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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

long will make six boomerangs. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. 2. It is held in this curve until dry. grasp it and hold the same as a club. Ontario. E. Toronto. --Contributed by J. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. 1. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. A piece of plank 12 in. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. as shown in Fig. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. wide and 2 ft. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. Fig. distant. Noble. 2 -. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. 1. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides .Fig. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. with the hollow side away from you. 2. 1. until it is bound as shown in Fig. The pieces are then dressed round. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. apart. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. away. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. as shown in Fig. To throw a boomerang.

the block will drop out. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. minus the top. and it may be necessary to use a little water. thick. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. A wall. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. and with a movable bottom. or rather no bottom at all. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. made of 6-in. however. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. 6 in. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. First. A very light. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. high and 4 or 5 in. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. long. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. forcing it down closely. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. If the snow is of the right consistency. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. it is not essential to the support of the walls. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. which makes the building simpler and easier. blocks . Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. dry snow will not pack easily. but about 12 in. one inside of the circle and the other outside. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed.

Fig. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. --Contributed by Geo. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. which is about 1 ft.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. or an old safe dial will do. 1. wide. above the ground. long and 1 in. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. D. a. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. Fig. 1. 2. Fig. 3. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. It also keeps them out. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. 3 -. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. 2. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. A nail. Goodbrod. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. and the young architect can imitate them. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. Ore. is 6 or 8 in. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. The piece of wood. There is no outward thrust. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . which can be made of wood. Union. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. C.

one pair of special hinges. S. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. the box locked . Syracuse. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. If ordinary butts are used. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. Merrill. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. says the Sphinx. as the weight always draws them back to place. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes.When taking hot dishes from the stove. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. New York. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. --Contributed by R. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge.

The four pieces should be worked at the same time. draw one-half of it. smooth surface. Ga. It remains to bend the flaps. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. Augusta. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. 3. proceed as follows: First. All . Place the piece in a vise. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. When the sieve is shaken.and the performer steps out in view. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. on drawing paper. If the measuring has been done properly. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. Fig. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. 1. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. -Contributed by L. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. allowing each coat time to dry. one for each corner. If they do not. about 1-32 of an inch. as shown. To make a design similar to the one shown. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. 2. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. as shown in Fig. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. as shown in Fig. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Alberta Norrell. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. With the metal shears.

can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. If a touch of color is desired. In boring through rubber corks. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. causing it to expand. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. about 6 in. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. if rolled under the shoe sole. H. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. should be in the line. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. of No. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . C. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. from the back end. used for insulation. which is about 6 in. heats the strip of German-silver wire. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. 25 German-silver wire. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. The common cork. 25 gauge German-silver wire. R. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. A piece of porcelain tube. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. Galbreath. To keep the metal from tarnishing. After this has dried. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. and in the positions shown in the sketch. A resistance. When the current is turned off. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. long. smooth it off with pumice stone and water.the edges should be left smooth. --Contributed by R. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. in diameter. Colo. is fitted tightly in the third hole. as shown at AA. Denver. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. in passing through the lamp. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. The current. B.

--Contributed by David Brown.bottom ring. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. 3. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Mo. Fig. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. . as shown in Fig. 2. 1. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. between them as shown in Fig. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. Kansas City. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. with thin strips of wood. leaving a space of 4 in. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Purchase two long book straps.

and tack smoothly. Fig. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. 1.An ordinary electric bell. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. 36 in. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. These are shown in Fig. as . are mounted on the outside of the box. The folds are made over the string. 3. --Contributed by Katharine D. Fig. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. When the aeroplane tips. Kane. Fig. 1.. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. --Contributed by James M. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. Y. 1. 2. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. having a gong 2-1/2 in. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. Two strips of brass.. Doylestown. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. just the right weight for a woman to use. in diameter. which is the right weight for family use. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. and one weighing 25 lb. 4. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. to form a handle. and a pocket battery. one weighing 15 lb. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. Syracuse. N. long. A. Morse. C. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. The string is then tied. Pa.

2. in diameter. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. --Contributed by Louis J. Frame Made of a Rod . bookracks and shelves can be made with one. such as brackets. Floral Park. long. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. bent as shown in Fig. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. machine screws. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. and many fancy knick-knacks. Y. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. 3/32 or 1/4 in. 1. two 1/8 -in. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. Day. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. AA. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. N. if once used.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. four washers and four square nuts. The saw. 2.

Apply two coats. A. after breaking up. of water in which dissolve. 1 part nitric acid.may be made of either brass. though almost any color may be obtained. use them in place of the outside nuts. of water. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. using a swab and an old stiff brush. Scranton. it has the correct strength. copper. as well as the depth of etching desired. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. If it colors the metal red. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. the most expensive.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. An Austrian Top [12] . therefore. green and browns are the most popular. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. 1 part sulphuric acid. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Michigan. Silver is the most desirable but. Watch Fob For coloring silver. be covered the same as the back. The buckle is to be purchased. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. File these edges. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water.. if copper or brass. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. allowing each time to dry. as well as brass and copper. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. --Contributed by W. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. Detroit. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. In the design shown. Of the leathers. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. Drying will cause this to change to purple. For etching. of course. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. or silver. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. treat it with color. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. Rub off the highlights. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid.

long. pass one end through the 1/16-in. Ypsilanti. Bore a 3/4-in. The handle is a piece of pine. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. A handle. 1-1/4 in. long. allowing only 1-1/4 in.F. set the top in the 3/4 -in. wide and 3/4 in. --Contributed by J.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. . of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. 5-1/4 in. thick. Tholl. Parts of the Top To spin the top. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. When the shank is covered. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. hole. is formed on one end. 3/4 in. A 1/16-in. Michigan. in diameter. starting at the bottom and winding upward. hole in this end for the top. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way.

some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. having no sides. Northville.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. Mich. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. --A. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. --Contributed by Miss L. Alberta Norrell. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. tarts or similar pastry. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Houghton. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Augusta. Ga. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. . This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. A. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. The baking surface. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. For black leathers. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven.

Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. glass fruit jar. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. When you desire to work by white light. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Mo. then solder cover and socket together. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . --Contributed by Irl Hicks. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. two turns will remove the jar. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. Centralia. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. says Studio Light. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. the same as shown in the illustration. Stringing Wires [13] A. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe.

16 Horizontal bars. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. so it can be folded up. square by 12 in. and not tip over. 1-1/4 in. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. . The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. square by 62 in. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. --Contributed by Herman Fosel.for loading and development. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. Wis. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. as shown in the cross-section sketch. They are fastened. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. 4 Vertical pieces. 4 Braces. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. Janesville. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. 1-1/4 in.

--Contributed by Dr. C. If the loop is tied at the proper place. New York. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. After rounding the ends of the studs. Cincinnati. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. O. H.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. after filling the pail with water. The front can be covered . -Contributed by Charles Stem. Rosenthal. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The whole. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. and a loop made in the end. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. from scrap material. Phillipsburg. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand.

entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. --Contributed by Gilbert A. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. 1 FIG. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. Md. the mouth of which rests against a. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. if you try to tone them afterward. By using the following method. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. sickly one. The . principally mayonnaise dressing. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. you are. by all rules of the game. If the gate is raised slightly. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. either for contact printing or enlargements. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. thoroughly fix. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. Baltimore. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. Develop them into strong prints. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. and. The results will be poor. Wehr. the color will be an undesirable. FIG. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. In my own practice. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly.

Cal. but..... When the desired reduction has taken place. long to admit the angle support. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. in size....... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished....... Water .. Iodide of potassium . An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. Gray... It will bleach slowly and evenly. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. 16 oz. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.." Cyanide of potassium .. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.... when it starts to bleach....... preferably the colored kind... in this solution... The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. three times.. etc.. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. San Francisco.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder... --Contributed by T..... 5 by 15 in... 2. where it will continue to bleach. 20 gr. The blotting paper can . to make it 5 by 5 in... A good final washing completes the process.. Place the dry print... 2 oz.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.... wide and 4 in.. 1 and again as in Fig.. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. L. as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. without previous wetting... transfer it to a tray of water..... With a little practice. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.

--Contributed by J. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Wisconsin. Canada. the head of which is 2 in. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. 3. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Make a design similar to that shown. wide below the . How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. wide. 20 gauge. the shaft 1 in. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. --Contributed by L. and a length of 5 in.J. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Corners complete are shown in Fig.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Oshkosh. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Monahan.

Allow this to dry. 3. 1 Fig. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. 4. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. but use a swab on a stick. With the metal shears. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. Apply with a small brush. The metal must be held firmly. as shown in Fig. With files. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. 1. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. Pierce a hole with a small drill. deep. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. then put on a second coat. 1 part nitric acid. Fig. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in.FIG. After this has dried. using carbon paper. which gives the outline of the design Fig. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. 1 part sulphuric acid. using a small metal saw. freehand. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. For coloring olive green. After the sawing. then trace the other half in the usual way. Make one-half of the design. using turpentine. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. Trace the design on the metal. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. . then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. after folding along the center line. 2. being held perpendicular to the work. then coloring. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. Do not put the hands in the solution.

as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. Burnett. New York. After the stain has dried. it does the work rapidly. Cal. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. . The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. attach brass handles. then stain it a mahogany color. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. --Contributed by Katharine D. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. Conn. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. Morse. Ii is an ordinary staple. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Carl Cramer. M. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. When this is cold. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. as shown. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Syracuse. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. --Contributed by M. Richmond. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. on a chopping board. thick. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. --Contributed by H. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. East Hartford.

Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. --Contributed by Mrs. machine screws. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. thick. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. Fig. Florida. indicating the depth of the slots. L. as shown at A. H. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. --Contributed by W. Cal. square. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. 4. Jaquythe. as shown in Fig. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. brass. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. 1/4 in. holes. or tin. one shaft. Atwell. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. 53 steel pens. not over 1/4 in. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. Kissimmee. and several 1/8-in. about 3/16 in. some pieces of brass. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. in width at the shank. A. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. thick and 4 in.. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. two enameled. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. also locate the drill holes. WARNECKE Procure some brass.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. Richmond. . 1. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. saucers or pans. two stopcocks with 1/8 in.

Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. with 1/8-in. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. thick. thick. Fig. The shaft hole may also be filed square. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. and the ends filed round for the bearings. a square shaft used. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. If metal dishes. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. 3. hole in the center. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. wide and bend as shown in Fig. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. with a 3/8-in. as shown.. 6. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. about 1/32 in. 7. machine screws and nuts. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . Fig. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. These are connected to a 3/8-in. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. as in Fig. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. Bend as shown in Fig. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. 2. each about 1 in. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. 5. If the shaft is square. A 3/4-in. with the face of the disk. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. long by 3/4 in. can be procured. brass and bolted to the casing. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. using two nuts on each screw. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. lead should be run into the segments. and pins inserted. hole. as shown in Fig. wide. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. 2. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. Fig. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. supply pipe. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. into the hole. 3. in diameter and 1/32 in. hole is drilled to run off the water. machine screws. 1. long and 5/16 in. There should be a space of 1/16 in. Two nuts should be placed on each screw.

The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. square and 30-1/2 in. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. Hamilton. With a string or tape measure. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. long. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. or more in diameter. from the top of the box. Canada. using four to each leg. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Fasten with 3/4-in brads.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. deep and 1-1/4 in. The four legs are each 3/4-in. The lower part. Cooke. --Contributed by S. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. deep over all. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. three of which are in the basket. Smith. 8-1/2 in. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. Ill. La Salle. Be sure to have the cover. When assembling. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. V. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. Fasten with 3/4-in. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. make these seams come between the two back legs. screws. to make the bottom. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. from the bottom end of the legs. Stain the wood before putting in the . high and 15 in. we will call the basket. --Contributed by F. Now you will have the box in two pieces. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in.

Boston. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. If all the parts are well sandpapered. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. -Contributed by Stanley H. you can. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. as shown in the sketch. Mass. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. wide. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. Cover them with the cretonne. wide and four strips 10 in. Md. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. --also the lower edge when necessary. When making the display. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. 1. 2. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper.lining. sewing on the back side. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real.2 Fig. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Sew on to the covered cardboards. Fig. The folded part in the center is pasted together. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. Packard. Baltimore. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. and gather it at that point. The side. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture.

The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Gloversville. Y. When through using the pad. Cross Timbers. Orlando Taylor. Crockett. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. with slight modifications. saving all the solid part. Mo. Fig. It is not difficult to . Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. and. L. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. N. It is cleanly. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. 3. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. --Contributed by H. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. --Contributed by B. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home.

Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. it should be new and sharp. S. El Paso. and secure it in place with glue or paste. remove the contents. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Mount the shell on a small card with glue. or if desired. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Lane. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. --Contributed by Edith E. Mass. Lowell. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Texas. across the face. Bourne. If a file is used. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. -Contributed by C. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Both of these methods are wasteful. and scrape out the rough parts. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. After this is done. After stirring. are shown in the diagram.

--Contributed by Marion P. Iowa. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Those having houses . Ill. circled over the funnel and disappeared. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Ill. As these were single-faced disk records. After several hours' drying. Greenleaf. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. A Postcard Rack [25]. The insects came to the light. Wheeler. The process works well and needs no watching. Des Moines. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. Canton. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Oregon. F. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. Turl. Oak Park. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new.cooking utensil. --Contributed by Geo. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible.

table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. plane and pocket knife.. The single boards can then be fixed. one on each side of what will be the . fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor.. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Rosenberg. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. the bottom being 3/8 in. 6 in. thick. Only three pieces are required. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. 6 in. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. boards are preferable. Conn. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. --Contributed by Wm. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Both sides can be put together in this way. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. and both exactly alike. and the second one for the developing bench. will do as well. but for cheapness 3/4 in.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. Mass. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. material. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. Worcester. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. by 2 ft. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. not even with the boards themselves. Glenbrook. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. --Contributed by Thomas E. and as they are simple in design. Dobbins. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. Lay the floor next. the best material to use being matched boards.

9 by 11 in.doorway. and should be zinc lined. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. Fig. and in the middle an opening. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. so that the water will drain off into the sink. 2 in section. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. the closing side as at B. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. wide. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig.. and the top as at C in the same drawing. The roof boards may next be put on. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. below which is fixed the sink. 10). A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. 9). is cut.. 11.. of the top of the door for the same reason. as shown in Figs. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. by screwing to the floor. 3 and 4. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. brown wrapping paper. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. and act as a trap for the light. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. It is shown in detail in Fig. In hinging the door. hinged to it. 5. 8. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. nailing them to each other at the ridge. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. and to the outside board of the sides. which is fixed on as shown . 6 and 9. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. so that it will fit inside the sink. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. At the top of the doorway. 7. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. The developing bench is 18 in. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. 6. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. etc. 6.

Details of the Dark Rook .

and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. 1. The house will be much strengthened if strips. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. The handle should be at least 12 in. and a 3/8-in. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. as at M. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. For beating up an egg in a glass. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. 20. though this is hardly advisable. 2. if desired. 13. as at I. Pennsylvania. mixing flour and water. as in Fig. four coats at first is not too many. which makes it possible to have white light. hole bored in the center for a handle. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. 16. these being shown in Fig. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. as shown in the sections. Erie. and a tank stand on it. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig.in Fig. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. Fig. 17. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. 18. 15. --Contributed by W. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. screwing them each way into the boards. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. 13. it is better than anything on the market. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. 14. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. Karl Hilbrich. 19. Fig. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. Fig. In use. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. or the room may be made with a flat roof. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. 6. as shown in Fig. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. after lining with brown paper. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. A circular piece about 2 in. preferably maple or ash. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. are fastened in the corners inside. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. 16. but not the red glass and frame. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. or red light as at K. Fig.

copper should be. Yonkers. G. D. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Mitchell. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Kansas City. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. -Contributed by E. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Schweiger. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Ark. Mo. Smith. --Contributed by Wm. about 3/8 in. New York. which. --Contributed by L. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. long. for a handle. as shown in the sketch. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. L. Eureka Springs. when put together properly is a puzzle. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . To operate.

Each cork is cut as in Fig.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. as is usually the case. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. to make it set level. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. holes should be drilled in the bottom. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. 3. Having completed the bare box. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. the rustic work should be varnished. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. . A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. A number of 1/2-in. need them. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. The corks in use are shown in Fig. After the box is trimmed. in order to thoroughly preserve it. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. which binds them together. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. the box will require a greater height in front. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. 3. If the sill is inclined. 1. 2. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. as well as improve its appearance. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. as shown in Fig. for the moment. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. The design shown in Fig. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. especially for filling-in purposes.

The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. 1. Traps do no good. . drilled at right angles. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. life in the summer time is a vexation. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. 3. But I have solved the difficulty. 4.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. etc. Each long projection represents a leg. as shown in Fig. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. When the corn is gone cucumbers. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. being partly eaten into. cabbages. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. it's easy. They eat all they can and carry away the rest.. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. and observe results. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. too dangerous. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. 2. F. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. share the same fate. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. can't use poison. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes.

The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. -. If. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. strips. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. The solution can be used over and over again. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. Iowa. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. cut some of it off and try again. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. by trial. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. . Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. the coil does not heat sufficiently. of No. cut in 1/2-in. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. long. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. and made up and kept in large bottles. About 9-1/2 ft. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning.

--Contributed by Katharine D. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. N. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Syracuse. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. Do not wash them. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Pa. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. of gasoline. forks. of oleic acid with 1 gal. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. In cleaning silver. Dallas. is a good size--in this compound. . being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. and a strip. 1) removed. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. Texas. as shown in the sketch. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. --Contributed by James M. Stir and mix thoroughly. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. coffee pot. Doylestown. of whiting and 1/2 oz. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Kane. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Morse. to cause the door to swing shut. but with unsatisfactory results. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. C. it falls to stop G. D. Y. Knives. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Fig 2. hot-water pot. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in.

but unfixed. later fixed and washed as usual.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. of course. --Contributed by Oliver S. --Contributed by Theodore L. New Orleans. which is. Waverly. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. . the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Harrisburg. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Ill. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. negatives. Sprout. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Fisher. using the paper dry. Pa. La. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper.

A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. Fig. To obviate this difficulty. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. a harmonograph is a good prescription. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. In this uncertainty lies the charm. metal. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. The harmonograph. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. then . but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. 1. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. No two hamonograms are exactly alike.

A pedestal. for instance. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. as long as the other.. provides a means of support for the stylus. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. as shown in Fig. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. 1. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. and unless the shorter pendulum is. J. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. Punch a hole. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. --Contributed by James T. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. A small weight. Ingham. as shown in the lower part of Fig. R. --Contributed by Wm. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. The length of the short pendulum H. ceiling. in the center of the circle to be cut. Arizona. Holes up to 3 in. exactly one-third. A length of 7 ft. that is. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. Rosemont. of about 30 or 40 lb. G. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. 1-3/4 by 2 in. K. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. etc. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. is about right for a 10-ft. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. or the lines will overlap and blur. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. makes respectively 3. one-fourth. what is most important. 1. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . A small table or platform. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. A weight. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. Chicago. in diameter. to prevent any side motion. is attached as shown at H.. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. such as a shoe buttoner. one-fifth. which can be regulated. Gaffney.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. with a nail set or punch. Another weight of about 10 lb. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths.

Fig. Morey.J. of course. 6.H. Cape May City. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. 5. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. a correspondent of . Cruger. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. The two key cards are made alike. and proceed as before. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. --Contributed by J. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. distributing them over the whole card. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. one for the sender and one for the receiver. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. then 3 as in Fig. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. dividing them into quarters. then put 2 at the top. and 4 as in Fig. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. Chicago. -Contributed by W. 4.J. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. The capacity of the vise. N. 2. 1. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. Fig. 3.

citrate of iron and ammonia. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. --Contributed by L. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. Augusta. from the top and bottom. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. says Popular Electricity. drill 15 holes. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. Asbestos board is to be preferred. 30 gr. To assemble. the portion of the base under the coil. respectively. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. If constructed of the former. sheet of well made asbestos paper. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. acetic acid and 4 oz. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. 6 gauge wires shown. wood-screws. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. 1/2 oz. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. of 18-per-cent No. remove the prints. Ga. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. of the uprights. long. After securing the tint desired. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. deep. 1/4 in. of water. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. After preparing the base and uprights. 22 gauge German-silver wire. Alberta Norrell. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. of ferricyanide of potash. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. Cut through the center. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. Wind the successive turns of .

square. --Contributed by Frederick E. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. N. cut and dressed 1/2 in. then fasten the upright in place. screws. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. but these are not necessary. Y. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. 14 gauge. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. The case may be made of 1/2-in.. etc. as they are usually thrown away when empty. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. 16 gauge copper wire. rivets. Labels of some kind are needed. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. Small knobs may be added if desired. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. if one is not a smoker. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . Ampere. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. which. Ward. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label.

Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. E and F. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. Kenosha. The parts are put together with dowel pins. tinner's acid. Richmond. A. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. Eureka Springs. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. C. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. Wis. The material can be of any wood. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. tin. and one made of poplar finished black. especially if a large tub is used. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. In soldering galvanized iron. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. as shown in the sketch. Jaquythe. galvanized iron. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. and rub the point of the copper on it. D. lead. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered.14 oz. and labeled "Poison. particularly so when the iron has once been used. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. --C.. sandpaper or steel wool. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. This is considerable annoyance. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. then to the joint to be soldered. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. of water. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. California. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. --Contributed by A. zinc. being careful about the heat. of glycerine to 16 oz. . or has become corroded. G. Copper. Heat it until hot (not red hot). brass. --Contributed by W. the pure muriatic acid should be used. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. S. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. a piece of solder. If the soldering copper is an old one. B. it must be ground or filed to a point. Ark. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. Larson. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve.

7/8 in. C. The dimensions shown in Fig. This will leave a clear hole. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. The disk will come out pan shaped. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. thick and 1-1/4 in. 1. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. which gives two bound volumes each year. This completes the die. a ring may be made from any metal. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. I bind my magazines at home evenings. Brass rings can be plated when finished. The covers of the magazines are removed. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. in diameter. brass and silver. D. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. wide. Hankin. Place the band. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. with good results. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. nut.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Apart from this. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . and drill out the threads. Troy. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. The punch A. however. round iron. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. such as copper. N. Take a 3/4-in. B. Fig. 2. Fig. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. in diameter. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. W. -Contributed by H. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Y. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Six issues make a well proportioned book.

A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. 1. threaded double. deep. of the ends extending on each side. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. allowing about 2 in. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. 1 in Fig. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. The covering should be cut out 1 in. After drawing the thread tightly. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use.4.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. is nailed across the top. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. The covering can be of cloth. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. 1/8 in. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. . through the notch on the left side of the string No. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. 2. Place the cardboard covers on the book. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. size 16 or larger. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. and then to string No. as shown in Fig. 5. 1. C. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. 1. and a third piece. If started with the January or the July issue. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. is used for the sewing material. The sections are then prepared for sewing. which is fastened the same as the first. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. Start with the front of the book. 2. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. and place them against the strings in the frame. on all edges except the back. Coarse white thread. Five cuts. The string No. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. using . longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. then back through the notch on the right side.

iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. round iron. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Divine. Place the cover on the book in the right position. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Tinplate. College View. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. For the blade an old talking-machine . Encanto. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. at opposite sides to each other. and mark around each one. and. --Contributed by Clyde E. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. on which to hook the blade. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. Nebr. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. Cal. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry.

nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. hydraulic pipe. by 1 in. by 4-1/2 in. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Summitville. with a steel sleeve. in order to drill the holes in the ends. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. On the upper side. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose.. Ohio. and file in the teeth.. -Contributed by Willard J. and a long thread plug. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. and 1/4 in. long. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. Miss. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. and another piece (B) 6 in. or double extra heavy. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. at the same end. A. bore. as shown. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). B. thick. Then on the board put . Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. Moorhead. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Hays. C.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. Make the blade 12 in. E. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. F. with 10 teeth to the inch. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. and 1/4 in. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. as it is sometimes called. fuse hole at D. thick.

high around this apparatus. Boyd. H. Connect up as shown. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. some sheet copper or brass for plates. If you are going to use a current of low tension.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. 4 jars. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. of wire to each coil. as from batteries. about 5 ft. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. A lid may be added if desired. of rubber-covered wire. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. and some No. the jars need not be very large. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. --Contributed by Chas. Philadelphia. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. using about 8 in. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side.

two for each jar. by 1-1/4 in. B. 2 is lower down than in No. and plane it on all edges. 5 on switch. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. however. oak boards. 1 on switch. B. 7 in. Construct the auto front (Fig. thick. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. with the cushion about 15 in. Use no screws on the running surface. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. long. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. by 5 in. wide.. 1 is connected to point No. & S. is used to reduce friction. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. wide and 3/4 in. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. See Fig. by 5 in. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. C. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. First sandpaper all the wood. long. wide and 2 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. two pieces 30 in. .. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front.. 11 in. and four pieces 14 in. direct to wire across jars. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. beginning at the rear. 27 B. Put arm of switch on point No. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. The illustration shows how to shape it.. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. In proportioning them the points A. 1 and so on for No. The sled completed should be 15 ft. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. two pieces 34 in. 2 and 3. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. above the ground. At the front 24 or 26 in. For the brass trimmings use No. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. The stock required for them is oak. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. 4) of 3/4-in. long. by 6 in.. 16-1/2 in. An iron washer. 15-1/2 in. A 3/4-in. are important. On the door of the auto front put the . The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. The top disk in jar No. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. as they "snatch" the ice. then apply a coat of thin enamel.the way. Use no nails. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. 1. and for the rear runners: A. Z. 2. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. 3 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. 2 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. To wire the apparatus. 4. Their size also depends on the voltage. or source of current. 4 in. by 2 in. and bolt through. by 1-1/4 in. The connection between point No. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. long by 22 in.. A variation of 1/16 in. by 2 in. 30 in. 2. wide by 3/4 in. on No. square by 14 ft. Fig. 3 and No. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. No. sheet brass 1 in. steel rod makes a good steering rod. as they are not substantial enough. B and C. thick. C. 2. two pieces 14 in. apart. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. For the front runners these measurements are: A. The current then will flow through the motor. by 1 in. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. gives full current and full speed. 34 in. making them clear those in the front runner. long. 3..

Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. overshoes. cutting it out of sheet brass. If desired. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. which is somewhat moist. Fasten a horn. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. or with these for $25. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. such as used on automobiles. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. parcels. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. may be stowed within. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. If desired. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. a number of boys may share in the ownership. etc. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. brass plated. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . If the expense is greater than one can afford. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. by 1/2 in. to the wheel. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. by 30 in. The best way is to get some strong. a brake may be added to the sled. lunch. long. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. to improve the appearance. cheap material. such as burlap. fasten a cord through the loop. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. Then get some upholstery buttons. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag.

Ill. Lexington. . the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written.tree and bring. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Leland. --Contributed by Stewart H.

