate at one end. F is a spool. Form a 1/2-in. filter.in. Do not paint any surface. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. plaster of paris. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. Pack the paste in. for a connection. This makes the wire smooth. long which are copper plated. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. zinc oxide. when the paraffin is melted.watertight receptacle. 1/4 lb. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. File the rods to remove the copper plate. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. of rosin and 2 oz. of the top. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. pull out the wire as needed. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. only the joints. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. fodder. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. leaving about 1/2-in. pine. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. 1 lb. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. B is a base of 1 in. one that will hold about 1 qt. short time. and a notch between the base and the pan. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. sal ammoniac. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. A is a block of l-in. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. under the spool in the paraffin. fuel and packing purposes. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. . This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. of water. in which P is the pan. with narrow flanges. beeswax melted together. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. 3/4 lb. in diameter and 6 in.

let them try it. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. and he finally. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. thus making the arm revolve in one direction." which created much merriment. long. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. for some it will turn one way. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. 2. or think they can do the same. g. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. as in the other movement. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement.. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Try it and see. If any of your audience presume to dispute. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. Enlarge the hole slightly. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Toledo. while for others it will not revolve at all. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Ohio. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. thus producing two different vibrations. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. by the Hindoos in India. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. At least it is amusing. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and then. and one friend tells me that they were . but the thing would not move at all.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. from vexation. and therein is the trick. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. square and about 9 in. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. for others the opposite way. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick.

and. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. If the pressure was upon an edge. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. 7. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. 6. secondly. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. The experiments were as follows: 1. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results.100 r. A square stick with notches on edge is best. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. 2. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. by means of a center punch. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. Speeds between 700 and 1. rotation was obtained. gave the best results. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. 5. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. To operate. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. the rotation may be obtained. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. no rotation resulted. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. m. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. p. 3. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. Thus a circular or . If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. and I think the results may be of interest. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. 4. The depth of the notches was also unimportant.

Ph. the upper portion is. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). is proved by experiments 3 and 4. D. Duluth. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. a piece of wire and a candle. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch.. and the resultant "basket splash. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. as shown. A wire is tied around the can. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. it will be clockwise. --Contributed by M. Washington.D. so far as can be seen from the photographs. at first. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. Sloan. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. is driven violently away. --Contributed by G. G. Lloyd. and the height of the fall about 6 in. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. if the pressure is from the left. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. C. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. . Minn. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. unwetted by the liquid. forming a handle for carrying. or greasy.. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. A.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. thick and 1 in.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. with a 1/16-in. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. as shown. Each wheel is 1/4 in. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. hole drilled in the center. 1. long. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. in diameter. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. axle. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. about 2-5/8 in. as shown in Fig. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. flange and a 1/4-in.

Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. --Contributed by Maurice E. This will save buying a track. is made from brass. with cardboard 3 in. 4. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. each in its proper place. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. 5. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. Fig. bottom side up. which must be 110 volt alternating current. wood. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. bent as shown. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. as shown in Fig. The parts. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. long. Fuller. 1 from 1/4-in. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. The motor is now bolted. of No.50. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. These ends are fastened together. are shown in Fig. wide and 16 in. The first piece. 6. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. 2. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. is made from a piece of clock spring. 2. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . The current. as shown in Fig. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. San Antonio. holes 1 in. If the ends are to be soldered. A trolley. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. Fig. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. 3. 3/4 in. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. lamp in series with the coil. 3. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. put together complete. or main part of the frame. Texas. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. and the locomotive is ready for running. before doing so drill four 1/4-in.brass.

Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. and as this end . 3. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. the length of a paper clip. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. 2. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. and holes drilled in them. but do not heat the center. The quarter will not go all the way down. 1. Fig 1. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Cincinnati. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Fig. O. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. as shown in Fig. then continue to tighten much more. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. as shown in Fig.

square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. and adjusted . One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. 2 and 1 respectively. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. When the cutter A. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. In the sketch. When the trick is to be performed. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. or should the lathe head be raised. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. or apparent security of the knot. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. A pair of centers are fitted. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. has finished a cut for a tooth.

Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. tea cosey. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. --Contributed by Samuel C.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. Second row: -Two book marks. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. if but two parts. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. 2.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. An ordinary machine will do. holding it in place with the left hand. Bunker. (1. (3. When connecting to batteries. Y. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. at the same time striking light. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. Bott. gentleman's card case or bill book. lady's belt bag. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster.to run true. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . (4. watch fob ready for fastenings. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. swing lathe. note book. such as brass or marble. The frame holding the mandrel. trace the outline. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). N. (6. book mark.) Make on paper the design wanted. or one-half of the design. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. (2. above the surface. --Contributed by Howard S. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. in diameter can be made on a 6-in.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. and a nut pick. In this manner gears 3 in. blotter back. lady's card case. (5. 1. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. long. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. Fig.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. if four parts are to be alike. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). tea cosey. Brooklyn.) Place the paper design on the leather and. dividing it into as many parts as desired. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. about 1-1/2 in. twisted around itself and soldered. Fold over along these center lines. draw center lines across the required space. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. coin purse. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins.

and an ordinary bottle. some heavy rubber hose. Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube.

D. where it condenses. Thrust a pin. and bore a hole through the center. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. into which fit a small piece of tube.C. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. The electrodes are made . Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls.. B. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. a distance of 900 miles. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. Florida. C. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. and push it through a cork.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. from Key West. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. If the needle is not horizontal. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. A. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle.

wide and 20 ft. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. wide and 4 ft. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. long for the body of the operator. 1. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. 1/2. If 20-ft. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. several strips 1/2 in. wide and 3 ft. as shown in Fig. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. --Contributed by Edwin L. To make a glide. 3. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. The operator can then land safely and . long. using a high resistance receiver. or flying-machine. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. square and 8 ft long. free from knots. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. C.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. slacken speed and settle. lengths and splice them. 1-1/4 in. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. Four long beams 3/4 in. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. 12 uprights 1/2 in. take the glider to the top of a hill. thick. long. and also to keep it steady in its flight. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. 1-1/2 in. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. thick. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. as shown in Fig. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. 1. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. D. All wiring is done with No. which is tacked to the front edge. 3/4 in. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. apart and extend 1 ft. as shown in Fig. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. Powell. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. 2 in. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. wide and 4 ft. Washington. thick. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. wide and 3 ft. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. both laterally and longitudinally. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. 2 arm sticks 1 in. lumber cannot be procured. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. 2. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. use 10-ft. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. thick. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. long. wide and 4 ft long. Connect as shown in the illustration. 2.in. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. 1. long. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. long. by 3/4 in. 16 piano wire. thick.

The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour.gently on his feet. Of course. Glides are always made against the wind. Great care should be . but this must be found by experience. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. and the balancing is done by moving the legs.

shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. 2. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. a creature of Greek mythology. --Contributed by L. 1. which causes the dip in the line. Bellingham. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. When heated a little. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. Olson. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle.exercised in making landings. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. half man and half horse. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. M.

Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. will complete the material list. 14 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. making it 2-1/2 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. outside the box. a piece of brass or steel wire. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. this will cost about 15 cents. long and about 3/8 in. square. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. in diameter. about the size of stove pipe wire. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. of small rubber tubing. The light from the . If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. about the size of door screen wire. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. long. at the other. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box.

O. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. If done properly the card will flyaway. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Hunting. .flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. M. as shown in Fig. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. as shown in Fig. 1. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. leaving the penny poised on the finger end.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. This is very simple when you know how. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. 2. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. as shown in the sketch. Dayton. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. --Photo by M. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. while others will fail time after time.

place the other two. When the desired shape has been obtained. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. This game is played by five persons." or the Chinese students' favorite game. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. If a certain color is to be more prominent. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. hold the lump over the flame. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. Cool in water and dry. closing both hands quickly. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. as shown. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. as before. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. then put it on the hatpin head. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. as described.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure .

distribute electric charges . passing through neutralizing brushes. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. or more in width. these sectors. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in.

in diameter. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. The collectors are made. 2. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. in diameter. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. 4. at the other. turned wood pieces. long. EE. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. in diameter and 15 in. These pins. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. as shown in Fig. and 4 in. The two pieces. 3. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. wide at one end. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. The drive wheels. in diameter. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. in diameter. as shown in Fig. long and the standards 3 in. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. material 7 in. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. 3/4 in. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. The fork part is 6 in. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. are made from 7/8-in. from about 1/4-in. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. are made from solid. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. after they are mounted. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. or teeth. wide. GG.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. free from wrinkles. Fig. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. Two solid glass rods. 1 in. and of a uniform thickness. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. 1-1/2 in. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. and the outer end 11/2 in. long. in diameter. in diameter. and pins inserted and soldered. to which insulating handles . and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. D. 3. 1. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. The plates. long and the shank 4 in. C C. and this should be done before cutting the circle. The plates are trued up. Fig. RR. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. brass tubing and the discharging rods. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. Two pieces of 1-in. the side pieces being 24 in. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate.

and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. 12 ft. and the work was done by themselves. Colo. Lloyd Enos. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines.. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. KK. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays .are attached. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. Colorado City. long. --Contributed by C. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. ball and the other one 3/4 in. one having a 2-in. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. D. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. in diameter. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. which are bent as shown. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. wide and 22 ft. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods.

"The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. bit. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. using a 1-in. deep.is a good one. as at A. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. The key will drop from the string. yet such a thing can be done. string together. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. They can be used to keep pins and needles. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. pens . All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. and bore a hole 1/2 in. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork.

If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. unless it would be the metal shears. extra metal on each of the four sides. 2. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. 8. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. This is to make a clean. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. etc. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. 3. above the metal. They are easily made. also trace the decorative design.. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. or cigar ashes. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. and the third one 1/4 in. Inside this oblong. then the other side. When the stamping is completed. sharp division between background and design. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. Proceed as follows: 1.. Draw one-half the design free hand. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. using a nail filed to chisel edge. above the work and striking it with the hammer. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. The second oblong was 3/4 in. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. two spikes. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. flat and round-nosed pliers. file. Raise the ends. 4. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. they make attractive little pieces to have about. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. 9. about 3/4-in. 5. inside the first on all. Use . stamp the background promiscuously. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. 6. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. inside the second on all. slim screw. 23 gauge. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. Having determined the size of the tray. 7.and pencils. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. very rapid progress can be made. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. etc. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides.

The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. third fingers. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. The eyes. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. first fingers. In the first numbering. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. and the effect will be most pleasing. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. and fourth fingers. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . 10. 8. 7. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. 9. second fingers. 6. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off.

Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. At a glance you see seven tens or 70.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. or the product of 8 times 9. the product of 12 times 12. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. 2 times 2 equals 4. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70.. but being simple it saves time and trouble. which would be 70. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. above 15 times 15 it is 200.. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. etc. first fingers. etc. 11. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. there are no fingers above. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. and the six lower fingers as six tens. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. as high as you want to go.. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. thumbs. renumber your fingers. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. or the product of 6 times 6. or 60. or 80. which tens are added. In the second numbering. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. 600. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. viz. Two times one are two. above 20 times 20. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. . 12. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. Still. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. etc. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. Put your thumbs together. which would be 16. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. Let us multiply 12 by 12. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. if we wish. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. At a glance you see four tens or 40. or numbers above 10. 25 times 25. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. 400.

the value of the upper fingers being 20. which is the half-way point between the two fives. And the lump sum to add. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. the value which the upper fingers have. lastly. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. first finger 17. the lump sum to add. being 80). whether the one described in second or third numbering. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. the inversion takes place against his will. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. and so on. 3. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. 21. 75 and 85. any two figures between 45 and 55.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. For figures ending in 6. etc. The inversion and reversion did not take place. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. however. at the will of the observer. thirties. 7. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. or what. or from above or from below. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. twenties. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. 2. when he removes his spectacles. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. about a vertical axis. as one might suppose. forties. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. not rotation. thumbs. Take For example 18 times 18. 8. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. adding 400 instead of 100. For example. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. first fingers 22.. in the case of a nearsighted person. further. . beginning the thumbs with 16. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. the revolution seems to reverse. It takes place also. and. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. Proceed as in the second lumbering. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. such as an used for lighting gas-burners.

The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. The ports were not easy to make. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. when he knows which direction is right. and putting a cork on the point. A flat slide valve was used. Looking at it in semidarkness. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. tee. the other appearance asserts itself. sometimes the point towards him. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. as . It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp.

when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. such as is shown in the illustration. secure a piece of No. as in a vise. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. pipe 10 in. saw off a section of a broom handle. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. The steam chest is round. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. . Beating copper tends to harden it and. across and 1/2 in. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. pipe. Fasten the block solidly. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. about 2 in. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. deep. The eccentric is constructed of washers. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. if continued too long without proper treatment. -Contributed by W. Kutscher. inexpensive. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. The tools are simple and can be made easily. While this engine does not give much power. and make in one end a hollow. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in.. bottom side up. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. in diameter. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. If nothing better is at hand. apart. it is easily built. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. H. across the head. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. Ill. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. Next take a block of wood. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. Springfield.

wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. To overcome this hardness. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated.will cause the metal to break. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. Vinegar. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. --Contributed by W. Hay. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. as it softens the metal. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. especially when the object is near to the observer. and. Camden. C. S. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. O. To produce color effects on copper. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. the other to the left. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. This process is called annealing. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat.

The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. because. . only the orange rays may pass through. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. would serve the same purpose. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. disappears fully. the one for the left eye being blue. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. it. So with the stereograph. while both eyes together see a white background. in the proper choice of colors. It is just as though they were not there. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. that for the right. because of the rays coming from them. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. not two mounted side by side. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. diameter. however. as for instance red and green. from the stereograph. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. But they seem black. In order to make them appear before the card." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. and lies to the right on the picture. although they pass through the screen. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. the further from the card will the composite image appear. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. The further apart the pictures are. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. with the stereograph. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. orange. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. and without any picture. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. The red portions of the picture are not seen. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one.stereoscope. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. the left eye sees through a blue screen. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. they must be a very trifle apart. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background.

The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. This should only be bored about half way through the block. in diameter. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. The weight of the air in round . in the shape of a crank. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. San Francisco. 12 gauge wire. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. Cal. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. or the middle of the bottle. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. long and a hole drilled in each end. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. A No. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. wide and 1 in. etc. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. wireless. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. 1/4 in. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. Place a NO. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. thick.

