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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

as shown in Fig. wide and 2 ft. The pieces are then dressed round. away. 2 -.Fig. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. It is held in this curve until dry. 1. A piece of plank 12 in. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. distant. long will make six boomerangs. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. Noble. Ontario. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. 1. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. with the hollow side away from you. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. 2. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. Fig. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. Toronto. grasp it and hold the same as a club. 1. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. E. 2.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. To throw a boomerang. until it is bound as shown in Fig. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. apart. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . --Contributed by J. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. as shown in Fig.

long. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. First. minus the top. 6 in. and with a movable bottom. If the snow is of the right consistency. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. A wall. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. blocks . high and 4 or 5 in. it is not essential to the support of the walls. thick. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. forcing it down closely. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. however. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. but about 12 in. made of 6-in. the block will drop out. dry snow will not pack easily. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. or rather no bottom at all. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. A very light. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. which makes the building simpler and easier. one inside of the circle and the other outside. and it may be necessary to use a little water.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work.

or an old safe dial will do. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. Ore. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. Union. 3 -. and the young architect can imitate them. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. 3. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. There is no outward thrust. It also keeps them out. --Contributed by Geo.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. wide. long and 1 in. A nail. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. which can be made of wood.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. The piece of wood. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. a. Fig. Goodbrod. which is about 1 ft. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. is 6 or 8 in. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. Fig. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. Fig. 2. D. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. 1. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. above the ground. C. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. 1. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. 2.

The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. New York. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. --Contributed by R. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key.When taking hot dishes from the stove. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. Merrill. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. If ordinary butts are used. Syracuse. says the Sphinx. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. as the weight always draws them back to place. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. one pair of special hinges. S. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. the box locked . For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen.

which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. To make a design similar to the one shown.and the performer steps out in view. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. With the metal shears. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. It remains to bend the flaps. -Contributed by L. as shown in Fig. draw one-half of it. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. If they do not. 2. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. smooth surface. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. as shown in Fig. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. proceed as follows: First. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. All . Alberta Norrell. Augusta. Place the piece in a vise. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. allowing each coat time to dry. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. one for each corner. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. When the sieve is shaken. Fig. 1. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. as shown. on drawing paper. If the measuring has been done properly. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. 3. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. about 1-32 of an inch. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. Ga.

The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. In boring through rubber corks. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. After this has dried. 25 gauge German-silver wire. R. causing it to expand. A resistance. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. about 6 in. 25 German-silver wire. in passing through the lamp. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft.the edges should be left smooth. should be in the line. long. When the current is turned off. The common cork. --Contributed by R. H. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. of No. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . If a touch of color is desired. if rolled under the shoe sole. To keep the metal from tarnishing. heats the strip of German-silver wire. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. C. is fitted tightly in the third hole. in diameter. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. B. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. from the back end. Denver. which is about 6 in. A piece of porcelain tube. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. Galbreath. used for insulation. The current. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. as shown at AA. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. and in the positions shown in the sketch. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. Colo.

leaving a space of 4 in. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. --Contributed by David Brown. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. 3. Kansas City. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. with thin strips of wood. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. Purchase two long book straps. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. as shown in Fig.bottom ring. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. 2. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. between them as shown in Fig. 1. Mo. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. . Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Fig. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe.

and a pocket battery. N. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. 36 in. Morse. 4. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. Fig. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. Syracuse. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. These are shown in Fig. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. just the right weight for a woman to use. are mounted on the outside of the box.. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. 1. A. Pa. Fig. 1. 1. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Y. Kane. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. C. Two strips of brass. 3. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. which is the right weight for family use. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. When the aeroplane tips. one weighing 15 lb. Doylestown. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. and tack smoothly. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown.. --Contributed by Katharine D. The string is then tied. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. as . Fig. and one weighing 25 lb. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. to form a handle. The folds are made over the string. in diameter.An ordinary electric bell. 2. --Contributed by James M. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. having a gong 2-1/2 in. long.

A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. such as brackets. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. and many fancy knick-knacks. 3/32 or 1/4 in. four washers and four square nuts. --Contributed by Louis J. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. machine screws. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. 2. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. Day. AA. two 1/8 -in. in diameter. 2. if once used. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. 1. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. bent as shown in Fig. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. Frame Made of a Rod . long. N. Floral Park. The saw. Y.

after breaking up. Scranton.may be made of either brass. File these edges. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. 1 part sulphuric acid.. copper. Rub off the highlights. Watch Fob For coloring silver. therefore. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. if copper or brass. An Austrian Top [12] . the most expensive. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. In the design shown. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. Drying will cause this to change to purple. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. it has the correct strength. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. Detroit. --Contributed by W. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. using a swab and an old stiff brush. as well as brass and copper. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. treat it with color. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. of water in which dissolve. For etching. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. as well as the depth of etching desired. green and browns are the most popular. of water. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. If it colors the metal red. A. The buckle is to be purchased. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. or silver. be covered the same as the back. Michigan. though almost any color may be obtained. of course. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. Apply two coats.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. Of the leathers. use them in place of the outside nuts. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. allowing each time to dry. 1 part nitric acid. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. Silver is the most desirable but. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish.

hole in this end for the top. --Contributed by J. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. 3/4 in. Tholl. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. pass one end through the 1/16-in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. A 1/16-in. When the shank is covered. is formed on one end. long. allowing only 1-1/4 in. Michigan. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. 5-1/4 in. wide and 3/4 in. . thick. A handle. starting at the bottom and winding upward. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. 1-1/4 in. The handle is a piece of pine. Parts of the Top To spin the top.F. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. hole. Ypsilanti. in diameter. Bore a 3/4-in. long. set the top in the 3/4 -in. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way.

tarts or similar pastry. Northville.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Alberta Norrell. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. --A. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Ga. Augusta. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Mich. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. For black leathers. having no sides. --Contributed by Miss L. A. . permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Houghton. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. The baking surface.

screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. glass fruit jar. Centralia. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. the same as shown in the illustration. then solder cover and socket together. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. two turns will remove the jar. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Mo. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. When you desire to work by white light. Stringing Wires [13] A. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. says Studio Light. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch.

1/4 by 1 by 65 in. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. 4 Braces. 4 Vertical pieces. 16 Horizontal bars. Wis. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. square by 62 in. 1-1/4 in. They are fastened. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. as shown in the cross-section sketch. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. Janesville. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. 1-1/4 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. so it can be folded up. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. . square by 12 in. and not tip over. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws.for loading and development.

Rosenthal. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. after filling the pail with water. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. and a loop made in the end. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. Phillipsburg. O. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. -Contributed by Charles Stem. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. Cincinnati. The whole. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. The front can be covered . How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. If the loop is tied at the proper place. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. C. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. New York. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. H. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. --Contributed by Dr. After rounding the ends of the studs. from scrap material.

--Contributed by Gilbert A. If the gate is raised slightly. The results will be poor. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. sickly one. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. by all rules of the game. Baltimore. either for contact printing or enlargements. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. if you try to tone them afterward. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. 1 FIG. In my own practice. thoroughly fix. and. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. you are. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. FIG. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. the color will be an undesirable. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. Develop them into strong prints. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. Wehr. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. the mouth of which rests against a. By using the following method. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. Md. The . says a correspondent of Camera Craft. principally mayonnaise dressing.

preferably the colored kind.. but. where it will continue to bleach... The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig...... Water ." Cyanide of potassium . without previous wetting.. in this solution.... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax... A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. 1 and again as in Fig.... to make it 5 by 5 in.... 2. three times.... being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. A good final washing completes the process...bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. It will bleach slowly and evenly. as it will appear clean much longer than the white. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. --Contributed by T.. Cal.. L. 2 oz...... San Francisco.. etc. long to admit the angle support. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. Place the dry print. 20 gr....... when it starts to bleach. With a little practice..... When the desired reduction has taken place.. Gray. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. The blotting paper can .. transfer it to a tray of water. wide and 4 in... The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. in size........ Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. 5 by 15 in.. Iodide of potassium .. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.... 16 oz.

J. 3. --Contributed by J. wide below the . The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. the head of which is 2 in. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. and a length of 5 in. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Oshkosh. Wisconsin. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. 20 gauge. having a width of 2-1/4 in. wide. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Make a design similar to that shown. the shaft 1 in. Corners complete are shown in Fig.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Canada. --Contributed by L. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Monahan.

then coloring. Do not put the hands in the solution. Fig. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. 1 part nitric acid. Trace the design on the metal. Pierce a hole with a small drill. With files. as shown in Fig. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. then trace the other half in the usual way. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. After the sawing. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. freehand. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. Make one-half of the design. which gives the outline of the design Fig. 1 Fig. After this has dried. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. after folding along the center line. deep. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. using carbon paper. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. With the metal shears. 4. The metal must be held firmly. being held perpendicular to the work. 1. Apply with a small brush. then put on a second coat. For coloring olive green. 3. . 1 part sulphuric acid. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. using a small metal saw. 2. using turpentine. Allow this to dry.FIG. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. but use a swab on a stick. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig.

attach brass handles. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. then stain it a mahogany color. --Contributed by M. After the stain has dried. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. East Hartford. --Contributed by H. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Syracuse. . it does the work rapidly. Richmond. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. --Contributed by Katharine D. as shown. Morse. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. Ii is an ordinary staple. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. M. When this is cold. on a chopping board. Conn. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. New York. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. Burnett. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Carl Cramer. Cal. thick. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray.

A. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. not over 1/4 in. . --Contributed by W. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. two enameled. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. as shown at A. Cal. about 3/16 in. thick and 4 in.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. Florida. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. also locate the drill holes. holes. 4. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. Kissimmee. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. 53 steel pens. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. indicating the depth of the slots. 1/4 in. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. square. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. saucers or pans. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. L. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B.. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. Richmond. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. brass. thick. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. WARNECKE Procure some brass. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. some pieces of brass. H. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. and several 1/8-in. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. machine screws. in width at the shank. 1. Fig. Atwell. one shaft. --Contributed by Mrs. Jaquythe. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. or tin. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C.

6. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. Bend as shown in Fig. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. brass and bolted to the casing. long and 5/16 in. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. with 1/8-in. 2. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. as shown. using two nuts on each screw. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. thick. and the ends filed round for the bearings. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. 3. hole. hole in the center. long by 3/4 in. A 3/4-in. If metal dishes. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. Fig. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. with a 3/8-in. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. can be procured. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. These are connected to a 3/8-in. as in Fig. 5. The shaft hole may also be filed square. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. 7. into the hole. 2. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. with the face of the disk. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. wide. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. Fig. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. each about 1 in. supply pipe. thick. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. in diameter and 1/32 in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. hole is drilled to run off the water. and pins inserted. If the shaft is square. 1. about 1/32 in. 3. wide and bend as shown in Fig. There should be a space of 1/16 in. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. machine screws. Fig.. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. lead should be run into the segments. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. a square shaft used. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. machine screws and nuts.