How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. mild steel or iron. the cut will be central on the line. Fig. some files. will be over the line FG. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. 3. 1. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. E. With no other tools than a hacksaw. say 1 in. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. The first tooth may now be cut. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. The Model Engineer. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. Draw a circle on paper. from F to G. London. so that the center of the blade. First take the case of a small gearwheel. which. Fig. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. by drawing diameters. thick. when flat against it. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . a compass. sheet metal. made from 1/16-in. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. A small clearance space. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. This guide should have a beveled edge. The straight-edge. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. the same diameter as the wheel. outside diameter and 1/16 in. 4). Fig. CD. FC. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. though more difficult. with twenty-four teeth. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. 2. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge.

as shown in Fig. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. 2. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. B. transmitter. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. hold in one hand. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. Make a hole in the other. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch.Four Photos on One Plate of them. R. If there is no faucet in the house. some wire and some carbons. electric lamp. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. as shown in Fig. or several pieces bound tightly together. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. Then take one outlet wire. as shown in Fig. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. 1. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. B. each in the center. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. ground it with a large piece of zinc. 1. and the other outlet wire. A bright. Focus the camera in the usual manner. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. No shock will be perceptible. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. . either the pencils for arc lamps. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver.

and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. Slattery. and about that size. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. by 1 in. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. as indicated by E E. Dry batteries are most convenient. are also needed. by 12 in. D D are binding posts for electric wires. 36 wire around it. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. Several battery cells. and will then burn the string C. Pa. under the gable. Ashland. one at the receiver can hear what is said. If desired.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Ohio. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. leaving about 10 in. serves admirably. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. But in this experiment. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. of course. Wrenn. J. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. A is a wooden block. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. as shown. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. or more of the latter has been used. at each end for terminals. One like a loaf of bread. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. Emsworth. a transmitter which induces no current is used. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. For a base use a pine board 10 in. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. --Contributed by Geo. They have screw ends. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. and again wind the wire around it. B. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. Then set the whole core away to dry. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core.

connecting lamp receptacles. and switch. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. Fig. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. 1. Newark. until the hand points to zero on the scale. as shown. Connect these three to switch. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. First make a support. D. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. 2. C.. 12 or No. E. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. 14 wire. in series with bindingpost. F. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. and the lamps. B B. and one single post switch. the terminal of the coil. The oven is now ready to be connected. Ohio. Jr. as shown. in parallel.wire. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. for the . while C is open. B B. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. These should have hollow ends. D. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. The apparatus is now ready for operation. The coil will commence to become warm. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. Fig. Place 16-cp. Turn on switch. run a No. From the other set of binding-posts. C. At one side secure two receptacles. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit.

3. to prevent it turning on the axle. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. from the lower end. Fig. 4 amperes. E. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. is made of iron. Dussault. thick. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. drill a hole as shown at H. It is 1 in. as shown in the cut. D. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. 2. long. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. 6. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. where A is the homemade ammeter.or 4-way valve or cock.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. inside measurements.E. This is slipped on the pivot. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. 3 amperes. a battery. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. 7. Fig. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. C. etc. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. 1. Montreal. The core. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. long and make a loop. wide and 1-3/4 in. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. 5. long. --Contributed by J. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. wide and 1/8 in. Fig. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. drill in only to the opening already through. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. 4. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. deep. is then made and provided with a glass front. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. 5.. Mine is wound with two layers of No. remove the valve. is made of wire. but if for a 4way. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. Fig. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. wind with plenty of No. although copper or steel will do. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. drill through the entire case and valve. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . 14 wire. The box is 5-1/2 in. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. although brass is better. After drilling. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. The pointer or hand. 10 turns to each layer. high. At a point a little above the center. This may be made of wood. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. B. a standard ammeter.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. A wooden box. 36 magnet wire instead of No. 14. 1/4 in. and D. If for 3-way. D. a variable resistance. 1/2 in. 4 in. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. until the scale is full. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. To make one. 1.

and the arc light. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. A. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. in diameter. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. One wire runs to the switch. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. D. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. E. B. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. This stopper should be pierced. To start the light. in thickness . By connecting the motor. F. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. provided with a rubber stopper. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. which is used for reducing the current. high. and a metal rod. making two holes about 1/4 in. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. as shown.performing electrical experiments. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. and the other connects with the water rheostat. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can.

roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. long. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Y. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Jones. A. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. If the interrupter does not work at first. To insert the lead plate. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Turn on the current and press the button. Fig. as shown in C. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Having fixed the lead plate in position. 2. 1. Fig. Fig. As there shown. B. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. 1. --Contributed by Harold L. Fig. N. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. where he is placed in an upright open . as shown in B. 1. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. A piece of wood. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Carthage. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. 2. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. If all adjustments are correct. Having finished the interrupter.

The lights. by 7 in. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. with the exception of the glass. should be miniature electric lamps. A. and can be bought at Japanese stores. Its edges should nowhere be visible. until it is dark there. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. They need to give a fairly strong light. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. and must be thoroughly cleansed. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll.coffin. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. to aid the illusion. If everything is not black. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. should be colored a dull black. light-colored garments. giving a limp. which can be run by three dry cells. All . When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. as the entire interior. loosejointed effect. If it is desired to place the box lower down. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. within the limits of an ordinary room. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. dressed in brilliant. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. could expect from a skeleton. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. The model. is constructed as shown in the drawings. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. A white shroud is thrown over his body. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. L and M. the illusion will be spoiled. figures and lights. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. The glass should be the clearest possible. especially the joints and background near A. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. inside dimensions. from which the gong has been removed. and wave his arms up and down. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. The skeleton is made of papier maché.. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. especially L. by 7-1/2 in. high. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone.

The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. San Jose. Fry. as shown in the sketch. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. square block. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . after which it assumes its normal color. W. --Contributed by Geo. fat spark. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. Cal. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. If a gradual transformation is desired. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. placed about a foot apart. Two finishing nails were driven in. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy.that is necessary is a two-point switch. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils.

to make it airtight. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. If a lighted match .Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. F. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. the remaining space will be filled with air. The plates are separated 6 in. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. B and C. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. One of these plates is connected to metal top. into the receiver G. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. by small pieces of wood. In Fig. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. 1. or a solution of sal soda. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. -Contributed by Dudley H. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. as shown. and should be separated about 1/8 in. soldered in the top. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. New York. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. with two tubes. hydrogen gas is generated. Cohen. This is a wide-mouth bottle. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. In Fig. A (see sketch). by a piece of hard rubber at each end.

36 insulated wire. C C. which is plugged up at both ends. copper pipe. 1-5/16 in. A. of No. 2 shows the end view. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. from the bottom. One row is drilled to come directly on top. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . which should be magnetized previous to assembling. copper pipe. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. long. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. and the ends of the tube. either by passing a current of electricity around it. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. then a suitable burner is necessary. A. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. Fig. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. A. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. A piece of 1/8-in. Fig. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. N. 1. is then coiled around the brass tube. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. is made by drilling a 1/8in. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. B. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. in diameter and 6 in. says the Model Engineer. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. or by direct contact with another magnet. A nipple. 1/2 in. London. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. A 1/64-in. If desired. as is shown in the illustration. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. should be only 5/16 of an inch. The distance between the nipple. A. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. long. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. which forms the vaporizing coil. by means of the clips. P. N. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube.

but if the paper knife cannot be used. A disk of thin sheet-iron. Fig. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. trim both ends and the front edge. Fig. at the front and back for fly leaves. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. 3. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. 1. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. 2). Fig. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. duck or linen. this makes a much nicer book. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. fold and cut it 1 in. cut to the size of the pages. with a fine saw. boards and all. larger all around than the book. smoothly. should be cut to the diameter of the can.lamp cord. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. Turn the book over and paste the other side. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Cut four pieces of cardboard. 1/4 in. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. taking care not to bend the iron. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. Take two strips of stout cloth. about 8 or 10 in. longer and 1/4 in. leaving the folded edge uncut.

pasting them down (Fig. is perforated with a number of holes. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. Noble.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. E. B. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. is fitted in it and soldered. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. but its diameter is a little smaller. Bedford City. A. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Parker. is made the same depth as B. deep. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. as shown. without a head. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. or rather the top now. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. is turned on it. This will cause some air to be enclosed. H. . Ont. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. 18 in. is soldered onto tank A. in diameter and 30 in. D. In the bottom. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. as shown in the sketch. Va. --Contributed by Joseph N. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. and a little can. which will just slip inside the little can. the joint will be gas tight. 4). A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. --Contributed by James E. Another can. Toronto. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. Another tank. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. C. of tank A is cut a hole. A gas cock.

H is a square knot. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. The armature. The longitudinal corner spines. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. D. shows how the connections are to be made. thus adjusting the . C. J. 2. should be cut a little too long. which moves to either right or left. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. when finished. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. and sewed double to give extra strength. should be 3/8 in. Fig. B. The wiring diagram. which may be either spruce. square by 42 in. Beverly. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. long.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. If the back armature. The bridle knots. to prevent splitting. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz.. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. exactly 12 in. B. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. -Contributed by H. should be 1/4 in. as shown at C. The small guards. 1. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. by 1/2 in. If the pushbutton A is closed. D. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. tacks. The diagonal struts. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. N. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. B. and the four diagonal struts. A A. A. S. Bott. long. fastened in the bottom. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. and about 26 in. making the width. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. are shown in detail at H and J. with an electric-bell magnet. E. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. Fig. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. basswood or white pine.

and. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. --Contributed by A. Harbert. A bowline knot should be tied at J. Clay Center. however. If the kite is used in a light wind. to prevent slipping. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. that refuse to slide easily. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Chicago. can be made of a wooden . loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. the batteries do not run down for a long time. thus shortening G and lengthening F. for producing electricity direct from heat. --Contributed by Edw. Kan. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. and if a strong wind is blowing.lengths of F and G. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. D. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. as shown. with gratifying results. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. Closing either key will operate both sounders. E. Stoddard. shift toward F.

the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. Then. --Contributed by A. spark. A. B. in position. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. with a pocket compass. A. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. C. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. placed on top. Chicago. When the cannon is loaded. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. 16 single-covered wire. to the cannon. Fasten a piece of wood. E. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. E. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. and also holds the pieces of wood. The wood screw. A. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. and the current may then be detected by means. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. C.frame. A and B. C.. by means of machine screws or. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. F. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. which conducts the current into the cannon. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. or parallel with the compass needle. D. with a number of nails. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. 14 or No. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after .

remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. but no weights or strings. now at A' and S'. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest.the current is shut off. Bend the strips BB (Fig. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. 1. Connect as shown in the illustration. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. requiring a strong magnet. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. Mich. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. when in position at A'. within the reach of the magnet. --Contributed by Joseph B. Marion. Chicago. Keil. A and S. B. with the long arm at L'. square and 3/8 in. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. --Contributed by Henry Peck. A. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. H. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Fig. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Big Rapids. Fig. L. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. To reverse. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. In Fig. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. to receive the screw in the center. 1. A and S. 1. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. press the button. To unlock the door. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. Ohio. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. screw is bored in the block. . The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. A hole for a 1/2 in. where there is a staple. in this position the door is locked. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. To lock the door.

When ready for use. The standard and base. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. West Somerville. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. gas-pipe. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. and if desired the handles may . and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. long. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. J. are enameled a jet black. --Contributed by C. if enameled white on the concave side. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. Rand. When the holes are finished and your lines set.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. and C is a dumbbell. put in the handle. hole. about 18 in. and may be made at very slight expense. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. Thread the other end of the pipe. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. or for microscopic work. Mass. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. pipe with 1-2-in.

inside the pail.be covered with leather. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. long and 8 in. 1. B. D. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. across. 1. Fig. with a cover. Mass. Fig. E. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. which shall project at least 2 in. M. high by 1 ft. A. 8 in. --Contributed by C. Warren. as shown at A in the sketch. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B.. North Easton. across. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. Make a cylindrical core of wood. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . while a new one will cost about 80 cents.

strip of sheet iron. of fine wire. projecting from each end (Fig. but it will burn a great deal of gas. sand. W. and on it set the paper wrapped core. as dictated by fancy and expense. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. wider than the kiln. 1). of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. 2 in. in diameter. in diameter. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. to hold the clay mixture. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. about 1 in. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. L. layer of the clay mixture. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. C. After removing all the paper. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. and your kiln is ready for business. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. Whatever burner is used. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. diameter. pack this space-top. which is the hottest part. bottom and sides. the point of the blue flame.. After finishing the core. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. say 1/4 in. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. Set aside for a few days until well dried. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. thick. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. When lighted. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. pipe. E. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. Line the pail. the firing should be gradual. let this dry thoroughly. such . 15%.. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. 2. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. It is placed inside the kiln. Wind about 1/8 in. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. 1390°-1410°. 3) with false top and bottom. carefully centering it. Fit all the parts together snugly. and cut it 3-1/2 in. pipe 2-ft. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. make two wood ends. and varnish. passing wire nails through and clinching them. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. but will be cheaper in operation. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. if you have the materials. 60%.mixture of clay. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. and 3/8 in. 1). hotel china. 25%. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in.. or make one yourself. long over the lid hole as a chimney. C. cutting the hole a little smaller. This done.-G. and 3/4 in. C. full length of iron core. Fig. and graphite. Cover with paper and shellac as before. thick. 1330°. and with especial caution the first time. if there is to be any glazing done. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. The 2 in. as is shown in the sketch. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. long. If the cover of the pail has no rim. hard porcelain. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in.

leaving long terminals. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. Take the red cards. bind tightly with black silk. the next black. length of . The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. and plane off about 1/16 in. procure a new deck. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. overlaps and rests on the body. as in Fig. about 1/16 in. Then. 2). C. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. D. and so on. as shown in the sketch herewith. You can display either color called for. diameter. A. C. --Contributed by J. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. 2. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. The funnel. .53 in. and discharges into the tube. all cards facing the same way. Washington. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. Of course. 8 in. square them up. around the coil. B. Chicago. every alternate card being the same color. 2. as in Fig. with a plane. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. red and black. Then take the black cards. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. taking care to have the first card red. T. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. C. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. square them up and place in a vise. 1. R. Next restore all the cards to one pack.. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. and divide it into two piles.

through the holes already drilled. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. as the difficulties increase with the size. F. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. The bottom glass should be a good fit. When the glass is put in the frame a space. The upright pieces. E. Drill all the horizontal pieces. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. so that when they are assembled. and then the frame is ready to assemble. B. A. E. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. 1. B. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. 1 gill of fine white sand. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. about 20 in. C. to form a dovetail joint as shown. of the frame. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. B. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. thus making all the holes coincide. 1 gill of litharge. Long Branch. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. Fig. To find the fall of snow. The cement. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. the first thing to decide on is the size. stove bolts. It should be placed in an exposed location. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents.. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. and this is inexpensive to build. D. N. the same ends will come together again. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. stove bolts.J. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents.C. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. A. Let . angle iron for the frame. All the horizontal pieces. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in.

Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. D. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. Fig. to the door knob. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. A. a centerpiece (A. Fasten the lever. on the door by means of a metal plate. and. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Aquarium Finished If desired. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. if desired. having a swinging connection at C. B. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish.

but mark their position on the frame. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. Two short boards 1 in. Fig. 6 in. PAUL S. showing the paddle-wheel in position. Buffalo. N. E. which is 15 in. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. To make the frame. from the outside top of the frame. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. wide . 1 . the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. approximately 1 ft.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. and another. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. Fig. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. Y. long. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. --Contributed by Orton E. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. another. Cut two of them 4 ft. F. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. They are shown in Fig. AA. I referred this question to my husband. Fig. 2 is an end view. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. 1 is the motor with one side removed. will open the door about 1/2 in. Fig. 3 shows one of the paddles. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. to keep the frame from spreading. 2 ft. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. wide by 1 in. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. Fig. D. another. to form the main supports of the frame. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. 1. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. and Fig. with a water pressure of 70 lb. thus doing away with the spring. several lengths of scantling 3 in. long. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. hoping it may solve the same question for them. 1. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. Do not fasten these boards now. to form the slanting part. as at E. Cut two pieces 30 in. C. 26 in. screwed to the door frame. soldered to the end of the cylinder. B. White. long. according to the slant given C. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. 2 at GG. for the top. long. A small piece of spring brass.. Fig.

and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. Tack one side on. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. Fig. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. by 1-1/2 in. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. steel shaft 12 in. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. take down the crosspieces. from one end by means of a key. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Next secure a 5/8-in. hole through their sides centrally. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. These are the paddles. and drill a 1/8-in. 24 in. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. after which drill a 5/8 in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Drill 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. iron 3 by 4 in. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. thick (HH. hole through them. and drill a 1-in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. holes. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. then drill a 3/16-in. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. with the wheel and shaft in place. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. Fig. hole through its center.burlap will do -. 1. Fasten them in their proper position. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). GG. remove the cardboard. to a full 1/2 in. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Make this hole conical. long and filling it with babbitt metal. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Now block the wheel. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. When it has cooled. and a 1/4 -in. (I. Take the side pieces. iron. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces.along the edges under the zinc to form . in diameter. 2) form a substantial base. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. 4. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. 2) and another 1 in. that is. hole through the exact center of the wheel. long to the wheel about 8 in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Fig. tapering from 3/16 in. pipe. 2) with a 5/8-in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. thick. hole to form the bearings.

remove any white curtains there may be. and the subject may move. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. as this makes long exposure necessary. or what is called a process plate. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. Drill a hole through the zinc.a water-tight joint. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. Raise the window shade half way. The best plate to use is a very slow one.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. drill press. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. any window will do. ice-cream freezer. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. start the motor. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. Focus the camera carefully. It is obvious that. . but now I put them in the machine. shutting out all light from above and the sides. it would be more durable. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. and leave them for an hour or so. on the lens. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. light and the plate. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. sewing machine. If the bearings are now oiled. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. but as it would have cost several times as much. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. place the outlet over a drain. as shown in the sketch at B. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. Darken the rest of the window. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. and as near to it as possible. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. of course. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. says the Photographic Times. If sheet-iron is used. Correct exposure depends. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. Do not stop down the lens.

The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. without detail in the face. a glass tube. with binding posts as shown. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. full of water. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. On completing . an empty pill bottle may be used. The current required is very small. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. as shown in Fig. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. The core C. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. and a base. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. D. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. as a slight current will answer. C. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. hard rubber. 2. or an empty developer tube. by twisting. B. The glass tube may be a test tube. a core. the core is drawn down out of sight. or wood. which is made of iron and cork. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. or can be taken from an old magnet. A. and without fog. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. until the core slowly rises. 2. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. With a piece of black paper.

An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. and make a pinhole in the center. white lead. 1 pt. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. whale oil. 1 lb. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . and are changed by reversing the rotation. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. finest graphite. according to his control of the current. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. This is a mysterious looking instrument. and one not easy to explain. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. The colors appear different to different people. 1. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. water and 3 oz. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. is Benham's color top. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected.

thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. fan-like. In making hydrogen. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. As this device is easily upset.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. Chicago. or three spot. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. B. nearly every time. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. especially if the deck is a new one. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. C. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch.L. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. A. -Contributed by D.B. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. deuce. which is then replaced in any part of the pack.. before cutting. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. thus partly filling bottles A and C. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. In prize games. when the action ceases. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced.

Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. (Fig. Form a cone of heavy paper. 3). Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. 1. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Huron. S. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Fig. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in.. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. S. Detail of Phonograph Horn . Make ten pieces about 1 ft. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. 4. in length and 3 in. --Contributed by F. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. --Contributed by C. in diameter. 10 in. long and 3 in. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. 2. that will fit loosely in the tube A. 9 in. long. as shown in Fig. 12 in. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Detroit. Jr. Bently.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Make a 10-sided stick. Fig.. Dak. J. W. .

bend it at right angles throughout its length. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. 6. and walk in. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. Remove the form. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. E. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. A second piece of silk thread. A. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. C. Fig. allowing 1 in. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. on one side and the top. will cause an increased movement of C. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. making it three-ply thick. --Contributed by Reader. it is equally easy to block that trick. long. Cut out paper sections (Fig. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. with a pin driven in each end. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. about the size of a leadpencil. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. push back the bolt. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. Fortunately. A piece of tin. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. Denver. but bends toward D.

Two wood-base switches. West St. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. The upper switch. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. will last for several years. 4 ft. Minn. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. --Contributed by J. S.. are made 2 by 4 in.strip. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. Jr.. put together as shown in the sketch. is connected each point to a battery. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. and rest on a brick placed under each end. R. as shown. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. or left to right. W. The 2 by 4-in. Fremont Hilscher. posts. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. long. B. while the lower switch. The feet. long. The reverse switch. A. B. S S. S. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. By this arrangement one. Paul. are 7 ft. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire.

which will be described later. 1. 2 and 3. Fig. and a cylindrical . The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. Fig. 2. is an old bicycle pump. or anything available. The hose E connects to the boiler. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. H and K. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. which is made of tin. cut in half. The valve motion is shown in Figs. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. and in Fig. either an old sewing-machine wheel.every house. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. The base is made of wood. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. and the crank bearing C. The piston is made of a stove bolt. the other parts being used for the bearing B. E. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. FF. pulley wheel. and valve crank S. the size of the hole in the bearing B. and has two wood blocks. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. The steam chest D. thick. with two washers. In Fig. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. 3/8 in.

Eustice. First. using the positive wire as a pen. and saturated with thick oil. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. 4. and the desired result is obtained. 3. to receive the connecting rod H. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. J. This engine was built by W. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. G. Schuh and A. as it is merely a trick of photography. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then.piece of hard wood. powder can. is cut out of tin. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. . Fry. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. at that. Cal. San Jose. Fig. and a very amusing trick. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. The boiler. Wis. or galvanized iron. C. G. of Cuba. The valve crank S. Fig. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. as shown in Fig. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. W. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. This is wound with soft string. can be an old oil can. --Contributed by Geo. 1. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed.

3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. as shown. 1 by covering up Figs.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. as shown at AA. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. and place a bell on the four ends. Fig. B. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. B. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. The smaller wheel. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. Cut half circles out of each stave. to cross in the center. and Fig. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Fig. C. diameter. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. and pass ropes around . They may be of any size. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. When turning. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. Fig. 1 will be seen to rotate.

A (a short spool. To make this lensless microscope. This in turn will act on the transmitter. --Contributed by H. which accounts for the sound.M. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. From a piece of thin . but not on all. as shown in the illustration. St. Louis. procure a wooden spool. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. produces a higher magnifying power). and enlarge the bore a little at one end. which allows the use of small sized ropes. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. from the transmitter. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B.. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. Mo.G. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. such as clothes lines. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. W. long. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter.

if the distance is reduced to one-third. the diameter will appear twice as large. darting across the field in every direction. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. To use this microscope. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. in which hay has been soaking for several days. by means of brads. i. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. as in all microscopes of any power. e. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. otherwise the image will be blurred. bent as shown. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. B. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. Fig. 3. An innocent-looking drop of water. cut out a small disk.. is fastened at each end by pins. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. The pivot. and so on. H. D. or 64 times. 2.. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. A. held at arm's length. which costs little or nothing to make. and look through the hole D. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. can be made of brass and the armature. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. the diameter will appear three times as large. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. The spring. The lever. 1. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. the object should be of a transparent nature. B. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. place a small object on the transparent disk.) But an object 3/4-in. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. C. if the distance is reduced to one-half. E. and at the center. . fastened to a wooden base. D. which are pieces of hard wood. (The area would appear 64 times as large. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. is made of iron. C. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. Viewed through this microscope.

wide. coils wound with No. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. Fig. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. B. soft iron. 2. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. wood: F. should be about 22 in. connection of D to nail. D. KEY-A. . K. or a single piece. A switch. D. or taken from a small one-point switch. in length and 16 in. wide and set in between sides AA. AA. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. long. The back. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. long and 14-1/2 in. thick. and are connected to the contacts. Each side. binding posts: H spring The stop. K. C. The base of the key. fastened near the end. brass. B. A. 26 wire: E. HH. nail soldered on A. similar to the one used in the sounder. long by 16 in. is cut from a board about 36 in. 1. wood: C. brass: E. C. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. Fig. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. The door. wide and about 20 in. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood.SOUNDER-A. Cut the top. between the armature and the magnet. wide. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. wide. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. brass or iron soldered to nail. wood. D. can be made panel as shown. DD. The binding posts. 16 in. 16 in. E. wide. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. F. FF. which are made to receive a pivot. brass: B.

When the electrical waves strike the needle. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. as shown. with 3/4-in. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. cut in them. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings.. 13-1/2 in. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. E. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. long.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . brads. Ill. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. material. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Make 12 cleats. Garfield. 2 and made from 1/4-in. In operation. AA.

down into the water increases the surface in contact. the magnet. A (see sketch). and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. --Contributed by John Koehler. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. E. Brown. F. A. Ridgewood. in order to increase the surface. C. and. A fairly stiff spring. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. pulls down the armature. and thus decreases the resistance. through which a piece of wire is passed. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. Y. J. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. A. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. will give a greater speed. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. N. when used with a motor. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. B. Pushing the wire. When the pipe is used. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. --Contributed by R. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. The cord is also fastened to a lever. N. filled with water. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. Fairport. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches.

--Contributed by Perry A. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Of course. B. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. N. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. thus discharging the contents of the hopper.for the secret contact. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. even those who read this description. Gachville. if desired. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. Borden. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts.

A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. from the bottom. records and 5-5/8 in. From a piece of brass a switch. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. Dobson. J. C. and on both sides of the middle shelf. . as shown in Fig. in a semicircle 2 in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. deep and 3/4 in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. apart. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. East Orange. --Contributed by H. long and full 12-in. The three shelves are cut 25-in.whenever the bell rings. Washington. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. for 10in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. H. Connect switch to post B. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. long and 5 in. C. 2. wide. wide. Nails for stops are placed at DD. Cal. Mangold. wide. wide. as shown in Fig. The top board is made 28-in. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. A. 1. thick and 12-in. for 6-in. Compton. E. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. N. D. --Contributed by Dr. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. records.. With about 9 ft. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. where the other end of wire is fastened. Jr. wide.

An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. to which is fastened a cord. as shown in Fig. B. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. E. closed. A. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. which in operation is bent. When the cord is passed over pulley C. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. as shown by the dotted lines. Roanoke. 1. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. Va.