Only redistilled mercury should be used. wide and 40 in. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. wide and 4 in. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. will calibrate itself. thick. long. if accurately constructed. internal diameter and about 34 in. high. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. But if a standard barometer is not available. or a column of mercury (density 13. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in.. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. the contrary. if you choose. a bottle 1 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. and a slow fall. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. the instrument. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. inside diameter and 2 in. 34 ft. In general. long. high. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. high. but before attempting to put in the mercury. . a glass tube 1/8 in.numbers is 15 lb. The 4 in. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. or. long. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers.6) 1 in. Before fastening the scale. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. pine 3 in. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. 30 in. square. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. square. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in.

long. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. wide and 10 in. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. a cover from a baking powder can will do. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. 6 and 7. 1. Number the pieces 1. 2. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. the size of the outside of the bottle. thick. 5. Mark out seven 1-in. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. 3. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . Procure a metal can cover. and place them as shown in Fig.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. which is slipped quickly over the end.

1 into No. Move 15-Move No. 6. 6. This can be done on a checker board. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 6 in. procure unbleached tent duck. Move 5-Jump No.-Contributed by W.J. 5 over No. Move 3-Move No. 5 over No. Move 7-Jump No. Move ll-Jump No. 2's place. 6 over No. Woolson. 3 to the center. 2. 7's place. 2. Move 9-Jump No. Move 2-Jump No. 3 over No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. shaped like Fig. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. Make 22 sections. 3. L. 1 to No. 7 over No. in diameter. which is the very best material for the purpose. each 10 ft. as shown in Fig. Move 13-Move No. N. Move 14-Jump No. l over No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 7. Move 6-Move No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 7 over No. 5. Cape May Point. Move 4-Jump No. Move 8-Jump No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. To make such a tent. 1. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 2 over No. 6 into No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. Move 10-Move No. 3. 6 to No. using checkers for men. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 5's place. 3 into No. 1. long and 2 ft. 5's place. 2 over No. 2 . 2's place. 3. Move 12-Jump No.

Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. round galvanized iron. 2 in. As shown in the sketch. leaving the rest for an opening. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Have the tent pole 3 in. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. from the top. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. Nail a thin sheet of brass. After transferring the design to the brass. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. In raising the tent. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. long. Fig. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Use blocks. made in two sections. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. 6-in. Pa. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. 2. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. long and 4 in. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. to a smooth board of soft wood. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. in diameter. will do. 6. Punch holes in the brass in . wide at the bottom. high. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. as in Fig. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. 9 by 12 in. wide by 12 in. added. wide at the bottom.in. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. 5) stuck in the ground. These are ventilators. back of the rice paper and before a bright light..J. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. 3 in. 5. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. Emsworth. about 9 in. diameter. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Tress. fill with canvas edging. --Contributed by G. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. Fig. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design.

apart. Chicago. bend into shape. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. The pattern is traced as before. excepting the 1/4-in. cut out the brass on the outside lines. . --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. Corr. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. around the outside of the pattern. but before punching the holes. When the edges are brought together by bending.the spaces around the outlined figures. It will not. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. When all the holes are punched.

however. pipe is used for the hub. G. A 6-in. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. Mayger. or center on which the frame swings. Oregon. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. Badger. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. or. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. Stevens. Que. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in.. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. A cast-iron ring. pipe. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. --Contributed by H. between which is placed the fruit jar. If a wheel is selected. These pipes are . better still. allowing 2 ft. or less. partially filled with cream. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. Dunham. E. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. --Contributed by Geo.

wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. An extra wheel 18 in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . pipe clamps. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. Four braces made from 1/2-in. pipe. bent to the desired circle. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel.

The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The performer. and dropped on the table. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. 3. 1. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. as shown in Fig. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. and the guide withdrawn. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. while doing this. which was placed in an upright position. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover.

The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. --Contributed by H. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. it requires no expensive condensing lens. -Contributed by C. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. The box can be made of selected oak or . the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. White. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. and second. in diameter on another piece of tin. Colo. Mo. St. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Harkins. first. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Louis. in a half circle. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Denver. 2. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. 1.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. F. D.

The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. high and must . These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. This will be 3/4 in. 5-1/2 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. wide and 5 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. as shown in Fig. wide by 5 in. and. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. AA. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. from each end. 1.mahogany. high and 11 in. An open space 4 in. but not tight. wide. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. Two or three holes about 1 in. If a camera lens is used. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. from each end of the outside of the box. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. The door covering this hole in the back. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. wide and 6-1/2 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. and 2 in. long and should be placed vertically. 2. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. represented by the dotted line in Fig. 3-1/2 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. fit into the runners. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. focal length. long. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. long. wide and 6-1/2 in.

Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. and extending the whole height of the lantern. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. as it requires an airtight case. the article may be propped up . The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. then the second knuckle will be March. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. provided it is airtight. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. April. This process is rather a difficult one." etc. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig.. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. 1. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. and so on. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. C.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. Ohio. June and November. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. --Contributed by Chas. West Toledo. calling this February. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. calling that knuckle January. Bradley.

A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. the lid or cover closed. Y. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. in. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. Crawford. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. 2. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. and the lead 24 sq. taking care to have all the edges closed. one of lead and one of aluminum. In each place two electrodes. The top of a table will do. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. . N. Schenectady. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. running small motors and lighting small lamps. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. In both Fig. in. H. and set aside for half a day. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. Pour in a little turpentine. --Contributed by J. 1. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. 1 and 2. but waxed. giving it an occasional stir. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. or suspended by a string.with small sticks. fruit jars are required.

Cleveland. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. which you warm with your hands. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. You have an understanding with some one in the company. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. as you have held it all the time. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. After a few seconds' time. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. as well as others. he throws the other. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. O.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . This trick is very simple. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. He.. you remove the glass.

near a partition or curtain. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. but by being careful at shores. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. if any snags are encountered. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. put it under the glass. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Victor. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. . it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use.take the handiest one. J. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. in diameter in the center. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. but in making one. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Crocker. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Pull the ends quickly. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole.-Contributed by E. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. on a table. Be sure that this is the right one. Colo.

and is removed after the ribs are in place. 2 in. 11 yd. and. by 2 in. at the ends. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. 1/4 in. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. Both ends are mortised. by 12 in. for the bow. 1/8 in. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. 1 piece. and fastened with screws. wide and 12 ft. 50 ft.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 3 and 4. 8 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 2 gunwales. by 15 ft. 8 yd. drilled and fastened with screws. The keelson. 3 in. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. 1 in. 4 outwales. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. by 16 ft. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. from each end to 1 in. screws and cleats. Fig. 2 and braced with an iron band. for cockpit frame. by 2 in. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. square by 16 ft. 1 in. as illustrated in the engraving. 1 piece. clear pine. for the stern piece. and the other 12 in. 1. wide unbleached muslin. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. are as follows: 1 keelson. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. by 16 ft. wide 12-oz. long.. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . of 1-yd. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. apart. thick and 3/4 in. wide. long. long. of rope. the smaller is placed 3 ft. selected pine.. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 1 in. 1 mast. 1 in. from the bow and the large one. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. 7 ft. ducking. for center deck braces. 14 rib bands. 9 ft. is 14 ft. Paint. by 8 in. by 10 ft. from the stern. 3 in. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. long. wide and 12 ft. one 6 in. of 1-1/2-yd.

A seam should be made along the center piece. wood screws. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. corner braces. These are put in 6 in. 7 and 8. long. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. doubled. long. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. long is well soaked in water. This block. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. length of canvas is cut in the center. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. . and a seam made joining the two pieces together. Before making the deck. The deck is not so hard to do. thick and 12 in. is cut to fit under the top boards. A 6-in. thick. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. apart. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. Fig. thick. gunwales and keelson. 1/4 in. wide. A block of pine. 1 in. and fastened to them with bolts. thick and 1/2 in. wide and 24 in. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. 3-1/2 ft. wide and 14 in. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. from the bow. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. wide. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. 6 and 7. wide and 3 ft. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. They are 1 in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. long. thick 1-1/2 in. 6 in. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. 4 in. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. Fig. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. screws. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. The 11-yd. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. Figs. The block is fastened to the keelson. is a cube having sides 6 in. 9. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. 1 in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. Braces. A piece of oak. in diameter through the block. 5. The trimming is wood. also. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. a piece 1/4 in. 6.

The rudder is made as shown in Fig. E. The mast has two side and one front stay. 11. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. each 1 in. wide at one end and 12 in. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. Wilmette. at the other. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. --Contributed by O. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. wide. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. long. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. long. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. Fig. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. is 6 in. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The sail is a triangle. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. . is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. 10 with a movable handle. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. thick by 2 in. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. Tronnes. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. Ill. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. The house will accommodate 20 families. A strip 1 in. in diameter and 10 ft. are used for the boom and gaff. The keel. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. apart in the muslin. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. 12.

The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. Take this and fold it over . Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces.into two 14-in. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. flat-headed screws. 2 in. flat on one side. 5. as shown in Fig. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. long. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. wide and 30 in. Ill. E. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. wide. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. Tronnes. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. thick. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. Fig. with the ends and the other side rounding. 1 yd. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. 2-1/2 in. and the other 18 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. long. thick. long and five 1/2-in. --Contributed by O. five 1/2-in. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. 2-1/2 in. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. 4. long. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. wide. flat headed screws. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. Bevel both sides of the pieces. one 11-1/2 in. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. 1. Cut the maple. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. and 3 ft. Wilmette. about 5/16 in. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. 2. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. 3.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. square. wide and 2 ft. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. thick.

3/8 in. C. 1. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. and take care that the pieces are all square. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. 3-1/4 in. then centered. 6-1/2 in. but can be governed by circumstances. square. Another piece. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. and make a turn in each end of the wires. F. D. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. wide . wide and 4-1/2 in. Louis. The sides are 3-1/4 in. 3 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. When the glue is set. B. 5 from 1/16-in. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. thick. Cut another piece of board. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. soaked with water and blown up. long. and the four outside edges. long. are rounded. A. If carefully and neatly made. 2 and 3. thick. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. wide and 2-1/2 in. the top and bottom. long. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. wide and 2-3/4 in. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. long. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. wide and 3 ft. thick and 3 in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. about 3/8 in. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. square. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. long. 1-1/4 in. long. the mechanical parts can be put together. wide and 5 in. forming an eye for a screw. pieces 2-5/8 in. Mo. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. Fig. Figs. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. The bag is then turned inside out. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. About 1/2 in. is set. long. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. as well as the edges around the opening. A. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. Wind three layers of about No. of each end unwound for connections. this square box is well sandpapered. leaving a small opening at one corner. After the glue. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. The front. Bliss. St. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire.once. --Contributed by W. long. E. Glue a three cornered piece. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. C. wide and 6-3/4 in.

Another strip of tin. from one end. The stronger the current. 5. R. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. long. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. Fig. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. Yorkshire. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil.and 2-5/8 in. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. 5-1/2 in. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. I. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. G. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. so it will just clear the tin. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. W. wide and 2-1/2 in. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. C. board. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. showing a greater defection of the pointer. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. 4. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. that has the end turned with a shoulder. Place the tin.A. from the spindle. The base is a board 5 in. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. long. L. bored in the back. the same size as the first. long. The resistance is now adjusted to show . the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. When the current flows through the coil. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. Fig. 4. Chapman. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. the part carrying the pointer moves away. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. 1/16 in. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. F.R. thick. --Contributed by George Heimroth. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. and as the part Fig. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. 1/4 in. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. 4 is not movable. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. Richmond Hill. These wires should be about 1 in. and fasten in place. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. wide and 9 in. The end of the polar axis B. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. A pointer 12 in. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. and the farther apart they will be forced.S. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. Austwick Hall. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. Like poles repel each other. hole is fastened to the pointer.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. in diameter. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut.

10 min. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. at 9 hr. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. The following formula will show how this may be found. thus: 9 hr. 30 min. shows mean siderial. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. 1881. say Venus at the date of observation. M. and vice . or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. 10 min. A.

Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. . Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Conn. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. if one of these cannot be had. owing to the low internal resistance. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. or.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down.m. New Haven.f. Hall. --Contributed by Robert W.

and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. Wet paper will answer. 1. especially for cooking fish. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. When the follower is screwed down. thick. as shown in the accompanying picture. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. cover up with the same. inside diameter and about 5 in. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. put the fish among the ashes. The boring bar. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. of alum and 4 oz. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. leaves or bark. fresh grass. long. Fig. Then. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. 1-3/4 in. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. and heap the glowing coals on top. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. arsenic to every 20 lb.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. 3/8 in.

and threaded on both ends. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. thick. about 1/2 in. fastened with a pin. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . pipe. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. Two pieces of 3/4 -in.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. pipe. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. when they were turned in. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat.

The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. but never one which required so little material. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. then it should be ground to a fit. Clermont. square iron. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. a jump spark would be much better. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. the float is too high. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine.valve stems. 30 in. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. bent in the shape of a U. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. wide. It . This plate also supports the rocker arms. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. If the valve keeps dripping. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. as the one illustrated herewith. thick and 3 in. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. Fig. Iowa. and which gave such satisfactory results. labor and time. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. however. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. 3. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. was then finished on an emery wheel. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. Fig. Fig. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. 2. long. The rough frame. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. A 1-in. 4. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. 5. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place.

was erected in our back yard one afternoon. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. A malleable iron bolt. The seats are regular swing boards. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. Use a heavy washer at the head." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. 3/4 in. timber. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. hole bored in the post. long. long is the pivot. extending above. being held in position by spikes as shown. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine." little and big. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. in the ground with 8 ft. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. set 3 ft. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. for the "motive power" to grasp. strong clear material only should be employed. long. square and 5 ft. from all over the neighborhood. square. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. This makes an easy adjustment. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. As there is no bracing. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. so it must be strong enough. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. W. with no trees or buildings in the way. A 3/4 -in. --Contributed by C. in diameter and 15 in. completes the merry-go-round. rope is not too heavy. The illustration largely explains itself. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. butting against short stakes. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. strengthened by a piece 4 in. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. no matter what your age or size may be. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. If it is to be used for adults. square and 2 ft. Nieman. 12 ft. and a little junk. The crosspiece is 2 in. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. It looks like a toy. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. and. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. long. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. from the center. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. in fact. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. which adds greatly to the flying sensation.

a wreck. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. 4. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. Having placed the backbone in position. 1/4 by 3/32 in. if nothing better is at hand. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. one for the backbone and one for the bow. and 18 in. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. and sent to earth. long. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. To wind the string upon the reel. 2.2 emery. away. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. 1. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. then it is securely fastened. light and strong. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. The backbone is flat. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. These ends are placed about 14 in. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. A reel is next made. The bow is now bent. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. as shown in Fig. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching.the fingers. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. square. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. Both have large reels full of . The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down.

Newburyport. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. C. often several hundred yards of it. The handle end is held down with a staple. --Contributed' by Harry S.-Contributed by S. Mass. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . N. he pays out a large amount of string. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench.string. Y. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. First. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Moody. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. Brooklyn. common packing thread. or glass-covered string. If the second kite is close enough. the balance. Bunker. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever.

If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. If the table is round. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. must be attached to a 3-ft. such as mill men use. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. then draw the string up tight. Vt. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. square (Fig. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Corinth. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. lengths (Fig. Hastings. then a dust protector. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. length of 2-in. each the size of half the table top. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. --Contributed by Earl R. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought.