The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Now you will have the box in two pieces. The lower part. When assembling. square and 30-1/2 in. Ill. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. Fasten with 3/4-in. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. from the top of the box. La Salle. Smith. Hamilton. V. --Contributed by F. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. three of which are in the basket. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. using four to each leg. 8-1/2 in. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. we will call the basket. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. or more in diameter. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. With a string or tape measure. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. The four legs are each 3/4-in. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. high and 15 in. screws. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. deep over all. Be sure to have the cover. to make the bottom. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. make these seams come between the two back legs. Cooke. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. --Contributed by S. Canada. from the bottom end of the legs.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. long. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Stain the wood before putting in the . With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. deep and 1-1/4 in.

lining. 2. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Fig. --also the lower edge when necessary. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. The side. Boston. The folded part in the center is pasted together. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. Baltimore. wide. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. If all the parts are well sandpapered. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. and gather it at that point. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. 1. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Md. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks.2 Fig. sewing on the back side. you can. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. When making the display. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. wide and four strips 10 in. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Mass. Sew on to the covered cardboards. Cover them with the cretonne. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. as shown in the sketch. Packard. -Contributed by Stanley H.

saving all the solid part. N. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. 3. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Gloversville. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Orlando Taylor. Fig. Crockett. It is cleanly. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. When through using the pad. Mo. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Y. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. --Contributed by H. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. It is not difficult to . --Contributed by B. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. with slight modifications. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Cross Timbers. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. and. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. L. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home.

The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. across the face. After this is done. Bourne. it should be new and sharp. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. are shown in the diagram. After stirring. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . and scrape out the rough parts. and secure it in place with glue or paste. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. --Contributed by Edith E. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Texas. If a file is used. remove the contents.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Lowell. Both of these methods are wasteful. Lane. El Paso. S. Mass. -Contributed by C. or if desired. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding.

Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. The process works well and needs no watching. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. --Contributed by Geo. Des Moines. Canton. Oregon. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. --Contributed by Marion P. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. After several hours' drying. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Turl. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. As these were single-faced disk records. F. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. Greenleaf. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. The insects came to the light. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. --Contributed by Loren Ward. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. He captured several pounds in a few hours. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Iowa. Ill. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. A Postcard Rack [25]. circled over the funnel and disappeared.cooking utensil. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Those having houses . Wheeler. Ill. Oak Park. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel.

and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. the bottom being 3/8 in. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. thick. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. and the second one for the developing bench. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. by 2 ft. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. Mass. will do as well. --Contributed by Thomas E.. one on each side of what will be the . 6 in. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. Lay the floor next. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. but for cheapness 3/4 in. Rosenberg. Both sides can be put together in this way. material. boards are preferable. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. Conn. The single boards can then be fixed. --Contributed by Wm. not even with the boards themselves. and as they are simple in design. Only three pieces are required. Worcester. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. and both exactly alike.. the best material to use being matched boards. Dobbins. Glenbrook. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. 6 in. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. plane and pocket knife. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft.

nailing them to each other at the ridge. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. and act as a trap for the light.. 2 in section. Fig. brown wrapping paper. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. At the top of the doorway. 7. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. as shown in Figs. 9). 6 and 9. is cut. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. wide. The developing bench is 18 in. 6. by screwing to the floor. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. 9 by 11 in.. which is fixed on as shown . three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. 10). The roof boards may next be put on. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. so that it will fit inside the sink. of the top of the door for the same reason. 8. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. 5. In hinging the door. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. etc. hinged to it. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. the closing side as at B. below which is fixed the sink. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. and the top as at C in the same drawing. and to the outside board of the sides. so that the water will drain off into the sink. 11.. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. 3 and 4. 6. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. and in the middle an opening. A shelf for bottles and another for plates.doorway. It is shown in detail in Fig. and should be zinc lined.

Details of the Dark Rook .

13. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. A circular piece about 2 in. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. as at M. Fig. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. The handle should be at least 12 in. or the room may be made with a flat roof. For beating up an egg in a glass. Fig. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. and a tank stand on it. 13. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. 15. preferably maple or ash. --Contributed by W. as shown in the sections. 17. 6. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. mixing flour and water. Pennsylvania. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. it is better than anything on the market. Karl Hilbrich. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. 16. as in Fig. after lining with brown paper. 19. In use. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. 20. 1. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. 16. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. or red light as at K. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. four coats at first is not too many. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. and a 3/8-in. though this is hardly advisable. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. 18. but not the red glass and frame.in Fig. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. Erie. Fig. as shown in Fig. which makes it possible to have white light. The house will be much strengthened if strips. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. these being shown in Fig. screwing them each way into the boards. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. as at I. hole bored in the center for a handle. 14. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . 2. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. if desired. are fastened in the corners inside. Fig.

The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. L. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. about 3/8 in. Ark. Mo. Kansas City. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. To operate. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Yonkers. Smith. G. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax.copper should be. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. when put together properly is a puzzle. D. Eureka Springs. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. New York. Schweiger. -Contributed by E. --Contributed by L. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. Mitchell. long. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . which. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. for a handle. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Wm. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue.

1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. . for the moment. After the box is trimmed. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. the rustic work should be varnished. as shown in Fig. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Having completed the bare box. in order to thoroughly preserve it. to make it set level. need them. as is usually the case. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. holes should be drilled in the bottom. A number of 1/2-in. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. Each cork is cut as in Fig. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. as well as improve its appearance. If the sill is inclined.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. which binds them together. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. The design shown in Fig. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. 3. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. 3. 2. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. especially for filling-in purposes. The corks in use are shown in Fig. the box will require a greater height in front. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. 1.

Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. When the corn is gone cucumbers.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. 2.. being partly eaten into. can't use poison. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. life in the summer time is a vexation. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. Each long projection represents a leg. 3. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. . The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. etc. But I have solved the difficulty. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. F. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. share the same fate. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. 1. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Traps do no good. and observe results. 4. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. cabbages. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. too dangerous. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. drilled at right angles. it's easy.

Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. the coil does not heat sufficiently. About 9-1/2 ft. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. -. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. cut some of it off and try again. If. strips. long. Iowa. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. . cut in 1/2-in. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. of No. by trial. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. The solution can be used over and over again. and made up and kept in large bottles. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid.

which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. it falls to stop G. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. forks. Fig 2. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. hot-water pot. Kane. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. Do not wash them. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. --Contributed by Katharine D. and a strip. --Contributed by James M. D. but with unsatisfactory results. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. is a good size--in this compound. Y. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. Dallas. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. C.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. Knives. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Doylestown. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. N. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. of whiting and 1/2 oz. to cause the door to swing shut. In cleaning silver. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. 1) removed. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. as shown in the sketch. Texas. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Syracuse. Morse. of gasoline. . If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. coffee pot. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. Stir and mix thoroughly. Pa.

As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. Fisher. . The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Pa. negatives. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. --Contributed by Oliver S. Ill. Waverly. La. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. --Contributed by Theodore L. New Orleans. Harrisburg. but unfixed. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] .Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. using the paper dry. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. Sprout. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. which is. later fixed and washed as usual. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. of course. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks.

a harmonograph is a good prescription. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. 1. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. metal. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. In this uncertainty lies the charm. Fig.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. The harmonograph. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. then . To obviate this difficulty.

what is most important.. makes respectively 3. as shown in the lower part of Fig. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. G. Chicago. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. Rosemont. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. Arizona. 1-3/4 by 2 in. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. is attached as shown at H. K. The length of the short pendulum H. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. is about right for a 10-ft. one-fourth. of about 30 or 40 lb. 1. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. A length of 7 ft. Gaffney. or the lines will overlap and blur.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table.. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. one-fifth. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. in diameter. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. as long as the other. which can be regulated. --Contributed by James T. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . A small table or platform. A small weight. exactly one-third. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. with a nail set or punch. that is. etc. and unless the shorter pendulum is. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. for instance. J. R. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. Ingham. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. Punch a hole. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. ceiling. A weight. A pedestal. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. as shown in Fig. Another weight of about 10 lb. Holes up to 3 in. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. in the center of the circle to be cut. provides a means of support for the stylus. to prevent any side motion. --Contributed by Wm. such as a shoe buttoner. 1. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths.

and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. dividing them into quarters. Cruger. N. --Contributed by J.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. The two key cards are made alike. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. of course. a correspondent of . Cape May City. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. 1. Morey. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. Fig. 4. then 3 as in Fig. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. and 4 as in Fig. 5. The capacity of the vise. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Fig. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints.J. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. then put 2 at the top. and proceed as before. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. 3.H. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory.J. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. one for the sender and one for the receiver. distributing them over the whole card. 2. 6. -Contributed by W. Chicago.

from the top and bottom. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. respectively. If constructed of the former. After securing the tint desired. --Contributed by L. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. To assemble. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. After preparing the base and uprights. 1/2 oz. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. of ferricyanide of potash. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. wood-screws. Wind the successive turns of . Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. the portion of the base under the coil. Augusta. of water. sheet of well made asbestos paper. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. Cut through the center. drill 15 holes. long. says Popular Electricity. 22 gauge German-silver wire. 30 gr. 1/4 in. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. of the uprights. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Asbestos board is to be preferred. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. remove the prints. Alberta Norrell. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. 6 gauge wires shown. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. of 18-per-cent No. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. Ga. acetic acid and 4 oz. deep.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. citrate of iron and ammonia. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end.

as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . These may be procured from electrical supply houses. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration.. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. if one is not a smoker. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. 14 gauge. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. rivets. Ampere. Small knobs may be added if desired. but these are not necessary. Y. --Contributed by Frederick E. cut and dressed 1/2 in. 16 gauge copper wire. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. The case may be made of 1/2-in. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. screws. N. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. then fasten the upright in place. which. Ward. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. as they are usually thrown away when empty. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. Labels of some kind are needed. square. etc.

turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. Ark. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. then to the joint to be soldered. Jaquythe. G. --C. This is considerable annoyance. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. --Contributed by W. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. zinc. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. galvanized iron. lead." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. Richmond. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. particularly so when the iron has once been used. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. In soldering galvanized iron. it must be ground or filed to a point. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. If the soldering copper is an old one. of water. tin. The material can be of any wood. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. as shown in the sketch. Copper. the pure muriatic acid should be used. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. especially if a large tub is used. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. of glycerine to 16 oz. and labeled "Poison. Eureka Springs. or has become corroded. --Contributed by A.14 oz. and one made of poplar finished black. B. sandpaper or steel wool. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. California. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. brass. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. S. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. A.. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. The parts are put together with dowel pins. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. C. Wis. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. Kenosha. a piece of solder. . and rub the point of the copper on it. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. being careful about the heat. Larson. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. tinner's acid. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. Heat it until hot (not red hot). E and F. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. D.

2. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. This completes the die. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . W. a ring may be made from any metal. Take a 3/4-in. in diameter. thick and 1-1/4 in. The covers of the magazines are removed. Fig.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. I bind my magazines at home evenings. -Contributed by H. The dimensions shown in Fig. however. 1. with good results. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. Y. and drill out the threads. nut. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. C. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. Troy. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. wide. N. Apart from this. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. 7/8 in. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. round iron. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. Brass rings can be plated when finished. D. which gives two bound volumes each year. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. This will leave a clear hole. The punch A. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. brass and silver. in diameter. such as copper. Hankin. Fig. Place the band. The disk will come out pan shaped. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Six issues make a well proportioned book. B.

1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. 1. and place them against the strings in the frame. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. 1/8 in. which is fastened the same as the first. 1. 2. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. Start with the front of the book.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. The covering should be cut out 1 in. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. deep. size 16 or larger. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. C. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. The sections are then prepared for sewing. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. The covering can be of cloth. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages.4. 1 in Fig. After drawing the thread tightly. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. 1. as shown in Fig. Coarse white thread. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. then back through the notch on the right side. Place the cardboard covers on the book. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. is nailed across the top. through the notch on the left side of the string No. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. on all edges except the back. of the ends extending on each side. is used for the sewing material. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. The string No. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. allowing about 2 in. threaded double. and a third piece. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. 5. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. If started with the January or the July issue. using . . passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. and then to string No. Five cuts. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. 2. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. These sections are each removed in turn from the others.

How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. round iron. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Nebr. on which to hook the blade. Divine. Place the cover on the book in the right position. and. For the blade an old talking-machine . College View. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. and mark around each one. --Contributed by Clyde E. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Tinplate. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Cal. Encanto.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. at opposite sides to each other.

or double extra heavy. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. thick. long. by 1 in. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. with 10 teeth to the inch. On the upper side. thick. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Make the blade 12 in. B. and a long thread plug. C. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. Moorhead. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. and another piece (B) 6 in. at the same end. hydraulic pipe. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. bore. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. with a steel sleeve. E.. Hays. and file in the teeth. Miss. Then on the board put . Ohio. -Contributed by Willard J. in order to drill the holes in the ends. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. A. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. and 1/4 in. and 1/4 in. by 4-1/2 in. fuse hole at D. as it is sometimes called. Summitville. as shown.. F. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C).

some sheet copper or brass for plates. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. Philadelphia. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . A lid may be added if desired. H. --Contributed by Chas. the jars need not be very large. Boyd. about 5 ft. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. using about 8 in. Connect up as shown. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. If you are going to use a current of low tension. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. as from batteries.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. high around this apparatus. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. and some No. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. 4 jars. of wire to each coil. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. of rubber-covered wire.

C. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. On the door of the auto front put the . 2. 4) of 3/4-in.. Fig. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. No. and for the rear runners: A. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. An iron washer. C. are important. 1. 2. steel rod makes a good steering rod. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. 2 in. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. wide and 3/4 in. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. A 3/4-in. wide and 2 in. thick. The top disk in jar No. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. long by 22 in. 3 in. long. The illustration shows how to shape it. with the cushion about 15 in. 4. 2 and 3. 3. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. by 6 in. Construct the auto front (Fig. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. 2. oak boards. These are to keep the cushion from falling out.. B. A variation of 1/16 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. 27 B. and plane it on all edges. . by 1 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. 4 in. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. B.. 3 and No.. and four pieces 14 in. 16-1/2 in. two pieces 34 in. gives full current and full speed. by 1-1/4 in. wide. beginning at the rear. Z. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. 1 is connected to point No. or source of current. sheet brass 1 in. above the ground. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. 1 on switch. Equip block X with screw eyes. and bolt through. See Fig. The connection between point No. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. two for each jar. by 5 in. two pieces 14 in. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. Use no screws on the running surface. The current then will flow through the motor. The sled completed should be 15 ft. as they are not substantial enough. making them clear those in the front runner. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. direct to wire across jars. 2 is lower down than in No. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. thick. as they "snatch" the ice. by 2 in. 15-1/2 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front.. however. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch.the way. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. 30 in. two pieces 30 in. Use no nails. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. Their size also depends on the voltage. To wire the apparatus.. At the front 24 or 26 in. square by 14 ft. For the front runners these measurements are: A. long. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. long. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. by 1-1/4 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. Put arm of switch on point No. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. by 5 in. long.. B and C. The stock required for them is oak. In proportioning them the points A. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. is used to reduce friction. First sandpaper all the wood. on No. 5 on switch. 1 and so on for No. For the brass trimmings use No. 34 in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. then apply a coat of thin enamel. wide by 3/4 in. & S. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. apart. 7 in. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. 11 in. by 2 in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered.

A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. to the wheel. or with these for $25. Fasten a horn. Make the cushion for the back in the same way.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. may be stowed within. by 1/2 in. such as used on automobiles. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. Then get some upholstery buttons. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . If the expense is greater than one can afford. If desired. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. overshoes. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. cutting it out of sheet brass. If desired. such as burlap. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. etc. parcels. to improve the appearance. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. lunch. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. cheap material. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. by 30 in. fasten a cord through the loop. The best way is to get some strong. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. a brake may be added to the sled. brass plated. long. a number of boys may share in the ownership. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. which is somewhat moist. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot.

the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. . The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Lexington.tree and bring. --Contributed by Stewart H. Ill. Leland.

London. the cut will be central on the line. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. by drawing diameters. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. Fig. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. With no other tools than a hacksaw. the same diameter as the wheel. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. The first tooth may now be cut. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. Draw a circle on paper. CD.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. from F to G. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. a compass. 4). will be over the line FG. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. 1. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. FC. so that the center of the blade. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. Fig. thick. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. E. which. 2. sheet metal. The Model Engineer. some files. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. 3. This guide should have a beveled edge. Fig. made from 1/16-in. First take the case of a small gearwheel. when flat against it. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. with twenty-four teeth. say 1 in. mild steel or iron. though more difficult. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. The straight-edge. outside diameter and 1/16 in. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. A small clearance space.

hold in one hand. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. each in the center. as shown in Fig. B. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. A bright. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver.Four Photos on One Plate of them. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. electric lamp. ground it with a large piece of zinc. some wire and some carbons. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. 1. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. . or several pieces bound tightly together. B. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. No shock will be perceptible. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. and the other outlet wire. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. If there is no faucet in the house. 2. Focus the camera in the usual manner. as shown in Fig. Make a hole in the other. Then take one outlet wire. either the pencils for arc lamps. transmitter. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. 1. R. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. as shown in Fig.

Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Then set the whole core away to dry. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Dry batteries are most convenient. For a base use a pine board 10 in. a transmitter which induces no current is used. 36 wire around it. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Several battery cells. --Contributed by Geo. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. and will then burn the string C. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. by 1 in. at each end for terminals. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. If desired. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. as indicated by E E. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. serves admirably. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. But in this experiment. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. Ashland. and again wind the wire around it. or more of the latter has been used. J. One like a loaf of bread. leaving about 10 in. Emsworth. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. of course. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. Slattery. Pa. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. as shown. by 12 in. Ohio. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. are also needed. one at the receiver can hear what is said. and about that size. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. Wrenn. A is a wooden block. B. under the gable. D D are binding posts for electric wires. They have screw ends. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse .

. in parallel. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. Connect these three to switch. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. Fig. B B. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. and switch. as shown. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. D. The oven is now ready to be connected. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. while C is open. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. The coil will commence to become warm. From the other set of binding-posts. D. Jr. and the lamps. Turn on switch. Fig. in series with bindingpost. C. First make a support. 1. Place 16-cp. and one single post switch. Newark. At one side secure two receptacles. connecting lamp receptacles. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. for the . until the hand points to zero on the scale. F. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. 14 wire. Ohio. 12 or No. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. The apparatus is now ready for operation.wire. the terminal of the coil. These should have hollow ends. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. as shown. C. 2. run a No. B B. E. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian.

Fig. high. 4 in.. This is slipped on the pivot. 1/4 in. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. wide and 1-3/4 in. C. deep. 14. Fig.or 4-way valve or cock. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. The pointer or hand. 4. Fig. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. as shown in the cut. --Contributed by J. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . a battery. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. from the lower end.E. remove the valve. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. drill in only to the opening already through. but if for a 4way. A wooden box. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. 4 amperes. 7. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. 3. 14 wire. long. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. until the scale is full. The box is 5-1/2 in. 3 amperes. drill a hole as shown at H. 1. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. although copper or steel will do. long. Montreal. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. 1/2 in. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. long and make a loop. wind with plenty of No. 6. B. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. After drilling. although brass is better. a variable resistance. 1. It is 1 in. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. At a point a little above the center. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. Mine is wound with two layers of No. 5. where A is the homemade ammeter. E. drill through the entire case and valve. to prevent it turning on the axle. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. 36 magnet wire instead of No. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. and D. is made of wire. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. wide and 1/8 in. 2. The core. is then made and provided with a glass front. Fig. Dussault. a standard ammeter.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. thick. D. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. If for 3-way. To make one. This may be made of wood. inside measurements. D. is made of iron. etc. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. 10 turns to each layer.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. 5.

In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. E. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. in diameter. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. and the other connects with the water rheostat. high. To start the light. and the arc light.performing electrical experiments. This stopper should be pierced. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. as shown. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. which is used for reducing the current. A. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. F. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. provided with a rubber stopper. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. One wire runs to the switch. By connecting the motor. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. B. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. D. making two holes about 1/4 in. in thickness . and a metal rod.

Having fixed the lead plate in position. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Fig. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. 1. Having finished the interrupter. Fig. Fig. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Jones. Y. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. B. If all adjustments are correct. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Carthage. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. N.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. A. To insert the lead plate. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. 2. where he is placed in an upright open . A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. 2. long. 1. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. If the interrupter does not work at first. Turn on the current and press the button. Fig. --Contributed by Harold L. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. A piece of wood. 1. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. as shown in B. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. as shown in C. As there shown. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D.

from which the gong has been removed. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. A white shroud is thrown over his body. and can be bought at Japanese stores. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. to aid the illusion. by 7 in. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. which can be run by three dry cells. figures and lights. especially L. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. They need to give a fairly strong light. within the limits of an ordinary room. should be miniature electric lamps. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. is constructed as shown in the drawings. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. All . which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. as the entire interior. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. Its edges should nowhere be visible. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. If it is desired to place the box lower down. especially the joints and background near A. until it is dark there. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. L and M. high. by 7-1/2 in. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. The skeleton is made of papier maché. and must be thoroughly cleansed. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. light-colored garments. The glass should be the clearest possible. A. dressed in brilliant. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. and wave his arms up and down.coffin. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. could expect from a skeleton.. with the exception of the glass. the illusion will be spoiled. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. giving a limp. should be colored a dull black. The lights. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. loosejointed effect. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. The model. inside dimensions. If everything is not black. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment.

that is necessary is a two-point switch. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. square block. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. after which it assumes its normal color. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. fat spark. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. as shown in the sketch. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. placed about a foot apart. If a gradual transformation is desired. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. San Jose. Two finishing nails were driven in. --Contributed by Geo. W. Cal. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Fry. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs.