In these grooves place wheels. Put the rubber tube. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. Cut two grooves. 5) when they are placed. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. Notice the break (S) in the track. to turn on pins of stout wire. Fig. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. is compressed by wheels. thick. In the sides (Fig. 4 shows the wheel-holder. Figs. wide. square and 7/8 in. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. 3). deep and 1/2 in. 3. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. If the wheels fit too tightly. in diameter. 1 in. CC. The crankpin should fit tightly. but a larger one could be built in proportion. Fig. These wheels should be 3/4 in. Now put all these parts together. 1 in. in diameter. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. apart. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. thick (A. 1. Figs. it too loose. through one of these holes. Do not fasten the sides too . long. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. they will let the air through. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. holes (HH. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. as shown in the illustration. Fig. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. E. which should be about 1/2 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. E. against which the rubber tubing. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Bore two 1/4 in. in diameter. one in each end. D. excepting the crank and tubing. B. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. in diameter. they will bind. wide. deep.

a platform should be added. Cut six pieces.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. from that mark the next hole. Hubbard. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. AA. iron. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. beyond each of these two. 1. Then turn the crank from left to right. Fig. stands 20 in. Take the center of the bar. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. from each end. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. though a small iron wheel is better. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. For ease in handling the pump. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. If the motion of the wheels is regular. The three legs marked BBB. 1. the other wheel has reached the bottom. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. 2. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. the pump will give a steady stream. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. Two feet of 1/4-in. The animal does not fear to enter the box. as it gives steadiness to the motion. Fig. 1. and 3-1/2 in. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. and mark for a hole. To use the pump. from each end. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. AA. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. The screen which is shown in Fig. is all the expense necessary. 1. 1. Kan. Idana. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. 2. 15 in. of material. because he can . In the two cross bars 1 in. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Fig. --Contributed by Dan H. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. A in Fig. B. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. 17-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. Fig. and are 30 in. long. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. tubing. mark for hole and 3 in. from each end. costing 10 cents. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. mark again. from the bottom and 2 in. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in.

however. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. C. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. of the top. 1) must be prepared. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. . acid 1 part). it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. To cause a flow of electricity. rub the zinc well. The battery is now complete.see through it: when he enters. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. If the solution touches the zinc. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. 2). there is too much liquid in the jar. The mercury will adhere. silvery appearance. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. but if one casts his own zinc. add slowly. Place the carbon in the jar. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. or small electric motors. and touches the bait the lid is released and. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. some of it should be poured out. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. giving it a bright. shuts him in. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. potassium bichromate. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. of water dissolve 4 oz. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. until it is within 3 in. 4 oz. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. stirring constantly. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. and the solution (Fig. Meyer. The truncated. When the bichromate has all dissolved. It is useful for running induction coils. 14 copper wire. or. --Contributed by H. If it is wet. sulphuric acid. Philadelphia. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. long having two thumb screws. dropping. When through using the battery. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. If the battery has been used before. The battery is now ready for use.

e. If. with slight changes. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. i. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. pressing the pedal closes the door. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. Wis.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use.Fig. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. The price of the coil depends upon its size. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal.. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. which opens the door. After putting in the coal. while the coal door is being opened. the battery circuit. however. Madison. the jump-spark coil . A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W.

incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. After winding. Fig. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. as shown in Fig. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. 6. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. 5. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in.7. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. diameter. W W. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. Now for the receiving apparatus. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. which is made of light copper wire. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in.described elsewhere in this book. Change the coil described. and closer for longer distances. This coil. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. apart. in a partial vacuum. as shown in Fig. This will make an excellent receiver. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. being a 1-in. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. . by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". 7). while a 12-in. coil. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. 7. W W. the full length of the coil. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. 6. made of No. 7. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. in a straight line from top to bottom.

only. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below.The aerial line. being vertical. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. No. The writer does not claim to be the originator. I run my lathe by power. above the ground. using an electric motor and countershaft. are analogous to the flow of induction. A large cone pulley would then be required. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. which will be described later. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. Figs. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. as it matches the color well. B the bed and C the tailstock. These circles. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. being at right angles. but simply illustrates the above to show that. to the direction of the current. and hence the aerial line. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. . after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). and for best results should extend up 50 ft. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. 90°. 1 to 4. may be easily made at very little expense. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. but it could be run by foot power if desired. in the air. For an illustration. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. after all. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. A. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. Run a wire from the other binding post. 90°. 1). A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. where A is the headstock.6 stranded. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. at any point to any metal which is grounded.

Fig. but not hot enough to burn it. on the under side of the bed. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. A. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. 4. The headstock. 2 and 3. Fig. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . and runs in babbitt bearings. 5. The bearing is then ready to be poured.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. 6. tapered wooden pin. Fig. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. which pass through a piece of wood. and it is well to have the shaft hot. too. pitch and 1/8 in. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. 6 Headstock Details D. Fig. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. thick. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. 4. To make these bearings. steel tubing about 1/8 in. and Fig. deep. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. one of which is shown in Fig. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. If the bearing has been properly made. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. 5. The bolts B (Fig. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. After pouring. which are let into holes FIG. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. just touching the shaft. B. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. Heat the babbitt well.

If one has a wooden walk. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. of the walk . A.J. Ill. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. This prevents corrosion. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. B. N. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical.other machines. If not perfectly true. lock nut. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. so I had to buy one. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. FIG.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. The tail stock (Fig. Newark. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. embedded in the wood. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. they may be turned up after assembling. Oak Park. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. the alarm is easy to fix up. Take up about 5 ft. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. and a 1/2-in.

the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Jackson. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Minneapolis. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. of water. --Contributed by R. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. Minn. To avoid touching it. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. clean the articles thoroughly. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Fig. Do not touch the work with the hands again. hang the articles on the wires. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Finally. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. add potassium cyanide again. Connect up an electric bell. before dipping them in the potash solution. Then make the solution . putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. save when a weight is on the trap. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. (A. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. silver or other metal. water. so that they will not touch. S. 2). leaving a clear solution. and the alarm is complete. to remove all traces of grease. to roughen the surface slightly. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper.

and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. 1 not only unlocks. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. Before silver plating.5 to 4 volts. with water. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. copper. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. use 2 volts for large articles. about 25 ft. when the point of the key touches the tin. A (Fig. Then. silver can be plated direct. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. and the larger part (F. make a key and keyhole. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. Make a somewhat larger block (E. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. 3) strikes the bent wire L. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. with water. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. 3. Where Bunsen cells are used. nickel and such metals.up to 2 qt. Fig. Having finished washing the precipitate. 18 wire. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. Fig. Screw the two blocks together. square. I. Take quick. which is advised. A 1/4 in. a circuit is completed. as shown in Fig. hole in its center. German silver. of water. zinc. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. and then treated as copper. which . A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. of clothesline rope and some No. a hand scratch brush is good. Fig. Can be made of a 2-in. 3) directly over the hole. saw a piece of wood. long. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. This solution. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. B should be of the same wood. must be about 1 in. Fig. The wooden block C. In rigging it to a sliding door. When all this is set up. 1 in. pewter. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. If more solution is required. 1. The wooden catch. To provide the keyhole. if one does not possess a buffing machine. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. If accumulators are used. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. On brass. an old electric bell or buzzer. 1). lead. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. 10 in. such metals as iron. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. long. with the pivot 2 in. from the lower end. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. --Model Engineer. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. light strokes. which is held by catch B. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. shaking. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. also. With an electric pressure of 3. but opens the door. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. 1). Repeat six times. and 4 volts for very small ones. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. will serve for the key. piece of broomstick. as at F. thick by 3 in. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through.

with the lights turned low. H. One thing changes to another and back again. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). Holding his empty hand over this bowl. a few simple tools. is the cut through which the rope runs. which unlocks the door. the illumination in front must be arranged. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. although a little more trouble. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. Fig. top. Thus. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. He removes the bowl from the black box. Fig. to throw the light toward the audience. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. heighten the illusion. spoons and jackknives. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. 0. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. One end is removed. Next. East Orange. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. The interior must be a dead black. 1. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. between the parlor and the room back of it. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire.. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. and plenty of candles. such as forks. with a switch as in Fig. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. In front of you. 116 Prospect St. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. sides and end. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. cut in one side. The magician stands in front of this. . Heavy metal objects. no painting inside is required. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. so much the better. 2. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. the box should be painted black both inside and out. he points with one finger to the box. The box must be altered first. shows catch B. To prepare such a magic cave. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. or cave. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. the requisites are a large soap box. Fig. and black art reigns supreme. Objects appear and disappear. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. some black paint. enlarged. 3. half way from open end to closed end. and a slit. and finally lined inside with black cloth. --Contributed by E. he tosses it into the cave. On either side of the box. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. surrounding a perfectly black space. one-third of the length from the remaining end. and hands its contents round to the audience. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. B. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. should be cut a hole. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. some black cloth. 2. in his shirt sleeves. 1. Klipstein. H. H. Next. Receiving the bowl again. Fig. floor. New Jersey. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann.

and pours them from the bag into a dish. if. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. is on a table) so much the better. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. which can be made to dance either by strings. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. of course. of course. you must have an assistant. The exhibitor should be .Finally. only he. and if portieres are impossible. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. one on each side of the box. which are let down through the slit in the top. was identical with this. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. into the eyes of him who looks. The illusion. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. and several black drop curtains. a screen must be used. But illusions suggest themselves. in which are oranges and apples. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. Consequently. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. had a big stage. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. his confederate behind inserts his hand. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. the room where the cave is should be dark. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. The audience room should have only low lights. as presented by Hermann.

while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. d. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). Fig. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. and c1 – electricity. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. f2. and c2 to the zinc. 2. About the center piece H moves a disk. 1. as shown in Fig. so arranged that. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. A represents a pine board 4 in. terminal c3 will show +. at L. 1. held down on it by two terminals. by 4 in. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. respectively. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. and c4 + electricity. c4. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . 2). A. Finally.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. c3.. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. c2. terminal c3 will show . by means of two wood screws. or b2. b1. vice versa.a boy who can talk. On the disk G are two brass strips. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. making contact with them as shown at y. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. Then. and a common screw. respectively. is shown in the diagram. or binding posts. e1 and e2. with three brass strips. held down by another disk F (Fig. FIG. 2. b2. if you turn handle K to the right. when handle K is turned to one side. square. their one end just slips under the strips b1. c1. b2. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. held down on disk F by two other terminals. respectively. b3. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. b3. making contact with them. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2.

thus making the message audible in the receiver. B is a onepoint switch. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. when on No. --Contributed by Eugene F. when on No. when A is on No. and then hold the receiver to your ear. and C and C1 are binding posts. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. 3. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. from five batteries. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. you have the current of one battery. jump spark coil. from three batteries. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. . More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. from four batteries. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. E. When switch B is closed and A is on No. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). Tuttle. 5. 1. and when on No. Jr. -Contributed by A. Joerin.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. 4.. Newark. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. Ohio. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it.

so one can see the time. per second for each second. over the bent portion of the rule. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in.. traveled by the thread. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. Handy Electric Alarm . Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. rule. La. A. and supporting the small weight.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. The device thus arranged. When you do not have a graduate at hand. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. as shown in the sketch. and placed on the windowsill of the car. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. per second. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. P. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. A. B. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. Redmond. mark. Thus. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. E. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. of Burlington. is the device of H. New Orleans. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. Wis. mark. which may be a button or other small object. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second.

Then if a mishap comes. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. wrapping the wire around the can several times. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. Instead. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. for a wetting is the inevitable result. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. Crafton. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. soldered to the alarm winder. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. --Contributed by Gordon T. C. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. Pa. When the alarm goes off. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. and with the same result. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. --C. Lane. . fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. but may be closed at F any time desired. B. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. S. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon.which has a piece of metal. which illuminates the face of the clock. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs.

L. whence it is soon tracked into the house. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. and many other interesting and useful articles. but it is a mistake to try to do this. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. Two cleats. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. models and miniature objects. cannons. AA. New York City. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. 1 . thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. The first thing to make is a molding bench. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. Macey. 1. battery zincs. bearings. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. With the easily made devices about to be described. which may. engines. as shown in Fig. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. as shown. binding posts. It is possible to make molds without a bench. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. BE. If there is no foundry Fig. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. when it is being prepared. --Contributed by A. C. ornaments of various kinds. small machinery parts. and duplicates of all these. A.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries.

After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. The flask. the "cope. and the "drag. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. If desired the sieve may be homemade. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. is nailed to each end of the cope. J. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. It is made of wood and is in two halves. but this operation will be described more fully later on. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. is made of wood. Fig. white metal. 1. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. E. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. Fig. is about the right mesh. will be required." or upper half. 2. and the lower pieces. is filled with coal dust. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. which can be either aluminum. CC. DD. try using sand from other sources. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. previous to sawing. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. II . high. If the box is not very strong. 1. and a sieve.How to Make a Mold [96] . and this. A A. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. An old teaspoon. makes a very good sieve. 2 . by 8 in. as shown. say 12 in. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. and saw it in half longitudinally.near at hand. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds." or lower part. CC. D. F. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. which can be made of a knitted stocking. The dowels. A wedge-shaped piece. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. by 6 in. which should be nailed in. is shown more clearly in Fig. The rammer. a little larger than the outside of the flask. G. as shown. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. The cloth bag. A slight shake of the bag Fig. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. H.

or "cope. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. turn the drag other side up. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. as described. as shown at D. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. where they can watch the molders at work. as shown at C. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. The sand is then ready for molding. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. and then more sand is added until Fig. and scatter about 1/16 in. It is then rammed again as before. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. Place another cover board on top. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. as shown at E. After ramming. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. the surface of the sand at . A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. In finishing the ramming. but care should be taken not to get it too wet." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. or "drag. in order to remove the lumps. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. and by grasping with both hands. and thus judge for himself. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it." in position. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. and if water is added. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. as it is much easier to learn by observation. as shown.

thus making a dirty casting. as shown in the sketch. is next cut. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. . as shown at H. and then pour. after being poured. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. After drawing the pattern. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. as shown at J.E should be covered with coal-dust. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. Fig. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. The "sprue. III. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used." or pouring-hole. to give the air a chance to escape. made out of steel rod. deep. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. This is done with a spoon. place the cope back on the drag. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. as shown at H. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. in order to prevent overheating. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. wide and about 1/4 in. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. as shown at F. it shows that the sand is too wet. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. thus holding the crucible securely.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. as shown at G. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. Place a brick or other flat. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. in diameter. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand.

is very desirable. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. but any reasonable number may be used.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. --Contributed by Harold S. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. may be used in either direction. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. white metal and other scrap available. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. babbitt. the following device will be found most convenient. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. If a good furnace is available. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. although somewhat expensive. used only for zinc. or from any adjacent pair of cells. Referring to the figure. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. Minneapolis. and. Morton. and the casting is then ready for finishing. In my own case I used four batteries. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. Although the effect in the illustration . and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. battery zincs. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. 15% lead. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize.

as shown at A. The brass rings also appear distorted. If desired.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. A. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. B. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. shaft made. Put a sharp needle point. To make it take a sheet-iron band. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. The bearings. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. Then replace the table. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. 3/4 in. --Contributed by Draughtsman. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. may be made of hardwood. B. 2. connected by cords to the rudder. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. By replacing the oars with paddles. as shown in the illustration. Fig. outward. which will be sufficient to hold it. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . Then walk down among the audience. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. Chicago. Make one of these pieces for each arm. backward. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required.

Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. 1. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. E. as shown in Fig. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. D. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. spoiling its appearance. The covers. A block of ice. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. Snow. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. Fig. or under pressure. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. 2. should be made of wood. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. or the paint will come off. being simply finely divided ice. and a weight. C. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. In the same way. as shown in Fig. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. 1. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. If galvanized iron is used. when it will again return to its original state. If babbitt is used. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. W.melted babbitt. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. 1. 3. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. It may seem strange that ice . A. The hubs. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. 2 and 3. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. but when in motion. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed.

The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. whenever there is any connection made at all. no matter how slow the motion may be. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. brass. by 2 in. --Contributed by Gordon T. but. in. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. by 1/2 in. thus giving a high resistance contact. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. Pa. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. by 5 in. by 1/4. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening.. as shown on page 65. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. Lane. P. and assume the shape shown at B. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. Crafton. square. Pressing either push button. as per sketch. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. the large body of ice has to bend in moving.should flow like water. it will gradually change from the original shape A. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. The rate of flow is often very slow. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. but by placing it between books. B. sometimes only one or two feet a day. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. or supporting it in some similar way. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. which resembles ice in this respect.

G. Indianapolis. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. Wilkinsburg. cord. F. C. about the size used for automobiles. The parts are: A. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. the induction coil. draft. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. as shown. Pa. --Contributed by A. pulleys. horizontal lever. draft chain. B. and five dry batteries. and C. vertical lever. B. J. I. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. The success depends upon a slow current. wooden supports. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer.thumb screws. A is the circuit breaker. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. H. E. In the wiring diagram. furnace. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. as shown. G. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. D. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. K . the battery. alarm clock. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message.000 ft. Ward. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. weight. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel.

shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. The frame (Fig. where house plants are kept in the home. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. Artistic Window Boxes The top. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. Kalamazoo. as well as the bottom. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. material framed together as shown in Fig. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. 2 are dressed to the right angle. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. which will provide a fine place for the plants. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. Mich. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. will fit nicely in them. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. such as used for a storm window. 3. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room.

The 1/2-cp. after a rest. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. N. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. 1 cp. A certain number of these. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. Grant. in diameter. and will give the . Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. for some time very satisfactorily. since a battery is the most popular source of power. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. as indicated by Fig. in this connection. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. can be connected up in series. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. 1 each complete with base. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. and the instrument will then be complete. in any system of lamps. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. Canada. S. this must be done with very great caution. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. where they are glad to have them taken away.. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. multiples of series of three. i. This is more economical than dry cells. e. by connecting them in series. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp.. one can regulate the batteries as required. Halifax. a cork and a needle. 1. and a suitable source of power.. --Contributed by Wm. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. However. which sells for 25 cents. Push the needle into the cork. However. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. It must be remembered.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. so as to increase the current. as if drawn upon for its total output. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. is something that will interest the average American boy. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. W. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. Thus. but maintain the voltage constant. and cost 27 cents FIG. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow.

as in Fig. 3. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. if wound for 6 volts. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. If wound for 10 volts. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. 2 shows the scheme. lamp. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. which is the same as that of one battery. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. especially those of low internal resistance. where the water pressure is the greatest. lamps. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and for Christmas trees. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. Thus. Thus. each. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. and running the series in parallel. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. These will give 3 cp. . 1-cp. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. and then lead No. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. to secure light by this method. Fig. 11 series. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. we simply turn on the water.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. In conclusion. So. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. lamps. However. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. FIG. double insulated wire wherever needed. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. for display of show cases.. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. making. or 22 lights. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. although the first cost is greater. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. by the proper combination of these. Chicago.proper voltage. and diffused light in a room. generates the power for the lights. 18 B & S. according to the water pressure obtainable. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp.

brushes of motor. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. B. simply change the switch. AA. or from one pattern. Santa Clara. switch. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. CC. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. outside points of switch. BB. --Contributed by Leonard E. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. center points of switch. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. as shown in the sketch. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. Plymouth. Parker. or a tempting bone. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Ind. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. are cut just alike. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. field of motor. we were not bothered with them. . Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. Emig. After I connected up my induction coil. A indicates the ground. bars of pole-changing switch. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. DD. --Contributed by F. and C. To reverse the motor. A. B. a bait of meat.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Cal. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. the letters indicate as follows: FF. thus reversing the machine. and the sides.

To unlock the door. attached to the end of the armature B. one cell being sufficient. The button can be hidden. a hammer. Cal. Fry. and a table or bench.. or would remain locked. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. The experiment works best . The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. which is in the door. as it is the key to the lock. Melchior.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. thus locking the door. If it is not. 903 Vine St. San Jose. Minn. A. a piece of string. When the circuit is broken a weight. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. merely push the button E. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. Hutchinson. -Contributed by Claude B. W. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C.

C. A. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Brockville. Ontario. forming a loop. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. W. D. 2. Madison. the stick falls away. 1). --Contributed by Geo. When the alarm rings in the early morning. 3. P. 4). Schmidt. I. as shown in Fig. attached at the other end. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. 3. in the ceiling and has a window weight. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Tie the ends of the string together. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. On another block of wood fasten two wires. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock.Contributed by F. Wis. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Canada. . the key turns. releasing the weight. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. which pulls the draft open. Porto Rico. -.. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. where it will remain suspended as shown. run through a pulley. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. 18 Gorham St. Crawford Curry. Culebra. the current flows with the small arrows.

Connect two wires to the transmitter. or tree. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. made with his own hands. and then to the receiver.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. S. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. Jr. thick. J. R.. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. and . 6 in. square and 1 in. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. and break the corners off to make them round. D. Camden. Use a barrel to work on. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. including the mouthpiece. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. get two pieces of plate glass. --Contributed by Wm. N. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. The cut shows the arrangement. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. which fasten to the horn. running one direct to the receiver. First. Farley. or from a bed of flowers. thence to a switch. J. and the other to the battery.

immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. 2. melt 1 lb. the coarse grinding must be continued. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle.. When polishing the speculum. L. and is ready for polishing. A. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. Then warm and press again with the speculum. unless a longer focal length is wanted. also rotate the glass. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. so the light . twice the focal length away. with pitch. a round 4-in. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. wide around the convex glass or tool. When done the glass should be semitransparent. 1. spaces. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. by the side of the lamp. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. and spread on the glass. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. while walking around the barrel. Fasten. Have ready six large dishes. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. Fig. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. then take 2 lb. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. wetting it to the consistency of cream. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. then 8 minutes. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. or less. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. using straight strokes 2 in. and a large lamp. 2. or it will not polish evenly. of water. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. Fig. with 1/4-in. Use a binger to spread it on with. wet till soft like paint. in length. and label. set the speculum against the wall. In a dark room. When dry. and the under glass or tool convex. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. as in Fig. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze..

and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. and pour the rest into the empty dish. 100 gr. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes.………………………………. 39 gr. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. Alcohol (Pure) ……………..……………………………. The polishing and testing done. The knife should not be more than 6 in. 4 oz. 2. the speculum is ready to be silvered. Silver nitrate ……………………………. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. Now add enough of the solution A.. long to the back of the speculum. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. touched with rouge. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. face down. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. deep.. Nitric acid . pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. cement a strip of board 8 in. from the lamp. the speculum will show some dark rings. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. then ammonia until bath is clear. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center.……………. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. Fig. With pitch. 4 oz. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Solution B: Distilled water …………………………….. Place the speculum. Then add solution B.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. also how the rays R from a star . When the focus is found.. Place the speculum S. or hills. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. Two glass or earthenware dishes. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade.. Solution D: Sugar loaf . as in K. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). Then add 1 oz. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. must be procured. longer strokes. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. If not. Fig. if a hill in the center.100 gr.. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. fill the dish with distilled water. 840 gr. that was set aside. When dry. 25 gr.. 2.. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. Fig. with distilled water. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …..

it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. The flatter they are the less they will distort. stop down well after focusing. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. which proves to be easy of execution. Mellish. Make the tube I of sheet iron. My telescope is 64 in. . Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. with an outlay of only a few dollars. Thus an excellent 6-in. deg. slightly wider than the lens mount. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. telescope can be made at home.. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. is a satisfactory angle. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. cover with paper and cloth. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. About 20. long and cost me just $15. and proceed as for any picture. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. two glass prisms. Place over lens. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. Then I made the one described.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. using strawboard and black paper.John E.

-Contributed by A. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. To unlock. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. Fig. unobstructed light strike the mirror. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. through the lens of the camera and on the board. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. complete the arrangement. . developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. 2. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. The paper is exposed. add the plaster gradually to the water. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. B. instead of the contrary. and reflect through the negative. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. Ill. or powdered alum.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. then add a little sulphate of potash. The rays of the clear. says the Master Painter. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. Zimmerman. push the button D. Boody. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. Do not stir it. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. 1. D. as shown in Fig. A. but will not preserve its hardening.

and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. but will remain suspended without any visible support. Fasten on the switch lever. Then blow through the spool. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. 3. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. as at A and B. so that it can rotate about these points. 2. Fig. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. use a string. as shown in the sketch. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. also provide them with a handle. 2. 1). To reverse. as in Fig. throw . This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner.

When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. carbons. In the sketch. C C. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. binding posts. North Bend. D. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. as shown in the sketch. Take out. -Contributed by Morris L. the armature. A is the electricbell magnet. and rub dry with linen cloth. L. San Antonio. Neb. San Marcos. Tex. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. --Contributed by Geo. . wash in running water. Go McVicker. Tex. rinse in alcohol. although this is not necessary. and E E. Push one end of the tire into the hole. carbon sockets. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. --Contributed by R. B. Levy. Thomas.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No.

the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. long or more. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. --Contributed by Joseph B. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. By means of two or more layers of No. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. Brooklyn. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. 16 magnet wire.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. Bell. 14 or No. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. 36 magnet wire. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. wound evenly about this core.

The following method of completing a 1-in. 4. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. After the core wires are bundled. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. wide. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. about 6 in. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. with room also for a small condenser. then the strip of tin-foil. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. 1. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. but if it is not convenient to do this work. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. The primary is made of fine annealed No. which is desirable. long and 2-5/8 in. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. one piece of the paper is laid down. in length. long and 5 in. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. and finally the fourth strip of paper. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. hole is bored in the center of one end. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. as shown in Fig. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. at a time. in diameter. No. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. The condenser is next wrapped . as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. A 7/8-in. Beginning half an inch from one end. as the maker prefers. making two layers. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. a box like that shown in Fig. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. or 8 in. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. In shaping the condenser. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. and the results are often unsatisfactory. coil illustrates the general details of the work. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. 2 yd. the entire core may be purchased readymade. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. When cut and laid in one continuous length. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in.which would be better to buy ready-made. which is an important factor of the coil. This makes a condenser which may be folded. diameter. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned.

ready for assembling.) The wiring diagram. go. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. I. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. V-shaped copper strip. Fig. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. spark. whole length. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. 4 in. F. by 12 in. E. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. lines H. the letters indicate as follows: A. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. and one from battery. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. 3. to the door. D. A. and the other sheet. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. B. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes.securely with bands of paper or tape. one from bell. G. which is insulated from the first. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. round so that the inside . which allows wiring at the back. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell.. switch. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. open switch C. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. copper lever with 1-in. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. flange turned on one side. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. shelf for clock. B. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. battery . such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. long and 12 in. wide. bell. C. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. The alarm key will turn and drop down. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. long to key. forms the other pole or terminal. shows how the connections are made.

London. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. If desired for use immediately. of zinc sulphate. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. of blue stone. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. instead of close to it. Use a glass or metal shade. do not shortcircuit. . To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. and then rivet the seam.diameter is 7 in. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. 2 in. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. and the battery is ready for use. Short-circuit for three hours. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. says the Model Engineer. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. from the bottom. That is what they are for. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. but add 5 or 6 oz. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Line the furnace. This is for blowing. The circuit should also have a high resistance. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. but with the circuit. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side.. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat.

In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. This type of battery will give about 0. Ohio. Outside of the scientific side involved. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. for others the opposite way. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. grip the stick firmly in one hand. for some it will turn one way. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. below the bottom of the zinc. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. long. porcelain and paper. At least it is amusing. Try it and see. thus producing two different vibrations. while for others it will not revolve at all. 1. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and therein is the trick. and then. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. If any or your audience presume to dispute. imparting to them a violet tinge. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. To operate the trick. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. oxygen to ozone. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. herein I describe a much better trick. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. but the thing would not move at all. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. 2. as in the other movement. g..Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. If too low. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. or think they can do the same let them try it. square and about 9 in. affects .9 of a volt. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. the second finger along the side. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Enlarge the hole slightly. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. changes white phosphorus to yellow." which created much merriment. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body.

It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. but this is less satisfactory. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. if possible. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. an old tripod screw. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. however. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. a means for holding it vertical. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. and one of them is photomicrography. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. but small flowers. but not essential. earth.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. says the Photographic Times. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. and. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. a short-focus lens. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. chemicals. insects. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. To the front board is attached a box.

AB. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 7 ft. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. wide from which to cut a pattern. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. Cap.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. balloon. Ft Lifting Power. and a line. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 5 ft. 7-1/2 in. Boston. 6 ft. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Madison. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. 268 17 lb. 381 24 lb. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. or 3 ft. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 179 11 lb. long and 3 ft. CD. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. A line. 5 in. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. If the balloon is 10 ft. 7-1/2 in. 65 4 lb. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 1. Mass. 10 ft 523 33 lb. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. or 31 ft. 11 ft. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. which is 15 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 9 ft. while it is not so with the quill. 113 7 lb. Fig. in diameter.--Contributed by George C. 8 ft. The following table will give the size. 697 44 lb. 12 ft. 905 57 lb. in Cu.