2-1/4 in. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. Calif. G to H. trace the design carefully on the leather... any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. E. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. 16-1/4 in. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. 17-1/2 in. .. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. and E to G. Moisten the . hard pencil. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work.-Contributed by H. Use a smooth. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. Oakland. 6-1/4 in. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. from E to F. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. Wharton. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. which spoils the leather effect.9-1/4 in. from C to D.

Cut out the leather for the handle openings. G-J. if not more than 1 in. I made this motor . and E-G.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. apart. and corresponding lines on the other side. with the rounded sides of the tools. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Trace the openings for the handles. To complete the bag. Cut it the same size as the bag. H-B. about 1/8 in. is taken off at a time. get something with which to make a lining. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. wide. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. also lines A-G. and lace through the holes. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. place both together and with a leather punch. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. Now cut narrow thongs.

2. 1. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. Pasadena. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. Calif. B. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. each being a half circle. 1. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. as shown in Fig. in length. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. of No. 24 gauge magnet wire. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. 2-1/4 in. --Contributed by J. Shannon. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. D. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. iron. .M. long.

How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. 1. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. are the best kind to make. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. high. The gores for a 6-ft. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. balloon should be about 8 ft. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. and the gores cut from these. near the center. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. from the bottom end. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . pasted in alternately.

using about 1/2-in. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. leaving the solution on over night. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. 2. coming through the small pipe A. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible.widest point. as shown in Fig. E. In starting the balloon on its flight. If the gores have been put together right. lap on the edges. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. 3. 5. In removing grease from wood. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. so it will hang as shown in Fig. in diameter. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. After washing. --Contributed by R. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. 1. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. These are to hold the wick ball. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. B. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . The boat soon attains considerable speed. A. saturating it thoroughly. leaving a long wake behind. after which the paint will adhere permanently. somewhat larger in size. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. The steam. as shown in Fig. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. As the boat is driven forward by this force. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. Staunton. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. Fig. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. 4.

then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. There are three ways of doing this: First. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. if you have several copies of the photograph. Third. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The blocks are about 6 in. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. high and 8 in. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. wide by 6 in. 1. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. long and each provided with a handle. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. long. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. apart on these lines. In using either of the two methods described. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. Second. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. as is shown in Fig. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. in bowling form.

If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. not pointed down at the road at an angle. thick. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. 2. Rinse the plate in cold water. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. Fig. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Y. --Contributed by John A. Albany. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. N. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel.Fig. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Hellwig. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. being careful not to dent the metal. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead.

The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. and. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. Break off the frame. --Contributed by R. 1 Fig. Richmond. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. In Fig. A circular piece of wood. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. in diameter. If the bottom is not perfectly flat.upon any particular object. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. 2 the front view. with a set screw. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. long for the base. and not produce the right sound. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. 6 in. With this device. through which passes the set screw S. 5 in. A. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. is fastened to a common camera tripod. thick. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. A. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. S. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. wide and 8 in. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. These corner irons are also screwed to. which is 4 in. are screwed to the circular piece. CC. Va. Paine. B. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. Corner irons. wide and of any desired height. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . the set screws will hold the telescope in position. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. and Fig.

shrunk an iron band on it for a tire.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. D. S. This horn. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. thus producing sound waves. I made a wheel 26 in. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. R. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. in diameter of some 1-in. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. -1. This will make a very compact electric horn. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. Ill. Kidder. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. Lake Preston. La Salle. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. pine boards. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. . Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. as only the can is visible.

1. If there is a large collection of coins. --Contributed by C. 1. Doylestown. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. square. The frame is made of a heavy card. 2. Ghent.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Fig. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. B. the same thickness as the coins. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. --Contributed by James R. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. thick and 12 in. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Kane. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. A. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . O. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Purdy.

Milwaukee. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Noble. cut and grooved. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. melted and applied with a brush. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. If desired. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. A lead pencil. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. and then glued together as indicated. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. border all around. a hammer or mallet. Smith. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. thick. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. It will hold 4 oz. Neyer. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. plus a 3/8-in. --Contributed by August T. of developer. for after the slides have been shown a few times. --Contributed by J. Toronto. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. into which to place the screws . being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. though not absolutely necessary. A rivet punch is desirable. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. The material required is a sheet of No. Canada.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. One Cloud. they become uninteresting. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in.E. --Contributed by R. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. several large nails. Cal. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Wis. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner.J.

apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. like the one shown. using 1/2-in. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. both outline and decoration. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. Remove the screws. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. and file it to a chisel edge. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. draw one part. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. Take the nail.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. There are several ways of working up the design. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. never upon the metal directly. screws placed about 1 in. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece.

The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. square and 181/2 in. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. square. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. 2. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. long. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. Provide four lengths for the legs. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. 3. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. up from the lower end. Rivet the band to the holder. of 11-in. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. for the lower rails. About 1/2 yd. two lengths. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. l-1/8 in. each 1 in. square and 11 in. 1.wall. long. 3/4 in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. in the other. using a 1/2in. The pedal. long. as shown in Fig. . being ball bearing. Do not bend it over or flatten it. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. and two lengths. for the top. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces.

Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . --Contributed by John Shahan. Quackenbush. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. Ala. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. --Contributed by W.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. Attalla. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. New York City. F. having quite a length of threads.

college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. and the other 2-3/4 in. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . from the end. one about 1 in. Luther. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. Ironwood. The desired emblem. using class. Two pieces of felt. the end of the other piece is folded over. Assemble as shown in the sketch. in depth. stitched on both edges for appearance. from one end. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. Mich. --Contributed by C. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. long. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. D. long. initial. college or lodge colors. each 1-1/4 in. long. something that is carbonated. Purchase a 1/2-in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. and two holes in the other. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. and 3/8 in. wide and 8-1/4 in. making a lap of about 1 in..

which can be made at home with ordinary tools. from the center and opposite each other. as shown at B. which can be procured from a plumber. Punch two holes A. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Schatz. Fig. and the cork will be driven out. Ind. Indianapolis. about 2 in. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. as shown in the sketch. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. or a pasteboard box. or more in height. if desired by the operator. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. in diameter and 2 in. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. 2. --Contributed by John H. This method allows a wide range of designs. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. in the cover and the bottom. 1. 1/4 in. A piece of lead.

1. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. O. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. The pieces of tin between the holes A. are turned up as in Fig. metal. 4. so that it will indent without cutting the leather.Rolling Can Toy lead. When the can is rolled away from you. as shown in Fig. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. 3. Fig. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. A piece of thick glass. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. 5. Columbus. and the ends of the bands looped over them. it winds up the rubber band. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. or marble will serve. on both top and bottom. allowing the two ends to be free. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. . putting in the design.

this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . and. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. long and bored a 1/2-in. hole through it. A pencil may be used the first time over. deep in its face. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. I secured a board 3/4 in. wide and 20 in. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. If it is desired to "line" the inside. 1 in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. 3 in. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. Next place the leather on the glass. mark over the design. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. face up. After this has been done. thick. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. from each end. The edges should be about 1/8 in. thicker than the pinion. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. or more thick on each side. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. New York City.

pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. --Contributed by A. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 3 by 3 by 20 in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. Brooklyn. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. thick top board. 1 screw block. Cut the 2-in. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Y. 2 side rails. and fit it in place for the side vise. N. 1 piece for clamp. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 1. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 3 by 3 by 6 in. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. in diameter. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 2 crosspieces.in the board into the bench top. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. Fig. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. lag screws as shown. Make the lower frame first. M. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 1 piece for clamp. 2. 1 back board. 3 by 3 by 36. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 4 guides. 2 by 12 by 77 in. pieces for the vise slides. New York. 2 by 2 by 18 in. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1 piece. 1 top board. 1 top board. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Now fit up the two clamps. Syracuse. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 2 end rails. much of the hard labor will be saved. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . Rice.

rule. 1 wood scraper. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 set gimlets. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 pair pliers. 2 screwdrivers. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 claw hammer. in diameter. 1 compass saw... 1 nail set. 1 2-ft. as well as the pattern maker.. If each tool is kept in a certain place. The bench is now complete. 1 countersink. 1 pair dividers. 1 marking gauge. They can be purchased at a hardware store.screws. 1 jack plane or smoother. 24 in. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 24 in. it can be easily found when wanted. The amateur workman. 1 brace and set of bits. Only the long run. 1 rip saw. . 1 pocket level. 3 and 6 in. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 monkey wrench. 1 set chisels. 1 cross cut saw. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws.

the projecting point A. will sink into the handle as shown at D. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. 3. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. 2 and 00 sandpaper. Fig. Fig. Kane. 1. Fig.1. being softer. The calf skin. 1. will be easier to work. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. try square. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. ---Contributed by James M. Doylestown. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful.1 6-in. Fig. but will not make . 1 oilstone. Pa. 2. No. becomes like A. after constant use.

lay the design on the face. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. If calf skin is to be used. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. First draw the design on paper. but a V-shaped nut pick. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. White. water or heat will not affect. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. -Contributed by Julia A. when dry. The form can be made of a stick of wood. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. such as copper or brass. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. secure a piece of modeling calf. and the length 6-5/8 in. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. Two pieces will be required of this size. Turn the leather. After the outlines are traced. which steam. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. New York City. . cover it completely with water enamel and. then prepare the leather. If cow hide is preferred. the same method of treatment is used. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish.as rigid a case as the cow skin. Having prepared the two sides. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. will do just as well. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. This will make a perfectly impervious covering.

Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. Cobb. . Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. --Contributed by Chas. Portland. Maine. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. A. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. New York City. Richmond. Jaquythe. --Contributed by Chester L. C. Cal. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Herrman. as shown in the sketch. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. --Contributed by W. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place.

--Contributed by Geo. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. for instance. Mass. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. Conn. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. Middletown. A thick piece of tin. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. B. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. Wright. . 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. Cambridge. --Contributed by Wm. an inverted stewpan. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. was marked out as shown. This was very difficult. Roberts.. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction.

on a clear piece of glass. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. There was no quicklime to be had. If the article is highly polished. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. L. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. used as part of furniture. Illinois. Ind. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. A beautifully bound book. pulverized and applied. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. then immerse the print in it and squeegee.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. F. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. If any traces of the grease are left. of boiling water. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. but only an odor which soon vanished. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. so some bones were quickly calcined. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. Indianapolis. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. and the grease will disappear. --Contributed by Paul Keller. such as chair seats. which has been tried out several times with success. and quite new. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. . Bone. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. Herbert.. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. When dry. well calcined and powdered. The next morning there was no trace of oil. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. face down. apply powdered calcined magnesia. --Contributed by C. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. but not running over. as shown. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. Chicago.

Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. 6 in. Tarrytown. This coaster is simple and easy to make.. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. A. soft steel with the opening 6 in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. The pieces marked S are single. New York. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. thick. wide and 12 in. deep and 5 in. --Contributed by Geo. the pieces . long. If properly adjusted. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. Howe. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. high and are bolted to a block of wood.. set and thumbscrews. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. 2 in. says Scientific American. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in.

If the letters are all cut the same height. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. no doubt. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. The seat is a board. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. Their size depends on the plate used. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. for sending to friends. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. says Camera Craft.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. E. they will look remarkably uniform. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. albums and the like. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. A sharp knife. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . to the underside of which is a block.

and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. for example. mount them on short pieces of corks. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. So made. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. using care to get it in the right position. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. after. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. So arranged. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. pasting the prints on some thin card. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. photographing them down to the desired size. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. In cutting out an 0. and. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. these letter pictures can be made with a black border.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. The puzzle is to get . the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around.

A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. Cape May Point. Bayley. G. so they will lie horizontal. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. says the American Thresherman. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. Old-Time Magic . squeezes along past the center of the tube. hung on pivots. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. He smells the bait. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.J. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . snow or anything to hide it. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. with the longest end outside. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. of its top. N. long that will just fit are set in.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. A hole 6 or 7 in.-Contributed by I. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves.

--Contributed by L. N. Y. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Press the hands together. Brooklyn. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Dry the stamps between two white blotters.faced up. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. E. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Idaho. Rhode Island. then expose again. then spread the string. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Parker. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Pawtucket. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. --Contributed by Charles Graham. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Pocatello. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . or rub the hands a little before doing so. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. --Contributed by L. Szerlip. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right.

1. or green oil paint.. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. end of the blade. When the glue is thoroughly dry. if any. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. in building up his work from the illustrations. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. long. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 4 on the blade. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. When the whole is quite dry. dark red. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. they will look very much like the genuine article.. wide and 2 in. 1 Fig. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. says the English Mechanic. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. 2 Fig. wipe the blade . The pieces. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. narrower. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. in width. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. or a complete suit of armor. and if carefully made. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. near the point end. full size. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. The handle is next made.Genuine antique swords and armor. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. 3 Fig. The blade should be about 27 in. thick. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. whether he requires a single sword only. using a straightedge and a pencil. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. Glue the other side of the blade.

The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. Both edges of the blade are sharp. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. 3. In the finished piece. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. the illustration. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. the length of the blade 28 in.with light strokes up and down several times. shows only two sides. follow the directions as for Fig. In making this scimitar. 1.. in diameter. Fig. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. should be about 9 in. 1. 2. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. of course. 2. 1. In making. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. allowing for a good hold with both hands. the other is flat or half-round. 1. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. about 1-1/2 in. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. 1/8 in. 4. as it is . the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. thick and 5 in. and 3 in. The length of the handle. the other is flat or halfround. 3. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. using a soft and dry piece of cloth.. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. square and of any length desired. the other two are identical. long. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. take two pieces of wood. This sword is about 68 in. preferably of contrasting colors. not for use only in cases of tableaux. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. in the widest part at the lower end. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig.

The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. as can the pitch bed or block. and if so. Both can be made easily. and. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. --Contributed by John Blake. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. Franklin. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. On each edge of the board. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. about 3/8 in. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. in an attempt to remove it. Syracuse. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Y. It is made of a plank. N. piping and jackets by hard water. as shown in the sketch. square. 2 in. Morse. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. at the lower end. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Doctors probed for the button without success. The thinness of the plank. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. long. A cold . The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. each about 1 ft. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. --Contributed by Katharine D. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. A piece of mild steel. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. or an insecure fastening. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. Mass. however. as there was some at hand. are fastened two pieces of strap iron.

Trim up the edges and file them . design down. plaster of Paris. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. 5 lb. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. To put it in another way. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. 5 lb. a file to reduce the ends to shape. When the desired form has been obtained. When this has been done. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. using a small metal saw. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous.. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. tallow. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. on the pitch. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. 18 gauge.. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. To remedy this. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. secure a piece of brass of about No.

Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. 30 ft. lb. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Before giving the description. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. or 550 ft. in the center. space between the vessels with water. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. This in turn divided by 33. make an unusual show window attraction. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. or fraction of a horsepower. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. and still revolve. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Clean the metal thoroughly. 1) and the other 12 in. per minute. Cutter.000 lb.000 ft. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. 1 ft. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. 1 ft. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. one 18 in. per second. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. to keep it from floating. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Fill the 3-in. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Fig. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. 2). This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. A. lb. but not to stop it.smooth. 3. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. The smaller is placed within the larger. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. and hang a bird swing. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. That is lifting 33. --Contributed by Harold H. . over the smaller vessel. using powdered pumice with lye. in one minute or 550 lb. in diameter (Fig. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. in diameter (Fig. in one second. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30.

Diameter 12 in.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Brooklyn.3 Fig. or on a pedestal. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . N. Somerville. Szerlip. Diameter Fig. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes.18 in. Campbell. Y. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. 1 Fig. Mass. 2 Fig. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. --Contributed by J. --Contributed. The effect is surprising. by L. F.

as a rule. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. away from the edge. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands.copper of No. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. Do not be content merely to bend them over. using any of the common metal polishes. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. after which it is ready for use. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. and then. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. is. In riveting. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. often render it useless after a few months service. with the pliers. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. keeping the center high. with other defects. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. This compound is impervious to water. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. unsatisfactory. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. then by drawing a straightedge over it. and the clay . Polish both of these pieces. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. to keep the metal from tarnishing. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. which may be of wood or tin. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. Rivet the cup to the base. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. which. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. the same as removing writing from a slate. and cut out the shape with the shears.

A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air.can be pressed back and leveled. DeLoof. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. The siphon is made of glass tubes. Mich. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. Mich. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. Dunlop. Scotland. long. the device will work for an indefinite time. --Contributed by John T. A. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. 3/4 in. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. 2. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. 1. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. --Contributed by A. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Grand Rapids. Houghton. It is made of a glass tube. as shown in Fig. in diameter and 5 in. . The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. Shettleston. -Contributed by Thos. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. Northville.

will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. put up as ornaments. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. London. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. long.FIG. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. This sword is 4 ft. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color.1 FIG. As the handle is to . 1. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. in width and 2 in. stilettos and battle-axes. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles.

When the whole is quite dry. 6. Cut two strips of tinfoil. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. in length. one about 1/2 in. In Fig. the upper part iron or steel. paint it a dark brown or black. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. with both edges sharp. The sword shown in Fig. long. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. This axe is made similar to the one . 8 is shown a short-handled flail. A German stiletto. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. narrower. wood with a keyhole saw. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. with both edges of the blade sharp. This weapon is also about 1 ft. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. string. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. is shown in Fig. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. then glued on the blade as shown. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. 5. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. the axe is of steel. glue and put it in place. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. The lower half of the handle is of wood. very broad. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. The handle is of wood. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. This sword is about 4 ft. 11 were used. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. in length. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. which is about 2-1/2 ft. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. The crossbar and blade are steel. with wire or string' bound handle. Three large. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. the same as used on the end of the handle. 4. When dry. This weapon is about 1 ft. studded with brass or steel nails. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. sometimes called cuirass breakers. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. These must be cut from pieces of wood. 20 spike. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. When the glue is thoroughly dry. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. 7. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. The ball is made as described in Fig. long with a dark handle of wood. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. Both handle and axe are of steel. sharp edges on both sides. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. This stiletto has a wood handle. 9. small rope and round-headed nails. 3 is shown a claymore. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade.represent copper. A German poniard is shown in Fig. in width. In Fig. In Fig. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. firmly glued on. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. 8. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil.

The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. will pull where other belts slip. --Contributed by E. together as shown in Fig. . 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. Davis. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. 2. Old-Time Magic . use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. so the contents cannot be seen. Chicago. the ends are tied and cut off. high. such as braided fishline. 10. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. When wrapped all the way around.described in Fig. This will make a very good flexible belt. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. W.

four glass tumblers. or using small wedges of wood. Macdonald. with the circle centrally located. These wires are put in the jar. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. The dotted lines in Fig. Before the performance. To make the flowers grow in an instant. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. There will be no change in color. in a few seconds' time. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. --Contributed by A. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. N. S. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. held in the right hand. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. some of the liquid. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Calif. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. filled with water. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. apparently. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. causing the flowers to grow.J. Bridgeton. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. 2. Oakland. 1 and put together as in Fig. about one-third the way down from the top. an acid. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof.

but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. unless some special device is used. When many slides are to be masked. not only because of the fact just mentioned. and kept ready for use at any time. A. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. which are numbered for convenience in working. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. If the size wanted is No. Jaquythe. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. --Contributed by W. Richmond. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. 4 for width and No. says a correspondent of Photo Era. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. practical and costs nothing. 2 for height. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. Cal. This outlines the desired opening. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . and equally worthy of individual treatment. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record.

These colors fade away in the course of a long time. a little less acid than water. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . is about right for the No. With a stick. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. Draw a design. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. When etched to the desired depth. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. the margin and the entire back of the metal. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. the paper is folded along the center line. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. or a pair of old tongs.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. Secure a sheet of No. about half and half. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. but they can be easily revived. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. The decoration. not the water into the acid. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. which is dangerous. and do not inhale the fumes. possibly. too. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. This done. 16 gauge. or. may be changed. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. paint the design. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. using the carbon paper. The one shown is merely suggestive. and the extreme length 7 in.

about 1 in. 1. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. A. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. Fig. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. Nail a board. about 3 ft. Fig. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. to the table. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. 3/8 in. and bore two holes. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. it will touch post F. J is another wire attached in the same way. with the wires underneath. wide and of the same length as the table. as in Fig. attached to a post at each end. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. 24 parts water. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. 0 indicates the batteries. thick. repeat as many times as is necessary. When the button S is pressed. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. Paint the table any color desired. about 2-1/2 in. through it. 2. Fig. or more wide. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. high. It may be either nailed or screwed down. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. . and about 2-1/2 ft. 5. Fig. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. Cut out a piece of tin. 5. The connections are simple: I. 4. 3. as at H. the bell will ring. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. Fig. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. about 8 in. long and 1 ft. 2. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. as shown in the illustration. 2. Then get two posts. so that when it is pressed down. in diameter and 1/4 in. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. as shown in Fig. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. long. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. wide. C and D.

The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. long serves as the dowel.Imitation Arms and Armor . A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. These rings can be carved out. The imitation articles are made of wood. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. but they are somewhat difficult to make. The entire weapon. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. After the glue is dry. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. This weapon is about 22 in. The circle is marked out with a compass. the wood peg inserted in one of them..PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. 1. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. is to appear as steel. long. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. thick. such as . 2. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. says the English Mechanic. A wood peg about 2 in. handle and all.

All of these axes are about the same length. The lower half of the handle is wood. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The handle is of steel imitation. etc. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. Its length is about 3 ft. The axe is shown in steel. This weapon is about 22 in. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. The upper half of the handle is steel. as described in Fig. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. . The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. If such a tool is not at hand. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. as before mentioned. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The entire handle should be made of one piece. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.ornamental scrolls. The handle is of wood. with a sharp carving tool. the hammer and spike. The spikes are cut out of wood. 6. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. studded with large brass or steel nails. or the amateur cannot use it well. as shown. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. 2. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. also. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. flowers. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. used at the end of the fifteenth century. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. leaves. 5. 8. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. covered with red velvet. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. long. is shown in Fig. 3. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil.

then the other plays. 3. and so on for nine innings. the knife resting on its back. 5. calls for a home run. Each person plays until three outs have been made. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. 6. The knife falling on its side (Fig. as in Fig. 4). 7) calls for one out. . 2. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. a three-base hit. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. Chicago.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. 1. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. Fig. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. as shown in Fig. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig.

Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. Somerville. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. Old-Time Magic . The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. 3.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. Campbell. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. one of them burning .-Contributed by J. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. of water for an hour or two. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. This he does. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. F. If it is spotted at all. It may be found that the negative is not colored.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. 2. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. Mass. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. as shown in Fig. 1. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. of the rope and holds it. while the committee is tying him up. as shown in Fig. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. hypo to 1 pt. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. with the rope laced in the cloth.

showing that there is nothing between them. He then walks over to the other candle. shades the light for a few seconds. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. Louisville. thick. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. 3/4 in. bolt. Drill Gauge screw. of plumbago.brightly. with which he is going to light the other candle. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. the other without a light. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. 4 oz. of sugar. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. invisible to them (the audience). Thome. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Ky. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. of turpentine. --Contributed by C. New York City. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. B. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush.Contributed by Andrew G. Evans. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. thus causing it to light. and.. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. --Contributed by L. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. . Brown. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. 4 oz. etc. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. of water and 1 oz. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Ky. The magician walks over to the burning candle. Lebanon.

5 in. In making up the solution. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. which will give a strong. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. steady current. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. Do not add water to the acid. for the material. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. but is not so good. long. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. N. H. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. diameter. --Contributed by C. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. or blotting paper. Its current strength is about one volt. To make the porous cell. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. about 5 in. Denniston. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. into a tube of several thicknesses. Y. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. Pulteney. thick. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use.

The . Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other.) may be obtained. the other holding them apart. After much experimentation with bearings. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. a positive adjustment was provided. steel. while the other end is attached by two screws. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. One hole was bored as well as possible. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. steel. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. one drawing them together. but somewhat lighter. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. carrying the hour circle at one end. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in.station. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. long with a bearing at each end. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. Finally. As to thickness. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. steel. To insure this. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws.

The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. excepting those on the declination axis. Set the declination circle to its reading. Cassiopiae. To locate a known star on the map. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. is provided with this adjustment. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. turn the pointer to the star. once carefully made. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. need not be changed. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. subtract 24. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. Instead. and 15 min. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. The pointer is directed to Alpha. Declination is read directly. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. All set screws. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The pole is 1 deg.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. If the result is more than 24 hours. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. apart. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. When properly set it will describe a great circle. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. Each shaft. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. are tightened.. To find a star in the heavens. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. 45 min. The aperture should be 1/4 in." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up." When this is done. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. save the one in the pipe. All these adjustments." Only a rough setting is necessary. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. and if it is not again directed to the same point.. Point it approximately to the north star. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. It is. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg.

benzole. add a little more benzole. then add 1 2-3 dr. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. The ball is found to be the genuine article. a great effect will be produced. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. of ether. as shown in the sketch. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. -Contributed by Ray E. La. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. In reality the first ball. the others . of gum sandarac and 4 gr. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. cannon balls. is the real cannon ball. taking care not to add too much. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. Ohio. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. 3 or 4 in. which is the one examined. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. The dance will begin. If this will be too transparent. Plain City. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. New Orleans. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. long. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. is folded several times.. Strosnider.

as shown in the illustration. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. --Contributed by J. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. Cal. In boxes having a sliding cover. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. F. Campbell. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band.. Somerville. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. Return the card to the pack. etc. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Wis. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. taps. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. 1). without taking up any great amount of space. 2. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . small brooches. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. San Francisco. Fig. Milwaukee. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. Mass.

Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Hartford. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. Connecticut.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. slides and extra brushes. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. from the bottom of the box. Beller. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. round pieces 2-1/4 in. thus giving ample store room for colors. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. This box has done good service. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. . prints. as shown in the illustration.

Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. tacking the gauze well at the corners. 1). or placed against a wall. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. costing 5 cents. -Contributed by C. O. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. West Lynn. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. about threefourths full. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. holes in the bottom of one. with well packed horse manure. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. will answer the purpose. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. 2). . and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. FIG. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. When the ends are turned under. Darke. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. Mass. Fill the upper tub.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center.

Eifel. if this is not available. and each bundle contains . Chicago. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. If plugs are found in any of the holes. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. they should be knocked out. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. --Contributed by L. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. oil or other fluid. when they are raised from the pan. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. cutting the cane between the holes. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. If the following directions are carried out. M.

which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. and. No plugs . as shown in Fig.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. as it must be removed again. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. it should be held by a plug. put about 3 or 4 in. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. held there by inserting another plug. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. a square pointed wedge. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. 1. then across and down. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. In addition to the cane. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. after having been pulled tight. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind.

Even with this lubrication. It consists of a flat circular table. we have 4. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day.15+. is the base (5 in. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. This will make three layers. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. Their difference is . The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. W. After completing the second layer. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or .2+. No weaving has been done up to this time. The style or gnomon. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. From table No. 4. trim off the surplus rosin. and for lat. 3. All added to the lesser or 40°. 40°. the height of which is taken from table No. is the horizontal dial. Fig.= 4. --Contributed by M. 1. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. 42° is 4. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. 1. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break.075 in. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. lat. 1. 5.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. as shown in Fig.15 in. R.3 in. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. the height of the line BC. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. stretch the third one. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. called the gnomon. Fig. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. 1 lat. -Contributed by E. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed.075 in. as the height of the line BC for lat. it is 4. 5 in. Detroit.42 in. using the same holes as for the first layer. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. 3. During the weaving. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. 41 °-30'. Michigan. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. There are several different designs of sundials. If you have a table of natural functions. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. or the style. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. If handled with a little care.2 in. 41°-30'. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun.5 in. the next smallest. as it always equals the latitude of the place. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. for 2°. but the most common. Patrick. D. in this case) times the . Start at one corner and weave diagonally. as shown in Fig. and the one we shall describe in this article. as for example. When cool. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. and for 1° it would be . can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB.

.77 2.64 4 8 3.20 60° 8.32 6. 2 for given latitudes. gives the 6 o'clock points. which will represent the base in length and thickness.02 1.12 52° 6. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.57 3. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. 2.49 3.66 1.29 4-30 7-30 3.44 44° 4. using the points A and C as centers.79 4. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.18 28° 2.10 6.93 6. long.33 42° 4.85 35 . base. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. Draw two semi-circles. and perpendicular to the base or style.94 1.88 36° 3. according to the size of the dial.91 58° 8. if of metal. For latitudes not given.tangent of the degree of latitude. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.33 . Table NO.40 1.76 1.40 34° 3.00 40° 4.82 2. Chords in inches for a 10 in. circle Sundial. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.07 4.16 40 . 1. 2.16 1.96 32° 3. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.50 26° 2. and for this size dial (10 in. or if of stone.03 3.87 4.27 2.23 6.56 .46 3. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.82 5.39 .49 30 . or more. Fig.42 1.82 3.37 54° 6. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.55 30° 2.06 2.38 .30 1. and intersecting the semicircles.46 .19 1. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.57 1. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.11 3.68 5-30 6-30 5.66 latitude.97 5 7 4.42 45 .55 4.55 46° 5.63 56° 7.81 4.26 4.85 1. an inch or two.41 38° 3.55 5.14 5.59 2. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .42 .89 50° 5. with a radius of 5 in.28 .99 2. Its thickness.83 27° 2. Draw the line AD.66 48° 5.93 2. To layout the hour circle. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.37 5.30 2.87 1.

add those marked + subtract those Marked . 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.30 2.54 60 . and the .from Sundial lime. This correction can be added to the values in table No. June 15. Iowa.71 2.89 3.72 5. --Contributed by J.. E.12 5. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. it will be faster. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. The + means that the clock is faster.46 5.52 Table No. if west. An ordinary compass. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.08 1. 900 Chicago.77 3. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. Each weapon is cut from wood. London. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. then the watch is slower. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.98 4.06 2. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.50 55 .87 6.53 1. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.34 5. Mitchell. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.means that the dial is faster than the sun. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. Sun time to local mean time. 3. adding to each piece interest and value. Sept. and for the difference between standard and local time.24 5.60 4. 3.50 . As they are the genuine reproductions.57 1.01 1. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.82 3.49 3.93 6. will enable one to set the dial. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . after allowing for the declination. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.46 4.10 4. 25.21 2. says the English Mechanic. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. 2 and Dec. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.14 1. Sioux City. each article can be labelled with the name. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.37 2.19 2.79 6.63 1.68 3. April 16. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position.49 5.

long from the point where it is attached to the handle. the length of which is about 5 ft. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. Partisan. 3. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 1. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. When putting on the tinfoil. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. . Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century..

Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The extreme length is 9 ft. 8.which is square. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. This weapon is about 6 ft. is shown in Fig. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. . The edges are sharp. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. A gisarm or glaive. the holes being about 1/4 in. 7. 6 ft. long with a round staff or handle. press it well into the carved depressions. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. long. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in.. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. 5. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. in diameter. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. which are a part of the axe. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. long with a round wooden handle. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. sharp on the outer edges. about 4 in. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. It is about 6 ft. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. used about the seventeenth century. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The spear is steel. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. long. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The length of this bar is about 5 in.

B. 4. The twisted cross cords should . 1. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. H. as shown in Fig. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. 2 and 3.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. the most durable being bamboo. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. 5. This is important to secure neatness. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. They can be made of various materials. apart. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. Loudonville. Substances such as straw. used for spacing and binding the whole together. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. In Figs. the cross cords. are less durable and will quickly show wear. Cut all the cords the same length.-Contributed by R. Workman. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. Ohio. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. or in holes punched in a leather strap. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. are put in place.

If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. for a length extending from a point 2 in. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . Lockport. wide. of the bottom. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. Harrer. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. below the top to within 1/4 in. bamboo or rolled paper. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. To remedy this. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. The first design shown is for using bamboo. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. shaped as shown at C. -Contributed by Geo. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. 3 in. La. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. in which was placed a piece of glass. This was turned over the top of the other can. Four V-shaped notches were cut. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. as shown at B. New York. New Orleans. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. M. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. A slit was cut in the bottom.be of such material. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced.

The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. and two along the side for attaching the staff. N. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. H. Y. --Contributed by W. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. do not throw away the gloves. Shay. Pasadena. the brass is loosened from the block. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces.tape from sticking to the carpet. This plank. Cal. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. wide. Schaffner. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. turned over but not fastened. --Contributed by Chas. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. Sanford. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. is shown in the accompanying sketch. giving the appearance of hammered brass. This should be done gradually. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. After this is finished. about 1/16 in. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. Newburgh. It would be well to polish the brass at first. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. --Contributed by Joseph H. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. Maywood. Ill. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end.

bent as shown. in diameter. the pendulum swings . This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. K. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. --E. Richmond. Oak Park. A. Ill. Cal. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Marshall. Unlike most clocks.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Jaquythe. -Contributed by W.

Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. bearing on the latter.. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. 6 in. on the board B. high. In using this method. is an electromagnet. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. . The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. Chicago. wide. 3/4 in. 7-1/2 in. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. A. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. thick. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. about 6 in. and the other two 2-5/8 in. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. wide that is perfectly flat. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. by 1-5/16 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. Two uprights. about 12 in. only have the opposite side up. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. --Contributed by V. the center one being 2-3/4 in. in diameter. high. 5/16 in. The construction is very simple. Now place the board to be joined. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. such as this one. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. high and 1/4 in. away. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Fasten another board. Metzech. to the first one with screws or glue. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. B. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. bar. says the Scientific American. high. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. Secure a board. long and at each side of this. are secured in the base bar. C. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod.

Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. from one end. is fastened in the hole A. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. square. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. 1. square inside. or more. Pa. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. plates should be made 8 in. Vanderslice. 3. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. 1. wide and 5 in. Fig. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. wide and 1 in. long. whose dimensions are given in Fig. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. by driving a pin through the wood. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. Phoenixville. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. 1. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. The trigger. Fig. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. --Contributed by Elmer A. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. 4. as shown at A. 2. .

Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. one-half the length of the side pieces. if only two bands are put in the . are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. by weight. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in.A. Simonis. -Contributed by J. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. which allows 1/4 in. as shown in the illustration. Fostoria. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. rubbing varnish and turpentine. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. Ohio. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. 5 parts of black filler. square. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. 2 parts of whiting.

and it may be made as a model or full sized. 8 in. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. long. in the opposite end of the box. -Contributed by Abner B. is set at an angle of 45 deg. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. In constructing helmets. DeLoof. is necessary. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. Grand Rapids. place tracing paper on its surface. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. London. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. No. as shown in Fig. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. keeps the strong light out when sketching. II. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. Dartmouth. --Contributed by Thos. and the picture can be drawn as described. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. A mirror. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. G. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. Mass. which may be either of ground or plain glass. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. A piece of metal. preferably copper. In use. wide and about 1 ft.lower strings. Michigan. Shaw. If a plain glass is used. A double convex lens. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. deep. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. It must be kept moist and well . 1. says the English Mechanic. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch.

joined closely together. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. After the clay model is finished. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. a few clay-modeling tools. 1. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. shown in Fig. the clay model oiled. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. 2. 1. and the deft use of the fingers. Scraps of thin. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. as shown in Fig. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides.kneaded. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. 3. with a keyhole saw. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. brown. on which to place the clay. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. and continue until the clay is completely covered. This being done. and over the crest on top. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. and left over night to soak. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. as in bas-relief. The clay. All being ready. will be necessary. or some thin glue. take.

A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. owing to the clay being oiled. 1. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . This contrivance should be made of wood. In Fig. When perfectly dry. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. and so on. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. 9. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. which should be no difficult matter. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. the skullcap. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Indiana. with the exception of the vizor. and the ear guards in two pieces. should be modeled and made in one piece. one for each side. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. The band is decorated with brass studs. In Fig. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. Before taking it off the model. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. When the helmet is off the model. a crest on top.as possible. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. The whole helmet. --Contributed by Paul Keller. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. a few lines running down. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. then another coating of glue. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. as seen in the other part of the sketch. as shown: in the design. 5. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. 7. The center of the ear guards are perforated. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. square in shape. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. will make it look neat. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. Indianapolis. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. They are all covered with tinfoil. or. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. the piecing could not be detected. When dry.

1. each 4-1/2 in. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. The holes B and C are about 3 in. long. The plate. two ordinary binding posts. 12 in. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. in diameter and 9 in. This will allow the plate. 4. if the measurements are correct. is then packed down inside the collar. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. Fig. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. thick sheet asbestos. as shown in Fig. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. 4. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. of the top. also the switch B and the fuse block C. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. 4. wide and 15 in. and two large 3in. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. of mineral wool. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. GG. AA. Fig. Fig.same size. 1. Fig. about 1 lb. about 80 ft. one fuse block. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. The reverse side of the base. 1. Fig. Fig. as shown in Fig. Fig. 1. long. Fig. one oblong piece of wood. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. FF. E and F. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. 4 lb. This will make an open space between the plates. Fig. German-silver wire is better. The mineral wool. The two holes. should extend about 1/4 in. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. 2. AA. 2. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. Fig. and C. of No. one glass tube. above the collar. for connections. 1. Fig. high. 3 in. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. to receive screws for holding it to the base. If a neat appearance is desired. 2. 4. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. one small switch. are allowed to project about 1 in. Fig. as it stands a higher temperature. thick. of fire clay. the holes leading to the switch. when they are placed in opposite positions. If asbestos is used. 22 gauge resistance wire. the fuse block. 1 in. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. AA. 3. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. with slits cut for the wires. Fig. JJ. until it is within 1 in. or. A round collar of galvanized iron. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. 4. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. long. is shown in Fig. 4. 4. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. as shown in Fig. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. about 1/4 in. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. and. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. which can be bought from a local druggist. 1. if this cannot be obtained. screws.

4. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. using care not to get it too wet. Richmond. If it is not thoroughly dry. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. II. when heated. Fig. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. causing a short circuit. so that the circuit will not become broken. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. steam will form when the current is applied. Cover over about 1 in. A. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. It should not be set on end. Fig. then. A file can be used to remove any rough places. It should not be left heated in this condition. St. Cal. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. H. deep. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. 2. While the clay is damp. more wire should be added. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. it leaves a gate for the metal. Next. Catherines. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . As these connections cannot be soldered. and pressed into it. Jaquythe. KK. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. allowing a space between each turn. Cut a 1/2-in. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. when cool. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. If this is the case. as the turns of the wires. --Contributed by R. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. apart. When this is done. will slip and come in contact with each other. The clay. When the tile is in place. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. This completes the stove. This point marks the proper length to cut it. --Contributed by W. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. above the rim. Cnonyn. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. Can. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in.

constructed of 3/4-in. as shown. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. and the frame set near a window. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. the pie will be damaged. Louisville. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. Then clip a little off the . If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. square material in any size. the air can enter from both top and bottom. but 12 by 24 in. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. says the Photographic Times. --Contributed by Andrew G. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. Thorne. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. Ky. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. is large enough. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. and the prints will dry rapidly.

Paper Funnel point. thick and 3 in. An offset is bent in the center. The board can be raised to place . the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. 1. high. each 1/2 in. 1. Herron. thick. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. for the crank. Two supports. wide and 7 in. 14 in. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. 1. high. 1 and 3. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. 3. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. high. 2-1/2 in. wide. thick and 3 in. As the shaft revolves. 4 in. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. 1/2 in. each 1 in. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. in diameter. Figs. thereby saving time and washing. -Contributed by S. Le Mars. allowing each end to project for connections. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. slip on two cardboard washers. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. open out. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. 2. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. which are fastened to the base. 22 gauge magnet wire. long. 1. A 1/8-in. 1/2 in. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. as shown. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. The connections are made as shown in Fig. Fig. W. Iowa. which gives the shaft a half turn. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. causing a break in the current. The upright B. long. The connecting rod E. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. wide and 3 in. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. The driving arm D. long. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. in diameter and about 4 in. long. Fig. Fig. at GG.

on a board. as shown in the sketch. making a framework suitable for a roost. Stecher. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. 3 in. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. Dorchester. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. Place the pot. bottom side up. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. in height. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. One or more pots may be used. .the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. Mass. --Contributed by William F. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. In designing the roost.

If the meter is warmed 10 deg. Fig. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. in diameter. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which.. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. odd corners. if it is other than straight lines.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. ordinary glue. etc. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. that it is heated. windows. The materials required are rope or. without any corresponding benefit. when combined. will produce the pattern desired. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. shelves. grills and gratings for doors. 1. 1. adopt the method described. F. and give it time to dry. preferably. F. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. paraffin and paint or varnish. Wind the . then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired.. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. as shown in Fig. The bottom part of the sketch.

six designs are shown.Fig. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. N. -Contributed by Geo. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . cut and glue them together. Y. 2. M. Harrer. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Lockport. Fig. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer.

The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords.. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. when it will be observed that any organic matter. London. etc. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. but no farther. chips of iron rust. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. will be retained by the cotton. etc. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. says the English Mechanic.. which was used in front of a horse's head. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. 1. This piece of horse armor. and the sides do not cover the jaws.. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. As the .

The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. as the surface will hold the clay. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. which is separate. 2. 8. the same as in Fig. and the clay model oiled. the rougher the better. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. All being ready. This triangularshaped support. with the exception of the thumb shield. and therefore it is not described. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. The armor is now removed from the model. 2. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. This will make the model light and easy to move around. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. This can be made in one piece.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. In Fig. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. and will require less clay. An arrangement is shown in Fig. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. but the back is not necessary. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. but for . size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. This being done. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. which can be made in any size. then another coat of glue. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. 6 and 7. 4. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. except the thumb and fingers. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible.

will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. 2. two in each jaw. and the instrument is ready for use. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. are glued to it. --Contributed by Ralph L. in depth. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. A piece of board. 1/2 in. --Contributed by John G. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. Calif. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. fastened to the rod. two for the jaws and one a wedge. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. are better shown in Fig. La Rue. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. The two pieces of foil. 9. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. N. When locating the place for the screw eyes. cut into the shape shown in Fig. long. will be about right. the foils will not move. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. Goshen. the two pieces of foil will draw together. the top of the rod. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. Buxton. wide and 1/2 in.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. Y. Redondo Beach. each about 1/4 in. running down the plate. If it does not hold a charge. but 3-1/2 in. .

enameled or otherwise decorated. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. as indicated in the . the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. from the smaller end. pine board. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. Corsicana. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. A. hole bored through it. 2-1/2 in. Texas. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. is made of a 1/4-in. as shown in the illustration.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. --Contributed by Mrs. The can may be bronzed. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. silvered. about 15 in. At a point 6 in. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. M. long. as this will cut under the water without splashing. When a fish is hooked. Bryan. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other.

Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. 22 is plenty heavy enough. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. and trace upon it the design and outline. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears.Match Holder accompanying sketch. When it has dried over night. punch the holes. Polish the metal. Basswood or butternut. A good size is 5 in. wide by 6 in. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. such as basswood or pine was used. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. take a piece of thin wood. using a piece of carbon paper. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. will do as well as the more expensive woods. long over all. Having completed the drawing. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. as shown. If soft wood. or even pine. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. thick. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. Next prepare the metal holder. Any kind of wood will do. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. then with a nail. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. put a coat or two of wax and polish . using powdered pumice and lye. 3/8 or 1/4 in. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true.