One of these plates is connected to metal top. to make it airtight. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. -Contributed by Dudley H. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. This is a wide-mouth bottle. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. as shown. with two tubes. soldered in the top. hydrogen gas is generated. New York. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. If a lighted match . 1 is seen the sending apparatus. The plates are separated 6 in. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. Cohen. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. F. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. B and C. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. 1. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. In Fig. by small pieces of wood. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. into the receiver G. the remaining space will be filled with air. and should be separated about 1/8 in. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. In Fig. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. A (see sketch). This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. or a solution of sal soda.

A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. copper pipe. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. Fig. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. A. should be only 5/16 of an inch. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. as is shown in the illustration. of No. says the Model Engineer. A. B. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. copper pipe. If desired. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. A. either by passing a current of electricity around it. Fig. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. in diameter and 6 in. N.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. by means of the clips. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. One row is drilled to come directly on top. 1/2 in. A 1/64-in. long. A nipple. is made by drilling a 1/8in. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. N. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. London. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. 36 insulated wire. from the bottom. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. C C. The distance between the nipple. which forms the vaporizing coil. 2 shows the end view. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. and the ends of the tube. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. then a suitable burner is necessary. 1. P. A. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. which is plugged up at both ends. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. 1-5/16 in. is then coiled around the brass tube. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. long. A piece of 1/8-in. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. or by direct contact with another magnet. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of .

boards and all. 3. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). this makes a much nicer book. taking care not to bend the iron. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. leaving the folded edge uncut. Fig. Take two strips of stout cloth. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Fig. Fig. with a fine saw. smoothly.lamp cord. larger all around than the book. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. fold and cut it 1 in. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. should be cut to the diameter of the can. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. A disk of thin sheet-iron. Turn the book over and paste the other side. 1/4 in. Cut four pieces of cardboard. but if the paper knife cannot be used. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. 2). trim both ends and the front edge. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . If you have access to a printer's paper knife. longer and 1/4 in. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. cut to the size of the pages. about 8 or 10 in. duck or linen. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. at the front and back for fly leaves. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. 1. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips.

and a little can. or rather the top now. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. as shown in the sketch. Another can. in diameter and 30 in. This will cause some air to be enclosed. E. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. Bedford City. --Contributed by Joseph N. is turned on it. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Ont. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. B. Va. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. but its diameter is a little smaller. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. C. 4). Another tank. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. H. A.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. the joint will be gas tight. is made the same depth as B. is perforated with a number of holes. Toronto. A gas cock. as shown. without a head. D. 18 in. Parker. --Contributed by James E. of tank A is cut a hole. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. . It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. pasting them down (Fig. deep. is soldered onto tank A. In the bottom. which will just slip inside the little can. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Noble. is fitted in it and soldered.

fastened in the bottom. which may be either spruce. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. Beverly. and sewed double to give extra strength. The bridle knots. -Contributed by H. which moves to either right or left. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. The diagonal struts. and about 26 in. and the four diagonal struts. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. 2. The armature. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. B. A. 1. with an electric-bell magnet. Fig. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. long. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. when finished. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. N. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. basswood or white pine. thus adjusting the . Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. by 1/2 in. long. H is a square knot.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. Bott. A A. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. The longitudinal corner spines. J. should be 1/4 in. as shown at C. B. should be cut a little too long. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. are shown in detail at H and J.. Fig. making the width. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. should be 3/8 in. B. If the pushbutton A is closed. S. If the back armature. D. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. square by 42 in. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. C. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. exactly 12 in. The small guards. D. tacks. The wiring diagram. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. shows how the connections are to be made. E. to prevent splitting.

shift toward F. Clay Center. A bowline knot should be tied at J. as shown. for producing electricity direct from heat. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. If the kite is used in a light wind. Stoddard. and. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. --Contributed by A. the batteries do not run down for a long time. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. D. can be made of a wooden . and if a strong wind is blowing. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. that refuse to slide easily. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. --Contributed by Edw. to prevent slipping. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. E. Chicago. thus shortening G and lengthening F. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. however. Closing either key will operate both sounders. with gratifying results. Kan. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Harbert.lengths of F and G.

a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. 14 or No. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. E. which conducts the current into the cannon. A. --Contributed by A. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. and the current may then be detected by means. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. E. B. A. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. Chicago. A and B. spark. A. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. 16 single-covered wire. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. Then. C. placed on top. F. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. and also holds the pieces of wood. with a number of nails. with a pocket compass.frame. Fasten a piece of wood. When the cannon is loaded. C. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. or parallel with the compass needle. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. in position. The wood screw. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. C. by means of machine screws or.. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . D. to the cannon. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. Turn the spool in a north and south direction.

press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. --Contributed by Joseph B. In Fig. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. but no weights or strings. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. L. with the long arm at L'. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. H. now at A' and S'. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Fig. Big Rapids. Bend the strips BB (Fig. Connect as shown in the illustration. A. within the reach of the magnet. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. To reverse. To unlock the door. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. square and 3/8 in. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. 1. where there is a staple. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. . The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. B. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. A and S. --Contributed by Henry Peck. when in position at A'. To lock the door. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. requiring a strong magnet. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. A hole for a 1/2 in. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. to receive the screw in the center. A and S. in this position the door is locked. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Keil. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. Fig. 1. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. Marion. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. press the button.the current is shut off. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. Mich. Chicago. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. 1. screw is bored in the block. Ohio.

if enameled white on the concave side. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. hole. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. long. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. Rand.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. When ready for use. or for microscopic work. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. When the holes are finished and your lines set. gas-pipe. Thread the other end of the pipe. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. are enameled a jet black. and C is a dumbbell. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. The standard and base. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. put in the handle. and if desired the handles may . More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. J. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. pipe with 1-2-in. West Somerville. Mass. about 18 in. and may be made at very slight expense. --Contributed by C. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in.

across. inside the pail. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. Fig. Make a cylindrical core of wood. A. D.. B. Mass. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. North Easton. as shown at A in the sketch. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. which shall project at least 2 in. Fig. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. high by 1 ft. --Contributed by C. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. 8 in. 1. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. long and 8 in. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. This peculiar property is also found in ice. 1.be covered with leather. E. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. M. Warren. across. with a cover.

the firing should be gradual. C. layer of the clay mixture. 1390°-1410°. pack this space-top. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in.. in diameter. pipe. long over the lid hole as a chimney. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. and 3/4 in. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. Line the pail. let this dry thoroughly. Wind about 1/8 in..mixture of clay. Set aside for a few days until well dried. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. pipe 2-ft. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. After finishing the core. thick. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust.-G. thick. carefully centering it. and graphite. Fit all the parts together snugly. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. 15%. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. strip of sheet iron. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. to hold the clay mixture. cutting the hole a little smaller. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. as is shown in the sketch. 2. and on it set the paper wrapped core. 1). or make one yourself. as dictated by fancy and expense. E. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. 1330°. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. but will be cheaper in operation. in diameter. and with especial caution the first time. 60%. such . full length of iron core. After removing all the paper. about 1 in. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. long. If the cover of the pail has no rim. make two wood ends. 1). Cover with paper and shellac as before. C. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. It is placed inside the kiln. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. and your kiln is ready for business. This done. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. diameter. say 1/4 in. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. and 3/8 in. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. C. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. and cut it 3-1/2 in. The 2 in. L. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. bottom and sides. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. sand. Fig. wider than the kiln. 25%. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. projecting from each end (Fig.. hard porcelain. if you have the materials. Whatever burner is used. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. and varnish. 3) with false top and bottom. if there is to be any glazing done. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. hotel china. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. W. of fine wire. 2 in. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. but it will burn a great deal of gas. which is the hottest part. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. passing wire nails through and clinching them. When lighted. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. the point of the blue flame.

You can display either color called for. The funnel. 2). and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. and discharges into the tube. . and so on. and plane off about 1/16 in. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. Of course. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. Then. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. around the coil. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. C. every alternate card being the same color. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. red and black. as in Fig. --Contributed by J. leaving long terminals. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. square them up. T. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. C. 8 in. procure a new deck. 2. C. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. taking care to have the first card red. A. D. B. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. overlaps and rests on the body. square them up and place in a vise. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. Take the red cards. as shown in the sketch herewith. about 1/16 in. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. 2. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. Washington. all cards facing the same way. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. Then take the black cards. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. and divide it into two piles. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. Next restore all the cards to one pack.53 in. 1. as in Fig.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. bind tightly with black silk.. R. diameter. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. with a plane. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. Chicago. the next black. length of . Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig.

should be countersunk as shown in the detail. F. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces.J.. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. C. the same ends will come together again. of the frame. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. 1 gill of litharge. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. Drill all the horizontal pieces. and then the frame is ready to assemble. A. and this is inexpensive to build. B. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. to form a dovetail joint as shown. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. A. B. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. about 20 in. thus making all the holes coincide. The upright pieces. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. Let . angle iron for the frame. N. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. D. E. 1. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. It should be placed in an exposed location. through the holes already drilled. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. Long Branch. Fig. The bottom glass should be a good fit. All the horizontal pieces. so that when they are assembled. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. B. E. 1 gill of fine white sand. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. The cement. When the glass is put in the frame a space. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. as the difficulties increase with the size. stove bolts. the first thing to decide on is the size. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. To find the fall of snow. stove bolts. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in.C.

if desired. B. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. Fig. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. to the door knob. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. having a swinging connection at C. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. on the door by means of a metal plate. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. Fasten the lever. and. D. a centerpiece (A. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. Aquarium Finished If desired. A.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium.