The pattern is now cut. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. 4. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. of beeswax and boil well together. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. 70 thread. 3. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. Procure 1 gal. making a double seam as shown in Fig. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. The cloth segments are sewed together. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. The amounts necessary for a 10- . Repeat this operation four times. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. 2. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. and so on. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. using a fine needle and No. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. on the curved line from B to C. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. keeping the marked part on the outside. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. This test will show if the bag is airtight. cutting all four quarters at the same time. of the very best heavy body. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel.

. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. The 3/4-in. In the barrel. or dusting with a dry brush. . above the level of the water in barrel A. using a fine brush. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. but if any grease remains on the hand. with the iron borings. it is not fit to use.Green Iron ammonium citrate . All FIG. 5. 5 . 1 lb. After washing a part. ft. should not enter into the water over 8 in. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. ]. A. 1 lb. as shown in Fig. The outlet. this should be repeated frequently. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. When the clock has dried. 150 gr. or a fan. About 15 lb. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. B. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. capacity and connect them. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. balloon are 125 lb. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. C. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. of gas in one hour. until no more dirt is seen. Water 1 oz.ft. which may sound rather absurd. C. oil the spindle holes carefully.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. a clean white rag. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. by fixing. pipe. Fill the other barrel. of iron. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. with 3/4in. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet.. of water will make 4 cu. with water 2 in. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. Vegetable oils should never be used. A. if it is good it will dry off. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. B. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. of iron borings and 125 lb. leaving the hand quite clean. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. A. to the bag. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. B. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. of sulphuric acid.

or carbon. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. dry atmosphere will give best results. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. A cold. The positive pole. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use.Water 1 oz. or zinc. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. and keep in the dark until used. to avoid blackened skin. The negative pole.000 ft. Printing is done in the sun. Port Melbourne. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. A longer exposure will be necessary. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. . Dry the plates in the dark. The miniature 16 cp. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Exposure. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. at the time of employment. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. or battery.. toning first if desired. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. . may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. 20 to 30 minutes. says the Moving Picture World. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. fix in hypo. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. and a vigorous negative must be used. Dry in the dark. keeping the fingers out of the solution. This aerial collector can be made in . of any make. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. Sliver nitrate 50 gr.

In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. lay a needle. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. 5 in. both positive and negative. a positive and a negative. lead pipe. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. the resistance is less. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. when left exposed to the air. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. If the waves strike across the needle. holes . making a ground with one wire. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. in diameter. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. If the wave ceases. will soon become dry and useless. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. forming a cup of the pipe. and have the other connected with another aerial line. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. as described below. and as less current will flow the short way. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. This will complete the receiving station. The storage cell. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. long. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid.various ways. As the telephone offers a high resistance.

by soldering the joint. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. D. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. and the other to the negative. B. one to the positive. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. This support or block. a round one. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. does not need to be watertight. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. or tube C. Two binding-posts should be attached. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. or tube B. except for about 1 in. When mixing the acid and water. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . on each end. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. an oblong one and a triangular one. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours.as possible. says the Pathfinder. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. This box can be square. namely: a square hole. This. of course. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. The other plate is connected to the zinc. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands.

C. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. This punt. as shown in Fig. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. as shown in Fig. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. in place on the wood. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. A and B. leaving about 1/16 in. C. and match them together. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. 1. 3.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. Chicago. deep and 4 ft. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. is built 15 ft. Ill. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. 2. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. The third piece of brass. . as it is not readily overturned. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. were fitted by this one plug. 1. thick cut two pieces alike. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. wide. and has plenty of good seating capacity. about 20 in. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. Only galvanized nails should be used. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. wide. back and under. 2. all around the edge. long.

-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Wash. is cut 1 in. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. thick and 3-1/2 in. B.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Tacoma. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. square (Fig 2). Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. A. In Fig. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . A piece of 1/4-in. gas pipe. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb.

and to consume. lamp." has no connection with the outside circuit. with the exception of insulated wire. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. H. In designing. without auxiliary phase. no special materials could be obtained. it had to be borne in mind that. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. may be of interest to some of our readers. or "rotor. which can be developed in the usual manner. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. which the writer has made. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. if possible. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. The winding of the armature. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit.--Contributed by Charles H. no more current than a 16-cp. Wagner. says the Model Engineer. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum.

wrought iron. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. 5. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. holes. about 2-1/2 lb. in diameter were drilled in the corners. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. to be filed out after they are placed together. C. thick. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. Unfortunately. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. also varnished before they were put in. or "stator. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. 2. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine.the field-magnet. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. as shown in Fig. 4. with the dotted line. as shown in Fig. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. bolts put in and tightened up." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. being used. The stator is wound full with No. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. After assembling a second time. 1. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. A. B. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. Holes 5-32 in. no steel being obtainable. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. and filled with rivets. this little machine is not self-starting. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. while the beginnings . 3. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. were then drilled and 1/4-in. and all sparking is avoided. They are not particularly accurate as it is. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints.

and the other by reduction in the camera. N. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. it would be very simple to build. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. and all wound in the same direction. if applied immediately. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. and as each layer of wire was wound. E. The rotor is wound with No. One is by contact. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. 3-Contributed by C. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol.. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. No starting resistance is needed. Newark. This type of motor has drawbacks. as shown in Fig. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. In making slides by contact. and as the motor runs at constant speed. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. as a means of illustrating songs. If too late for alcohol to be of use. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. 2. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. 1.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. a regulating resistance is not needed. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. The lantern slide is a glass plate. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. McKinney. having no commutator or brushes. The image should . A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. J. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. film to film. and especially of colored ones. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. Jr. as before stated. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. and would not easily get out of order. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig.

Select a room with one window. about a minute. 3. C. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. a little extra work will be necessary. Draw lines with a pencil. Fig. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. If the exposure has been correct. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. except that the binding is different. to use a plain fixing bath. It is best. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. 4. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. as shown in Fig. also. 5. and then a plain glass. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. the formulas being found in each package of plates. over the mat. Being unbreakable. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. if possible. B. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure.appear in. 1. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. These can be purchased from any photo material store. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. and development should be over in three or four minutes. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. 2. D. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . they are much used by travelers. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. as shown in Fig. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. A.

as shown at B. long. long. in diameter and 20 in. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. Fig. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. A piece of canvas. 2. from the end piece of the chair. known as rods and cones. Corinth. 16 in. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. If the star is in front of the left eye. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. 1. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. as shown at A. or other stout cloth. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. holes bored in the end pieces. is to be used for the seat. while the dot will be in front of the other. 1. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. Fig. in diameter and 40 in. Hastings. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. These longer pieces can be made square. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. from the ends. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. wide and 50 in. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. Vt. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. as shown in Fig. from the center of this dot draw a star. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. long. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in.

A pitman was attached to the large pulley. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. as well as to operate other household machines.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing.-Contributed by P. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. 1. O'Gara. Cal. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. . 2. A disk 1 in. in thickness and 10 in. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. J. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Auburn. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. per square inch. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. A belt. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. made from an ordinary sash cord. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley.

that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. 3/4 in. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. it serves a very useful purpose. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. direction. Cut out a piece from the block combination. Put the bolt in the hole. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. will be the thickness of the object. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. square for a support. Bore a 1/4-in. then removing the object. divided by the number of threads to the inch. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. screwing it through the nut. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. thick and 2-1/2 in. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. with as fine a thread as possible. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. says the Scientific American. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. and the construction is complete. long. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. to the top of the bench. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. fairly accurate. leaving it shaped like a bench. or inconvenient to measure. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. wide. The part of a rotation of the bolt. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. A simple. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. .

Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. bolt in each hole. Bore a 3/4-in. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. globe that has been thrown away as useless. beyond the end of the wood. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. Oal. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. which show up fine at night. Place a 3/4-in. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. long. material 12 ft. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. long is used for the center pole. The wheel should be open .Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. piece of wood 12 ft. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Santa Maria. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water.

The width should be about 5-1/4 in. is soldered. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. C. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. square and 3 or 4 in. thick is used for the armature. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. The coil. wide and 1/8 in.Side and Top View or have spokes. to be operated by the magnet coil. P. in diameter. Tex. at the top and 4 in. The spool . as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. long. 1/2 in. and on its lower end a socket. O. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. A piece of brass 2 in. and the lower part 61/2 in. at the bottom. from the ends. from the top end. H and J. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. which should be 1/4 in. of the ends with boards. The boards may be nailed or bolted. long. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. wide and 1/8 in. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. L. Fort Worth. long with the upper or wider part 4 in.-Contributed by A. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. thick. long. A cross bar. C. long. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. A. made of the same material. B. pieces used for the spokes. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. Graham. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. thick.

do it without any apparent effort. by soldering. for insulating the brass ferrule. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. F. Randolph. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. When you slide the pencil along the casing.--A. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. and in numerous other like instances. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. C. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. A. one without either rubber or metal end. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. is drilled. A soft piece of iron. that holds the lower carbon. S. Mass. . D and E. --Contributed by Arthur D. which may be had by using German silver wire. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in.J. long. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post.000. 2 the hat hanging on it. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. making a hole just a little larger than the rod.E. R. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. 1. B. S. and directly centering the holes H and J. This is a very neat trick if performed right. The armature. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw.000 for irrigation work. and place it against a door or window casing. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied.is about 2-1/2 in. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. 2. At the bottom end of the frame. or a water rheostat heretofore described. This tie can be used on grain sacks. Bradlev. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. then with a firm.

about 1 in. for adjustment. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. 1. about 1/8 in. The vibrator B. F. hole in the center. for the secondary. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. leaving the projections as shown. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. A. The vibrator. 1. and then 1. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. about 3/16 in. Experiment with Heat [134] . Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. in diameter. for the primary. D. in diameter and 2 in. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. The core of the coil.500 turns of No. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. is connected to a flash lamp battery. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. About 70 turns of No. Fig. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. from the core and directly opposite. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. may be made from a 3/8-in. C. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. The coil ends are made from cardboard. in diameter and 1/16 in. thick. mixed with water to form a paste. S. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. The switch. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. B. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. is constructed in the usual manner. S. long. Fig. with a 3/16-in. 2. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. in diameter. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. wide. long and 1 in.

which is cut with two holes. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. lighted. . 1. which seemed to be insufficient. long and when placed over the board. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. The lock. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. as shown. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. which is only 3/8-in. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. between the boards. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. with which to operate the dial. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. thick on the inside. as shown in the sketch. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. The tin is 4 in. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. was to be secured by only three brass screws. in an ordinary water glass.Place a small piece of paper. brass plate. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. and then well clinched. The hasp. wide. The three screws were then put in the hasp. Fig. 16 in. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. board. it laps down about 8 in. 1. and the same distance inside of the new board. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. The knob on the dial extends out too far. 2 to fit the two holes. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial.

The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. not shiny. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. square and 8-1/2 in. but when the front part is illuminated. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. If the box is made large enough. clear glass as shown. and the back left dark. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. high for use in window displays. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. the glass. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. When the rear part is illuminated. square and 10-1/2 in. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. When making of wood. black color. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. any article placed therein will be reflected in.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. or in the larger size mentioned. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. which completely divides the box into two parts. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. one in each division. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits.

. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. long and 1 ft. and with the proper illumination one is changed. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. Instead of changing the current operated by hand.. above the top of the tank. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. a tank 2 ft. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. as it appears. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. When there is no electric current available. alternately. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. into the other. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. wide will be about the right size. as shown in the sketch. as shown at A in the sketch. When using as a window display.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

O. two pieces 1-1/8 in. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. and a door in front. wide. with a length of 13 in. using a 3/4-in. one for each side. bore from each end. 2 ft. then use a red-hot iron to finish. and 6 ft. or ferrous sulphate. each. -Contributed by Mack Wilson.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. gauge for depth. The 13-in. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. lines gauged on each side of each. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. long. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. 5 ft. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. Three windows are provided. from the ground. bit. This precipitate is then washed. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. 1 in. high. and boring two holes with a 1-in. however. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. If a planing mill is near. Iron sulphate. long. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. and a solution of iron sulphate added. radius. under sides together. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. is the green vitriol. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. Shape the under sides first. The pieces can then be taken out. thick and 3 in. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. A small platform. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. square and 40 in. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. hole. but with a length of 12 in. hole bored the full length through the center. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. as shown. dried and mixed with linseed oil. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. 6 in. wide. Columbus. square. is built on the front. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. This hole must be continued . The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above.

If the parts are to be riveted. A better way. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. No lap is needed when joints are soldered.through the pieces forming the base. if shade is purchased. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. apply two coats of wax. When this is dry. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. When the filler has hardened. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. square and drawing a diagonal on each. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. Electric globes--two. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. thick and 3 in. Directions will be found on the filler cans. The sketch shows one method of attaching. For art-glass the metal panels are . Saw the two blocks apart. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. hole in each block. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. three or four may be attached as shown. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal.

and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. such as copper. as brass.The Completed Lamp cut out. METAL SHADE . Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.Construction of Shade . the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.

The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. as in ordinary devices. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. The arms holding the glass. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. Figure 1 shows the side. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. and Fig. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. the other. 2 the front view of this stand. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. the object and the background. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. one way and 1/2 in. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. as shown in the sketch. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side.

uncork and recork again. in diameter for a base. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. channel in the circumference of the ring. Before mounting the ring on the base. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. wide and 6-5/16 in. about 1-1/4 in. Cut another circular piece 11 in. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. and swinging freely. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. thus forming a 1/4-in. Put the ring in place on the base. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. wide and 11 in. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. An ordinary pocket compass. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. in diameter. pointing north and south. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. If the light becomes dim. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. as shown in the sketch. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. long. and an inside diameter of 9 in. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. as shown in the cut. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. outside diameter. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. thick 5/8-in. as it is very poisonous. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in.

289 . An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. black oxide of copper. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. CC. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. AA. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders.715 . EE. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago.865 1. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. Place on top the so- . and mirrors. 1 oz. Corresponding mirrors. in diameter and 8 in.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. The results given should be multiplied by 1. into these cylinders. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can.182 .420 . The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.500 . from the second to the third. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. are mounted on a base. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils.088 . above the half can. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz.600 . A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. of the top. B. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. and north of the Ohio river.

lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. In Fig. always remove the oil with a siphon. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. slender bottle. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. of pulverized campor. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. 31 gr. the wheel will revolve in one direction. which otherwise remains clear. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. then they will not rust fast. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Put the solution in a long. says Metal Worker. Colo. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . alcohol. 62 gr. When renewing. little crystals forming in the liquid. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. University Park. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air.

The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. If two of them are floating on the same solution. This is used in place of the spoon. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. floating on a solution. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. Attach to the wires. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. on the under side of the cork. Lloyd Enos. will allow the magnet to point north and south. A paper-fastener box. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. If zinc and copper are used. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. Solder in the side of the box . the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. about 1-1/4 in. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. If zinc and carbon are used. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. --Contributed by C. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet.

is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. Use a board 1/2. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. B.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way.not shorter than 18 in. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. to it. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. glass tubing . 1/2. The spring should be about 1 in. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. To this standard solder the supporting wire. The base. D. A circular piece of cardboard. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. and on the other around the glass tube. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. B. long.in. If the hose is not a tight fit. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. as shown in Fig. 14 wire will do. F. away. is made from a piece of No. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. The bottom of the box. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. one on each side of the board. C. brass tubing. can be made of oak. 3 in. 1. long. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire.Contributed by J.in. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. C. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint.1-in. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. The standard. C. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. and then solder on the cover. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. piece of 1/4-in. E. H. of wire on each end extending from the coil. Bore holes for binding-posts. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. Rhamstine. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. hole. long that has about 1/4-in. Wind evenly about 2 oz. G--No. 10 wire about 10 in. . long for the base and fasten the coil to it. Put ends. E. Thos. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. D. wide and 2-1/2 in. 1-1/4 in. thick. or made with a little black paint. A. stained and varnished. wide and 6 in. A. D. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. Take a small piece of soft iron. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. of No.

long. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. Smith. Cuba. 3 in. long. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. making a support as shown in Fig. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. 5. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. of mercury will be sufficient. 3. Teasdale. two pieces 2 ft. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. J. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. long. The iron plunger. D. Wis. About 1-1/2 lb. long. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. from the right hand. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. about 1 in. When the glass becomes soft. canvas. of 8-oz. 2. in diameter. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Y. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. is drawn nearer to the coil. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. four hinges. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long. long are used for the legs.--Contributed by R. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. N. . some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. 3-in. 1. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. E. of No. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. Milwaukee.--Contributed by Edward M.of the coil.

small aperture in the long tube. This tube as described will be 8 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. expelling all the air. thus leaving a. The tube now must be filled completely. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. 4. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. --Contributed by David A. Keys. Measure 8 in. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. Fig. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. of vacuum at the top. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. leaving 8 in. Take 1/2 in. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. Can. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. Toronto. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. long..Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. 3. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. 5. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. holding in the left hand. 2. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. Break off the piece of glass.. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. 6. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury.

on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. wide and 5 ft. long. long. and 1/4 in. but yellow pine is the best. wide and 12 in. long. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. Four blocks 1/4 in. 3 in. wide and 5 ft. thick. 6. cut in the shape shown in Fig. 2. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. 1 in. The large pulley is about 14 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. 1. thick. material 2 in. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the .6 -. as in Fig. 4 in. thick. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. in diameter. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. FIG. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. long. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. thick. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. wide and 3 in. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. thick. A crosspiece 3/4-in. 4. This forms a slot. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. 3. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. 9 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. These are bent and nailed. Fig. from the end of same. 5. 7. joint be accurately put together. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. wide and 5 ft. with each projection 3-in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. as shown in Fig. 1 in. wood screws. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. 3 in.

--Contributed by C. first removing the crank. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. R. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Kan. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. by 1-in. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. . Welsh.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Manhattan. Water 1 oz. above the runner level. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. says Photography. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. attach runners and use it on the ice.

Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. . Treasdale. Leominster. --Contributed by Edward M. 1. --Contributed by Wallace C. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. This is done with a camel's hair brush. 2. Mass. The print is washed. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. Printing is carried rather far. and very much cheaper. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. as shown in Fig. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. also. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. from an ordinary clamp skate. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. Newton. of water. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. 3. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. as shown in Fig. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. 1 oz. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way.

and to the bottom. high for rabbits. Fig. square piece. Then. Va. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. high. 1. which represents the back side of the door. with about 1/8-in. 1 ft. Alexandria. hole. The swing door B. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. and bend them as shown in the sketch. The thread is broken off at the . the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. Fig. extending the width of the box. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. Church. A. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. wide. causing the door to swing back and up. and 3 ft. --Contributed by H. as shown in the sketch. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. Take two glass tubes.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. wide and 4 in. Place a 10-in. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. long. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. 1-1/2 ft. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. from one end. about 10 in. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. 1. fasten a 2-in. too. F. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. say. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. 2.

will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. from the edge on each side of these openings. D. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. and exactly 5 by 7 in. Fig. as shown in Fig.proper place to make a small hole. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. Cut an opening in the other piece. high and 12 in. and go in the holder in the same way. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. wide. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. shorter at each end. 2. . Take two pieces of pasteboard. 1 in. to be used as a driving pulley. wide. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle.by 5-in. being 1/8 in. Out two rectangular holes. horses and dogs. trolley cars. 10 in. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. say 8 in. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. B. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. camera and wish to use some 4. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Chicago. -Contributed by William M. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. Fig. wide and 5 in. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. 1. Jr. Crilly. Paste a piece of strong black paper. plates. in size. inside of the opening.by 7-in.. black surfaced if possible. says Camera Craft. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. shorter. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. in size. A and B. C. 3. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. but cut it 1/4 in. This opening. long. long. automobiles.

making a . if it has previously been magnetized." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. wide will be required. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod.in. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. into which the dog is harnessed. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. long and 6 in. in diameter. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. A cell of this kind can easily be made. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear.. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. The needle will then point north and south. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam.

watertight receptacle. Do not paint any surface. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H.in. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. in diameter and 6 in. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. when the paraffin is melted. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. A is a block of l-in. one that will hold about 1 qt. pull out the wire as needed. of the plate at one end. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. leaving about 1/2-in. long which are copper plated. fuel and packing purposes. plaster of paris. . of water. for a connection. pine. 3/4 lb. sal ammoniac. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. of rosin and 2 oz. Form a 1/2-in. and a notch between the base and the pan. B is a base of 1 in. fodder. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. says Electrician and Mechanic. 1/4 lb. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. Place the pan on the stove. only the joints. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. 1 lb. filter. This makes the wire smooth. under the spool in the paraffin. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. of the top. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. Pack the paste in. in which P is the pan. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. short time. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. zinc oxide. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. beeswax melted together. F is a spool. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. File the rods to remove the copper plate. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. with narrow flanges.

" which created much merriment. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. let them try it. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right.. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. by the Hindoos in India. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. and then. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. square and about 9 in. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Enlarge the hole slightly. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. Toledo. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. from vexation. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. or think they can do the same. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. thus producing two different vibrations. long. 2. and he finally. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. At least it is amusing. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. g. and therein is the trick. Try it and see. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. and one friend tells me that they were . but the thing would not move at all. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. while for others it will not revolve at all. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Ohio. for others the opposite way. as in the other movement. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. If any of your audience presume to dispute.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. for some it will turn one way.

The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. 4. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. and. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. 3. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. 2. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. p. and I think the results may be of interest. Speeds between 700 and 1. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. A square stick with notches on edge is best. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. If the pressure was upon an edge. by means of a center punch. secondly. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. 5. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe.100 r. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. 7. no rotation resulted. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. m. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. 6. To operate. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. rotation was obtained. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. Thus a circular or . Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. the rotation may be obtained. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. gave the best results. The experiments were as follows: 1.

and not to friction of the pin in the hole.D. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. Washington. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. a piece of wire and a candle.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. D. so far as can be seen from the photographs. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. Sloan. C. if the pressure is from the left. as shown. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. unwetted by the liquid. it will be clockwise.. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. and the height of the fall about 6 in. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. is driven violently away. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. or greasy. at first. . G. --Contributed by G. Duluth. A. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. Ph. and the resultant "basket splash. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. Lloyd. the upper portion is. --Contributed by M. A wire is tied around the can.. Minn. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. forming a handle for carrying. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

as shown in Fig. with a 1/16-in.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. hole drilled in the center. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . as shown." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. Each wheel is 1/4 in. 1. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. flange and a 1/4-in. thick and 1 in. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. axle. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. about 2-5/8 in. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. long. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. in diameter. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button.

which must be 110 volt alternating current. Fig. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. A trolley. bent as shown. lamp in series with the coil. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. wide and 16 in. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. 6. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. The first piece. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . of No. --Contributed by Maurice E.50. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. The parts. Texas. with cardboard 3 in. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. wood. long. 3. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. 1 from 1/4-in. 4. 5. The current. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. are shown in Fig. 3/4 in. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. This will save buying a track. each in its proper place. San Antonio. or main part of the frame. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. The motor is now bolted. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. as shown in Fig. These ends are fastened together. 2. 3. Fuller. 2. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail.brass. bottom side up. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. as shown in Fig. Fig. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. is made from brass. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. holes 1 in. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. put together complete. If the ends are to be soldered. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. is made from a piece of clock spring. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. and the locomotive is ready for running. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. before doing so drill four 1/4-in.

Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. 2. then continue to tighten much more. as shown in Fig. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. but do not heat the center. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. the length of a paper clip. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. as shown in Fig. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Fig 1. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Cincinnati. and holes drilled in them. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Fig. and as this end . Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. 1. The quarter will not go all the way down. When cold treat the other end in the same way. O. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. 3. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in.

A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. has finished a cut for a tooth. 2 and 1 respectively. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. A pair of centers are fitted. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. In the sketch. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. When the trick is to be performed. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. or should the lathe head be raised. When the cutter A. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. and adjusted . The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. or apparent security of the knot.

at the same time striking light.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. book mark. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within).) Make on paper the design wanted. (5. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. (4. trace the outline. watch fob ready for fastenings. such as brass or marble. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. above the surface. or one-half of the design. 1. lady's belt bag. In this manner gears 3 in. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. --Contributed by Howard S. Bunker. coin purse. When connecting to batteries. note book. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. Bott. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. blotter back. Y. (3. holding it in place with the left hand. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown.) Place the paper design on the leather and. N. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. and a nut pick. tea cosey. if four parts are to be alike. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks).) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. (2. lady's card case. The frame holding the mandrel. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. dividing it into as many parts as desired. gentleman's card case or bill book. Fig. Brooklyn. (1. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. swing lathe. long. twisted around itself and soldered. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. if but two parts. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Second row: -Two book marks. tea cosey. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. draw center lines across the required space. about 1-1/2 in. An ordinary machine will do. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. Fold over along these center lines. (6. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. 2.to run true. --Contributed by Samuel C.

Secure . some heavy rubber hose. and an ordinary bottle.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube.

A..Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. D. Thrust a pin. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. Florida. If the needle is not horizontal. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. into which fit a small piece of tube. a distance of 900 miles. from Key West. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. The electrodes are made . When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. C. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. where it condenses. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. B. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. and push it through a cork.C. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. and bore a hole through the center.

long. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. lengths and splice them. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. wide and 3 ft. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. as shown in Fig. 2 arm sticks 1 in. free from knots. thick. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. --Contributed by Edwin L. The operator can then land safely and . and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. Washington. wide and 3 ft. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane.in. square and 8 ft long. thick. wide and 4 ft.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. several strips 1/2 in. by 3/4 in. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. thick. long. wide and 4 ft long. long. thick. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. take the glider to the top of a hill. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. 1-1/2 in. 1. If 20-ft. thick. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. 16 piano wire. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. use 10-ft. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. 2. 1. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. apart and extend 1 ft. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. long. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. 1. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. 1-1/4 in. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. long for the body of the operator. 12 uprights 1/2 in. 3. 2 in. To make a glide. using a high resistance receiver. 1/2. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. both laterally and longitudinally. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. as shown in Fig. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. All wiring is done with No. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. 2. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. long. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. wide and 4 ft. Connect as shown in the illustration. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. slacken speed and settle. or flying-machine. which is tacked to the front edge. D. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. and also to keep it steady in its flight. 3/4 in. Four long beams 3/4 in. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. Powell. as shown in Fig. C. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. wide and 20 ft. lumber cannot be procured. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane.

The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. but this must be found by experience. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps.gently on his feet. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Of course. Glides are always made against the wind. Great care should be .

Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. Olson.exercised in making landings. Bellingham. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. a creature of Greek mythology. as shown in Fig. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. M. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. which causes the dip in the line. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. 2. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. --Contributed by L. When heated a little. 1. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. half man and half horse.

Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. at the other. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. this will cost about 15 cents. outside the box. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. a piece of brass or steel wire. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. While at the drug store get 3 ft. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. about the size of stove pipe wire. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. in diameter. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. of small rubber tubing. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. The light from the . To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. long. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. square. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. about the size of door screen wire. long and about 3/8 in. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. 14 in. making it 2-1/2 in. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. will complete the material list. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket.

leaving the penny poised on the finger end. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. while others will fail time after time. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. as shown in Fig. 1. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. --Photo by M. as shown in Fig. M. Dayton. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. If done properly the card will flyaway. as shown in the sketch. 2.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. O. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. This is very simple when you know how. Hunting.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. . With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply.