To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. --Contributed by W. thick. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. It is useful for photographers. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. A. long. each 1 in. can be made on the same standards. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. of pure olive oil. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. is used for the base of this instrument. Instead of the usual two short ropes. 2 in. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. wide and 5 in. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. . 1/2 in. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. If one has some insight in carving. If carving is contemplated. Richmond. long. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. are used for the cores of the magnets. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. Two wire nails. the whole being finished in linseed oil. Jaquythe. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. Cal.

in the shape shown in the sketch. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. at A. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. similar to that used in electric bells. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. . London. about No. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. acts as a spring to keep the key open.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. A rubber band. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. says the English Mechanic. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. leaving about 1/4 in. cloth or baize to represent the legs. 3. 25 gauge. except that for the legs. then covered with red. H. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. A piece of tin. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. when the key is pushed down. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. --Contributed by W. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. the paper covering put on. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. 1. About 1 in. cut in the shape of the letter T. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. Lynas. as shown in Fig. as shown by the dotted lines. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. All of the parts for the armor have been described. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs.

says Camera Craft. Silver paper will do very well. By moving the position of the bolt from. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. 2. Take the piece shown in Fig. A 1/4-in. These can be purchased at a stationery store. flat headed carriage bolt. not too tight. 1 and drill a 1/4in. or ordinary plaster laths will do. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. The two pieces are bolted together. Fig. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. drill six 1/4-in. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. In one end of the piece. 1 in. So set up. long. hole in the center. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. 3 in. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. at each end. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. about 1 in. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. and eight small holes. one to another . When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. completes the equipment.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. make the same series of eight small holes and. for the sake of lightness. brass paper fasteners will be found useful.. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. Secure two strips of wood. Instead of using brass headed nails. can be made in a few minutes' time. apart. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. in the other end. Cut them to a length or 40 in. apart. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. holes.

1. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. Then draw all four ends up snugly. for instance. long. in Fig. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Then take B and lay it over A. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. A round fob is made in a similar way. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. and lay it over the one to the right. 2. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. Start with one end. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. lay Cover B and the one under D. 4. then B over C and the end stuck under A. Fig. doubled and run through the web of A. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. D over A and C. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. the one marked A. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. but instead of reversing . taking the same start as for the square fob. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. 2. of the ends remain unwoven.of the larger holes in the strip. C over D and B. In this sketch. and the one beneath C. as shown in Fig. 2. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. as in portraiture and the like. A is the first string and B is the second.

is left out at the center before starting on one side. Rupp. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. over the one to its right. long. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. 1-1/2 in. Ohio. 3. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. is to be made of leather. 5. as at A in Fig. always lap one string. A loop. especially if silk strings are used. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. Monroeville. --Contributed by John P. the design of which is shown herewith. as in making the square fob. Other designs can be made in the same manner. The round fob is shown in Fig. as B. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat.

and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. such as a nut pick. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. Mich. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. it can be easily renewed. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. -Contributed by A. A. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Houghton. using the reverse side. Any smooth piece of steel. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. When the supply of wax is exhausted. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. beeswax or paraffin. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. filling them with wax. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. . Northville. pressing it against the wood. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. door facing or door panel. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled.

any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Thompson. Select the print you wish to mount. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. E and F. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. place it face down in the dish. although tin ones can be used with good success. if blueprints are used. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. apart and driven in only part way. J. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. thick. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. those on matte paper will work best. Petersburg. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. and about 12 in. Y. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. D. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. Ill. New York. The tacks should be about 1 in. but any kind that will not stick may be used. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. says Photographic Times. remaining above the surface of the board. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. Platinum or blueprint papers work well.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. it is best to leave a plain white margin. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. long. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. Fold together on lines C. and after wetting. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. --Contributed by O. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. . Enough plaster should. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. leaving about 1/4 in. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. N.

Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. filling the same about onehalf full. One of the . The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Lower into the test tube a wire. as shown at the left in the sketch. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. bell flowers. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. roses. will be rendered perfectly white. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. as shown in the right of the sketch. etc. violets. without mixing the solutions. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble.. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire.

Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. 1. 1-7/8 in. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. 3. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. L. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. made of heavy tin. A rod that will fit the brass tube. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. When soldering these parts together. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in.. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. but which will not wobble loose. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. long. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. not too tightly. Fig. --Contributed by L. The diaphragm.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. and at the larger end. is about 2-1/2 in. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. Millstown. as shown. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. 2. turned a little tapering. long and made of wood. shading. in diameter and 1 in. The first point should be ground blunt. about 1/8s in. The tin horn can be easily made. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. South Dakota. thick. Shabino. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. to keep the core from coming off in turning. should be soldered to the box. or delicate tints of the egg. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . The sound box. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed.

The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. and. E. mice in the bottom. Colo. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. wondering what it was. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Ill. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. says the Iowa Homestead.Contributed by E. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . is to take a knife with two blades at one end. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. Chicago. Victor. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Jr. put a board on top. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Gold. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom.

. Y. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. --Contributed by Lyndwode. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. Can. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. N. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. Pereira. Buffalo. Ottawa. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb.

A. --Contributed by Thos. De Loof. cut round. Richmond. Grand Rapids. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. and at one end of the stick fasten. through which several holes have been punched. This cart has no axle. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. by means of a flatheaded tack. Mich. as shown. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. above the end of the dasher.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Put a small nail 2 in. a piece of tin. Jaquythe. Cal. longer than the length of the can. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. as it can be made quickly in any size. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. --Contributed by W.

1.1. Pa. deep and 3 in. cut in the center of the rounding edge. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. wide. wide and 3 ft. Kane. board. The baseboard and top are separable. 1/4 in. 2 in. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. New Orleans. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. 1-1/2 in. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. I reversed a door gong. Notches 1/8 in. 2. La. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. thick. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. 2. apart. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. The candles. wide and as long as the box. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. of course. A wedge-shaped piece of . long. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. Fig. wide and 1/8 in. as shown. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. 2. 1 ft. were below the level of the bullseye. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. --Contributed by James M. Doylestown. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. screwed it on the inside of a store box.

Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. etc. will. take two pieces of hard wood. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. Wood. --Contributed by G. Mass. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. can be picked up without any trouble. the reason being that if both were solid. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. After completing the handle.. scissors. For the handle. the blade is put back into the groove . when placed as in Fig. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages.Book Back Holders metal. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. After the glue has dried. 3. 1. to prevent its scratching the desk top. Ia. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. West Union. When not in use. wide into each side of the casing. Cover the block with rubber. This device is very convenient for invalids. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. by cutting away the ends. Worcester. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. Needles. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. it can be removed without marring the casing. wide rubber bands or felt. the shelf could not be put on the window. stone or wood. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. as shown in Fig. dressing one surface of each piece. The block can also be used as a paperweight. A.

Ohio. as shown in Fig. 1 in. --Contributed by H. 1. Cleveland. Jacobs. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. --Contributed by Maud McKee.and sharpened to a cutting edge. long. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. -Contributed by W. S. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. If desired. Mass. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. 2. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. thus carrying the car up the incline. Malden. Pa. square and 4 in. Hutchins. A notch is cut in one side. is shown in the accompanying sketch. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. A. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Erie. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. as shown in Fig. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. .

N. will be needed. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. . Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. If one such as is shown is to be used.. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. One sheet of metal. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. Cape May Point. 6 by 9-1/2 in. a board on which to work it. Prepare a design for the front. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming.J. This will insure having all parts alike. and an awl and hammer. The letters can be put on afterward.

Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. as shown. 3/4 part. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. 2 parts white vitriol. to right angles. One coat will do. if desired. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. Remove the metal. The music will not sound natural. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. behind or through the center of a table leg. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. applied by means of a brush. says Master Painter. mandolin or guitar. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. 1 part. If any polishing is required. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards." In all appearance. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. On the back. or. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. only the marginal line is to be pierced. So impressive are the results. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. flat brush. in the waste metal. . and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. placed on a table. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. The stick may be placed by the side of. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. that can be worked in your own parlor. paste the paper design right on the metal. which is desirable. turpentine. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. a violin. varnish.Fasten the metal to the board. but weird and distant. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. 1/4 part. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine.

Two pairs of feet. without them. each 6 in. each 28 in. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. apart. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. thick by 1/2 in. long. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. long and spread about 8 in. 2. London. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. square bar iron. long and measuring 26 in. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. wide. says Work. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. it might be difficult. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. The longest piece. are shaped as shown in Fig. With proper tools this is easy. is bent square so as to form two uprights. . 3. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. and is easy to construct.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. across the top. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. round-head machine screws.

The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. using rosin as a flux. 5.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. The glass. C. is held by the brads. Place the corner piece of glass. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. and the base border. D. 4. B. The design is formed in the lead. 5. lead. 6. special flux purchased for this purpose. the latter being tapped to . The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. in the grooves of the borders. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. better still. or. 7. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. cut a long piece of lead. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. The brads are then removed. After the glass is cut. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. A. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. While the piece of lead D. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. as shown in Fig. Fig. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. Fig. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. on it as shown. After the joints are soldered. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points.

wood screws in each washer. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. Make three washers 3-in. then drill a 3/4-in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. one on each side and central with the hole. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Two styles of hand holds are shown. rocker bolt. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. as shown in Fig. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. rounded at the top as shown. long. Bore a 5/8-in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. Bore a 3/4-in. and two wood blocks. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. plates. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. bolt. then flatten its end on the under side.the base of the clip. Fasten the plates to the block B. A and B. square and of the length given in the drawing. Jr. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. and round the corners of one end for a ring. thick and drill 3/4-in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. holes through their centers. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. in diameter and about 9 in. 8. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. Camden. bolt. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. Dreier. The center pin is 3/4-in. plank about 12 ft. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. N. --Contributed by W. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. This . H. This ring can be made of 1-in. Secure a post. in diameter and 1/4 in.. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. J. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. long. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. not less than 4 in. long.

and some one can swing an axe. The four 7-in. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. 4 filler pieces. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. 4 pieces. straight-grained hickory. screws. 2 by 4 in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. from one edge. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. by 3 ft. can make a first class gymnasium. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. To substitute small. New Orleans. in diameter and 7 in. La. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. 2-1/2 in. 7 in. 16 screws. horse and rings. bolts and rope. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. long. 1 by 7 in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. long. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. long and 1 piece. the money outlay will be almost nothing. 4 in. 3 in. long. by 2 ft. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. 1-1/4in. 1/2 in. 3/4 by 3 in. square by 9-1/2 ft. long. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . by 6-1/2 ft. If trees are convenient. of 1/4-in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. long. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. hickory. 9 in. maple. 4 in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. apart for a distance of 3 ft. Draw a line on the four 7-in. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. 1. 4 pieces. shanks. boards along the side of each from end to end.will make an excellent cover for a pot. 50 ft. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. square by 5 ft. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. chestnut or ash. long. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. bit. because it will not stand the weather. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length.

Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. Bore a 9/16-in. each 3 ft. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. from the end. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. boards coincide. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. 2. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. 8 in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. piece of wood. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place.. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in.. apart. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown.bored. apart. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. at each end. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. so the 1/2-in. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. deep and remove all loose dirt. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar.

The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. the effect will be as shown in the illustration.. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. apart. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil." which skimmed along the distant horizon. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. but most deceptive at dusk. passing through a screweye at either end. and then passes in a curve across the base. it is taken to the edge of the foot. . was at its height. the effect is very striking. in an endless belt. and ascends the stem. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. not much to look at in daytime. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. not even the tumbler. And all he used was a black thread. and materially heightened the illusion. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. He stretched the thread between two buildings.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. disappearing only to reappear again. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. about 100 ft. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. If the tumbler is rotated. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. which at once gathered. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. it follows the edge for about 1 in. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. just visible against the dark evening sky. When the interest of the crowd. W.

4 bolts. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. preferably cedar. 2 by 4 in. A wire about No. 2 by 4 in. The cork will come out easily. square and 51/2 ft. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 2 side braces. 6 in. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 2 by 3 in. long. by 2 ft. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. Chisel out two notches 4 in. Fig. 4 in. To make the apparatus. long. long. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. so the point will be on top. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 2 in. 8 in. 8 in. and turned in a spiral D. 2 by 4 in. 1. long. long. large spikes. 2 cross braces. wide and 1 in. beginning at a point 9 in. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. by 10 ft. 2 base pieces. 4 knee braces. Bevel the ends of . long and 1 doz. by 7 ft. La. from either side of the center. long. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. square and 6 ft. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. deep. long. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. New Orleans. long. 8 bolts. 4 wood screws. 8 in. 7 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. by 3 ft. 4 in. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B.

and countersinking the heads. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. jellies. These will allow the ladle to be turned. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. Jaquythe. . except the bars. If using mill-cut lumber. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. leaving the strainer always in position. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. A large sized ladle. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. save the bars. so the bolts in both will not meet. which face each other. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. equipped with a strainer. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. additional long. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. The wood so treated will last for years. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. but even unpainted they are very durable.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. screws. After the trenches are dug. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. A. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose.. leave it undressed. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. using four of the 7-in bolts. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. ( To be Continued. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. etc. Two endpieces must be made. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. Richmond. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. as shown in the diagram. of 7 ft. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. --Contributed by W.the knee braces. Cal. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks.

Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. which seems impossible. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. thus holding the pail as shown. of sufficient 1ength. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. In order to accomplish this experiment. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. . Oil. A. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. milling machine. it is necessary to place a stick. or various cutting compounds of oil. partly a barrier for jumps. drill press or planer. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good.

scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. To construct. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. 4 in. 2 by 4 in. ten 1/2-in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . 4-1/2 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. bolt. Procure from a saw mill. but 5 ft. 2 by 4 in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. 4 in. 7 in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. square by 5-1/2 ft. long. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. long. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. long. piece of 2 by 4-in. bolts. long. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. apart. long. Hand holds must be provided next. 2 by 4 in. beginning 1-1/2 in. 4 in. These are well nailed in place. 1 cross brace. projections and splinters. 3 in. in the ground. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. The material required is as follows: Two posts. by 3 ft. 1 in. apart in a central position on the horse. to fasten the knee braces at the top. bolts. stud cut rounding on one edge. long. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. two 1/2-in. from each end. layout the bases as shown in the drawing.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. 2 bases. in diameter--the larger the better. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. The round part of this log must be planed. long. square by 5 ft. 2 adjusting pieces. bolts. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. These are placed 18 in.. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. and free from knots.. long. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. by 3 ft. by 3 ft. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. wood yard or from the woods. 4 knee braces. is a good length.

The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Richmond. over and around. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. no one is responsible but himself. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. etc. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. water. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way.horse top. Such a hand sled can be made in a . One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. Jaquythe. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. pipe and fittings. it is caused by an overloaded shell. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel.--Contributed by W. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. it is caused by some obstruction. snow. Cal. then bending to the shape desired. such as a dent. but nevertheless. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. A. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Also.

Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. Vener.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. . will give the length. which. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Noble. are all the tools necessary. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. then run a string over each part. The end elevation. 1. 2. --Contributed by James E. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. France. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. These. when complete. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Joerin. --Contributed by Arthur E. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Paris. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. W. when straightened out. Toronto. Ontario. in width and 1/32 in. at E and F. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. thick. is much better than a wood sled. Mass. 1/4 or 3/16 in. Boston. --Contributed by J.