The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. screwed to the door frame. Fig. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. Buffalo. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. long. and another. several lengths of scantling 3 in. another. 6 in. but mark their position on the frame. to form the main supports of the frame. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. long. 1 . One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. AA. Fig. which is 15 in. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. D. Fig. long. from the outside top of the frame. They are shown in Fig. approximately 1 ft. Fig. --Contributed by Orton E. with a water pressure of 70 lb. 2 at GG. C.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. thus doing away with the spring. to form the slanting part. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. will open the door about 1/2 in. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. for the top. E. B. I referred this question to my husband. to keep the frame from spreading. A small piece of spring brass. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. F. Fig. soldered to the end of the cylinder. according to the slant given C. 26 in. wide by 1 in. White. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. 2 ft. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. N. Y. To make the frame. Cut two of them 4 ft. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. 2 is an end view. Cut two pieces 30 in.. Fig. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. another. 3 shows one of the paddles. wide . long. hoping it may solve the same question for them. PAUL S. Do not fasten these boards now. 1. as at E. showing the paddle-wheel in position. 1. 1 is the motor with one side removed. Two short boards 1 in. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. and Fig.

Fig. hole through the exact center of the wheel. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. hole to form the bearings. 1. iron. to a full 1/2 in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. after which drill a 5/8 in. hole through its center. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. When it has cooled. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Drill 1/8-in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. and drill a 1/8-in. 2) and another 1 in. Next secure a 5/8-in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. thick. and drill a 1-in. as shown in Fig. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in.along the edges under the zinc to form . take down the crosspieces. steel shaft 12 in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. 24 in. hole through their sides centrally. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. pipe. with the wheel and shaft in place. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Take the side pieces. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. remove the cardboard.burlap will do -. Now block the wheel. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. 2) form a substantial base. from one end by means of a key. that is. by 1-1/2 in. 4. Make this hole conical. Fig. then drill a 3/16-in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. holes. Fig. GG. long to the wheel about 8 in. Tack one side on. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. iron 3 by 4 in. in diameter. tapering from 3/16 in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. Fasten them in their proper position. 2) with a 5/8-in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. (I. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). hole through them. These are the paddles. thick (HH. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. and a 1/4 -in.

The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. Focus the camera carefully. Do not stop down the lens. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. and the subject may move. . or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. drill press. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. Correct exposure depends. any window will do. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. It is obvious that. start the motor. and leave them for an hour or so. as this makes long exposure necessary. and as near to it as possible. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. shutting out all light from above and the sides. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. Raise the window shade half way. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. The best plate to use is a very slow one. Darken the rest of the window. on the lens. it would be more durable. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. but as it would have cost several times as much. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. as shown in the sketch at B. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. ice-cream freezer. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. says the Photographic Times. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. remove any white curtains there may be.a water-tight joint. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. light and the plate. place the outlet over a drain. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. Drill a hole through the zinc. sewing machine. or what is called a process plate. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. If the bearings are now oiled. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. of course. If sheet-iron is used.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. but now I put them in the machine. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments.

A. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. 2. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. without detail in the face. The glass tube may be a test tube. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. which is made of iron and cork. the core is drawn down out of sight. full of water. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. an empty pill bottle may be used. hard rubber. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. The core C. or an empty developer tube. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. and a base. until the core slowly rises. C. as shown in Fig. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. D. With a piece of black paper. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. 2. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. or wood. a glass tube. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. as a slight current will answer. B. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. and without fog. or can be taken from an old magnet. The current required is very small. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. On completing . a core. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. with binding posts as shown. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. by twisting. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch.

Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. and one not easy to explain. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. The colors appear different to different people. water and 3 oz. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. and make a pinhole in the center. and are changed by reversing the rotation. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. finest graphite. This is a mysterious looking instrument. 1. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. white lead. according to his control of the current. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. is Benham's color top. 1 lb. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. 1 pt. whale oil. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard.

. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. thus partly filling bottles A and C. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. when the action ceases. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. or three spot. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. B. A. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner.L. nearly every time. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. fan-like. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. and asks an observer to withdraw a card.B. -Contributed by D. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. As this device is easily upset. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. especially if the deck is a new one. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. deuce. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. C. In prize games. Chicago. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. before cutting. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. In making hydrogen.

Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. Fig. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. 2. 12 in. Huron. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. S.. Make a 10-sided stick. --Contributed by F. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. that will fit loosely in the tube A.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Detroit. Dak. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. S. Bently. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal.. (Fig. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. long. . 9 in. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. in length and 3 in. 1. W. as shown in Fig. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Fig. Detail of Phonograph Horn . 10 in. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. J. --Contributed by C. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. Jr. in diameter. Form a cone of heavy paper. 3). long and 3 in. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. 4.

trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. long. E. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. bend it at right angles throughout its length. Cut out paper sections (Fig. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. A second piece of silk thread. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. Denver. Fortunately. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. Remove the form. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. A piece of tin. on one side and the top. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. and walk in. about the size of a leadpencil. Fig. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. will cause an increased movement of C. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. A. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . C. with a pin driven in each end. push back the bolt. --Contributed by Reader. but bends toward D. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. it is equally easy to block that trick. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. allowing 1 in. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. making it three-ply thick. 6.

is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. and rest on a brick placed under each end. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. B. The upper switch. S. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. The feet. Jr. are 7 ft. or left to right. S. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. while the lower switch.. B. Fremont Hilscher.. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire.strip. long. long. 4 ft. By this arrangement one. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. Minn. --Contributed by J. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. are made 2 by 4 in. Paul. A. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . West St. Two wood-base switches. R. S S. will last for several years. W. posts. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. as shown. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. put together as shown in the sketch. The 2 by 4-in. is connected each point to a battery. The reverse switch.

the other parts being used for the bearing B. which will be described later. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust.every house. The piston is made of a stove bolt. The base is made of wood. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. Fig. E. The valve motion is shown in Figs. and in Fig. either an old sewing-machine wheel. 2. and valve crank S. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. 1. cut in half. 3/8 in. and has two wood blocks. 2 and 3. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. thick. FF. the size of the hole in the bearing B. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. The steam chest D. pulley wheel. is an old bicycle pump. and the crank bearing C. with two washers. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. and a cylindrical . 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. In Fig. Fig. which is made of tin. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. or anything available. The hose E connects to the boiler. H and K.

Fig. and a very amusing trick. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. The valve crank S. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. San Jose. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. G. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. and saturated with thick oil. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. at that. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. or galvanized iron. First. . The boiler. Fry.piece of hard wood. as shown in Fig. powder can. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. using the positive wire as a pen. as it is merely a trick of photography. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. and the desired result is obtained. 3. J. of Cuba. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. 1. to receive the connecting rod H. This is wound with soft string. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. Schuh and A. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. Cal. Fig. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. --Contributed by Geo. C. This engine was built by W. Eustice. 4. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. W. can be an old oil can. G. is cut out of tin. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. Wis. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it.

the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. C. They may be of any size. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. Fig. as shown. Fig. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. 1 will be seen to rotate. considering the nature of the material employed in making it.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. B. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. Fig. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. The smaller wheel. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. as shown at AA. Cut half circles out of each stave. B. diameter. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. and Fig. and pass ropes around . The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. 1 by covering up Figs. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. When turning. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. and place a bell on the four ends. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. to cross in the center.

To make this lensless microscope. but not on all. --Contributed by H. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. as shown in the illustration. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. produces a higher magnifying power). When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. This in turn will act on the transmitter. St. which accounts for the sound.. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. long. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. which allows the use of small sized ropes. Mo. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. W. from the transmitter. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in.M.G. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. such as clothes lines. procure a wooden spool. A (a short spool. Louis. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. From a piece of thin .

Viewed through this microscope. which are pieces of hard wood. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. D. C. . On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. An innocent-looking drop of water. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. The spring. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. place a small object on the transparent disk. 2. H. by means of brads. and so on. B. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. which costs little or nothing to make. darting across the field in every direction. is fastened at each end by pins. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. E. the diameter will appear twice as large. and at the center. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. A. Fig. the diameter will appear three times as large. is made of iron. B. or 64 times. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument... and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. if the distance is reduced to one-half. C. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. To use this microscope. (The area would appear 64 times as large. can be made of brass and the armature. bent as shown. in which hay has been soaking for several days. The lever. and look through the hole D. The pivot. e. the object should be of a transparent nature.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. i. 3. as in all microscopes of any power. 1. otherwise the image will be blurred. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. cut out a small disk. if the distance is reduced to one-third. fastened to a wooden base. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in.) But an object 3/4-in. held at arm's length. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. D.

The door. nail soldered on A. D. or a single piece. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. A. HH. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. coils wound with No. similar to the one used in the sounder. 16 in. is cut from a board about 36 in. wide and about 20 in. can be made panel as shown. The back. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. 26 wire: E. brass or iron soldered to nail. The binding posts. and are connected to the contacts. E. B. long by 16 in. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. FF. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. C. A switch. . wood: F. Each side. between the armature and the magnet. connection of D to nail. Fig. C. Cut the top. wide. in length and 16 in. should be about 22 in. 1. long. AA. B. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. long and 14-1/2 in. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. thick. D. F. DD. or taken from a small one-point switch.SOUNDER-A. binding posts: H spring The stop. brass. K. 2. wide. KEY-A. which are made to receive a pivot. wood. brass: E. wide and set in between sides AA. brass: B. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. Fig. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. wood: C. soft iron. D. wide. 16 in. K. The base of the key. wide. fastened near the end.

Make 12 cleats. material. as shown. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. E. as shown in the sketch. with 3/4-in. cut in them. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. Garfield. In operation. 13-1/2 in. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. brads. long. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. When the electrical waves strike the needle. AA. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings.. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. Ill. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. 2 and made from 1/4-in. the only materials necessary being a glass tube.

J. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. filled with water. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. E. and. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. Pushing the wire. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. Brown. when used with a motor. and thus decreases the resistance. will give a greater speed. --Contributed by R. down into the water increases the surface in contact. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. A (see sketch). the magnet. A fairly stiff spring. B. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. When the pipe is used. pulls down the armature. A. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. through which a piece of wire is passed. N. C. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. in order to increase the surface. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. Ridgewood. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. Y. --Contributed by John Koehler. Fairport. F. N. A. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. The cord is also fastened to a lever.

In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. if desired. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. N. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. Borden. --Contributed by Perry A. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Gachville. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. even those who read this description. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. B. Of course. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring.for the secret contact. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open.

The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. 1. Washington. records. --Contributed by Dr. from the bottom. Nails for stops are placed at DD. as shown in Fig. C. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. The three shelves are cut 25-in. Connect switch to post B. wide. H. C. wide. Mangold. where the other end of wire is fastened. 2. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. The top board is made 28-in. Cal. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. for 10in. A. for 6-in. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. wide. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. D. N. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. thick and 12-in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. apart. With about 9 ft. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. wide. Jr. East Orange.. . records and 5-5/8 in. Compton. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. long and 5 in. in a semicircle 2 in. long and full 12-in. and on both sides of the middle shelf. deep and 3/4 in. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. --Contributed by H. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. Dobson. E. wide.whenever the bell rings. J. From a piece of brass a switch.