Cool in water and dry. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. hold the lump over the flame. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. as before. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project." or the Chinese students' favorite game. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. as shown. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. When the desired shape has been obtained.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. as described. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. place the other two. This game is played by five persons. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. closing both hands quickly. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. then put it on the hatpin head. If a certain color is to be more prominent. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs.

distribute electric charges . After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. or more in width. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. passing through neutralizing brushes. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. these sectors. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in.

and the outer end 11/2 in. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. 1-1/2 in. long. The collectors are made. are made from 7/8-in. at the other. Fig. in diameter and 15 in. in diameter. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. wide. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. The plates. and of a uniform thickness. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. in diameter. D. as shown in Fig. 1. in diameter. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. from about 1/4-in. and this should be done before cutting the circle. wide at one end. to which insulating handles . copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. Two solid glass rods. These pins. material 7 in. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. 4. after they are mounted. in diameter. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. in diameter. and 4 in. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. the side pieces being 24 in. or teeth. The fork part is 6 in. The drive wheels. turned wood pieces. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. brass tubing and the discharging rods. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. C C. 3. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. are made from solid. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. RR. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. Fig. as shown in Fig.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. 3/4 in. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. The two pieces. long and the standards 3 in. free from wrinkles. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. 3. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. Two pieces of 1-in. in diameter. The plates are trued up. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. EE. and pins inserted and soldered. long. GG. long and the shank 4 in. 1 in. 2. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in.

wide and 22 ft. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. --Contributed by C. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. which are bent as shown. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. long. D. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. 12 ft. Lloyd Enos. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. one having a 2-in. in diameter. Colo. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft.are attached. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. and the work was done by themselves. ball and the other one 3/4 in. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence.. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. Colorado City. KK.

is a good one. as at A. bit. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. and bore a hole 1/2 in. They can be used to keep pins and needles. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. yet such a thing can be done. deep. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. The key will drop from the string. string together. pens . Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. using a 1-in. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall.

With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. very rapid progress can be made. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. Use . extra metal on each of the four sides.and pencils. unless it would be the metal shears. 7. etc. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. sharp division between background and design. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. Draw one-half the design free hand. stamp the background promiscuously. 3. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. etc. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. slim screw. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. flat and round-nosed pliers. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. also trace the decorative design. The second oblong was 3/4 in. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. Inside this oblong. 9. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. or cigar ashes. then the other side.. 8. above the work and striking it with the hammer. using a nail filed to chisel edge. They are easily made. inside the first on all. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. two spikes. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. This is to make a clean. 23 gauge. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. Proceed as follows: 1. file. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. and the third one 1/4 in.. inside the second on all. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. Having determined the size of the tray. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. Raise the ends. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. 5. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. they make attractive little pieces to have about. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. 6. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. 4. When the stamping is completed. about 3/4-in. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. 2. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. above the metal.

the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. and the effect will be most pleasing. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. The eyes. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. 6. 9. 8. and fourth fingers. 7. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. second fingers. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. In the first numbering. first fingers. 10. third fingers. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table.

Put your thumbs together. Let us multiply 12 by 12. or the product of 6 times 6. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. or 80.. 600.. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. above 20 times 20. At a glance you see four tens or 40. 400. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. In the second numbering. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. the product of 12 times 12. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. etc. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. Still. etc. viz. as high as you want to go. thumbs. Two times one are two. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. first fingers. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. or the product of 8 times 9. renumber your fingers. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. 11. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. and the six lower fingers as six tens. 2 times 2 equals 4. 12. above 15 times 15 it is 200. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. which would be 70. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. 25 times 25. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. if we wish. etc. which tens are added. there are no fingers above. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. .called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten.. or 60. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. but being simple it saves time and trouble. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. or numbers above 10. which would be 16.

the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. 3. the value of the upper fingers being 20. thirties. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. the revolution seems to reverse. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. and. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. first finger 17. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. thumbs. forties. about a vertical axis. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. the value which the upper fingers have. 75 and 85. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. when he removes his spectacles. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. etc. as one might suppose. any two figures between 45 and 55. whether the one described in second or third numbering. Take For example 18 times 18. and so on. Proceed as in the second lumbering. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. or from above or from below. however. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. 21. or what. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. the lump sum to add. For example. being 80). further. It takes place also. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. beginning the thumbs with 16. but was compulsory and followed regular rules.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. 7. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. For figures ending in 6. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. which is the half-way point between the two fives. . The inversion and reversion did not take place. And the lump sum to add. lastly. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. the inversion takes place against his will. 2. adding 400 instead of 100. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. in the case of a nearsighted person. first fingers 22. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. not rotation. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent.. 8. twenties. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. at the will of the observer.

But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. sometimes the point towards him. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The ports were not easy to make. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. the other appearance asserts itself. tee. Looking at it in semidarkness. when he knows which direction is right. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. The cylinder consists of a 3-in.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. as . A flat slide valve was used. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. and putting a cork on the point.

about 3 by 3 by 6 in. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. Beating copper tends to harden it and. Ill. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned.. in diameter. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. Fasten the block solidly. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. secure a piece of No. The tools are simple and can be made easily. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. inexpensive. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. The steam chest is round. Springfield. bottom side up. about 2 in. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. -Contributed by W. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. across the head. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. such as is shown in the illustration. deep. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. if continued too long without proper treatment. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. While this engine does not give much power. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. pipe. across and 1/2 in. apart. The eccentric is constructed of washers. it is easily built. as in a vise. saw off a section of a broom handle. If nothing better is at hand. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. pipe 10 in. Kutscher. H. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. Next take a block of wood. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. and make in one end a hollow. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. .

sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. To overcome this hardness. S. To produce color effects on copper. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. especially when the object is near to the observer. and. Vinegar. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. --Contributed by W.will cause the metal to break. the other to the left. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. This process is called annealing. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. C. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. Hay. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. Camden. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. as it softens the metal. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . O.

. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. with the stereograph. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. only the orange rays may pass through. In order to make them appear before the card. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself.stereoscope. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. although they pass through the screen. the one for the left eye being blue. But they seem black. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. not two mounted side by side. from the stereograph. they must be a very trifle apart. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. as for instance red and green. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. the left eye sees through a blue screen. it. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. while both eyes together see a white background. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. orange. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. It is just as though they were not there. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. would serve the same purpose. however. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. because. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. the further from the card will the composite image appear. and lies to the right on the picture. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. and without any picture. in the proper choice of colors. diameter. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. So with the stereograph. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. The red portions of the picture are not seen." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. disappears fully. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. The further apart the pictures are. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. that for the right. because of the rays coming from them.

in diameter. Place a NO. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. in the shape of a crank. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. 1/4 in. A No. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. thick. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. wide and 1 in. San Francisco. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. The weight of the air in round . The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. or the middle of the bottle. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. This should only be bored about half way through the block. etc.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. Cal. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. long and a hole drilled in each end. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. 12 gauge wire. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. wireless. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor.

square. will calibrate itself. Only redistilled mercury should be used. wide and 4 in. a bottle 1 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. inside diameter and 2 in. if you choose. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. long. thick. the instrument. a glass tube 1/8 in. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. The 4 in. and a slow fall. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. 34 ft. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. pine 3 in. or. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. Before fastening the scale. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. high. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are.. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. 30 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. high. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below.6) 1 in. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. the contrary. long. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers.numbers is 15 lb. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. if accurately constructed. wide and 40 in. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. but before attempting to put in the mercury. square. high. In general. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. long. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. or a column of mercury (density 13. internal diameter and about 34 in. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. But if a standard barometer is not available. .

Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. 2. 1. 6 and 7. 3. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. which is slipped quickly over the end. wide and 10 in.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. Procure a metal can cover. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Mark out seven 1-in. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . Number the pieces 1. long. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. a cover from a baking powder can will do. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. thick. the size of the outside of the bottle. and place them as shown in Fig. 5.

Move 13-Move No. To make such a tent. 2 over No. 1 to No. Move 12-Jump No. 3. 6 into No. 6. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 3 into No. 5 over No. 5's place. 7 over No. 1. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 5. 2's place. 1 into No. Move 10-Move No. 7 over No. This can be done on a checker board. 2's place. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 5 over No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 2 . N. 6 over No. Move 4-Jump No. in diameter. Move ll-Jump No. 2. as shown in Fig. 2. 6 to No. 1. 7's place. l over No. which is the very best material for the purpose. procure unbleached tent duck. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. Move 5-Jump No. Move 6-Move No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 7. Move 7-Jump No. 3. 3 over No. Move 8-Jump No. Move 14-Jump No. 5's place. shaped like Fig. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. Move 2-Jump No. each 10 ft. using checkers for men. 3. Move 15-Move No. Woolson.J. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 6. Cape May Point. long and 2 ft. 2 over No. Move 9-Jump No. 6 in.-Contributed by W. L. Move 3-Move No. Make 22 sections. 3 to the center.

in diameter. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. Nail a thin sheet of brass. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. wide at the bottom. Use blocks. long and 4 in. Pa. added. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. 3 in. These are ventilators. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. 6. about 9 in. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. leaving the rest for an opening. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Punch holes in the brass in . use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. will do. --Contributed by G. as in Fig. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. In raising the tent. 2 in.. Tress. round galvanized iron. Fig. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. to a smooth board of soft wood. 5) stuck in the ground. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. 5. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. high. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. diameter. After transferring the design to the brass. wide at the bottom. fill with canvas edging. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line.in. Have the tent pole 3 in. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. Emsworth. from the top. 6-in. wide by 12 in. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes.J. made in two sections. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. long. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. 2. Fig. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. 9 by 12 in. As shown in the sketch.

Chicago. It will not. around the outside of the pattern. apart. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. When all the holes are punched. bend into shape. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E.the spaces around the outlined figures. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. excepting the 1/4-in. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. The pattern is traced as before. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. but before punching the holes. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. . When the edges are brought together by bending. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. Corr. cut out the brass on the outside lines. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder.

A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. These pipes are . This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. Badger. or center on which the frame swings. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. If a wheel is selected. A 6-in. Que. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. Stevens. --Contributed by Geo. or less. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. pipe. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. Oregon. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. A cast-iron ring. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end.. partially filled with cream. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. --Contributed by H. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. Mayger. between which is placed the fruit jar. better still. Dunham. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. pipe is used for the hub. allowing 2 ft.however. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. or. G. E.

An extra wheel 18 in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. Four braces made from 1/2-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. bent to the desired circle. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe clamps. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. pipe. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe.

The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The performer. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. 3. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. as shown in Fig. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. while doing this. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. and the guide withdrawn. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. 1. and dropped on the table. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. which was placed in an upright position.

in a half circle. White. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Harkins. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. it requires no expensive condensing lens. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. Colo. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. Denver. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. 1. Mo. Louis. -Contributed by C. --Contributed by H. D. 2. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. in diameter on another piece of tin. St. F. first. and second. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. The box can be made of selected oak or .

high and 11 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. long. wide. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. 5-1/2 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. high and must . The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. but not tight. fit into the runners. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. and 2 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. The door covering this hole in the back. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. 2. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. focal length. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. from each end. 3-1/2 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. AA. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. and. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. Two or three holes about 1 in. This will be 3/4 in. An open space 4 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. 1. wide and 5 in. as shown in Fig. long and should be placed vertically. If a camera lens is used. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. represented by the dotted line in Fig. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. wide by 5 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. long. from each end of the outside of the box. wide and 6-1/2 in.mahogany. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back.

. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. C. then the second knuckle will be March. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. and so on. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. Bradley. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture." etc. calling that knuckle January. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. Ohio. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. the article may be propped up . as it requires an airtight case. West Toledo. April. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. and extending the whole height of the lantern. provided it is airtight. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. June and November. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. 1. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. This process is rather a difficult one. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. --Contributed by Chas. calling this February. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box.

and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. taking care to have all the edges closed. 1. In each place two electrodes. and the lead 24 sq. one of lead and one of aluminum. Schenectady. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. Crawford. In both Fig. H. the lid or cover closed. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. The top of a table will do. N. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. or suspended by a string. and set aside for half a day. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. Pour in a little turpentine. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A.with small sticks. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. in. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. 1 and 2. running small motors and lighting small lamps. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. . 2. but waxed. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. giving it an occasional stir. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. in. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. Y. fruit jars are required. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. --Contributed by J.

as well as others. you remove the glass. After a few seconds' time. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. Cleveland. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. This trick is very simple. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. He. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. which you warm with your hands. You have an understanding with some one in the company. he throws the other. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. as you have held it all the time. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others.. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. O. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief.

allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. in diameter in the center. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. J. Colo. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. on a table. Be sure that this is the right one. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. near a partition or curtain.take the handiest one. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. put it under the glass. but in making one. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again.-Contributed by E. but by being careful at shores. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. Victor. . if any snags are encountered. Crocker. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Pull the ends quickly. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint.

for center deck braces. 1 piece. and. long. one 6 in. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. screws and cleats. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. from the bow and the large one. square by 16 ft. by 2 in. ducking. 4 outwales. 8 in. Fig. 11 yd. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. by 15 ft. by 12 in. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 1. 1/4 in. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 3 in.. of rope. are as follows: 1 keelson. of 1-1/2-yd. for cockpit frame. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 9 ft. wide 12-oz. wide and 12 ft. 50 ft. 1 in. Both ends are mortised. by 16 ft. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. selected pine. 1 piece. 2 and braced with an iron band. 2 in. by 10 ft. by 16 ft. wide and 12 ft. 8 yd. 1 in. long. 1/8 in. The keelson. thick and 3/4 in. of 1-yd. wide unbleached muslin. 7 ft. at the ends. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. the smaller is placed 3 ft. long. 14 rib bands. apart. wide. from each end to 1 in. 1 in. 3 and 4. Paint. for the stern piece. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 1 mast. and the other 12 in. drilled and fastened with screws. and fastened with screws. 2 gunwales. 1 in. 3 in.. is 14 ft. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. by 2 in. and is removed after the ribs are in place. from the stern. long. for the bow. clear pine. as illustrated in the engraving.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. by 8 in. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat.

doubled. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. thick. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. length of canvas is cut in the center. 9.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. This block. long is well soaked in water. A piece of oak. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. wide. is a cube having sides 6 in. 4 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. 7 and 8. 1/4 in. long. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. The deck is not so hard to do. from the bow. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. long. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. and fastened to them with bolts. The block is fastened to the keelson. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. a piece 1/4 in. Braces. 1 in. 6 and 7. Figs. thick and 1/2 in. apart. wide and 24 in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. The trimming is wood. . wood screws. 5. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. The 11-yd. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. These are put in 6 in. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. in diameter through the block. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. wide and 14 in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. corner braces. gunwales and keelson. also. screws. A 6-in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. wide. Fig. 3-1/2 ft. Before making the deck. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. thick and 12 in. long. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. 6. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. is cut to fit under the top boards. They are 1 in. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. A seam should be made along the center piece. 1 in. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. thick. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. wide and 3 ft. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. A block of pine. Fig. 6 in. thick 1-1/2 in.

The sail is a triangle. Tronnes. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. --Contributed by O. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. in diameter and 10 ft. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. 11. is 6 in. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. are used for the boom and gaff. E. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. 10 with a movable handle. long. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. 12. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. The keel. Fig. Ill. A strip 1 in. each 1 in. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. Wilmette. long. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. wide. The house will accommodate 20 families. wide at one end and 12 in. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. . or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. thick by 2 in. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The mast has two side and one front stay. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. apart in the muslin. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. at the other.The rudder is made as shown in Fig.

flat headed screws. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. and the other 18 in. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. with the ends and the other side rounding. five 1/2-in. square. Take this and fold it over . 3.into two 14-in. one 11-1/2 in. 2 in. Cut the maple. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. wide and 30 in. Fig.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. thick. 2-1/2 in. 1. and 3 ft. long. long. 1 yd. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. Ill. 2-1/2 in. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. wide and 2 ft. as shown in Fig. 5. Bevel both sides of the pieces. Tronnes. --Contributed by O. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. long and five 1/2-in. 4. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. 2. about 5/16 in. wide. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. thick. long. Wilmette. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. thick. flat-headed screws. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. flat on one side. E. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. wide.

Glue a three cornered piece. the mechanical parts can be put together. the top and bottom. When the glue is set. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. wide and 6-3/4 in. wide and 2-3/4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. St. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. F. and the four outside edges. C. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. are rounded. 3-1/4 in. The sides are 3-1/4 in. Another piece. of each end unwound for connections. The outer edges of this board are chamfered.once. wide . C. Mo. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. long. long. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. but can be governed by circumstances. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. long. Figs. long. Cut another piece of board. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. B. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. is set. Bliss. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. A. long. D. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. The front. about 3/8 in. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. wide and 4-1/2 in. wide and 5 in. E. After the glue. as well as the edges around the opening. forming an eye for a screw. Louis. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. The bag is then turned inside out. Wind three layers of about No. 5 from 1/16-in. leaving a small opening at one corner. wide and 6-1/2 in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. long. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. thick. thick. square. wide and 3 ft. --Contributed by W. Fig. and take care that the pieces are all square. pieces 2-5/8 in. this square box is well sandpapered. thick and 3 in. 1-1/4 in. soaked with water and blown up. 3/8 in. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. If carefully and neatly made. then centered. 6-1/2 in. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. and make a turn in each end of the wires. 1. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. long. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. A. 3 in. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. long. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. square. About 1/2 in. 2 and 3.

Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. L. wide and 2-1/2 in. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. Yorkshire. long. hole is fastened to the pointer. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. Richmond Hill. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. 1/16 in. Fig. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. 4 is not movable. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. bored in the back. Another strip of tin. Chapman. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. R. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. that has the end turned with a shoulder. 4. in diameter.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. --Contributed by George Heimroth. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. from one end. and fasten in place.and 2-5/8 in. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. Fig. 1/4 in. board. I. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. long.S. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. The base is a board 5 in. the same size as the first. These wires should be about 1 in. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. 5. The end of the polar axis B. thick. The resistance is now adjusted to show . A pointer 12 in. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. Place the tin. long. 4. G. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. 5-1/2 in. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. wide and 9 in. from the spindle. F. C. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. The stronger the current. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. When the current flows through the coil. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in.A.R. showing a greater defection of the pointer. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. and as the part Fig. W. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. the part carrying the pointer moves away. and the farther apart they will be forced. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. so it will just clear the tin. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. Like poles repel each other. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. Austwick Hall.

The following formula will show how this may be found. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. 30 min. shows mean siderial. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. 10 min. A. say Venus at the date of observation. and vice . all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. 10 min. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. 1881. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. at 9 hr.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. thus: 9 hr. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. M.

Hall. --Contributed by Robert W. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Conn. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. and then verify its correctness by measurement. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. New Haven. . get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in.f. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess.m. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. owing to the low internal resistance. or.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. if one of these cannot be had. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances.

and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. 3/8 in. 1-3/4 in. leaves or bark. as shown in the accompanying picture. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. Fig. thick. arsenic to every 20 lb. 1. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. The boring bar. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. When the follower is screwed down. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. fresh grass. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. put the fish among the ashes. inside diameter and about 5 in. and heap the glowing coals on top. Then. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. cover up with the same. especially for cooking fish. of alum and 4 oz. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. Wet paper will answer. long. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes.

Two pieces of 3/4 -in. thick. about 1/2 in. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. pipe. pipe. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. and threaded on both ends. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. when they were turned in. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. fastened with a pin. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off.

The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. but never one which required so little material. 30 in. This plate also supports the rocker arms. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. 2. the float is too high. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. a jump spark would be much better. Clermont. bent in the shape of a U. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. A 1-in. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. however. 4. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. then it should be ground to a fit. square iron. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. If the valve keeps dripping. Fig. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. The rough frame.valve stems. was then finished on an emery wheel. long. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. wide. 3. It . A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. thick and 3 in. Fig. and which gave such satisfactory results. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. Fig. as the one illustrated herewith. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. 5. Iowa. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. labor and time. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft.

square. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. and a little junk. long. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. extending above. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. Nieman. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. It looks like a toy. square and 2 ft. --Contributed by C. 12 ft. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. This makes an easy adjustment. for the "motive power" to grasp. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. from all over the neighborhood. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders." little and big. A malleable iron bolt. completes the merry-go-round. The seats are regular swing boards. long is the pivot. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. W. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. strengthened by a piece 4 in. butting against short stakes. If it is to be used for adults.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. square and 5 ft. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. in fact. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. rope is not too heavy. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. set 3 ft. The crosspiece is 2 in. A 3/4 -in. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. so it must be strong enough. strong clear material only should be employed. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. being held in position by spikes as shown. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. As there is no bracing. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. from the center. and. in diameter and 15 in. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. long. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. long. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. hole bored in the post. timber. no matter what your age or size may be. 3/4 in. in the ground with 8 ft. Use a heavy washer at the head. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. The illustration largely explains itself. with no trees or buildings in the way.

Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. 4. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. The backbone is flat. as shown in Fig. and sent to earth. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. To wind the string upon the reel. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. 1/4 by 3/32 in. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. 1. if nothing better is at hand. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. away. a wreck. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. then it is securely fastened. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. long.2 emery.the fingers. Having placed the backbone in position. Both have large reels full of . The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. The bow is now bent. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. square. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. 2. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. and 18 in. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. A reel is next made. one for the backbone and one for the bow. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. light and strong. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. These ends are placed about 14 in. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig.

he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. Bunker. First. C. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever.-Contributed by S. the balance. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. often several hundred yards of it. N.string. The handle end is held down with a staple. Moody. common packing thread. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. --Contributed' by Harry S. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Mass. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. he pays out a large amount of string. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. Brooklyn. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. or glass-covered string. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. If the second kite is close enough. Newburyport. Y.

rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. Vt. lengths (Fig. If the table is round. Hastings. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. each the size of half the table top. --Contributed by Earl R. square (Fig. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle .Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. then draw the string up tight. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. must be attached to a 3-ft. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. such as mill men use. then a dust protector. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Corinth. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. make the pad as shown in the illustration. length of 2-in. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. cutting the circular piece into quarters.

E. 16-1/4 in. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. from C to D. Wharton. which spoils the leather effect.. Use a smooth. Calif. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. trace the design carefully on the leather.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. 2-1/4 in. and E to G. Moisten the . Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. hard pencil. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. from E to F. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.9-1/4 in. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. Make the other half circular disk in the same way... 17-1/2 in. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Oakland. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. . G to H. 6-1/4 in. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring.-Contributed by H. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B.

Trace the openings for the handles. and E-G. place both together and with a leather punch. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. with the rounded sides of the tools. G-J. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. also lines A-G. I made this motor . Now cut narrow thongs. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. get something with which to make a lining. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. about 1/8 in. wide. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. if not more than 1 in. apart. and corresponding lines on the other side. and lace through the holes. Cut it the same size as the bag.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. H-B. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. is taken off at a time. To complete the bag.

iron. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. . D. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. Pasadena. as shown in Fig.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. long. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. of No. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. 2-1/4 in. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. B. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. each being a half circle. Shannon. 1. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. 1.M. Calif. 24 gauge magnet wire. 2. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. in length. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger.

The widest part of each gore is 16 in. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. The gores for a 6-ft.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. balloon should be about 8 ft. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. near the center. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. are the best kind to make. high. 1. from the bottom end. pasted in alternately. and the gores cut from these. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top.

leaving the solution on over night. as shown in Fig. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. After washing. In starting the balloon on its flight. Fig. 5. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. The steam. 1. saturating it thoroughly. As the boat is driven forward by this force. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. --Contributed by R. E. Staunton. somewhat larger in size. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. The boat soon attains considerable speed. after which the paint will adhere permanently. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. 4. 3. so it will hang as shown in Fig. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. B. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. using about 1/2-in. leaving a long wake behind. coming through the small pipe A. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. In removing grease from wood. If the gores have been put together right. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. lap on the edges. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. These are to hold the wick ball. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. in diameter. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. as shown in Fig. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. A.widest point. 2.

then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. In using either of the two methods described. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. long. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. There are three ways of doing this: First. The blocks are about 6 in. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. high and 8 in. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. long and each provided with a handle. wide by 6 in. Second. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. apart on these lines. if you have several copies of the photograph. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. in bowling form. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. Third. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. as is shown in Fig. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. 1.

not pointed down at the road at an angle. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. being careful not to dent the metal. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Rinse the plate in cold water. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. --Contributed by John A. N. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Fig. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Albany. thick. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead.Fig. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. 2. Hellwig. Y.

upon any particular object. wide and of any desired height. thick. which is 4 in. A circular piece of wood. with a set screw. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. A. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. --Contributed by R. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. 6 in. 2 the front view. 1 Fig. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. Corner irons. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. and. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. B. long for the base. A. wide and 8 in. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. S. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. Paine. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. and not produce the right sound. through which passes the set screw S. Richmond. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. Break off the frame. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. With this device. Va. in diameter. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. is fastened to a common camera tripod. and Fig. CC. 5 in. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. In Fig. are screwed to the circular piece. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. These corner irons are also screwed to. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or .

Ill.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. as only the can is visible. -1. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. D. pine boards. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. thus producing sound waves. . and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. Lake Preston. R. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. La Salle. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. S. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. Kidder. in diameter of some 1-in. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. I made a wheel 26 in. This will make a very compact electric horn. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. This horn. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions.

The frame is made of a heavy card. the same thickness as the coins. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Kane. O. 1. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Fig. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. If the collection consists of only a few coins. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. If there is a large collection of coins. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Ghent. --Contributed by C. Feet may be added to the base if desired. square. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Purdy. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. B. --Contributed by James R. Doylestown. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. 1. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. thick and 12 in. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. 2. A. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in.

The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. thick. One Cloud. into which to place the screws . 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder.E. of developer. cut and grooved. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. Neyer.J. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. a hammer or mallet. they become uninteresting. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. though not absolutely necessary. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. The material required is a sheet of No. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. Canada. Toronto. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Wis. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. several large nails. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. Milwaukee. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. for after the slides have been shown a few times. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. A rivet punch is desirable. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. Noble. --Contributed by R. If desired. and then glued together as indicated. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Cal. --Contributed by J. Smith. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. border all around. melted and applied with a brush. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. plus a 3/8-in. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. --Contributed by August T. It will hold 4 oz. A lead pencil. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry.

Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. like the one shown. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. There are several ways of working up the design. both outline and decoration. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . screws placed about 1 in. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. never upon the metal directly. draw one part. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. Take the nail. and file it to a chisel edge. Remove the screws.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. using 1/2-in. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape.

hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. Provide four lengths for the legs. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. up from the lower end. long. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. square.wall. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. . as shown in Fig. each 1 in. and two lengths. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. for the top. in the other. Rivet the band to the holder. square and 181/2 in. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. two lengths. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. using a 1/2in. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. of 11-in. long. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. square and 11 in. The pedal. Do not bend it over or flatten it. 2. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. About 1/2 yd. 3/4 in. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. l-1/8 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. 3. for the lower rails. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. being ball bearing. 1. long. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid.