3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The method shown in Figs. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. AA and BB. nor that which is partly oxidized. 3. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. are nailed. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. It is best to use soft water. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. 4. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. .

or unequal widths as in Fig. class ice-yacht. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. 1). or various rulings may be made. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. as shown in Fig. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. Percy Ashley in Rudder. 4. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. Broad lines can be made. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 2. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. 8 and 9.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. . The materials used are: backbone. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 3. 2. as shown in Fig. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. out from the collar. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. pipe. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. Both the lower . The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The headstock is made of two tees. pins to keep them from turning. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. A good and substantial homemade lathe. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The point should extend about 11/2 in. but if it is made much longer. a larger size of pipe should be used. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. long. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in.Fig. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. about 30 in. a tee and a forging. bent and drilled as shown. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. 1. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. It can be made longer or shorter.

Fruitvale. It is about 1 in. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. Man. but also their insulating properties. a straight line should be scratched Fig. 2. as shown in Fig. Boissevain. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. UpDeGraff. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. a corresponding line made on this. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. or a key can be used as well. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. thick as desired. Held. else taper turning will result. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. Cal. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Indiana. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. 3/4 or 1 in. To do this. W. --Contributed by W. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. M. 1. --Contributed by W. . --Contributed by M. 2. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. Laporte. as shown in Fig. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. and will answer for a great variety of work. Musgrove. 2.

Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. In use. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. Ft. as shown. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. J. --Contributed by E. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. long. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. The handle is of pine about 18 in. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . Cline. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Ark. Smith. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. To obviate this. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill.

La. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. This prevents the drill from wobbling. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. White. the drill does not need the tool. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. After being entered. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. face off the end of the piece. New Orleans. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. take . and when once in true up to its size. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. centering is just one operation too many.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Colo. --Contributed by Walter W. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. Denver. which should be backed out of contact. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. on starting the lathe. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. if this method is followed: First.

The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. and can be varied to suit the performer. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. vanishing wand. a bout 1/2 in. shown at C. After the wand is removed. and this given to someone to hold. as shown in D.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. after being shown empty. is put into the paper tube A. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. a long piece of glass tubing. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. In doing this. It can be used in a great number of tricks. says the Sphinx. unknown to the spectators. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. by applying caustic soda or . and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. the cap is placed over the paper tube. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. shorter t h a n the wand. The handkerchief rod. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. The glass tube B. all the better.

All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt.potash around the edges of the letters. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. with the back side rounding. With care and patience. and glue it to the neck at F. 1. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. 1 Neck. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material. thick. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. preferably hard maple. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. across the front and back to strengthen them. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. as shown by K. 2 Sides. Glue the neck to the box. 1/4 in. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. 1 Bottom. 1 End. long. can be made by the home mechanic. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. 3/16. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. square and 1-7/8 in. by 14 by 17 in. The sides. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. cut to any shape desired. Glue strips of soft wood. As the cement softens. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. End. Cut a piece of hard wood. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. The brace at D is 1 in. This dimension and those for the frets . and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine.

A board 1 in. Stoddard. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol.should be made accurately. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. Six holes. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. Carbondale. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig.Pa. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. in diameter. O. but it is not. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. or backbone. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. thick and about 1 ft. 1) on which to stretch the paper. toward each end. wide and 11-1/2 ft. and beveled . HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. 3/16 in. Norwalk. Frary. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. long is used for a keel. When it is completed you will have a canoe. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. -Contributed by J. --Contributed by Chas. E. H.

such as hazel or birch. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. in thickness and should be cut. a. procure at a carriage factory. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. The cross-boards (B. 1. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. some tight strips of ash. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. wide by 26 in. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. Green wood is preferable. The ribs. These are better. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. C.) in notches. 2). with long stout screws. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. in such cases. C. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. the loose strips of ash (b. 4. Fig. 2). and the smaller ends to the gunwales. and. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. Shape these as shown by A. 1 and 2. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. are next put in. and are not fastened. b. 3). Fig. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. will answer nearly as well. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. as shown in Fig. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. long. and so. Fig. or other place. 13 in. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. thick. For the gunwales (a. by means of a string or wire. when made of green elm. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. 3. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. Osiers probably make the best ribs. such as is used for making chairbottoms. Fig. b. 3. slender switches of osier willow. but twigs of some other trees. and notched at the end to receive them (B. . In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. two twigs may be used to make one rib. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. long are required.. as shown in Fig. twigs 5 or 6 ft. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. Fig. probably. B. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. Fig. as they are apt to do.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. b. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. 2. 4). Fig. but before doing this. buy some split cane or rattan. Any tough. 3). two strips of wood (b. or similar material. 3/8 in. thick. which are easily made of long. In drying. Fig. apart. as before described. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. Fig.

Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. wide. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. You may put in . It should be drawn tight along the edges. however. The paper is then trimmed. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. and held in place by means of small clamps. If the paper be 1 yd. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. preferably iron. but with less turpentine. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. and steady in the water. When the paper is dry. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. and light oars. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. and very tough. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. Then take some of the split rattan and. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. if it has been properly constructed of good material. apply a second coat of the same varnish. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. tacking it to the bottom-board. When thoroughly dry. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. B. after wetting it. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. of very strong wrapping-paper. Fig. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. Being made in long rolls. It should be smooth on the surface. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. and as soon as that has soaked in. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. If not. but neither stiff nor very thick. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. 5).

Fig. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. Fig. fore and aft. and if driven as shown in the cut. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. to fit it easily. 2. 5). The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. Drive the lower nail first. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. they will support very heavy weights. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. 5. and make a movable seat (A. 1. 1 and the end in . A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. We procured a box and made a frame. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. Fig. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box.

A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. This is an easy . This way has its drawbacks. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. 5. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. Close the other end with the same operation. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. 4. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. and the glass. and melt it down and close the end at the same time.Fig. Pittsburg. A good way to handle this work. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. Pa. this makes the tube airtight. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. and the result is. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. 3. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. being softer where the flame has been applied. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in.

chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. with a piece of carbon paper. four. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. very rapid progress can be made. above the metal. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. third. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. then reverse. fifth. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. metal shears. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. After the bulb is formed. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. rivet punch. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. fourth. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. also trace the decorative design. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. -Contributed by A. thin screw. above the work and striking it with the hammer. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. three. Oswald. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. Sixth. flat and round-nosed pliers. The candle holders may have two. Seventh. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. or six arms.way to make a thermometer tube. 23 gauge. extra metal all around. second. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. Give the metal a circular motion. file. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes.

Metal polish of any kind will do. and holder. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. Small copper rivets are used.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. drip cup. Having pierced the bracket. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing.

I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. glycerine 4 parts. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Fifty. and water 24 parts. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. using a steel pen. N. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. smooth it down and then remove as before. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. J. The gaff. and in a week . the stick at the bottom of the sail. Mother let me have a sheet. is a broomstick. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. sugar 1 part. deep. I steer with the front wheel. Shiloh. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. and other things as they were needed. thus it was utilized. Heat 6-1/2 oz. except they had wheels instead of runners. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. F. when it will be ready for use. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. and add the gelatine. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. A saw. Soak 1 oz. winding the ends where they came together with wire. hammer. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. alcohol 2 parts. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. all the rest I found. if it has not absorbed too much ink. and it will be ready for future use. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. The boom. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. of glycerine to about 200 deg. on a water bath. and brace and bit were the tools used. Twenty cents was all I spent. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents.

A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.

or a lens of 12-in. The board is centered both ways. A table. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. wide and 15 in. at a distance of 24 ft. If a small saw is used. wide. well seasoned pine. thick. slide to about 6 ft. H. focus enlarging a 3-in. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. long. and. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. 1/2 to 3/4 in. 3. The slide support. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. E. A and B. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. G. and 14 in. as desired. high. and a projecting lens 2 in. and the lens slide. provided the material is of metal. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. or glue. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. This ring is made up from two rings. but if such a box is not found. describe a 9-in. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. at a point 1 in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. and the work carefully done. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in.. are . The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. above the center. 8 in. DD. Fig. 1. about 2 ft. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. wire brads. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping.

A sheet . -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. but not long enough. To reach the water. light burning oil. Small strips of tin. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E.constructed to slip easily on the table. and when the right position is found for each. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. Minn. should the glass happen to upset. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. E. JJ. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen.-Contributed by G. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. the strips II serving as guides. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. the water at once extinguishes the flame. St. P. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. of safe. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. Paul. apply two coats of shellac varnish. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. The arrangement is quite safe as. placed on the water. B.

The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . from a tent company. 1. 2.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. by 12 ft. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. Fig. 3. I ordered a canvas bag. form a piece of wire in the same shape.. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart.H. --Contributed by J. Y. 3. Fig. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. 3 in. Schenectady. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. If one of these clips is not at hand. 9 in. 12 ft. N. Crawford. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. to cover the mattresses. 4. then the corners on one end are doubled over.

long and 3/16 in. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. long. Fold two strips of light cardboard. first mark the binding-post A. in the center coil. so as to form two oblong boxes. Fig.each edge. V. insulating them from the case with cardboard. C. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. A rubber band. drill two 3/16 in. to keep it from unwinding. Fig. Denver. A Film Washing Trough [331] . through which the indicator works. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. --Contributed by Edward M. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. Warren. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. Fasten the wire with gummed label. Colo. To calibrate the instrument. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. An arc is cut in the paper. open on the edges. as shown in Fig. to the coil of small wire for volts. Teasdale. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. and insert two binding-posts. wide. Do not use too strong a rubber. 3 to swing freely on the tack. White. for amperes and the other post. thick. holes in the edge. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. 1/2 in. 1. 3/4 in. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. 2. 1. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. D. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. Attach a piece of steel rod. 2. Pa. 2. 3/4 in. --Contributed by Walter W. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. apart. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. 1/2 in.

apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. O. with the large hole up. Wood Burning [331] . board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. M. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Hunting. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Cut a 1/4-in. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. as shown. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Place this can on one end of the trough. Dayton. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. --Contributed by M.

The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. mouth downward. then into this bottle place. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water.

Auburn. Place the small bottle in as before. 3/4 in. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. N. 2. Upper Troy. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. Whitehouse. many puzzling effects may be obtained. provided the bottle is wide. --Contributed by Fred W. 1. thick. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. If the small bottle used is opaque.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. Ala.Y. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . wide and 4 in. long. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. If the cork is adjusted properly. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. This will make a very pretty ornament. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. as shown in the sketch. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. but not very thick. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. --Contributed by John Shahan. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split.

The 21/2-in. was keyed to shaft C. which was 6 in. or ordinary telephone transmitters. such as blades and pulleys.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. 1 in. was 1/4in. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. W. --Contributed by D. Fig. Fig. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. The shaft C. Fig. thick. wide. Both bearings were made in this manner. Milter. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. A staple. If a transmitter is used. Fig. pulley. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. by the method shown in Fig. 1. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. thick. in diameter and 1 in. were constructed of 1-in. even in a light breeze. 1. thick and 3 in. 2 ft. The bearing blocks were 3 in. Fig. K. which extended to the ground. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. 1. Its smaller parts. sugar pine on account of its softness. as shown in Fig. 1. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. I. 2. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. iron rod. B. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. to the shaft. 4. long. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. line. which gave considerable power for its size. 1. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. which was nailed to the face plate. On a 1000-ft. The wire L was put . four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. pulley F. G. 3. high without the upper half.

How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. 6. Fig.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. Two washers were placed on shaft C. 1. 1. as. with all parts in place. Fig. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. was 2 ft. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. strips. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. long and bend it as shown at A. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. The smaller one. Fig. The other lid. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. The power was put to various uses. 25 ft. for instance. 0. There a 1/4-in. If you have no bell. G. through the latter. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. R. top down also. apart in the tower. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. hole for the shaft G was in the center. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. a 1/2-in. when the windmill needed oiling. Fig. 2. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. cut out another piece of tin (X. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. 1. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. pine 18 by 12 in. square to the board P at the top of the tower. wide and 1 in. 6. washers were placed under pulley F. To make the key. This fan was made of 1/4-in. across the thin edge of a board. long. Fig. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. with brass headed furniture tacks. so that the 1/4-in. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. long and 1/2 in. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. 3 in. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. 5. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. Fig. To lessen the friction here. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. in diameter. in the center of the board P. long. H. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. 1) 4 in. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. Fig. was tacked. The bed plate D. 1. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. This completes the receiver or sounder. This board was 12 in. hole was bored for it. long and 3 in. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. long and bend it as . and was cut the shape shown. providing one has a few old materials on hand.

When tired of this instrument. 1. McConnell. -Contributed by John R. Going back to Fig. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. at the front. The rear barrels are. using cleats to hold the board frame. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. leaving the other wire as it is. as indicated. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. after the manner of bicycle wheels. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. Thus a center drive is made. Now. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. and. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. causing a buzzing sound. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. although it can be made with but two. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. By adjusting the coils. 2. like many another device boys make.shown. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. as shown at Water. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. fitted with paddles as at M. Before tacking it to the board.

The speed is slow at first. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. 3. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. If the journals thus made are well oiled. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. 1. copper piping and brass tubing for base. which will give any amount of pleasure. can be built. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. To propel it. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. as shown in Fig.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. feet on the pedals. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. There is no danger. or even a little houseboat. there will not be much friction. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street.

When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Shape small blocks of boxwood. 2. Turn a small circle of wood. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. D. C. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water.of pleasure for a little work. 1. 1. Fig. B. Fig. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Place one brass ring in cylinder. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. 2. Then melt out the rosin or lead. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. then the glass disc and then the other ring. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. If magnifying glass cannot be had. or it may be put to other uses if desired. If it is desired to make the light very complete. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. 2. and so creating a false circuit. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. 1. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. A. Fig. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. Fig. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through.

wire from batteries to switch. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. by having the switch on the baseboard. if too small. key of alarm clock. Swissvale. near the bed. F. wire from light to switch. Pa. To operate this. or 1/4in. B. Throw lever off from the right to center. wide and 1/16 in. When alarm goes off. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . after setting alarm. In placing clock on shelf. C. Chatland. --Contributed by C. C. --Contributed by Geo. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. such as is used for cycle valves. brass strip. Ogden. after two turns have been made on the key. To get the cylinder into its carriage. some glue will secure them. bracket. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. S. I. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. contact post. D. 3/8 in. bell. brass rod. E. while lying in bed. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot.india rubber tubing. Utah. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . T. dry batteries. which stops bell ringing. switch. wire from bell to switch. shelf. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. Brinkerhoff. G. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. The parts indicated are as follows: A. 4-1/2 in.. long. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. X. 4 in. H. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. copper tubing. 5-1/4 by 10 in. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. long. set alarm key as shown in diagram. To throw on light throw levers to the left. thick. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. J. and pulled tight.

and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. 2. Fig. a bed warmer. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. Fig. beyond the end of the spindle. Make the spindle as in Fig. for instance. which can be made of an old can. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. wide. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. 4 in. will do the heating. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. as at A. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. Pull out the nail and stick. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. Chapman. 1/4 in. as . Minn. Make a shoulder. letting it extend 3/4 in. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. making it as true and smooth as possible. 2. in diameter. 3. in diameter. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. --Contributed by Chas. A small lamp of about 5 cp. from one end. 1. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. Having finished this. Lanesboro. Fig. S. long. about 3-1/2 in. being careful not to get the sand in it.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. place stick and all in a pail of sand. This is to form the fuse hole. about 6 in. All that is required is a tin covering. as at B. as in Fig. as at A. 1. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. A flannel bag. gives the heater a more finished appearance.