--Contributed by Douglas Royer. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . Roanoke. 1. as shown in Fig. B. to which is fastened a cord.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. E. A. as shown by the dotted lines. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. closed. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. When the cord is passed over pulley C. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. Va. which in operation is bent. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum.

Do not fasten the sides too . excepting the crank and tubing. 3). 1. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. CC. Fig. thick. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. it too loose. If the wheels fit too tightly. apart. as shown in the illustration. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. in diameter. The crankpin should fit tightly. These wheels should be 3/4 in. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. deep. Now put all these parts together. against which the rubber tubing. square and 7/8 in. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. 1 in. wide. Cut two grooves. Fig. E. Bore two 1/4 in. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. in diameter. deep and 1/2 in. in diameter. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. 3. long. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. through one of these holes. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. Figs. Notice the break (S) in the track. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. one in each end. is compressed by wheels. but a larger one could be built in proportion. which should be about 1/2 in. Figs. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. E. in diameter. thick (A. Fig. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. to turn on pins of stout wire. they will bind. wide. 5) when they are placed. In these grooves place wheels.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. D. B. 4 shows the wheel-holder. they will let the air through. In the sides (Fig. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. 1 in. Put the rubber tube. holes (HH.

and are 30 in. Kan. and 3-1/2 in.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. long. iron. Fig. 17-1/2 in. Hubbard. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. 1. mark for hole and 3 in. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. and mark for a hole. a platform should be added. In the two cross bars 1 in. of material. costing 10 cents. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. To use the pump. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. The screen which is shown in Fig. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. because he can . 1. --Contributed by Dan H. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. AA. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. from each end. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. from each end. Take the center of the bar. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. The three legs marked BBB. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. as it gives steadiness to the motion. A in Fig. 15 in. mark again. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. If the motion of the wheels is regular. 2. stands 20 in. For ease in handling the pump. beyond each of these two. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. the other wheel has reached the bottom. is all the expense necessary. Fig. from each end. Fig. Idana. The animal does not fear to enter the box. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. from the bottom and 2 in. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. Cut six pieces. though a small iron wheel is better. 2. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. Then turn the crank from left to right. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. 1. tubing. as shown in Fig. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. from that mark the next hole. Two feet of 1/4-in. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. Fig. 1. the pump will give a steady stream. AA. B. 1.

Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. The truncated. If the solution touches the zinc. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. . Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. there is too much liquid in the jar. sulphuric acid. 1) must be prepared. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. but if one casts his own zinc. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. Meyer. If it is wet. rub the zinc well. of the top. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. dropping. and touches the bait the lid is released and. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. 4 oz. giving it a bright. silvery appearance. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. To cause a flow of electricity. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. potassium bichromate. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. some of it should be poured out.see through it: when he enters. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. 2). or. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. until it is within 3 in. 14 copper wire. acid 1 part). Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. If the battery has been used before. The battery is now complete. stirring constantly. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. however. Place the carbon in the jar. C. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. long having two thumb screws. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. add slowly. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. It is useful for running induction coils. When the bichromate has all dissolved. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. The mercury will adhere. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. shuts him in. and the solution (Fig. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. When through using the battery. of water dissolve 4 oz. --Contributed by H. Philadelphia. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. The battery is now ready for use. or small electric motors.

however. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. i. e. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. while the coal door is being opened. pressing the pedal closes the door. If. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. After putting in the coal. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. the jump-spark coil . A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor.. which opens the door. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. Madison. the battery circuit. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted.Fig.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. Wis. with slight changes. The price of the coil depends upon its size.

Now for the receiving apparatus. coil. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. 7. Fig. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. This coil.7. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. . and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". 5. After winding. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. This will make an excellent receiver. 7). to suit the distance the message is to be worked. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. and closer for longer distances. diameter. as shown in Fig. W W. in a partial vacuum.described elsewhere in this book. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. 6. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. which is made of light copper wire. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. 7. apart. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. Change the coil described. the full length of the coil. while a 12-in. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. as shown in Fig. 6. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. in a straight line from top to bottom. being a 1-in. W W. made of No.

A. . and for best results should extend up 50 ft. B the bed and C the tailstock. These circles. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. and hence the aerial line. 90°. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. being vertical. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. above the ground. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. 1). which will be described later. 1 to 4. may be easily made at very little expense. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm.The aerial line. are analogous to the flow of induction. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. Figs. at any point to any metal which is grounded. using an electric motor and countershaft. A large cone pulley would then be required. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. where A is the headstock. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. 90°. but simply illustrates the above to show that. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. Run a wire from the other binding post. The writer does not claim to be the originator. only. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. as it matches the color well. No. but it could be run by foot power if desired. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. I run my lathe by power. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. after all.6 stranded. being at right angles. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. in the air. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. For an illustration. to the direction of the current. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them.

Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. which pass through a piece of wood. Fig. The headstock. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. and runs in babbitt bearings. tapered wooden pin. B. which are let into holes FIG. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. thick. A. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. The bolts B (Fig. 6 Headstock Details D. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. 4. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. deep. but not hot enough to burn it. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . If the bearing has been properly made. Fig. Fig. 6. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. and Fig. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. The bearing is then ready to be poured. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. 2 and 3. steel tubing about 1/8 in. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. just touching the shaft. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. 4. too. and it is well to have the shaft hot. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. To make these bearings. After pouring. one of which is shown in Fig. Heat the babbitt well. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. on the under side of the bed. 5. 5. Fig. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. pitch and 1/8 in. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts.

I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. If not perfectly true. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut.other machines.7 Details of Tailstock pipe.J. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. lock nut. they may be turned up after assembling. FIG. and a 1/2-in. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. Newark. N. The tail stock (Fig. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. so I had to buy one. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. A. Oak Park. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. Ill. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. Take up about 5 ft. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. of the walk . Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. embedded in the wood. If one has a wooden walk. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. the alarm is easy to fix up. B. This prevents corrosion.

Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Jackson. clean the articles thoroughly. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. Minn. silver or other metal. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. --Contributed by R. add potassium cyanide again. before dipping them in the potash solution. and the alarm is complete.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Finally. to roughen the surface slightly. 2). save when a weight is on the trap. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. leaving a clear solution. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. (A. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. To avoid touching it. so that they will not touch. water. Fig. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Then make the solution . then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Minneapolis. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. hang the articles on the wires. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. to remove all traces of grease. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. S. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. of water. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Connect up an electric bell.

Can be made of a 2-in. This solution. On brass. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. Make a somewhat larger block (E. about 25 ft. I. as at F. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. copper. 1). silver can be plated direct. nickel and such metals. When all this is set up. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. shaking. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz.up to 2 qt. with the pivot 2 in. such metals as iron. as shown in Fig. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. The wooden block C. A 1/4 in. of clothesline rope and some No. use 2 volts for large articles. but opens the door. Fig. Where Bunsen cells are used. If more solution is required. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. A (Fig. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. The wooden catch. In rigging it to a sliding door. 3) strikes the bent wire L. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. of water. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. German silver. pewter. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. with water. 1 in. lead. Having finished washing the precipitate. 1. and the larger part (F. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. square. 10 in. 18 wire. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. make a key and keyhole. Repeat six times. light strokes. from the lower end. thick by 3 in. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. With an electric pressure of 3. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. hole in its center. long. 3) directly over the hole. Fig. and 4 volts for very small ones. an old electric bell or buzzer. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. will serve for the key. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. and then treated as copper. 1). Fig. which is advised. a hand scratch brush is good. zinc. also. Fig. Screw the two blocks together. if one does not possess a buffing machine. a circuit is completed. B should be of the same wood. with water. If accumulators are used.5 to 4 volts. To provide the keyhole. Before silver plating. saw a piece of wood. which . 1 not only unlocks. long. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. which is held by catch B. 3. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. Then. must be about 1 in. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. --Model Engineer. piece of broomstick. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. when the point of the key touches the tin. Take quick. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder.

It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. some black cloth. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. Thus. one-third of the length from the remaining end. no painting inside is required. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. although a little more trouble. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. 2. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. a few simple tools. Heavy metal objects.. sides and end. To prepare such a magic cave. 3. heighten the illusion. H. should be cut a hole. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. The magician stands in front of this. top. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. the box should be painted black both inside and out. and a slit. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. half way from open end to closed end. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. in his shirt sleeves. some black paint. Receiving the bowl again. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. Objects appear and disappear. floor. and black art reigns supreme. shows catch B. East Orange. 2. he points with one finger to the box. between the parlor and the room back of it. 116 Prospect St. or cave. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. and finally lined inside with black cloth. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. he tosses it into the cave. enlarged. The box must be altered first. 0. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. Fig. In front of you. is the cut through which the rope runs. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. One end is removed. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. --Contributed by E. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. and plenty of candles. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. Klipstein. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. H. with a switch as in Fig. such as forks. cut in one side. New Jersey. spoons and jackknives. The interior must be a dead black. surrounding a perfectly black space. which unlocks the door. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. Fig. Next. B. Fig. 1. the illumination in front must be arranged. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. On either side of the box. He removes the bowl from the black box. to throw the light toward the audience. and hands its contents round to the audience.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. One thing changes to another and back again. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. Fig. 1. so much the better. the requisites are a large soap box. Next. . The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). with the lights turned low. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. H.

and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. and if portieres are impossible. The audience room should have only low lights. But illusions suggest themselves. is on a table) so much the better. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. one on each side of the box. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. Consequently. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. into the eyes of him who looks. had a big stage. the room where the cave is should be dark. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. his confederate behind inserts his hand. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. and several black drop curtains. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. only he. The illusion. as presented by Hermann. of course. you must have an assistant. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. and the skeleton can change to a white cat.Finally. The exhibitor should be . attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. of course. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. a screen must be used. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. if. in which are oranges and apples. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. and pours them from the bag into a dish. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. which can be made to dance either by strings. which are let down through the slit in the top. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. was identical with this. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen.

or binding posts. 1. making contact with them as shown at y. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. making contact with them. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. their one end just slips under the strips b1..is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. with three brass strips. as shown in Fig. respectively. by 4 in. c1. respectively. 2. Fig. is shown in the diagram. 2. Then. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). About the center piece H moves a disk. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . A represents a pine board 4 in. f2. held down on it by two terminals. so arranged that. c2. 1. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. b1. and c2 to the zinc.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. terminal c3 will show +. held down by another disk F (Fig. b3. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. c3. and c4 + electricity. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. at L. b2. square. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. On the disk G are two brass strips. c4. when handle K is turned to one side. and a common screw. FIG. held down on disk F by two other terminals. by means of two wood screws. A. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. b2. b3. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. or b2. vice versa. respectively. if you turn handle K to the right. terminal c3 will show . while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. e1 and e2. d. and c1 – electricity. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. 2). Finally. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery.a boy who can talk.