Ala. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. Attalla. Quackenbush. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. --Contributed by W. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . F. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. New York City. having quite a length of threads. --Contributed by John Shahan. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator.

Assemble as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by C. wide and 8-1/4 in. and the other 2-3/4 in..This novelty watch fob is made from felt. using class. wide and 4-1/4 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. and 3/8 in. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. Ironwood. long. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Mich. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. initial. and two holes in the other. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. in depth. from the end. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. D. Luther. Two pieces of felt. making a lap of about 1 in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. stitched on both edges for appearance. each 1-1/4 in. long. long. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. college or lodge colors. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. one about 1 in. the end of the other piece is folded over. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. The desired emblem. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. something that is carbonated. from one end.

Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. A piece of lead. and the cork will be driven out. 1. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. in diameter and 2 in. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. Indianapolis. Schatz. or more in height. Fig. 2. or a pasteboard box. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. Punch two holes A. 1/4 in. if desired by the operator. from the center and opposite each other. about 2 in. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. in the cover and the bottom. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. as shown at B. Ind. --Contributed by John H. as shown in the sketch. This method allows a wide range of designs. which can be procured from a plumber. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool.

allowing the two ends to be free. A piece of thick glass. 3. Columbus. When the can is rolled away from you. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. as shown in Fig. 4. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. O. on both top and bottom. or marble will serve. 1. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. are turned up as in Fig. Fig. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level.Rolling Can Toy lead. 5. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. The pieces of tin between the holes A. metal. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. and the ends of the bands looped over them. it winds up the rubber band. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. . A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. putting in the design. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand.

Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. I secured a board 3/4 in. wide and 20 in. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. If it is desired to "line" the inside. long and bored a 1/2-in. or more thick on each side. After this has been done. face up. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. thicker than the pinion.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. Next place the leather on the glass. hole through it. from each end. mark over the design. thick. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. and. 1 in. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. New York City. A pencil may be used the first time over. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. The edges should be about 1/8 in. 3 in. deep in its face. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side.

Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 4 guides. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 2. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 1 piece for clamp. in diameter. 1 by 12 by 77 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Brooklyn. N. thick top board. 2 end rails. Fig. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 1 screw block. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . and fit it in place for the side vise. 1 back board. New York. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 1 top board. 1 top board. 1 by 9 by 80 in. Syracuse. 2 crosspieces. 3 by 3 by 6 in. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. pieces for the vise slides. 2 side rails. Make the lower frame first. Y. Now fit up the two clamps. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. Cut the 2-in. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. 3 by 3 by 36. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. M. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. --Contributed by A. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them.in the board into the bench top. countersinking the heads of the vise end. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. Rice. 3 by 3 by 20 in. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 2 by 12 by 77 in. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. lag screws as shown. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 1 piece. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 1. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 1 piece for clamp. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in.

The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 24 in. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 marking gauge. 1 set chisels. 1 cross cut saw. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 claw hammer. 3 and 6 in. rule. 1 monkey wrench. They can be purchased at a hardware store. in diameter. 1 pocket level. 1 rip saw.. 1 countersink. The amateur workman. 1 pair pliers. If each tool is kept in a certain place.. . 2 screwdrivers. 1 pair dividers. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used.screws. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. as well as the pattern maker.. 1 nail set. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 jack plane or smoother. Only the long run. 1 2-ft. 1 set gimlets. The bench is now complete. it can be easily found when wanted. 24 in. 1 wood scraper. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 compass saw. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood.

The calf skin. No. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. try square.1 6-in. Fig. 2. the projecting point A. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. Kane. Doylestown. Fig.1. ---Contributed by James M. will be easier to work. 1. 3. after constant use. will sink into the handle as shown at D. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. but will not make . Pa. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. 2 and 00 sandpaper. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. 1. Fig. being softer. becomes like A. Fig. 1 oilstone.

and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. If calf skin is to be used. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. Having prepared the two sides. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. Two pieces will be required of this size. If cow hide is preferred. and the length 6-5/8 in. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. which steam. . go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct.as rigid a case as the cow skin. then prepare the leather. First draw the design on paper. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. will do just as well. water or heat will not affect. -Contributed by Julia A. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. secure a piece of modeling calf. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. when dry. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. lay the design on the face. New York City. After the outlines are traced. The form can be made of a stick of wood. Turn the leather. White. cover it completely with water enamel and. the same method of treatment is used. but a V-shaped nut pick. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. such as copper or brass.

Cal. C. A. New York City. --Contributed by Chester L. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Herrman. . The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. as shown in the sketch. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Maine. and an adjustable friction-held loop. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. Cobb. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Richmond. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. --Contributed by W. Jaquythe. --Contributed by Chas. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. Portland.

Wright. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. --Contributed by Wm. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. an inverted stewpan. Mass. B. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. --Contributed by Geo. A thick piece of tin. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. for instance. Conn. Roberts. Cambridge.. Middletown. This was very difficult. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. . or anyone that can shape tin and solder. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. was marked out as shown. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop.

on a clear piece of glass. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. If any traces of the grease are left. Bone. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. used as part of furniture. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. If the article is highly polished. Illinois. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. The next morning there was no trace of oil. . Indianapolis. of boiling water. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows..Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. When dry. A beautifully bound book. apply powdered calcined magnesia. as shown. Ind. face down. Chicago. which has been tried out several times with success. pulverized and applied. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. but only an odor which soon vanished. --Contributed by Paul Keller. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. but not running over. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. There was no quicklime to be had. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. --Contributed by C. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. well calcined and powdered. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. F. and the grease will disappear. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. so some bones were quickly calcined. L. such as chair seats. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. Herbert. and quite new. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out.

deep and 5 in. Tarrytown. New York. wide and 12 in. If properly adjusted. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. The pieces marked S are single. soft steel with the opening 6 in. says Scientific American.. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. set and thumbscrews. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. thick. 2 in. A. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in.. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. long. 6 in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. the pieces . Howe. This coaster is simple and easy to make. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by Geo. high and are bolted to a block of wood.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired.

The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. A sharp knife. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. no doubt. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . with a short bolt through each pair as shown. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. to the underside of which is a block. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. says Camera Craft. The seat is a board. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. they will look remarkably uniform. albums and the like. E. Their size depends on the plate used. for sending to friends. If the letters are all cut the same height. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in.

and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. photographing them down to the desired size. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. mount them on short pieces of corks. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. after. and. The puzzle is to get . The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. pasting the prints on some thin card. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. In cutting out an 0. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. So made. So arranged. for example. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. using care to get it in the right position. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives.

says the American Thresherman.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand.J. snow or anything to hide it. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. with the longest end outside. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. of its top. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. hung on pivots. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. squeezes along past the center of the tube. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. long that will just fit are set in. N. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . Old-Time Magic . then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row.-Contributed by I. A hole 6 or 7 in. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. He smells the bait. Bayley. so they will lie horizontal. G.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. Cape May Point.

then spread the string. Pocatello. --Contributed by L. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Pawtucket. then expose again. Rhode Island. Brooklyn. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Y. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. or rub the hands a little before doing so. N. Press the hands together. Idaho. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Szerlip. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Parker. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. --Contributed by L. E. --Contributed by Charles Graham. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin.faced up. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined.

thick. full size. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper.. near the point end. When the whole is quite dry. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. using a straightedge and a pencil. says the English Mechanic. 3 Fig. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. or green oil paint. whether he requires a single sword only. in width. wipe the blade . and if carefully made. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. wide and 2 in. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. dark red. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. if any. long. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. 1 Fig.. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. 4 on the blade. The pieces. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. in building up his work from the illustrations. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. narrower. end of the blade. 2 Fig. they will look very much like the genuine article.Genuine antique swords and armor. 1. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. The handle is next made. The blade should be about 27 in. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. or a complete suit of armor. Glue the other side of the blade. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel.

the other is flat or halfround. the length of the blade 28 in. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. the other is flat or half-round. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. as it is . If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. Both edges of the blade are sharp. In the finished piece. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. 4. not for use only in cases of tableaux. 1. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. This sword is about 68 in. 3.. of course. in the widest part at the lower end. 1.with light strokes up and down several times. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. should be about 9 in. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. the illustration. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. follow the directions as for Fig. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. shows only two sides. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. 1. square and of any length desired. 2. and 3 in. allowing for a good hold with both hands. Fig. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration.. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. about 1-1/2 in. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. take two pieces of wood. The length of the handle. preferably of contrasting colors. long. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. thick and 5 in. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. 1. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. the other two are identical. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. in diameter. In making. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. 2. 3. 1/8 in. In making this scimitar. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig.

Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. as shown in the sketch. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. N. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. as can the pitch bed or block. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. Y. piping and jackets by hard water. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. 2 in. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. --Contributed by John Blake. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. at the lower end. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. each about 1 ft. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. long. or an insecure fastening. It is made of a plank. about 3/8 in. --Contributed by Katharine D. in an attempt to remove it. Mass. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. and. Doctors probed for the button without success. On each edge of the board. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Syracuse. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. Franklin. The thinness of the plank. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. A cold . square. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. however. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. A piece of mild steel. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. as there was some at hand. Both can be made easily. and if so. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. Morse.

With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. To remedy this. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb.. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. 18 gauge. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. design down. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. plaster of Paris. To put it in another way. 5 lb. When the desired form has been obtained. tallow. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. secure a piece of brass of about No. When this has been done. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch.. a file to reduce the ends to shape. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. on the pitch.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. using a small metal saw. 5 lb. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. Trim up the edges and file them .

Fig. per second. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. one 18 in. 1 ft. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. space between the vessels with water. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. and hang a bird swing. 2). in the center. per minute. using powdered pumice with lye. That is lifting 33.000 ft. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. or 550 ft. in diameter (Fig. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. lb.smooth. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. The smaller is placed within the larger. in one minute or 550 lb. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. in diameter (Fig. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. 3. A. lb. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. it may be well to know what horsepower means. --Contributed by Harold H. but not to stop it. 1 ft. to keep it from floating. 1) and the other 12 in. Before giving the description.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Clean the metal thoroughly. 30 ft. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. and still revolve. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. or fraction of a horsepower. . Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Cutter. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. in one second. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. Fill the 3-in.000 lb. This in turn divided by 33. make an unusual show window attraction. over the smaller vessel. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines.

--Contributed by J. --Contributed. Campbell. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. 2 Fig. Mass. N. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. by L. Diameter 12 in. Brooklyn. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Diameter Fig. Y.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. Somerville. The effect is surprising. Szerlip. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. 1 Fig. F. or on a pedestal.18 in.3 Fig.

as a rule. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. then by drawing a straightedge over it. is. which may be of wood or tin. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. and the clay . keeping the center high. unsatisfactory. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. which. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. often render it useless after a few months service. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. and cut out the shape with the shears. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. This compound is impervious to water. and then. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. Do not be content merely to bend them over. the same as removing writing from a slate. after which it is ready for use. to keep the metal from tarnishing. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. using any of the common metal polishes. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. Rivet the cup to the base. In riveting. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. with the pliers. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. away from the edge.copper of No. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. with other defects. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. Polish both of these pieces. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces.

as shown in Fig. DeLoof. Scotland. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. in diameter and 5 in. Mich. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. 2. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. Dunlop. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Mich. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Northville. --Contributed by John T. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. 1.can be pressed back and leveled. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. A. 3/4 in. --Contributed by A. Shettleston. The siphon is made of glass tubes. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. -Contributed by Thos. long. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. It is made of a glass tube. . The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Grand Rapids. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. Houghton. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. the device will work for an indefinite time.

stilettos and battle-axes. This sword is 4 ft. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in.FIG. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. As the handle is to . 1. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. long.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. put up as ornaments. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle.1 FIG. in width and 2 in. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. London. long with the crossguard and blade of steel.

finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. A German poniard is shown in Fig. The crossbar and blade are steel. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. Three large. with wire or string' bound handle. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. is shown in Fig. 9. in length. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. with both edges sharp. This stiletto has a wood handle. very broad. When the whole is quite dry. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. The ball is made as described in Fig. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. long. studded with brass or steel nails. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. This weapon is about 1 ft. firmly glued on. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. glue and put it in place. sometimes called cuirass breakers. 4. then glued on the blade as shown. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. paint it a dark brown or black. Both handle and axe are of steel. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. the upper part iron or steel. This axe is made similar to the one . 8 is shown a short-handled flail. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. the same as used on the end of the handle. 3 is shown a claymore. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. The lower half of the handle is of wood. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. 5. small rope and round-headed nails. When dry. The sword shown in Fig. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. 20 spike. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. 6. Cut two strips of tinfoil. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. 8. 11 were used. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. These must be cut from pieces of wood. A German stiletto. sharp edges on both sides. In Fig. 7. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. This sword is about 4 ft. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. string. one about 1/2 in. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. In Fig. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. In Fig. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. the axe is of steel. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. This weapon is also about 1 ft. The handle is of wood. in width. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. in length.represent copper. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. narrower. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. which is about 2-1/2 ft. long with a dark handle of wood. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. wood with a keyhole saw. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. with both edges of the blade sharp.

Davis. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. Chicago. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand.described in Fig. This will make a very good flexible belt. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. such as braided fishline.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. 10. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. high. will pull where other belts slip. Old-Time Magic . the ends are tied and cut off. 2. --Contributed by E. W. so the contents cannot be seen. together as shown in Fig. . 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. When wrapped all the way around.

only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. S. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. There will be no change in color. As zinc is much lighter than iron. The dotted lines in Fig. or using small wedges of wood. an acid. Macdonald. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. 2. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher.J. apparently. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. held in the right hand. Bridgeton. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. four glass tumblers. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. 1 and put together as in Fig. Oakland. filled with water. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. some of the liquid. with the circle centrally located. N. These wires are put in the jar. Calif. Before the performance. --Contributed by A. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. in a few seconds' time. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. causing the flowers to grow. about one-third the way down from the top.

says a correspondent of Photo Era. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. and equally worthy of individual treatment. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. This outlines the desired opening. Cal. Jaquythe. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. --Contributed by W. not only because of the fact just mentioned. unless some special device is used. Richmond. 4 for width and No. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. 2 for height. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. A. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. When many slides are to be masked. practical and costs nothing. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. and kept ready for use at any time. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. If the size wanted is No. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. which are numbered for convenience in working. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple.

16 gauge. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. using the carbon paper. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. Secure a sheet of No. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. too. When etched to the desired depth. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. The one shown is merely suggestive. possibly. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. and do not inhale the fumes. or a pair of old tongs. paint the design. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. is about right for the No. about half and half. the paper is folded along the center line. This done. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. and the extreme length 7 in. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . These colors fade away in the course of a long time. may be changed. Draw a design. a little less acid than water. which is dangerous. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. or. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. not the water into the acid. The decoration. With a stick. but they can be easily revived. the margin and the entire back of the metal.Etching copper is not a very difficult process.

Fig. Nail a board. repeat as many times as is necessary. long and 1 ft. long. 5. 4. as in Fig. to the table. A.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. The connections are simple: I. 2. in diameter and 1/4 in. 1. so that when it is pressed down. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. Fig. about 2-1/2 in. Paint the table any color desired. it will touch post F. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. When the button S is pressed. and bore two holes. about 8 in. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. wide. about 1 in. and about 2-1/2 ft. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. as shown in the illustration. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. It may be either nailed or screwed down. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. high. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. about 3 ft. thick. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Cut out a piece of tin. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. through it. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. 24 parts water. . apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. 2. 3. 5. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. Fig. 2. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. Then get two posts. wide and of the same length as the table. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. or more wide. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. J is another wire attached in the same way. the bell will ring. 3/8 in. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. with the wires underneath. Fig. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. as at H. as shown in Fig. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. attached to a post at each end. 0 indicates the batteries. C and D. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. Fig.

Imitation Arms and Armor . long. The entire weapon. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. but they are somewhat difficult to make. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. thick. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. says the English Mechanic. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. long serves as the dowel. such as . the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. the wood peg inserted in one of them. 2. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike..PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. The imitation articles are made of wood. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. After the glue is dry. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. This weapon is about 22 in. A wood peg about 2 in. is to appear as steel. The circle is marked out with a compass. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. handle and all. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. These rings can be carved out. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. 1.

The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle is of wood. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. The lower half of the handle is wood. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The entire handle should be made of one piece. covered with red velvet. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. leaves. 6. The upper half of the handle is steel. The spikes are cut out of wood. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. The handle is of steel imitation. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. This weapon is about 22 in. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 2. studded with large brass or steel nails. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. flowers.ornamental scrolls. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. also. as described in Fig. 5. or the amateur cannot use it well. All of these axes are about the same length. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. the hammer and spike. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. 3. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. long. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. . then the hammer put on the base of the spike. as shown. is shown in Fig. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. etc. as before mentioned. used at the end of the fifteenth century. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. with a sharp carving tool. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. If such a tool is not at hand. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. Its length is about 3 ft. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. 8. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. The axe is shown in steel.

Chicago. then the other plays. 5. 2. and so on for nine innings. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 3. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. as shown in Fig. a three-base hit. as in Fig. calls for a home run. 4).Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. 6. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. Each person plays until three outs have been made. . 1. The knife falling on its side (Fig. the knife resting on its back. 7) calls for one out. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. Fig. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position.

with the rope laced in the cloth. 1. Campbell. Somerville. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. 3. of water for an hour or two. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. hypo to 1 pt.-Contributed by J. as shown in Fig. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. one of them burning . The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. If it is spotted at all. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. This he does.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. while the committee is tying him up. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. Old-Time Magic . Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. as shown in Fig. Mass. 2. F. It may be found that the negative is not colored. of the rope and holds it.

In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. showing that there is nothing between them. Thome. etc. Louisville. of sugar. invisible to them (the audience).. Brown. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern.Contributed by Andrew G. Lebanon. of turpentine. of plumbago. bolt. shades the light for a few seconds. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. B. --Contributed by L. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. Drill Gauge screw. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. Evans. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. Ky. . Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. He then walks over to the other candle. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. The magician walks over to the burning candle. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. of water and 1 oz. New York City. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. 3/4 in. the other without a light. --Contributed by C. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. with which he is going to light the other candle. and. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. 4 oz. 4 oz. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way.brightly. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. thick. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Ky. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. thus causing it to light. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. and the audience gaze on and see nothing.

It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. but is not so good. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. long. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. Denniston. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. or blotting paper. Do not add water to the acid. diameter. thick. 5 in. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. N. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. into a tube of several thicknesses. H. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . about 5 in. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. To make the porous cell. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. Y. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. In making up the solution. steady current. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. --Contributed by C. which will give a strong. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Pulteney. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. for the material. Its current strength is about one volt. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used.

The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. steel. one drawing them together. steel. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. steel. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. Finally. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. After much experimentation with bearings. long with a bearing at each end. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. but somewhat lighter. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. As to thickness. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. while the other end is attached by two screws.) may be obtained. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other.station. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. carrying the hour circle at one end. a positive adjustment was provided. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. One hole was bored as well as possible. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. To insure this. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. the other holding them apart. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The . The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped.

It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. excepting those on the declination axis. All set screws. Point it approximately to the north star. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. The aperture should be 1/4 in." Only a rough setting is necessary. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. Instead. once carefully made. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. are tightened. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. Each shaft. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. Set the declination circle to its reading. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. and if it is not again directed to the same point. turn the pointer to the star. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. in each direction from two points 180 deg. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. To locate a known star on the map. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. need not be changed.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. It is. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. and 15 min. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. When properly set it will describe a great circle. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. The pointer is directed to Alpha. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. subtract 24. If the result is more than 24 hours. apart.. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. is provided with this adjustment. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. Declination is read directly. save the one in the pipe. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. The pole is 1 deg." When this is done.. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. All these adjustments. Cassiopiae. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. 45 min. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. To find a star in the heavens. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps.

is the real cannon ball. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. New Orleans. taking care not to add too much. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. cannon balls. then add 1 2-3 dr. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. a great effect will be produced. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. long. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. 3 or 4 in. The ball is found to be the genuine article. -Contributed by Ray E.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. Plain City. which is the one examined. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. benzole. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. The dance will begin. In reality the first ball. the others . Strosnider. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover.. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. Ohio. as shown in the sketch. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. of ether. If this will be too transparent. is folded several times. La. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. add a little more benzole.

--Contributed by Herm Grabemann. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . 1). F. small brooches. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. Campbell. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. Wis. San Francisco. Return the card to the pack. --Contributed by J. Cal. In boxes having a sliding cover. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. Fig. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. 2. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. as shown in the illustration. without taking up any great amount of space. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. taps. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. Milwaukee. Mass. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. Somerville. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. etc. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack.. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated.

This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. This box has done good service. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. round pieces 2-1/4 in. .The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Hartford. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Connecticut. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. from the bottom of the box. thus giving ample store room for colors. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. Beller. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. prints. as shown in the illustration. slides and extra brushes.

1). the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. about threefourths full. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. tacking the gauze well at the corners. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. will answer the purpose. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. . 2). West Lynn. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. costing 5 cents.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. holes in the bottom of one. Mass. -Contributed by C. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. O. Darke. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. When the ends are turned under. or placed against a wall. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. Fill the upper tub. FIG. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. with well packed horse manure.

but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. when they are raised from the pan. if this is not available. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. and each bundle contains . A pair of these shields will always come in handy. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. If plugs are found in any of the holes. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. M. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. Eifel. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. --Contributed by L. Chicago. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. cutting the cane between the holes. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. they should be knocked out. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. oil or other fluid. If the following directions are carried out. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane.

Whenever the end of one strand is reached. as shown in Fig. then across and down. it should be held by a plug. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. In addition to the cane. held there by inserting another plug. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. 1. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. a square pointed wedge. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. put about 3 or 4 in. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. after having been pulled tight. No plugs . and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. and. as it must be removed again.

If you have a table of natural functions. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. the height of the line BC. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. From table No. 1.075 in. is the horizontal dial. using the same holes as for the first layer. The style or gnomon.= 4. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. All added to the lesser or 40°. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place.5 in. 3.2+. There are several different designs of sundials. the height of which is taken from table No. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. Fig. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. called the gnomon. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time.15+. for 2°. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. as for example. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. Fig. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. is the base (5 in. 41°-30'. in this case) times the . 5 in. If handled with a little care.2 in. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. but the most common. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. It consists of a flat circular table. 42° is 4. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. When cool. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. and the one we shall describe in this article. Their difference is . The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. 5.075 in.3 in. and for 1° it would be . can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. This will make three layers. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. stretch the third one. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. W. lat. 1. D. Patrick. 1 lat. Even with this lubrication. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. After completing the second layer. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. we have 4. Michigan. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. No weaving has been done up to this time. the next smallest. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third.42 in. it is 4. as shown in Fig. and for lat.15 in. 40°. 41 °-30'. -Contributed by E. as it always equals the latitude of the place. 3. or the style. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . 1. as the height of the line BC for lat. --Contributed by M. 4. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. Detroit. trim off the surplus rosin. R. During the weaving. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. as shown in Fig. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day.

interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.02 1.77 2.56 . and perpendicular to the base or style.55 46° 5. which will represent the base in length and thickness.82 3. 1.30 2.79 4. To layout the hour circle. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.11 3.88 36° 3.41 38° 3. Draw two semi-circles.83 27° 2. Its thickness. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.07 4.46 . an inch or two.66 48° 5.16 1. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.87 1.59 2.85 35 .87 4. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.37 5.44 44° 4. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.38 .85 1. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.37 54° 6.55 5.33 42° 4.68 5-30 6-30 5.93 2.33 .96 32° 3.82 2.tangent of the degree of latitude. gives the 6 o'clock points. using the points A and C as centers. Draw the line AD. and intersecting the semicircles. and for this size dial (10 in.14 5.42 45 . For latitudes not given.82 5.30 1. if of metal.49 3.64 4 8 3. long. circle Sundial. .42 .18 28° 2.91 58° 8.63 56° 7.66 1. 2.29 4-30 7-30 3. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.39 .32 6.12 52° 6.57 3.40 34° 3. or more.94 1.81 4.66 latitude.93 6.76 1.06 2.49 30 .19 1. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. 2. according to the size of the dial.28 .89 50° 5. base.03 3. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. or if of stone.23 6. Table NO.26 4. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.50 26° 2.27 2.40 1. 2 for given latitudes. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.46 3. Fig. Chords in inches for a 10 in.55 30° 2.99 2. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .42 1.16 40 . may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.20 60° 8.00 40° 4.55 4. with a radius of 5 in.10 6. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.57 1.97 5 7 4.

14 1. will enable one to set the dial. Sun time to local mean time.72 5. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. after allowing for the declination.add those marked + subtract those Marked . says the English Mechanic. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. and the . care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.77 3. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.54 60 . London. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. 900 Chicago. then the watch is slower. --Contributed by J.49 5.12 5.57 1. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. This correction can be added to the values in table No.21 2. An ordinary compass.68 3. it will be faster. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.30 2.34 5. adding to each piece interest and value.60 4. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen..71 2. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. 2 and Dec. As they are the genuine reproductions.06 2. April 16.93 6.79 6. 3.63 1.50 . Mitchell. and for the difference between standard and local time.82 3.46 4. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .01 1.19 2. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.50 55 . 3.53 1. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.49 3. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.87 6. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.08 1.from Sundial lime.46 5. each article can be labelled with the name. The + means that the clock is faster.24 5. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. 25. Iowa.98 4. E. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.89 3.means that the dial is faster than the sun.52 Table No. Each weapon is cut from wood. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.10 4. Sioux City. if west.37 2. Sept. June 15.

with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. Partisan.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. 1. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. When putting on the tinfoil. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. . The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. 3. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. the length of which is about 5 ft.

The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. sharp on the outer edges. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 8. long. The extreme length is 9 ft. is shown in Fig. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. 6 ft. which are a part of the axe. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. long with a round staff or handle. . long. long with a round wooden handle. It is about 6 ft. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. This weapon is about 6 ft. in diameter. A gisarm or glaive. The edges are sharp. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. 7. press it well into the carved depressions. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. 5. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color.. about 4 in. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. used about the seventeenth century. The spear is steel. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. the holes being about 1/4 in. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade.which is square.

1. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. the most durable being bamboo. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. Ohio. 2 and 3. H. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. Loudonville. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. In Figs. Workman. apart. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Cut all the cords the same length. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. This is important to secure neatness. The twisted cross cords should . while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement.-Contributed by R. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. 5. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. are less durable and will quickly show wear. 4. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. Substances such as straw. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. as shown in Fig. B. are put in place. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. used for spacing and binding the whole together. or in holes punched in a leather strap. They can be made of various materials. the cross cords. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work.

procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. of the bottom. New York. below the top to within 1/4 in. Four V-shaped notches were cut. This was turned over the top of the other can. bamboo or rolled paper. shaped as shown at C. To remedy this. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. wide. -Contributed by Geo. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. M. as shown at B. 3 in. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. A slit was cut in the bottom. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. in which was placed a piece of glass. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. The first design shown is for using bamboo. for a length extending from a point 2 in. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. Lockport. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. Harrer. New Orleans. La.be of such material. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.