The illustration shows how this is done. long. 1 in. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. wide and 6 ft. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. A piece of tin. or hickory. long. long. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. Joerin. thick. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . thick. 5/8 in. good straight-grained pine will do. but if this wood cannot be procured. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. this is to keep the edges from splitting. 6 in. The material must be 1-1/2 in. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. spring and arrows. 11/2 in. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. wide and 3/8 in. will be sufficient to make the trigger. wide and 3 ft. 1. --Contributed by Arthur E. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. A piece of oak. ash. thick. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. deep. 3/8 in. The bow is made from straight-grained oak.

A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. --Contributed by O. 2. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. 6. Trownes. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. or through the necessity of. A spring. as shown in Fig. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. 8. To shoot the crossbow. 7. Ill. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. as shown in Fig. which is 1/4 in. Wilmette. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. 3. place the arrow in the groove. having the latter swing quite freely. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. To throw the arrow. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. 4. from the opposite end. Fig. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. and one for the trigger 12 in. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. Such a temporary safe light may be . The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. When the trigger is pulled. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. from the end of the stock. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. The stick for the bow. it lifts the spring up. in diameter. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. The bow is not fastened in the stock. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. E. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. Fig. The trigger. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. 9. wide at each end. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. thick. better still. Fig.

for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. The hinged cover E. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. Remove the bottom of the box. and nail it in position as shown at A. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. C. make the frame of the wigwam. the bark lean-to is a . The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. Remove one end. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. from the ground. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. respectively. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. This lamp is safe. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. from the ground. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. or only as a camp on a short excursion. since the flame of the candle is above A. says Photo Era. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. Moreover. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. apart. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. making lighting and trimming convenient. is used as a door. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. it is the easiest camp to make. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. By chopping the trunk almost through. The cut should be about 5 ft. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. and replace as shown at B. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built.

quickly constructed and serviceable camp. Sheets of bark. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. nails are necessary to hold it in place. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. In the early summer. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. are a convenient size for camp construction. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. and cedar. 3 ft. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. For a permanent camp. selecting a site for a camp. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. piled 2 or 3 ft. makes a good pair of tongs. and split the tops with an ax. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. wide and 6 ft. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. long and 2 or 3 ft. . running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. make the best kind of a camp bed. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. Tongs are very useful in camp. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. will dry flat. For a foot in the middle of the stick. Where bark is used. deep and covered with blankets. a 2-in. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. spruce. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. and when the camp is pitched. A piece of elm or hickory. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. thick. 6 ft. wide. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. long. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. long and 1-1/2 in. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together.

and affording accommodation for several persons. hinges. . or even a rough lock for the camp larder. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried.

B. wide.. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. about 4 in. Fig. 1. Kane. Pa. changing the water both morning and night. I drove a small cork. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. --Contributed by James M. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. to another .Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. deep and 4 in. Doylestown. the interior can. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. and provide a cover or door. B. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. A. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place.

The current is thus compelled. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. if necessary. The diagram. for instance. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. 2. 3. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. such as ether. Fig. E. which project inside and outside of the tube. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. to pass through an increasing resistance.glass tube. C. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. limit. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. 2. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. a liquid. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. fused into one side. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. for instance. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. 4 and 5). This makes . and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. until. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5.

These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. thick. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. when several pieces are placed together. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. mark off a space. screws. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. assemble and rivet them solidly. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. 3-3/8 in. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. in diameter. two holes. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. between centers. tap. is composed of wrought sheet iron. brass or iron. The bearing studs are now made. hole is . clamp the template. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. but merely discolored. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. After the template is marked out. If the thickness is sufficient. thick. 1. as shown in Fig. making it 1/16 in. A. After cleaning them with the solution. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. Michigan. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. to allow for finishing. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. When the frame is finished so far. Fig. which may be of any thickness so that. A 5/8in. which will make it uniform in size. 3-3/8 in. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. they will make a frame 3/4 in. as shown in the left-hand sketch. set at 1/8 in. Fig. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. Then the field can be finished to these marks. by turning the lathe with the hand. cannot be used so often. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. larger than the dimensions given. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. drill the four rivet holes. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. in diameter. and for the outside of the frame. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. These holes are for the bearing studs. Alpena. bent at right angles as shown. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. or pattern. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. Before removing the field from the lathe. 3. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. or even 1/16 in. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. 4-1/2 in. on a lathe. 2. thicker. brass. therefore.

or otherwise finished. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. soldered into place. The shaft of the armature. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. is turned up from machine steel. When the bearings are located. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. brass rod is inserted. solder them to the supports. Fig. into which a piece of 5/8-in. file them out to make the proper adjustment. and build up the solder well. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . 4.

in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. to allow for finishing to size. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. Make the core 3/4 in. by 1-1/2 in. brass rod. After the pieces are cut out. being formed for the ends. 7. inside diameter. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. thick and 1/4 in. Find the centers of each segment at one end. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. as shown in Fig. The sides are also faced off and finished.. 5. 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. 3. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. washers. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. deep and 7/16 in. 1-1/8 in. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. Procure 12 strips of mica. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. then drill a 1/8-in. 3/4 in. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. as shown in Fig. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. and then they are soaked in warm water. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. 1/8 in. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. and held with a setscrew. 6. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. or segments. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. 3. thick. When this is accomplished. Rivet them together. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. thick. sheet fiber. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. as shown in Fig. When annealed. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. 6. 9. as shown in Fig. After they . thick. wide. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. threaded. 8. thick are cut like the pattern. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. hole and tap it for a pin. holes through them for rivets. The pins are made of brass. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. as shown m Fig. wide. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. Armature-Ring Core.

which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. until the 12 slots are filled. about 100 ft. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. of No. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. being required. and wind on four layers. 6 in. 1. After one coil. The two ends are joined at B. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. wide and 1 in. This winding is for a series motor.have dried. thick. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. Fig. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. In starting to wind. of the end to protrude. The source of current is connected to the terminals. the two ends of the wire. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. sheet fiber. shown at A. by bending the end around one of the projections. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. The field is wound with No. 1. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. and bring the end of the wire out at B. which will take 50 ft. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. after the motor is on the stand. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. shown at B. yet it shows a series of . When the glue is set. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. Run one end of the field wire. 8 in. 5. of the wire. or side. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. sheet fiber. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. Fig. The winding is started at A. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. All connections should be securely soldered. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. are soldered together. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. they are glued to the core insulation. To connect the wires. long. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust.

iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. or. Nine wires run from the timer. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. as in the case of a spiral. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. still more simply. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. is fastened to the metallic body. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. which serves as the ground wire. A 1/2-in. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. and one. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. one from each of the eight contacts. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle.

apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. 45 deg. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. long. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. Without this attachment. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. board. Covering these is a thin. thus giving 16 different directions. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. of the dial. circle. It should be . wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top.The Wind Vane. 6 in. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button.

The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. Buffalo. long to give the best results. To work these outlines. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. . The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. Y. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. and securely nail on the top of the box. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. called a chip carving knife. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. Cut 3-in. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. though a special knife. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. high.about 6 ft. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. making it heavy or light. Before tacking the fourth side. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. if not too high. To make it. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. or. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. Place the leather on some level. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. also a piece of new carpet. Fill the box with any handy ballast. will be sufficient. Blackmer. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. and about 6 in. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. thus making a universal joint. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. will answer the purpose just as well. N. however. will be enough for the two sides. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. -Contributed by James L. is most satisfactory. according to who is going to use it." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. 14 by 18 in.

A good leather paste will be required. An ordinary sewing-machine . Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Paste the silk plush to the inner side.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining.

B. or a hip that has been wrenched. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. a needle and some feathers. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. and tie them together securely at the bottom. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. can be thrown away when no longer needed. of common salt and 10 lb. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. as in cases of a sprained ankle. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. rather than the smooth side. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Syracuse. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. N. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. and fasten the feathers inside of it. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. of water. away from it. Y. and put the solution in thin glass bottles.will do if a good stout needle is used. temporary lameness. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Morse. square and tying a piece of . The bottles should hold about 1 qt. If a fire breaks out. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. --Contributed by Katharine D. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show.

made up of four layers of No. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. and tacked it to the boards. A. The end is filed to an edge.string to each corner. board all around the bottom on the inside. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. Y. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. The strings should be about 15 in. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. Ashland. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. wound on the head end. N. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. deep. Wis. as shown. . allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. This not only keeps the rats out. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. and a coil of wire. A small wooden or fiber end. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. etc. laying poisoned meat and meal. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. which is the essential part of the instrument. long. is cut on the wood. F. commonly called tintype tin. There is a 1-in. The diaphragm C. One end is removed entirely. E. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. wide and 1/16 in. The body of the receiver. --Contributed by J. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. but not sharp. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. and the receiver is ready for use. Hellwig. thus helping the rats to enter. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast.. Albany.J. 1/8 in. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. --Contributed by John A. long. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. letting it go at arm's length. Paterson. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. B. setting traps. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. Gordon Dempsey. The coil is 1 in. high. cut to the length of the spool. the corners being wired. G. N.

How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. The vase is to have three supports. better still. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. gold. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. a piece of small wire. to . This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. and bend each strip in shape. wide. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. begin with the smallest scrolls. To clean small articles. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. A single line will be sufficient. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. Take a piece of string or. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required.

After taking off the pattern. from the lines EF on the piece. Fold the leather on the line EF. 6-3/8 in. thus raising it.. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool.which the supports are fastened with rivets. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water.. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. wide when stitching up the purse. through which to slip the fly AGH. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. Work down the outside line of the design. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. sharp pencil. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. as shown in the sketch. from C to D. . using a duller point of the tool.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Press or model down the leather all around the design. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. and does not require coloring. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. 4-1/4 in. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Trace also the line around the purse. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. 3-1/2 in. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. About 1 in. from E to F. 3-1/4 in.

long. and tack the other piece slightly. square. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. with the largest side down. with a compass saw. with the open side down. 1 was cut. Cut off six pieces 12 in.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. around the wheel. as well as useful.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. by 12 ft. and a model for speed and power. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. 3. and which will be very interesting. deep. and cut out a wheel. thick. 1/2 in. and. 2. following the dotted lines. Then nail the wheel down firmly. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. Fit this to the two . 1. This also should be slightly beveled. First. then place the square piece out of which Fig. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. and the projections B. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. When it is finished. and cut it out as shown in Fig. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. all the way around. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. Make the lug 1/4 in. Now take another piece of wood. It can be made without the use of a lathe. It is neat and efficient. the "open" side. b. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. then nail it. with pins or small nails. being cast in wooden molds. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. deep. as shown in Fig. leaving the lug a. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn.

hole bored through its center.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. Now take another of the 12-in. and lay it away to dry. and cut it out as shown in Fig. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. one of which should have a 3/8-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. and bore six 1/4-in. bolts. 4. and boring a 3/8-in. then bolt it together. hole entirely through at the same place. as shown by the black dots in Fig. slightly beveled. Now put mold No. holes through it. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. Take the mold apart. in the center of it. and clean all the shavings out of it. After it is finished.pieces just finished. square pieces of wood. deep. hole 1/4 in. square pieces of wood. as shown by the . place it between two of the 12-in. 1.

6. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. and the exhaust hole in projection b. Now take mold No. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. and 3/8-in.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. fasten a 3/8-in. Pour metal into mold No. and two 1/4-in. and pour babbitt metal into it. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. This is for a shaft. Now cut out one of the 12-in.1. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. Let it stand for half an hour. so that it will turn easily. b. the other right-handed. place it under the drill. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. Then bolt the castings together. This is the same as Fig. 6. Using the Brace . lay it on a level place. instead of the right-handed piece.black dots in Fig. 1.2. and bore three 1/4-in. and connect to the boiler. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. one in the lug. and pouring metal in to fill it up. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. where the casting did not fill out. This will cast a paddle-wheel. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. 5. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. and lay it away to dry.2. long. until it is full. B. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. A piece of mild steel 5 in. in diameter must now be obtained. Fig. and the other in the base.1. true it up with a square. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. After it is fitted in. screw down. place the entire machine in a vise. 4. holes. d. only the one is left-handed. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. holes at d. one in the projections. over the defective part. as shown by the black dots in Fig. long. Commencing 1-1/2 in. and drill them in the same manner. as shown in illustration. and drill it entirely through. see that the bolts are all tight. wide and 16 in. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. and run in babbitt metal again. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. take an ordinary brace. from the one end. drill in it. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. This is mold No. Put this together in mold No. put the top of the brace through this hole. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing.

piece and at right angles to it. will do good service. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. while it is running at full speed. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. and. and the pleasure many times repays the effort.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. one 6 ft. and the other 8 ft. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. with a boss and a set screw.. turn the wheel to the shape desired. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Then take a knife or a chisel. At each end of the 6ft. long. Plan of Ice Boat . bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in.

at the butt and 1 in. distant. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. 2 by 3 in. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. Make your runners as long as possible. long. leaving 1 ft. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. long. in the top before the skate is put on. in front of the rudder block. boards to make the platform. The tiller. and about 8 in. so much the better will be your boat. To the under side of the 8-ft. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. plank nail 8-in. at the top. in diameter. 3. 1. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. piece and at right angles to it. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. bolt the 8-ft. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . where they often did considerable damage. The spar should be 9 ft. Fig. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. projecting as in Fig. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. which may come in handy in heavy winds. tapering to 1-1/2 in. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. as the runners were fastened. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. 1. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. Fig. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. at the end. should be of hardwood. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. Over the middle of the 6-ft. in diameter at the base. plank. Run the seam on a machine. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. long and 2-1/2 in. in diameter in the center. This fits in the square hole. 8 a reef point knot. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in.

Mechanicsburg. allowing the springs to contact at C. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. Ariz. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. S S. so that they come in contact at C. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. --Contributed by J. Pa. P. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. P. --Contributed by John D. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. and place it behind a stove. block of wood nailed to A. R. and the alarm bell will ring. wide. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. The . bent into a hook at each end. to block B. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. small piece of wood. Phoenix. B. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. Its parts are as follows: A. Adams. The arrangement proved quite too effective. Comstock.

Then get a 10-cent frying pan. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. 6 in. Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flanges or washers having a slight concave to their face. and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. The center pole should be 10 ft. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the