The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. Schaffner. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail.tape from sticking to the carpet. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. do not throw away the gloves. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. giving the appearance of hammered brass. Sanford. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. This should be done gradually. about 1/16 in. After this is finished. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. Cal. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. is shown in the accompanying sketch. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. Y. wide. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. H. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. the brass is loosened from the block. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. Ill. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . turned over but not fastened. It would be well to polish the brass at first. and two along the side for attaching the staff. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. --Contributed by Joseph H. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. This plank. Maywood. Newburgh. Pasadena. Shay. --Contributed by W. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. --Contributed by Chas. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. N.

Oak Park. Richmond. bent as shown. Unlike most clocks. K. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Jaquythe. in diameter. Marshall.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. --E. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. the pendulum swings . This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. -Contributed by W. Cal. Ill. A.

which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. 5/16 in. and the other two 2-5/8 in. high. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. high. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. bearing on the latter. Two uprights. A. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. In using this method. about 12 in. 6 in. Secure a board. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. wide. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. 7-1/2 in. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. Now place the board to be joined. about 6 in. 3/4 in. long and at each side of this. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. C. is an electromagnet. on the board B. only have the opposite side up. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. the center one being 2-3/4 in. B. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. in diameter. --Contributed by V. high. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. to the first one with screws or glue. such as this one. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end.. bar. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. Chicago. by 1-5/16 in. away. high and 1/4 in. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Fasten another board. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. . are secured in the base bar. Metzech. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. says the Scientific American. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. The construction is very simple.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. wide that is perfectly flat. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. thick.

long. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. . wide and 1 in. The trigger. from one end. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. whose dimensions are given in Fig. 3. Fig. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. or more. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. Vanderslice. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. as shown at A. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. 4. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. by driving a pin through the wood. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. plates should be made 8 in. square. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. 1. square inside. --Contributed by Elmer A. Fig. 1. wide and 5 in. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. 1. Phoenixville. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Pa. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. is fastened in the hole A. 2.

Fostoria. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. which allows 1/4 in.A. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. 5 parts of black filler. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. rubbing varnish and turpentine. 2 parts of whiting. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. Ohio. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. Simonis. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. -Contributed by J. as shown in the illustration. square. if only two bands are put in the . by weight. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. one-half the length of the side pieces. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces.

Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. In use. Mass. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training.lower strings. A double convex lens. long. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. as shown in Fig. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. place tracing paper on its surface. Shaw. No. and the picture can be drawn as described. keeps the strong light out when sketching. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. Grand Rapids. II. In constructing helmets. and it may be made as a model or full sized. Dartmouth. A mirror. 8 in. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. -Contributed by Abner B. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. London. DeLoof. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. It must be kept moist and well . a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. A piece of metal. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. says the English Mechanic. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. 1. deep. Michigan. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. If a plain glass is used. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. is necessary. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. which may be either of ground or plain glass. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. is set at an angle of 45 deg. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. in the opposite end of the box. wide and about 1 ft. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. --Contributed by Thos. G. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. preferably copper.

The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. and continue until the clay is completely covered. 3. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. The clay. a few clay-modeling tools. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. joined closely together. This being done. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape.kneaded. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. or some thin glue. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. the clay model oiled. shown in Fig. 2. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. brown. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. and over the crest on top. on which to place the clay. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . 1. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. with a keyhole saw. take. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. as in bas-relief. After the clay model is finished. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. 1. and the deft use of the fingers. Scraps of thin. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. and left over night to soak. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. All being ready. will be necessary. as shown in Fig. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks.

A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. They are all covered with tinfoil. then another coating of glue. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. --Contributed by Paul Keller. one for each side. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. or. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. Indiana. 5. The band is decorated with brass studs. When perfectly dry. which should be no difficult matter. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. with the exception of the vizor. square in shape. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. In Fig. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. as shown: in the design. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. When the helmet is off the model. 1. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. Before taking it off the model. 7. owing to the clay being oiled. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. When dry. The whole helmet. the piecing could not be detected. The center of the ear guards are perforated. This contrivance should be made of wood. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. as seen in the other part of the sketch.as possible. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. In Fig. should be modeled and made in one piece. a crest on top. will make it look neat. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . Indianapolis. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. the skullcap. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. a few lines running down. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. 9. and the ear guards in two pieces. and so on. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward.

above the collar. The two holes. in diameter and 9 in. GG. The plate. 4. If asbestos is used. Fig. about 80 ft. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. about 1 lb. 4 lb. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. The holes B and C are about 3 in. JJ.same size. Fig. as it stands a higher temperature. as shown in Fig. and. for connections. German-silver wire is better. if the measurements are correct. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. long. 4. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. and two large 3in. which can be bought from a local druggist. is then packed down inside the collar. one fuse block. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. Fig. 2. This will allow the plate. if this cannot be obtained. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. thick. AA. E and F. Fig. 4. Fig. two ordinary binding posts. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. Fig. until it is within 1 in. Fig. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. 4. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. or. 1. the fuse block. is shown in Fig. wide and 15 in. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. FF. long. of No. also the switch B and the fuse block C. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. thick sheet asbestos. of fire clay. one small switch. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. If a neat appearance is desired. each 4-1/2 in. AA. The mineral wool. 1. 22 gauge resistance wire. as shown in Fig. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. high. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. 3. one oblong piece of wood. 3 in. 1 in. 4. Fig. 1. screws. 4. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. with slits cut for the wires. AA. to receive screws for holding it to the base. are allowed to project about 1 in. 2. 2. 1. and C. of the top. of mineral wool. one glass tube. 4. 1. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. Fig. Fig. A round collar of galvanized iron. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. 12 in. long. as shown in Fig. The reverse side of the base. should extend about 1/4 in. about 1/4 in. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. Fig. the holes leading to the switch. This will make an open space between the plates. 1. Fig. Fig. when they are placed in opposite positions. to project through the holes D and A of the plate.

When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. This point marks the proper length to cut it. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. causing a short circuit. Cover over about 1 in. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. It should not be left heated in this condition. If this is the case. A file can be used to remove any rough places. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. apart. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. The clay. 4. II. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. When the tile is in place. more wire should be added. St. Next. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. using care not to get it too wet. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. --Contributed by W. and pressed into it. H. This completes the stove. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. will slip and come in contact with each other. when heated. steam will form when the current is applied. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. Fig. When this is done. --Contributed by R. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. Cut a 1/2-in. then. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. Richmond. A. Catherines. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. allowing a space between each turn. If it is not thoroughly dry. it leaves a gate for the metal. so that the circuit will not become broken. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. Cal. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. 2. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. above the rim. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . As these connections cannot be soldered. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. as the turns of the wires. While the clay is damp. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. It should not be set on end. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. Fig. Cnonyn. deep. Jaquythe. KK. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. Can. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. when cool.

The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. is large enough. says the Photographic Times.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. the air can enter from both top and bottom. and the frame set near a window. as shown. Then clip a little off the . the pie will be damaged. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. and the prints will dry rapidly. but 12 by 24 in. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. constructed of 3/4-in. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. --Contributed by Andrew G. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. square material in any size. Thorne. Ky. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. Louisville.

thereby saving time and washing. wide and 3 in. W. wide. in diameter. long. in diameter and about 4 in. causing a break in the current. at GG. 1. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. as shown. thick. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. Iowa. slip on two cardboard washers. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. 3. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. for the crank. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. long. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. The connections are made as shown in Fig. open out. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. Fig. 22 gauge magnet wire. each 1 in. The driving arm D. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. 2. 1. Figs. high. Fig. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. high. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. -Contributed by S. 1. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. 1/2 in. which are fastened to the base. Le Mars. long. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. thick and 3 in. An offset is bent in the center. The upright B. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. 1 and 3. 14 in. A 1/8-in. The board can be raised to place . wide and 7 in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. 2-1/2 in. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. high. 4 in. each 1/2 in. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. The connecting rod E. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. which gives the shaft a half turn. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. allowing each end to project for connections. long. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. Two supports. thick and 3 in. 1/2 in. 1. Fig. Herron. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. As the shaft revolves.Paper Funnel point.

Dorchester. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. In designing the roost. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. One or more pots may be used. Place the pot. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. --Contributed by William F. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. 3 in. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. . bottom side up. on a board. Mass. in height. making a framework suitable for a roost. as shown in the sketch. Stecher.

Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. F. Wind the .. when combined. odd corners. that it is heated. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. F. adopt the method described. if it is other than straight lines. shelves. Fig. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. The materials required are rope or. etc.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. in diameter. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. paraffin and paint or varnish.. ordinary glue. The bottom part of the sketch. as shown in Fig. 1. preferably. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. without any corresponding benefit. 1. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. and give it time to dry. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. will produce the pattern desired. windows. grills and gratings for doors. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin.

N. Harrer. M. Lockport. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. six designs are shown. -Contributed by Geo. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. cut and glue them together. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Fig. Y. 2. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] .Fig.

but no farther.. chips of iron rust. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. London. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. and the sides do not cover the jaws.. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. This piece of horse armor. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. 1. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. which was used in front of a horse's head. As the . The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made..Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. etc. etc. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. when it will be observed that any organic matter. will be retained by the cotton. says the English Mechanic.

and will require less clay. 6 and 7. 2. This being done. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. This can be made in one piece. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. The armor is now removed from the model. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. and therefore it is not described. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. then another coat of glue. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. All being ready. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. In Fig. which can be made in any size. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. This will make the model light and easy to move around. 2. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. This triangularshaped support. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. the same as in Fig. 4. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. the rougher the better. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. An arrangement is shown in Fig. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. as shown in the sketch. but the back is not necessary. 8. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. as the surface will hold the clay.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. but for . and the clay model oiled. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. which is separate. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. except the thumb and fingers. with the exception of the thumb shield.

the two pieces of foil will draw together. long. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. 9. Calif. . A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. in depth. running down the plate. Buxton. A piece of board. are glued to it. N. wide and 1/2 in. 2. When locating the place for the screw eyes. each about 1/4 in.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. cut into the shape shown in Fig. two for the jaws and one a wedge. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Redondo Beach. 1/2 in. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by John G. the top of the rod. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. the foils will not move. fastened to the rod. --Contributed by Ralph L. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. Goshen. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. Y. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. and the instrument is ready for use. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. but 3-1/2 in. The two pieces of foil. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. two in each jaw. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. If it does not hold a charge. are better shown in Fig. La Rue. will be about right.

thus making it ornamental as well as useful. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. Corsicana. M. pine board. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. as this will cut under the water without splashing. Texas. At a point 6 in. When a fish is hooked. as shown in the illustration. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. The can may be bronzed. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. --Contributed by Mrs. enameled or otherwise decorated. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. about 15 in. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. long. 2-1/2 in. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. A. is made of a 1/4-in. as indicated in the . Bryan. from the smaller end. silvered. hole bored through it. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up.

When it has dried over night. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. 3/8 or 1/4 in. will do as well as the more expensive woods. Basswood or butternut." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. and trace upon it the design and outline. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. If soft wood. Having completed the drawing. thick. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. then with a nail. such as basswood or pine was used. long over all. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. using a piece of carbon paper. A good size is 5 in. Any kind of wood will do. using powdered pumice and lye. wide by 6 in. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. or even pine. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. Next prepare the metal holder. punch the holes. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. take a piece of thin wood. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. put a coat or two of wax and polish . Polish the metal. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. as shown.Match Holder accompanying sketch. 22 is plenty heavy enough. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece.

hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. the whole being finished in linseed oil. Cal. wide and 5 in. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. is used for the base of this instrument. 2 in. long. If one has some insight in carving. . --Contributed by W. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. Jaquythe. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. long. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. A. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. of pure olive oil. If carving is contemplated. 1/2 in. It is useful for photographers. thick. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. Two wire nails. Instead of the usual two short ropes. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. can be made on the same standards. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. each 1 in. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. are used for the cores of the magnets. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. Richmond.

--Contributed by W. H. A piece of tin. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. About 1 in. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. in the shape shown in the sketch. Lynas. as shown in Fig. cloth or baize to represent the legs. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. . 3. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. London. leaving about 1/4 in. 25 gauge. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. cut in the shape of the letter T. as shown by the dotted lines. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. except that for the legs. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. 1. acts as a spring to keep the key open. similar to that used in electric bells. at A. about No. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. says the English Mechanic. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. then covered with red. All of the parts for the armor have been described. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. the paper covering put on. when the key is pushed down. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. A rubber band.

says Camera Craft. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. 2. apart. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. Take the piece shown in Fig. A 1/4-in. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. In one end of the piece. hole in the center. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. So set up. for the sake of lightness. apart. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. flat headed carriage bolt. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. completes the equipment. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. Instead of using brass headed nails. Silver paper will do very well. holes. 3 in. By moving the position of the bolt from. can be made in a few minutes' time. one to another . Secure two strips of wood. The two pieces are bolted together. long. 1 and drill a 1/4in. drill six 1/4-in. not too tight. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side.. at each end. These can be purchased at a stationery store. or ordinary plaster laths will do. and eight small holes. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. about 1 in. 1 in. Fig. make the same series of eight small holes and. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. Cut them to a length or 40 in. in the other end.

as shown in Fig. 4. In this sketch. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. 1. taking the same start as for the square fob. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. lay Cover B and the one under D. and the one beneath C. but instead of reversing . doubled and run through the web of A. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. and lay it over the one to the right. D over A and C. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. A round fob is made in a similar way. in Fig. Then take B and lay it over A. 2. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. long. of the ends remain unwoven. 2.of the larger holes in the strip. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Fig. Then draw all four ends up snugly. Start with one end. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. as in portraiture and the like. the one marked A. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. 2. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. A is the first string and B is the second. C over D and B. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. for instance. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. then B over C and the end stuck under A.

slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. as B. is to be made of leather.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. Rupp. over the one to its right. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . is left out at the center before starting on one side. The round fob is shown in Fig. as in making the square fob. as at A in Fig. long. always lap one string. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. especially if silk strings are used. A loop. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. the design of which is shown herewith. Monroeville. 3. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. Ohio. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. --Contributed by John P. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. 1-1/2 in. Other designs can be made in the same manner. 5. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat.

that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. Northville. Any smooth piece of steel. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. using the reverse side. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. When the supply of wax is exhausted. filling them with wax. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. beeswax or paraffin. A. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. such as a nut pick. pressing it against the wood. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. -Contributed by A. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. . Houghton. door facing or door panel. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. it can be easily renewed. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. Mich.

Ill. N. --Contributed by O. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. leaving about 1/4 in. long. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Petersburg. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. says Photographic Times. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. remaining above the surface of the board. Thompson. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. those on matte paper will work best. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. After the plaster has thoroughly dried.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. Enough plaster should. thick. and after wetting. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. Select the print you wish to mount. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. J. but any kind that will not stick may be used. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. D. Y. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. place it face down in the dish. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. apart and driven in only part way. . it is best to leave a plain white margin. New York. although tin ones can be used with good success. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. and about 12 in. Fold together on lines C. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. if blueprints are used. The tacks should be about 1 in. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. E and F. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope.

Lower into the test tube a wire. roses. bell flowers. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. etc.. without mixing the solutions. as shown at the left in the sketch. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. violets. filling the same about onehalf full. One of the . lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. will be rendered perfectly white. as shown in the right of the sketch.

L. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. long and made of wood. or delicate tints of the egg. is about 2-1/2 in. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. 1.. Millstown. should be soldered to the box. Shabino. turned a little tapering. Fig. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. thick. as shown. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. long. 1-7/8 in. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . but which will not wobble loose. made of heavy tin. not too tightly. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. 3. about 1/8s in.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. 2. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. --Contributed by L. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. shading. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The tin horn can be easily made. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. When soldering these parts together. The first point should be ground blunt. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. to keep the core from coming off in turning. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. South Dakota. as shown in the sketch. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. and at the larger end. in diameter and 1 in. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. The sound box. A rod that will fit the brass tube. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. The diaphragm. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig.

says the Iowa Homestead. wondering what it was. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. E. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Chicago. Gold. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle.Contributed by E. Victor. Colo. mice in the bottom. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Jr.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. put a board on top. and weighted it with a heavy stone. and. Ill. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away.

To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. N. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Pereira. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. Can.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Buffalo. . with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. Y. Ottawa. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. --Contributed by Lyndwode. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers.

Grand Rapids. This cart has no axle. through which several holes have been punched. cut round. as shown. --Contributed by Thos. longer than the length of the can. De Loof. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. by means of a flatheaded tack. --Contributed by W. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Put a small nail 2 in. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. as it can be made quickly in any size. Richmond. Cal. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Jaquythe. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. a piece of tin. above the end of the dasher. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. Mich. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. A. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. and at one end of the stick fasten.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater.

The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. 1/4 in. 1 ft. I reversed a door gong. Kane. 1. --Contributed by James M. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. wide and as long as the box. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. wide. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. The candles. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. cut in the center of the rounding edge. apart.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. 2. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. wide and 3 ft. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. deep and 3 in. Doylestown. Notches 1/8 in. 2.1. 2 in. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. The baseboard and top are separable. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. Pa. of course. board. long. 1-1/2 in. wide and 1/8 in. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. screwed it on the inside of a store box. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. New Orleans. Fig. A wedge-shaped piece of . as shown. 2. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. thick. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. were below the level of the bullseye. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. La.

Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. as shown in Fig. Cover the block with rubber. For the handle. the reason being that if both were solid. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. This device is very convenient for invalids. dressing one surface of each piece. the shelf could not be put on the window. can be picked up without any trouble. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge.Book Back Holders metal. Ia. The block can also be used as a paperweight. A. --Contributed by G. the blade is put back into the groove . Needles. it can be removed without marring the casing. stone or wood. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. will. Wood. Mass. After the glue has dried. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. Worcester. take two pieces of hard wood. wide into each side of the casing. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. After completing the handle. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. wide rubber bands or felt. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. 1. by cutting away the ends. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. When not in use. 3. scissors. West Union. when placed as in Fig. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. etc. to prevent its scratching the desk top. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it..

Mass. Cleveland. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. --Contributed by H. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. as shown in Fig. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Hutchins. long. . Pa. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Jacobs. 2. Ohio. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. A. If desired. Malden. A notch is cut in one side. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Erie. thus carrying the car up the incline. square and 4 in. S. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. 1. as shown in Fig. -Contributed by W. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. 1 in. --Contributed by Maud McKee.

A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. If one such as is shown is to be used. This will insure having all parts alike. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. will be needed.. and an awl and hammer. 6 by 9-1/2 in.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. a board on which to work it. . N. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing.J. Prepare a design for the front. Cape May Point. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. The letters can be put on afterward. One sheet of metal. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy.

or. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. 3/4 part. if desired. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. as shown. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. placed on a table. which is desirable. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. On the back. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. paste the paper design right on the metal. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. So impressive are the results." In all appearance. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. 1/4 part. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. If any polishing is required. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. The music will not sound natural. a violin. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. 1 part. flat brush. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. says Master Painter. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. The stick may be placed by the side of. but weird and distant. behind or through the center of a table leg.Fasten the metal to the board. mandolin or guitar. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. One coat will do. only the marginal line is to be pierced. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. . Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. Remove the metal. to right angles. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. turpentine. in the waste metal. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. applied by means of a brush. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. that can be worked in your own parlor. 2 parts white vitriol. varnish.

and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. round-head machine screws. are shaped as shown in Fig. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. without them. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. square bar iron. long and measuring 26 in. apart. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. long and spread about 8 in. London. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. 2. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. With proper tools this is easy. each 28 in. thick by 1/2 in. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. it might be difficult. and is easy to construct. says Work. 3. . long. each 6 in.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. is bent square so as to form two uprights. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. across the top. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. Two pairs of feet. wide. The longest piece. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. which should be about 5-1/2 ft.

and the base border. or. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. A. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. The design is formed in the lead. Fig. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. While the piece of lead D. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. 7. D. 4. lead. the latter being tapped to . Fig. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. After the glass is cut. B. on it as shown. 5. The glass. cut a long piece of lead. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. The brads are then removed. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. better still. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. 5. C. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. Place the corner piece of glass. special flux purchased for this purpose. as shown in Fig. 6. using rosin as a flux. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. is held by the brads. After the joints are soldered. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. in the grooves of the borders. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun.

Make three washers 3-in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. bolt. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. then flatten its end on the under side. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. as shown in Fig. Dreier. rounded at the top as shown. N. long. and round the corners of one end for a ring. This . This ring can be made of 1-in. plank about 12 ft. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. Bore a 3/4-in. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. then drill a 3/4-in. Secure a post. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. plates. long. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. A and B. wood screws in each washer. Bore a 5/8-in. and two wood blocks. not less than 4 in. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. The center pin is 3/4-in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. rocker bolt. in diameter and about 9 in. long. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. Jr. in diameter and 1/4 in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. J. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. one on each side and central with the hole.the base of the clip. holes through their centers. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. thick and drill 3/4-in.. --Contributed by W. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. Two styles of hand holds are shown. H. 8. Camden. square and of the length given in the drawing. bolt. Fasten the plates to the block B. The post is now ready to be set in the ground.

by 2 ft. shanks. long. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. square by 5 ft. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. by 3 ft. 4 in. can make a first class gymnasium. 4 in. bolts and rope. 1-1/4in. La. bit. 4 filler pieces. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. long. long and 1 piece. If trees are convenient. by 6-1/2 ft. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. 50 ft. 4 pieces. New Orleans. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. 3 in. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 16 screws. To substitute small. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. 3/4 by 3 in. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. 7 in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. from one edge. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. screws. The four 7-in. 1/2 in. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. of 1/4-in. and some one can swing an axe. long. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. 4 pieces. hickory. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . long. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. 1. square by 9-1/2 ft. because it will not stand the weather. 9 in. chestnut or ash. boards along the side of each from end to end. long. long. 1 by 7 in. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. straight-grained hickory. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. 2-1/2 in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. 2 by 4 in. Draw a line on the four 7-in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. horse and rings. in diameter and 7 in. maple. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home.will make an excellent cover for a pot.

boards coincide. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. each 3 ft. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. apart. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. so the 1/2-in. piece of wood. at each end. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig.bored. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. 2. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. deep and remove all loose dirt. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. Bore a 9/16-in. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. from the end.. 8 in. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar.. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. apart. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks.

then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. but most deceptive at dusk. just visible against the dark evening sky. it is taken to the edge of the foot. not much to look at in daytime. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. W. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. And all he used was a black thread. and then passes in a curve across the base. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. not even the tumbler. and ascends the stem. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. and materially heightened the illusion. was at its height. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. When the interest of the crowd. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. in an endless belt. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. disappearing only to reappear again. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. it follows the edge for about 1 in. passing through a screweye at either end.." which skimmed along the distant horizon. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. . after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. the effect is very striking. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. about 100 ft. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. If the tumbler is rotated. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. which at once gathered. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. apart. He stretched the thread between two buildings.

by 7 ft. 6 in. from either side of the center. A wire about No. 2 in. 2 cross braces. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. wide and 1 in. long. 2 by 4 in. 4 wood screws. by 2 ft. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. long. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. long. long. 4 knee braces. 8 in. 2 by 4 in. Bevel the ends of . The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. large spikes. square and 6 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 8 in. 7 in. La. 2 base pieces. and turned in a spiral D. long. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 2 by 3 in. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 4 bolts. Fig. so the point will be on top. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 4 in. long and 1 doz. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. square and 51/2 ft. long. 1. Chisel out two notches 4 in. long. 4 in. deep. by 10 ft. New Orleans. long. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 8 bolts. To make the apparatus. 2 by 4 in. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. preferably cedar. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 2 side braces. beginning at a point 9 in. 8 in. by 3 ft. The cork will come out easily. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar.

Two endpieces must be made. A. but even unpainted they are very durable. equipped with a strainer. Richmond. so the bolts in both will not meet. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. as shown in the diagram. A large sized ladle. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. If using mill-cut lumber. using four of the 7-in bolts. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view.. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. . and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. leave it undressed. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. screws. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. These will allow the ladle to be turned. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. Jaquythe. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. save the bars. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. --Contributed by W. etc. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. Cal. The wood so treated will last for years. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. which face each other. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. leaving the strainer always in position. except the bars. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. After the trenches are dug.the knee braces. and countersinking the heads. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. ( To be Continued. of 7 ft. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. jellies. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. additional long.

which seems impossible. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. . partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. of sufficient 1ength. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. milling machine. or various cutting compounds of oil.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. thus holding the pail as shown. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. partly a barrier for jumps. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. drill press or planer. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. Oil. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. it is necessary to place a stick. A. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. In order to accomplish this experiment.

scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. ten 1/2-in. 2 bases. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. wood yard or from the woods. Procure from a saw mill.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. The material required is as follows: Two posts.. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. two 1/2-in. is a good length. 4 in. by 3 ft. The round part of this log must be planed. from each end. 3 in. apart in a central position on the horse. 7 in. long. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. beginning 1-1/2 in. to fasten the knee braces at the top. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. bolts. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. in diameter--the larger the better. stud cut rounding on one edge. 4-1/2 in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. long. 2 by 4 in. apart. Hand holds must be provided next.. bolt. by 3 ft. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. in the ground. long. These are placed 18 in. long. 4 in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. These are well nailed in place. long. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. 4 knee braces. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. and free from knots. square by 5 ft. 2 by 4 in. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. 4 in. bolts. square by 5-1/2 ft. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. long. To construct. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. piece of 2 by 4-in. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . projections and splinters. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. but 5 ft. 2 by 4 in. by 3 ft. 2 adjusting pieces. long. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. bolts. 1 cross brace. 1 in. long. layout the bases as shown in the drawing.

Jaquythe. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. pipe and fittings.--Contributed by W. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. over and around. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle.horse top. etc. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Cal. no one is responsible but himself. water. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. it is caused by some obstruction. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. but nevertheless. Such a hand sled can be made in a . Richmond. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. such as a dent. A. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Also. it is caused by an overloaded shell. snow. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. then bending to the shape desired. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard.

Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. will give the length. 2. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. in width and 1/32 in. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. The end elevation. 1. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. is much better than a wood sled. when complete. Joerin. 1/4 or 3/16 in. Toronto. . Boston.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. when straightened out. France. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Ontario. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. Noble. at E and F. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Paris. --Contributed by Arthur E. which. --Contributed by James E. are all the tools necessary. Mass. thick. Vener. These. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. then run a string over each part. W. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. --Contributed by J.

Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. It is best to use soft water. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. The method shown in Figs. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. 4. are nailed. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. nor that which is partly oxidized. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. AA and BB. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. . Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. 3.

or unequal widths as in Fig. 1). The materials used are: backbone. as shown in Fig. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 2. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. or various rulings may be made. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. Percy Ashley in Rudder. 3. 4. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. . the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. Broad lines can be made.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 8 and 9. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. class ice-yacht. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. as shown in Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. 2. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it.Fig. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The point should extend about 11/2 in. pins to keep them from turning. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. long. but if it is made much longer. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. a tee and a forging. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. It can be made longer or shorter. a larger size of pipe should be used. Both the lower . All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. about 30 in. bent and drilled as shown. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The headstock is made of two tees. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. out from the collar. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. pipe. 1. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig.

and will answer for a great variety of work. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. Laporte. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. but also their insulating properties. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. --Contributed by W. Cal. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. --Contributed by M. Man. 2. thick as desired. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Held. W. M. as shown in Fig. 3/4 or 1 in. Musgrove. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. UpDeGraff. --Contributed by W. Boissevain. 2. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. Indiana. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. a straight line should be scratched Fig. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. a corresponding line made on this. or a key can be used as well.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. It is about 1 in. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. else taper turning will result. Fruitvale. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. To do this. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. 1. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. 2. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. .

the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. J. The handle is of pine about 18 in. Cline. --Contributed by E. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Ark. long. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. Smith.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. In use. To obviate this. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. as shown. Ft. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back.

This prevents the drill from wobbling. on starting the lathe. --Contributed by Walter W. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. face off the end of the piece. Denver. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. White. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. take . The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. New Orleans. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. if this method is followed: First. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. After being entered. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. which should be backed out of contact. centering is just one operation too many. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. La. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. the drill does not need the tool. and when once in true up to its size. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Colo.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs.

Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. After the wand is removed. and this given to someone to hold. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. the cap is placed over the paper tube. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. is put into the paper tube A. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. says the Sphinx. In doing this. shown at C. The handkerchief rod. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. all the better. after being shown empty. a long piece of glass tubing. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. unknown to the spectators. a bout 1/2 in. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. vanishing wand.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. by applying caustic soda or . shorter t h a n the wand. The glass tube B. It can be used in a great number of tricks. as shown in D. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. and can be varied to suit the performer. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other.

and if care is taken in selecting the material. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. preferably hard maple. cut to any shape desired. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. 1 Bottom. 1 Neck. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. thick. The brace at D is 1 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. square and 1-7/8 in. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. 1 End. with the back side rounding. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. End. Cut a piece of hard wood. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. Glue the neck to the box. As the cement softens. across the front and back to strengthen them. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. 3/16.potash around the edges of the letters. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. can be made by the home mechanic. The sides. With care and patience. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. 2 Sides. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. 1/4 in. as shown by K. 1. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. Glue strips of soft wood. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. This dimension and those for the frets . long. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. and glue it to the neck at F. by 14 by 17 in. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt.

A board 1 in. Carbondale. O.should be made accurately. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. long is used for a keel. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. When it is completed you will have a canoe. or backbone. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. --Contributed by Chas. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. 1) on which to stretch the paper. 3/16 in. -Contributed by J. Frary. Stoddard. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. thick and about 1 ft. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Norwalk. in diameter.Pa. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. but it is not. toward each end. H. E. and beveled . Six holes. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat.

1. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. In drying. as shown in Fig. The ribs. a. 2). Fig. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. Fig. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. twigs 5 or 6 ft. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. such as hazel or birch. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. 2. and so. procure at a carriage factory. but twigs of some other trees. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described.. two strips of wood (b. which are easily made of long. or other place. in such cases. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. Fig. B. long. 3/8 in.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. are next put in. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. some tight strips of ash. . C. Fig. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. 3. 4). 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. buy some split cane or rattan. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. 1 and 2. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. will answer nearly as well. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. 13 in. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. Fig. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. 3). because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. thick. Fig. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. The cross-boards (B. thick. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. 3). wide by 26 in. b. when made of green elm. C. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. Osiers probably make the best ribs. and. such as is used for making chairbottoms. as they are apt to do. Any tough. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. Green wood is preferable. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. For the gunwales (a. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. Fig. b. in thickness and should be cut. apart. Shape these as shown by A. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. Fig.) in notches. These are better. 4. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. or similar material. with long stout screws. and are not fastened. but before doing this. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. and notched at the end to receive them (B. slender switches of osier willow. b. two twigs may be used to make one rib. by means of a string or wire. probably. 3. long are required. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. the loose strips of ash (b. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. Fig. 2). as before described. as shown in Fig. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh.

If not. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. if it has been properly constructed of good material. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. and steady in the water. B. but with less turpentine. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. after wetting it. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. and very tough. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. but neither stiff nor very thick. 5). tacking it to the bottom-board. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. preferably iron. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. You may put in . it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. wide. It should be drawn tight along the edges. When thoroughly dry. If the paper be 1 yd. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. The paper is then trimmed. and held in place by means of small clamps.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. When the paper is dry. Being made in long rolls. apply a second coat of the same varnish. Then take some of the split rattan and. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. however. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. Fig. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. and as soon as that has soaked in. of very strong wrapping-paper. and light oars. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. It should be smooth on the surface.

they will support very heavy weights. Fig. and if driven as shown in the cut. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. We procured a box and made a frame. and make a movable seat (A. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. Fig. 5). to fit it easily. 1 and the end in . 2. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. 5. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. Fig. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. Drive the lower nail first. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. 1. fore and aft. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box.

A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. being softer where the flame has been applied. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. Close the other end with the same operation. This is an easy . --Contributed by Albert Niemann. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. Pa. 5. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. 4. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. this makes the tube airtight. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. A good way to handle this work. Pittsburg. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. This way has its drawbacks. and the result is.Fig. and the glass. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. 3. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass.

flat and round-nosed pliers. with a piece of carbon paper. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. extra metal all around. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. Oswald. then reverse. very rapid progress can be made. four. or six arms. fourth. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. Seventh. third. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. Give the metal a circular motion. metal shears. thin screw. above the work and striking it with the hammer. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. -Contributed by A. fifth. 23 gauge. above the metal. three. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. Sixth. rivet punch. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. also trace the decorative design. second. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. The candle holders may have two.way to make a thermometer tube. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. After the bulb is formed. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. file.

these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. Metal polish of any kind will do. drip cup. and holder. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Having pierced the bracket. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. Small copper rivets are used. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing.

deep. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. and in a week . smooth it down and then remove as before. Soak 1 oz. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. and other things as they were needed. if it has not absorbed too much ink. and brace and bit were the tools used. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. Twenty cents was all I spent. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. except they had wheels instead of runners. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. using a steel pen. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. when it will be ready for use. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. alcohol 2 parts. the stick at the bottom of the sail. The gaff. and add the gelatine. Fifty. they were like an ice boat with a sail. of glycerine to about 200 deg. winding the ends where they came together with wire. Shiloh. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. and water 24 parts. F. and it will be ready for future use. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. all the rest I found. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. Heat 6-1/2 oz. thus it was utilized. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. Mother let me have a sheet. glycerine 4 parts. N. I steer with the front wheel. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. A saw. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. sugar 1 part.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. J. hammer. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. is a broomstick. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. on a water bath. The boom.

Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.

high. DD. above the center. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. as desired. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. The slide support. This ring is made up from two rings. A and B. thick. 1/2 to 3/4 in. 8 in. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. describe a 9-in. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. or glue. are . Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. A table. and a projecting lens 2 in. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. slide to about 6 ft. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. focus enlarging a 3-in. If a small saw is used. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. and. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. at a distance of 24 ft. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. but if such a box is not found. G. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. 1. wire brads. E. about 2 ft. Fig. and 14 in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. well seasoned pine. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. wide and 15 in. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in.. H. at a point 1 in. provided the material is of metal. long. and the work carefully done. 3. or a lens of 12-in. wide. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. and the lens slide. The board is centered both ways.

the strips II serving as guides. JJ. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. the water at once extinguishes the flame. E. apply two coats of shellac varnish. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. placed on the water. The arrangement is quite safe as. of safe. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. but not long enough. Small strips of tin. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. To reach the water.-Contributed by G. light burning oil. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. should the glass happen to upset. A sheet . Paul. and when the right position is found for each. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. P. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. B. St. Minn. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil.constructed to slip easily on the table.

form a piece of wire in the same shape. by 12 ft. 3 in. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. --Contributed by J. 9 in. 2. Y. If one of these clips is not at hand. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 12 ft. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. 1. I ordered a canvas bag. 3. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid.. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along .H. 3. Fig. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. 4. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. Schenectady. Fig. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. from a tent company. N.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. to cover the mattresses. then the corners on one end are doubled over. Crawford.

A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. A rubber band. long. V. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. first mark the binding-post A. White. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. Do not use too strong a rubber. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. 3 to swing freely on the tack. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. Fig. apart. Fig. through which the indicator works. long and 3/16 in. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. Fasten the wire with gummed label. so as to form two oblong boxes. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig.each edge. open on the edges. --Contributed by Edward M. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. insulating them from the case with cardboard. Warren. in the center coil. 1. --Contributed by Walter W. A Film Washing Trough [331] . 2. as shown in Fig. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Teasdale. drill two 3/16 in. D. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. wide. 1. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. 3/4 in. To calibrate the instrument. to the coil of small wire for volts. for amperes and the other post. 1/2 in. An arc is cut in the paper. 2. Colo. 3/4 in. to keep it from unwinding. Attach a piece of steel rod. 2. Pa. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. Denver. C. Fold two strips of light cardboard. thick. 1/2 in. and insert two binding-posts. holes in the edge.

Dayton. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Hunting. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. --Contributed by M. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Cut a 1/4-in. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Wood Burning [331] . M. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. as shown. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. O. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Place this can on one end of the trough.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. with the large hole up.

mouth downward. then into this bottle place. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .

Ala. Whitehouse. This will make a very pretty ornament. --Contributed by Fred W. thick. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. wide and 4 in. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. If the cork is adjusted properly. If the small bottle used is opaque. but not very thick.Y. --Contributed by John Shahan. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. Auburn. 2. long. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . Upper Troy. as shown in the sketch. Place the small bottle in as before. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. 3/4 in. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. provided the bottle is wide. 1. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. many puzzling effects may be obtained. N.

Its smaller parts. The 21/2-in. line. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. A staple. Fig. which extended to the ground. 1. 1. pulley. 1 in. by the method shown in Fig. 1. 3. I. Fig. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. thick. 2 ft. thick. high without the upper half. such as blades and pulleys. thick and 3 in. as shown in Fig. sugar pine on account of its softness. even in a light breeze. On a 1000-ft. in diameter and 1 in. Fig. 2. long. Fig. 1. K. Both bearings were made in this manner. was 1/4in. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. Fig. G. The bearing blocks were 3 in. Milter. W. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. to the shaft. The wire L was put . four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. 1. 4. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. --Contributed by D. which was 6 in. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. If a transmitter is used. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. was keyed to shaft C. were constructed of 1-in. iron rod. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. pulley F.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. The shaft C. or ordinary telephone transmitters. B. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. which was nailed to the face plate. wide. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. which gave considerable power for its size.

Cut another piece of tin 3 in. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. top down also. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. If you have no bell. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. was tacked. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. 0. Fig. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. The power was put to various uses. 25 ft. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Fig. was 2 ft. This completes the receiver or sounder. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. Fig. a 1/2-in. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. Fig. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. when the windmill needed oiling. This board was 12 in. hole was bored for it. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. 2. long and 3 in.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. for instance. This fan was made of 1/4-in. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. in the center of the board P. cut out another piece of tin (X. so that the 1/4-in. providing one has a few old materials on hand. strips. To make the key. through the latter. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. wide and 1 in. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. H. Fig. G. long. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. The other lid. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. 1. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. 3 in. 1) 4 in. Fig. long. The smaller one. 1. and was cut the shape shown. Fig. hole for the shaft G was in the center. in diameter. across the thin edge of a board. with brass headed furniture tacks. with all parts in place. as. Two washers were placed on shaft C. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. long and 1/2 in. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. long and bend it as shown at A. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. pine 18 by 12 in. There a 1/4-in. 6. long and bend it as . wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. washers were placed under pulley F. 6. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. apart in the tower. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. 5. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. 1. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. 1. The bed plate D. square to the board P at the top of the tower. To lessen the friction here. R. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell.

as shown at Water. The rear barrels are. after the manner of bicycle wheels. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. Thus a center drive is made. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Before tacking it to the board.shown. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. at the front. although it can be made with but two. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. When tired of this instrument. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. like many another device boys make. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. fitted with paddles as at M. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. By adjusting the coils. causing a buzzing sound. 1. and. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. leaving the other wire as it is. as indicated. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. Now. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . McConnell. using cleats to hold the board frame. 2. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. -Contributed by John R. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. Going back to Fig. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig.

which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. can be built. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. If the journals thus made are well oiled. seat yourself on the bicycle seat.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. copper piping and brass tubing for base. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. There is no danger. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. as shown in Fig. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . 3. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. 1. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. feet on the pedals. or even a little houseboat. which will give any amount of pleasure. there will not be much friction. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. The speed is slow at first. To propel it.

inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. Fig. If magnifying glass cannot be had. Turn a small circle of wood. B. Fig. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. 2. 1. Place one brass ring in cylinder. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. or it may be put to other uses if desired. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. D. A. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. Shape small blocks of boxwood. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. C. 2. 1. and so creating a false circuit. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. then the glass disc and then the other ring. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. Fig. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . 2. 1. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. Then melt out the rosin or lead. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. If it is desired to make the light very complete. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water.of pleasure for a little work. Fig. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished.

Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. Brinkerhoff. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. C. Swissvale. Pa. wire from batteries to switch. T. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. In placing clock on shelf. S. When alarm goes off. dry batteries. 5-1/4 by 10 in. --Contributed by Geo. which stops bell ringing. Utah. bracket. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. or 1/4in. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. wide and 1/16 in. shelf. Ogden. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. set alarm key as shown in diagram. I. 4-1/2 in. H.. F. copper tubing. C.india rubber tubing. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. near the bed. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. To operate this. by having the switch on the baseboard. Throw lever off from the right to center. contact post. some glue will secure them. J. long. switch. brass rod. The parts indicated are as follows: A. --Contributed by C. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . D. and pulled tight. if too small. To get the cylinder into its carriage. B. after setting alarm. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. To throw on light throw levers to the left. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. wire from bell to switch. E. while lying in bed. X. wire from light to switch. thick. key of alarm clock. after two turns have been made on the key. 3/8 in. 4 in. G. such as is used for cycle valves. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. bell. Chatland. brass strip. long.

Lanesboro. Make a shoulder. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. S. about 3-1/2 in. for instance. Fig. Chapman. in diameter. will do the heating. 4 in. Having finished this. 3. a bed warmer. --Contributed by Chas. 2. 1. place stick and all in a pail of sand. from one end. Minn. as at B. being careful not to get the sand in it. gives the heater a more finished appearance. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. Fig. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. as at A. letting it extend 3/4 in. in diameter.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. making it as true and smooth as possible. as at A. 2. 1/4 in. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. 1. about 6 in. as in Fig. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. long. as . The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. This is to form the fuse hole. A flannel bag. A small lamp of about 5 cp. Fig. beyond the end of the spindle. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Pull out the nail and stick. Make the spindle as in Fig. which can be made of an old can. wide. All that is required is a tin covering.

The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. this is to keep the edges from splitting. The material must be 1-1/2 in. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. 6 in. --Contributed by Arthur E. long. long. but if this wood cannot be procured. 3/8 in.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. or hickory. thick. wide and 6 ft. A piece of oak. long. spring and arrows. Joerin. 5/8 in. ash. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. A piece of tin. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. deep. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . will be sufficient to make the trigger. good straight-grained pine will do. 1. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. 11/2 in. The illustration shows how this is done. wide and 3/8 in. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. thick. thick. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. 1 in. wide and 3 ft.

The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. The stick for the bow. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. To throw the arrow. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. thick. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. Fig. in diameter. which is 1/4 in. --Contributed by O. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. E. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. Fig. as shown in Fig. and one for the trigger 12 in. wide at each end. 9. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. from the end of the stock. as shown in Fig. To shoot the crossbow. or through the necessity of. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. it lifts the spring up. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. better still. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. 3. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. 4. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. 6. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. Fig. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. place the arrow in the groove. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. having the latter swing quite freely. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. Ill. 8. The trigger. When the trigger is pulled. A spring. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. Wilmette. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. 2. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. The bow is not fastened in the stock. from the opposite end. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. Such a temporary safe light may be . 7. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. Trownes. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in.

The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. since the flame of the candle is above A. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. Remove one end. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. and replace as shown at B. C. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. it is the easiest camp to make. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. from the ground. says Photo Era. The hinged cover E. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. Moreover. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. respectively. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. making lighting and trimming convenient. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. This lamp is safe. is used as a door. The cut should be about 5 ft. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. apart. from the ground. Remove the bottom of the box. By chopping the trunk almost through. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. the bark lean-to is a . and nail it in position as shown at A. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. make the frame of the wigwam. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft.

For a permanent camp. deep and covered with blankets. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. . piled 2 or 3 ft. 6 ft. In the early summer.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. Where bark is used. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. and split the tops with an ax. nails are necessary to hold it in place. Tongs are very useful in camp. long and 2 or 3 ft. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. Sheets of bark. are a convenient size for camp construction. wide. long and 1-1/2 in. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. a 2-in. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. makes a good pair of tongs. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. make the best kind of a camp bed. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. and cedar. 3 ft. spruce. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. selecting a site for a camp. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. For a foot in the middle of the stick. A piece of elm or hickory. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. long. wide and 6 ft. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. thick. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. will dry flat. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. and when the camp is pitched. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split.

hinges. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. .Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. and affording accommodation for several persons.

deep and 4 in. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. --Contributed by James M. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. Fig. about 4 in. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Doylestown. to another . B. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. I drove a small cork. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. Kane. changing the water both morning and night. wide. and provide a cover or door. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. 1. B. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. Pa. A. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. the interior can.. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place.

for instance. until. limit.glass tube. 2. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. to pass through an increasing resistance. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. The diagram. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. a liquid. The current is thus compelled. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. if necessary. for instance. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. which project inside and outside of the tube. such as ether. This makes . and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. C. 2. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. 3. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. E. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. 4 and 5). Fig. fused into one side. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them.

larger than the dimensions given. as shown in Fig. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. therefore. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. in diameter. Then the field can be finished to these marks. These holes are for the bearing studs. brass or iron. or pattern. 1. 3-3/8 in. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. but merely discolored. thick. which may be of any thickness so that. in diameter. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. is composed of wrought sheet iron. when several pieces are placed together. they will make a frame 3/4 in. Fig. If the thickness is sufficient. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. by turning the lathe with the hand. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. 3-3/8 in. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. as shown in the left-hand sketch. Michigan. 2. tap. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. and for the outside of the frame. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. bent at right angles as shown. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. between centers. Before removing the field from the lathe. set at 1/8 in. 4-1/2 in. thick. which will make it uniform in size. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. making it 1/16 in. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. to allow for finishing. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. The bearing studs are now made. 3. A 5/8in. assemble and rivet them solidly. After cleaning them with the solution. thicker. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. hole is . When the frame is finished so far. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. two holes. or even 1/16 in. Fig. clamp the template. brass. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. cannot be used so often. drill the four rivet holes. After the template is marked out. Alpena. mark off a space. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. screws. on a lathe. A.

leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . soldered into place. brass rod is inserted. 4. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. solder them to the supports. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. The shaft of the armature. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. or otherwise finished. is turned up from machine steel. When the bearings are located. into which a piece of 5/8-in. file them out to make the proper adjustment. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. and build up the solder well. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. Fig.

The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. wide. as shown m Fig. When this is accomplished. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. 3. brass rod. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. 3/4 in. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. wide. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. After the pieces are cut out. 6. thick. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. 3. Procure 12 strips of mica. 9. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. 1/8 in. thick. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. When annealed. Make the core 3/4 in. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. 3/4 in. The pins are made of brass. thick and 1/4 in. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. by 1-1/2 in. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. or segments. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. 8. thick are cut like the pattern. The sides are also faced off and finished. holes through them for rivets. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. as shown in Fig. and held with a setscrew.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. inside diameter. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. Rivet them together. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. and then they are soaked in warm water. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. washers. 7. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. to allow for finishing to size. then drill a 1/8-in. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. as shown in Fig. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. 5. Armature-Ring Core. hole and tap it for a pin. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. After they . and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. 1-1/8 in. 6. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. threaded. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing.. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. sheet fiber. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. deep and 7/16 in. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. thick. as shown in Fig. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. being formed for the ends. Find the centers of each segment at one end.

The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. The winding is started at A. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. Run one end of the field wire. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. The two ends are joined at B. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side.have dried. 1. the two ends of the wire. of the end to protrude. 6 in. The field is wound with No. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. In starting to wind. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. being required. shown at B. 5. are soldered together. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. yet it shows a series of . or side. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. by bending the end around one of the projections. about 100 ft. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. Fig. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. 1. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. This winding is for a series motor. and wind on four layers. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. wide and 1 in. until the 12 slots are filled. The source of current is connected to the terminals. When the glue is set. they are glued to the core insulation. after the motor is on the stand. of No. and bring the end of the wire out at B. shown at A. sheet fiber. 8 in. sheet fiber. Fig. of the wire. All connections should be securely soldered. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. thick. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. long. which will take 50 ft. After one coil. To connect the wires.

still more simply. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. or. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. as in the case of a spiral. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. Nine wires run from the timer. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. one from each of the eight contacts. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. A 1/2-in. which serves as the ground wire. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . is fastened to the metallic body. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. and one. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws.

wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. It should be . perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. of the dial. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. Covering these is a thin. board.The Wind Vane. circle. 6 in. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. thus giving 16 different directions. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. long. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. 45 deg. Without this attachment. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing.

The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. long to give the best results. also a piece of new carpet. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. if not too high. -Contributed by James L. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. Place the leather on some level. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. Fill the box with any handy ballast. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. will be enough for the two sides. is most satisfactory. Cut 3-in. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. 14 by 18 in. high. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. Before tacking the fourth side. To work these outlines. and securely nail on the top of the box. Blackmer. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. . will answer the purpose just as well. N. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. or. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. Buffalo. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together.about 6 ft. according to who is going to use it. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. To make it. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. however. though a special knife. Y. will be sufficient. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. and about 6 in. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. called a chip carving knife. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. making it heavy or light. thus making a universal joint.

Paste the silk plush to the inner side. An ordinary sewing-machine .Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. A good leather paste will be required.

Y. as in cases of a sprained ankle. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. B. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. N. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Syracuse. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. away from it. Morse. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. square and tying a piece of . Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. and fasten the feathers inside of it. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. temporary lameness. of water. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. or a hip that has been wrenched. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. rather than the smooth side. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. of common salt and 10 lb. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. If a fire breaks out. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. a needle and some feathers. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. --Contributed by Katharine D. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. can be thrown away when no longer needed. and tie them together securely at the bottom.will do if a good stout needle is used.

Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. The body of the receiver. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. cut to the length of the spool. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. The strings should be about 15 in. Hellwig. Ashland. . but not sharp. etc. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. the corners being wired. board all around the bottom on the inside. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. --Contributed by John A. Albany. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. wound on the head end. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. B. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. N. laying poisoned meat and meal. G. long. A small wooden or fiber end. Paterson. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. The coil is 1 in. The end is filed to an edge. commonly called tintype tin. and the receiver is ready for use. and a coil of wire. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. F. setting traps. long. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. deep. which is the essential part of the instrument. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. Gordon Dempsey. made up of four layers of No. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. letting it go at arm's length. E. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. Wis. high. --Contributed by J. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. thus helping the rats to enter. wide and 1/16 in. This not only keeps the rats out. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. One end is removed entirely. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. as shown. 1/8 in. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. N.. There is a 1-in. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm.string to each corner. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown.J. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. The diaphragm C. A. is cut on the wood. and tacked it to the boards. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. Y. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax.

but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. wide. Take a piece of string or. The vase is to have three supports. To clean small articles. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. and bend each strip in shape. better still. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. A single line will be sufficient. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. to . The scrolls are riveted and bolted together.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. a piece of small wire. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. begin with the smallest scrolls. gold. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight.

000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. . from the lines EF on the piece. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Trace also the line around the purse. Fold the leather on the line EF. 6-3/8 in. After taking off the pattern. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. through which to slip the fly AGH.which the supports are fastened with rivets. thus raising it. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. as shown in the sketch. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. 3-1/4 in. and does not require coloring.. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. from E to F. Work down the outside line of the design. wide when stitching up the purse. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. sharp pencil. 4-1/4 in. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. Press or model down the leather all around the design. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. from C to D.. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. 3-1/2 in. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. About 1 in. using a duller point of the tool. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1.

on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. and which will be very interesting. following the dotted lines. deep. then nail it. 1. around the wheel. long. and tack the other piece slightly. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. with a compass saw.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. the "open" side. cut out one piece as shown in Fig.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. It is neat and efficient. and a model for speed and power. 3. 1/2 in. thick. This also should be slightly beveled. and cut it out as shown in Fig. then place the square piece out of which Fig. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. Cut off six pieces 12 in. with the largest side down. Then nail the wheel down firmly. It can be made without the use of a lathe. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. 1 was cut. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. 2. square. by 12 ft. First. deep. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. being cast in wooden molds. and cut out a wheel. Make the lug 1/4 in. with the open side down. and the projections B. all the way around. When it is finished. as well as useful. as shown in Fig. Fit this to the two . Now take another piece of wood. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. and. leaving the lug a. with pins or small nails. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. b.

1. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and lay it away to dry. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. After it is finished. hole entirely through at the same place. hole 1/4 in.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. and bore six 1/4-in. one of which should have a 3/8-in.pieces just finished. and boring a 3/8-in. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. bolts. hole bored through its center. and cut it out as shown in Fig. place it between two of the 12-in. 4. deep. Now put mold No. and clean all the shavings out of it. slightly beveled. as shown by the . square pieces of wood. in the center of it. Take the mold apart. square pieces of wood. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. then bolt it together. holes through it. Now take another of the 12-in.

This will cast a paddle-wheel. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. from the one end. where the casting did not fill out. Using the Brace . 1. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. screw down. as shown in illustration. 4. d. After it is fitted in. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. and run in babbitt metal again.2. drill in it. and connect to the boiler. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made.1. B. the other right-handed. and pouring metal in to fill it up. wide and 16 in. and two 1/4-in.2. put the top of the brace through this hole. b. only the one is left-handed. in diameter must now be obtained. Put this together in mold No. This is mold No. lay it on a level place. Then bolt the castings together. Now cut out one of the 12-in. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. one in the projections. long. This is the same as Fig. and drill it entirely through. place the entire machine in a vise. and bore three 1/4-in. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. and 3/8-in. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. see that the bolts are all tight. place it under the drill. This is for a shaft. and drill them in the same manner. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. 6. Commencing 1-1/2 in. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. take an ordinary brace. and lay it away to dry. holes at d. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. over the defective part. holes. Pour metal into mold No. until it is full.1. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. Now take mold No. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. and the other in the base.black dots in Fig. fasten a 3/8-in. long. one in the lug. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. instead of the right-handed piece. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. 5. and the exhaust hole in projection b. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. 6. and pour babbitt metal into it. so that it will turn easily. Let it stand for half an hour.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Fig. true it up with a square. A piece of mild steel 5 in. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it.

Your turbine engine is now ready for work.. Then take a knife or a chisel. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. with a boss and a set screw. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. will do good service. and. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Plan of Ice Boat . and the other 8 ft. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. one 6 ft. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. and with three small screw holes around the edge. piece and at right angles to it. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. At each end of the 6ft. turn the wheel to the shape desired. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. while it is running at full speed. long. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. and if instructions have been carefully followed.

A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. The tiller. at the butt and 1 in. Fig. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. where they often did considerable damage. so much the better will be your boat. tapering to 1-1/2 in. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. The spar should be 9 ft. and about 8 in. which may come in handy in heavy winds. in front of the rudder block. at the top. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. 3. distant. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. boards to make the platform. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. 2 by 3 in. Run the seam on a machine. bolt the 8-ft. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. leaving 1 ft. Fig. in diameter. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. long. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. plank. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. This fits in the square hole. as the runners were fastened. in diameter in the cente