By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. -Contributed by A. thus making the message audible in the receiver. from four batteries. when A is on No. 1. Joerin. Ohio. and C and C1 are binding posts. Newark. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. and when on No. when on No. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. when on No. E. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. from five batteries. 3.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). 5. from three batteries.. --Contributed by Eugene F. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. Tuttle. and then hold the receiver to your ear. When switch B is closed and A is on No. you have the current of one battery. . a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. B is a onepoint switch. jump spark coil. Jr. 4. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b.

per second for each second. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. Wis. A. is the device of H. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. A. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. Redmond. traveled by the thread. P. The device thus arranged. B. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. which may be a button or other small object. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. A. so one can see the time. of Burlington. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. and placed on the windowsill of the car. mark. over the bent portion of the rule. and supporting the small weight. as shown in the sketch. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft.. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. New Orleans. Thus. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. per second. La. mark. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. When you do not have a graduate at hand.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. E. rule. Handy Electric Alarm . and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train.

which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. Pa. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. Then if a mishap comes. Crafton. Lane. --C. wrapping the wire around the can several times. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. B. soldered to the alarm winder. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. --Contributed by Gordon T. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. C. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. for a wetting is the inevitable result. When the alarm goes off. S. which illuminates the face of the clock. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. Instead. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. . How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. Then I sat down on the porch to wait.which has a piece of metal. and with the same result. but may be closed at F any time desired. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn.

The first thing to make is a molding bench. Macey. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. as shown. bearings. 1 . Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. It is possible to make molds without a bench.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . With the easily made devices about to be described. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. small machinery parts. BE. whence it is soon tracked into the house. If there is no foundry Fig. and many other interesting and useful articles. L. ornaments of various kinds. engines. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. C. but it is a mistake to try to do this. when it is being prepared. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. as shown in Fig. which may. New York City. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. binding posts. Two cleats. models and miniature objects. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. --Contributed by A. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. cannons. battery zincs. AA. A. 1. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. and duplicates of all these.

say 12 in. the "cope. 1. If desired the sieve may be homemade. 2 . but this operation will be described more fully later on. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. CC. H. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. and saw it in half longitudinally." or lower part. A A. An old teaspoon. The rammer.near at hand. and the lower pieces. If the box is not very strong. Fig. F. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. G. Fig. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. E. which can be made of a knitted stocking. by 8 in. makes a very good sieve. and a sieve. is made of wood. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. The flask. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K.How to Make a Mold [96] . The cloth bag. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. high. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. which can be either aluminum. as shown. 2. It is made of wood and is in two halves. a little larger than the outside of the flask. CC. is shown more clearly in Fig. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. will be required. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. is about the right mesh. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. is filled with coal dust. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking." or upper half. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. white metal. is nailed to each end of the cope. as shown. previous to sawing. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. The dowels. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. A slight shake of the bag Fig. by 6 in. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. D. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. A wedge-shaped piece.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. and this. and the "drag. II . A good way to make the flask is to take a box. DD. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. 1. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. which should be nailed in. J. try using sand from other sources.

as shown at C. and thus judge for himself. or "drag. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. In finishing the ramming. and then more sand is added until Fig. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. as described. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. as shown at D. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. as shown. After ramming. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture." in position. The sand is then ready for molding. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. Place another cover board on top. as it is much easier to learn by observation." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. as shown at E. in order to remove the lumps. and by grasping with both hands. It is then rammed again as before. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. turn the drag other side up. the surface of the sand at . In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. and scatter about 1/16 in. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. where they can watch the molders at work. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. or "cope. and if water is added. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured.

as shown at F. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. Place a brick or other flat. is next cut.E should be covered with coal-dust. as shown at H. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. made out of steel rod. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. in diameter. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. wide and about 1/4 in. as shown at J. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. deep. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. it shows that the sand is too wet. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. thus holding the crucible securely. . in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick." or pouring-hole. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. to give the air a chance to escape. After drawing the pattern. The "sprue. Fig. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. as shown in the sketch. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. in order to prevent overheating. after being poured. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. III. This is done with a spoon. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. as shown at G. thus making a dirty casting. place the cope back on the drag. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. and then pour. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. as shown at H.

One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. Although the effect in the illustration . The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. the following device will be found most convenient. Referring to the figure. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. --Contributed by Harold S. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. or from any adjacent pair of cells. If a good furnace is available. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. although somewhat expensive. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. but any reasonable number may be used. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. used only for zinc. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. battery zincs. white metal and other scrap available. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. and the casting is then ready for finishing. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. is very desirable. babbitt. 15% lead. Morton. and. Minneapolis. may be used in either direction. In my own case I used four batteries.

by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. backward. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. A. shaft made. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. Make one of these pieces for each arm. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. B. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. as shown in the illustration. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. To make it take a sheet-iron band. --Contributed by Draughtsman. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. If desired. Fig. Then walk down among the audience. The brass rings also appear distorted. Then replace the table. may be made of hardwood. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. 3/4 in. By replacing the oars with paddles. B.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. outward. connected by cords to the rudder. Put a sharp needle point. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. 2. as shown at A. The bearings. which will be sufficient to hold it. Chicago. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. He can easily steer the boat with his feet.

3. A block of ice. as shown in Fig. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. 1. or the paint will come off. The covers. E. should be made of wood. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. or under pressure. being simply finely divided ice. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. If babbitt is used. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. W. 2. as shown in Fig. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. In the same way. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. and a weight. when it will again return to its original state. Snow. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. 2 and 3.melted babbitt. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. If galvanized iron is used. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. It may seem strange that ice . spoiling its appearance. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. C. but when in motion. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. A. The hubs. D. 1. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. Fig. 1.

but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. thus giving a high resistance contact. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. by 1/4. it will gradually change from the original shape A. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. P.should flow like water.. and assume the shape shown at B. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. by 2 in. by 1/2 in. as per sketch. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. Pa. Crafton. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. B. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. or supporting it in some similar way. whenever there is any connection made at all. as shown on page 65. in. brass. The rate of flow is often very slow. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. sometimes only one or two feet a day. no matter how slow the motion may be. square. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. but. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. by 5 in. Pressing either push button. Lane. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. --Contributed by Gordon T. which resembles ice in this respect. but by placing it between books.

Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. H. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. draft chain. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires.000 ft. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. and C. and five dry batteries. C. weight. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. I. In the wiring diagram. vertical lever. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. Ward. as shown. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. --Contributed by A. A is the circuit breaker. draft. K . B. the battery. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. wooden supports. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. Indianapolis. F. J. The parts are: A. pulleys. horizontal lever. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. G.thumb screws. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. alarm clock. E. as shown. B. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. G. Wilkinsburg. about the size used for automobiles. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. D. The success depends upon a slow current. cord. the induction coil. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. furnace. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. Pa.

The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. where house plants are kept in the home. which will provide a fine place for the plants. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. as well as the bottom. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. 3. will fit nicely in them. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. material framed together as shown in Fig. Artistic Window Boxes The top. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . 2 are dressed to the right angle. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. Mich. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. The frame (Fig. Kalamazoo. such as used for a storm window. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window.

and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. as if drawn upon for its total output. and the instrument will then be complete. e. for some time very satisfactorily. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. 1. Push the needle into the cork. Thus. multiples of series of three. in diameter. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series.. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. 1 each complete with base. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. after a rest. W. by connecting them in series. S. this must be done with very great caution. Grant. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. The 1/2-cp. in any system of lamps. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. Canada. A certain number of these. 1 cp. but maintain the voltage constant. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. and will give the . --Contributed by Wm. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. where they are glad to have them taken away. i. N. since a battery is the most popular source of power. However. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. as indicated by Fig. is something that will interest the average American boy. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. in this connection. so as to increase the current. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. and a suitable source of power. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. It must be remembered. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current.. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. Halifax. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. and cost 27 cents FIG. However. which sells for 25 cents. can be connected up in series. This is more economical than dry cells. a cork and a needle. one can regulate the batteries as required..

Thus. Fig. for display of show cases. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. especially those of low internal resistance. to secure light by this method. by the proper combination of these. double insulated wire wherever needed. So. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. However. 11 series. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. making. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. although the first cost is greater. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. according to the water pressure obtainable. . 18 B & S.. FIG. each. if wound for 6 volts. and for Christmas trees. lamp. lamps. generates the power for the lights. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical.proper voltage. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. 1-cp. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. Thus. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. and then lead No. which is the same as that of one battery. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. If wound for 10 volts. we simply turn on the water. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. Chicago. 2 shows the scheme. 3. lamps. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. and diffused light in a room. These will give 3 cp. as in Fig. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. or 22 lights. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. In conclusion. and running the series in parallel. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. where the water pressure is the greatest.

Ind. Plymouth. Santa Clara. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. BB. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. thus reversing the machine. are cut just alike. and C. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. Emig.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. bars of pole-changing switch. or a tempting bone. B. Parker. simply change the switch. the letters indicate as follows: FF. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. as shown in the sketch. and the sides. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. . we were not bothered with them. A. CC. A indicates the ground. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. --Contributed by F. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. AA. field of motor. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. DD. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. To reverse the motor. --Contributed by Leonard E. B. center points of switch. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. After I connected up my induction coil. brushes of motor. Cal. outside points of switch. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. switch. or from one pattern. a bait of meat.

Hutchinson. Fry. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. A. The experiment works best . The button can be hidden.. or would remain locked. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. attached to the end of the armature B. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. If it is not. a piece of string. Cal. 903 Vine St. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. as it is the key to the lock. thus locking the door. Melchior. and a table or bench. San Jose. W. To unlock the door. which is in the door. one cell being sufficient. merely push the button E. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. -Contributed by Claude B. a hammer. Minn. When the circuit is broken a weight.

Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. the stick falls away. which pulls the draft open. 1). attached at the other end. D. P. Canada. the current flows with the small arrows. Porto Rico. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. 18 Gorham St. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Madison. Brockville. run through a pulley. Wis. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. where it will remain suspended as shown. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. A. releasing the weight. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. --Contributed by Geo.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head.. I. On another block of wood fasten two wires. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock.Contributed by F. Ontario. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. C. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. 3. 3. the key turns. Tie the ends of the string together. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. as shown in Fig. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. 2. forming a loop. . Schmidt. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. Culebra. -. When the alarm rings in the early morning. Crawford Curry. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. 4). W. in the ceiling and has a window weight.

square and 1 in. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. and then to the receiver. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. The cut shows the arrangement. R. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. or from a bed of flowers. D. get two pieces of plate glass.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. 6 in. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone.. Camden. N. S. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. including the mouthpiece. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. running one direct to the receiver. thence to a switch. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. Connect two wires to the transmitter. Use a barrel to work on. and the other to the battery. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. made with his own hands. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. thick. --Contributed by Wm. and . Farley. J. and break the corners off to make them round. First. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. J. Jr. or tree. which fasten to the horn.

Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. a round 4-in. wetting it to the consistency of cream. so the light . The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. Use a binger to spread it on with. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. with 1/4-in. L.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. and a large lamp. spaces. as in Fig. then take 2 lb. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. Fig.. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. twice the focal length away. or it will not polish evenly. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. or less. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. A. by the side of the lamp. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. 1. of water. and label. then 8 minutes. Have ready six large dishes.. and spread on the glass. while walking around the barrel. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. set the speculum against the wall. In a dark room. melt 1 lb. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. When done the glass should be semitransparent. and the under glass or tool convex. in length. using straight strokes 2 in. the coarse grinding must be continued. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. wet till soft like paint.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. When dry. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. also rotate the glass. with pitch. 2. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Fasten. unless a longer focal length is wanted. 2. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. and is ready for polishing. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. Fig. Then warm and press again with the speculum. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. wide around the convex glass or tool. When polishing the speculum.

Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. Place the speculum S. Nitric acid . Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. Place the speculum. long to the back of the speculum. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum).. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole.. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. if a hill in the center.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. with distilled water. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. and pour the rest into the empty dish.. longer strokes.. Fig. When dry.100 gr. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. Then add 1 oz. 2. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. The polishing and testing done. also how the rays R from a star .. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. deep. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. Then add solution B. Silver nitrate …………………………….. as in K. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. from the lamp. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. cement a strip of board 8 in. Fig. 4 oz. 2.……………. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. The knife should not be more than 6 in. 100 gr. or hills. touched with rouge. Alcohol (Pure) …………….………………………………. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. 39 gr. then ammonia until bath is clear. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. fill the dish with distilled water. in the bath and leave until the silver rises.. Two glass or earthenware dishes. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz.. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. If not.. 25 gr. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. the speculum is ready to be silvered. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. 4 oz. face down. Solution D: Sugar loaf . When the focus is found. With pitch. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. Now add enough of the solution A. must be procured. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. 840 gr. the speculum will show some dark rings..……………………………. Fig. that was set aside.

stop down well after focusing. Place over lens. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. Make the tube I of sheet iron. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. two glass prisms. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. is a satisfactory angle. with an outlay of only a few dollars. and proceed as for any picture.John E.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. slightly wider than the lens mount. . Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. About 20. long and cost me just $15. using strawboard and black paper. cover with paper and cloth. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment.. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. My telescope is 64 in. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. The flatter they are the less they will distort. which proves to be easy of execution. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. Thus an excellent 6-in. telescope can be made at home. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. Mellish. deg. Then I made the one described. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount.

just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. Zimmerman. Boody. through the lens of the camera and on the board. The rays of the clear. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. To unlock. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. 2. push the button D. but will not preserve its hardening. 1. A. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. as shown in Fig. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. Do not stir it. D. Fig. add the plaster gradually to the water. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. unobstructed light strike the mirror. Ill. -Contributed by A. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. The paper is exposed. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. then add a little sulphate of potash. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. B. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. and reflect through the negative. or powdered alum. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. complete the arrangement. . A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. says the Master Painter. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. instead of the contrary.

Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. To reverse. 2. so that it can rotate about these points. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. throw . A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. use a string. as in Fig. Fig. also provide them with a handle. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. 1). I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. as at A and B. Fasten on the switch lever. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. as shown in the sketch. Then blow through the spool. but will remain suspended without any visible support. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. 2. 3.

Push one end of the tire into the hole. D. binding posts. the armature. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. . San Marcos. Go McVicker. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. --Contributed by Geo. Neb. and E E. as shown in the sketch. and rub dry with linen cloth. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. In the sketch. rinse in alcohol. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Tex. L. A is the electricbell magnet. wash in running water. C C. carbon sockets. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. San Antonio. -Contributed by Morris L. Thomas. carbons. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Take out. --Contributed by R. North Bend.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. although this is not necessary. Tex. Levy. B. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light.

All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. 36 magnet wire.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. 14 or No. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. Brooklyn. 16 magnet wire. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . wound evenly about this core. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. By means of two or more layers of No. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. --Contributed by Joseph B. long or more. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. Bell.

as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. The following method of completing a 1-in. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. making two layers. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. in diameter. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. A 7/8-in. which is desirable. in length. at a time. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. a box like that shown in Fig. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. This makes a condenser which may be folded. which is an important factor of the coil. After the core wires are bundled. one piece of the paper is laid down. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. then the strip of tin-foil. The condenser is next wrapped . but if it is not convenient to do this work. When cut and laid in one continuous length. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. The primary is made of fine annealed No. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. the entire core may be purchased readymade. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. hole is bored in the center of one end. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. 1. 2 yd. 4. long and 2-5/8 in. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. as shown in Fig. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. coil illustrates the general details of the work. diameter. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. wide. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. with room also for a small condenser. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. No. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. long and 5 in. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned.which would be better to buy ready-made. as the maker prefers. In shaping the condenser. and finally the fourth strip of paper. or 8 in. about 6 in. and the results are often unsatisfactory. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. Beginning half an inch from one end.

forms the other pole or terminal. and the other sheet. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. and one from battery. wide. ready for assembling. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. one from bell. lines H. 4 in. 3. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. C. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. the letters indicate as follows: A. copper lever with 1-in. V-shaped copper strip.securely with bands of paper or tape. whole length. A. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. B. switch. B. shows how the connections are made. bell. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. spark. long and 12 in. which is insulated from the first. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. flange turned on one side. battery .) The wiring diagram. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. which allows wiring at the back. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. by 12 in. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. F. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. G. go. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. open switch C. Fig. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. to the door.. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. D. E. I. round so that the inside . Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. long to key. The alarm key will turn and drop down. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. shelf for clock.

To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. says the Model Engineer. If desired for use immediately. and the battery is ready for use. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. and then rivet the seam. from the bottom. of blue stone. Use a glass or metal shade. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. London. That is what they are for. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. . A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. instead of close to it. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. but add 5 or 6 oz. of zinc sulphate. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Line the furnace. This is for blowing. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. Short-circuit for three hours. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole.diameter is 7 in. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. but with the circuit. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells.. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. do not shortcircuit. The circuit should also have a high resistance. 2 in. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom.

In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. If too low. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. below the bottom of the zinc. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. the second finger along the side. and then. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. g. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. or think they can do the same let them try it. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. affects . and therein is the trick. To operate the trick. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. for some it will turn one way. but the thing would not move at all. for others the opposite way. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm.. square and about 9 in. At least it is amusing. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. thus producing two different vibrations. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made." which created much merriment.9 of a volt. This type of battery will give about 0. herein I describe a much better trick. Ohio. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Enlarge the hole slightly. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. while for others it will not revolve at all. grip the stick firmly in one hand. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. 1. imparting to them a violet tinge. as in the other movement. If any or your audience presume to dispute. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. porcelain and paper. Try it and see. changes white phosphorus to yellow. 2. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. long. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. Outside of the scientific side involved. oxygen to ozone.

which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. if possible.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. an old tripod screw.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. says the Photographic Times. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. To the front board is attached a box. but this is less satisfactory. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. and. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. a means for holding it vertical. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. but not essential. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. and one of them is photomicrography. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . however. insects. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. chemicals. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. but small flowers. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. earth. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. a short-focus lens.

381 24 lb.--Contributed by George C. Madison. and a line. wide from which to cut a pattern. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. AB. 7-1/2 in. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. If the balloon is 10 ft. A line. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 11 ft. 8 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. in diameter. while it is not so with the quill. CD. Cap. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. Mass. 5 in. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 5 ft. 905 57 lb.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. which is 15 ft. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 65 4 lb. 12 ft. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 9 ft. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 7-1/2 in. 697 44 lb. 268 17 lb. in Cu. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. Fig. 113 7 lb. or 31 ft. 179 11 lb. The following table will give the size. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. Boston. or 3 ft. long and 3 ft. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. balloon. 7 ft. 1. 6 ft. Ft Lifting Power. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning.

Repeat this operation four times. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. using a fine needle and No. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. making a double seam as shown in Fig. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. The cloth segments are sewed together. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. and so on. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. The amounts necessary for a 10- . of the very best heavy body. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. cutting all four quarters at the same time. This test will show if the bag is airtight. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. 2. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. keeping the marked part on the outside. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. Procure 1 gal. The pattern is now cut. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. on the curved line from B to C. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. 70 thread. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. 3. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. of beeswax and boil well together. 4. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD.

The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. of sulphuric acid. 1 lb. using a fine brush. . In the barrel. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. After washing a part. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. pipe extending down into the cooling tank.ft. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. A. Water 1 oz. oil the spindle holes carefully. 5 . .Green Iron ammonium citrate . B. it is not fit to use. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action.. Vegetable oils should never be used. 5. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. pipe. should not enter into the water over 8 in. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. 1 lb. ft. When the clock has dried. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. All FIG. this should be repeated frequently. capacity and connect them. C. by fixing. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. of water will make 4 cu. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. B. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. Fill the other barrel. but if any grease remains on the hand. to the bag. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. A. with water 2 in. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. B. until no more dirt is seen. or a fan. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. The 3/4-in. a clean white rag. of iron. with the iron borings. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. or dusting with a dry brush. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. of gas in one hour. A. balloon are 125 lb. ]. 150 gr. as shown in Fig. which may sound rather absurd. About 15 lb. of iron borings and 125 lb. C. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. if it is good it will dry off. leaving the hand quite clean. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. The outlet. with 3/4in. above the level of the water in barrel A. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock.

and a vigorous negative must be used. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry.Water 1 oz. A cold. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking.. Dry the plates in the dark. This aerial collector can be made in . A longer exposure will be necessary. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. says the Moving Picture World. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. of any make. 20 to 30 minutes. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Dry in the dark. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. . or carbon. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. The negative pole. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. fix in hypo. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. to avoid blackened skin. The positive pole. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. Exposure. The miniature 16 cp. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. Printing is done in the sun. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. at the time of employment. or battery. Port Melbourne. or zinc. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. dry atmosphere will give best results. toning first if desired. and keep in the dark until used.000 ft. keeping the fingers out of the solution. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. .

File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. forming a cup of the pipe. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. a positive and a negative.various ways. as described below. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. If the waves strike across the needle. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. will soon become dry and useless. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. This will complete the receiving station. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. long. holes . In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. in diameter. lead pipe. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. The storage cell. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. when left exposed to the air. making a ground with one wire. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. 5 in. both positive and negative. If the wave ceases. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. the resistance is less. and have the other connected with another aerial line. and as less current will flow the short way. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. As the telephone offers a high resistance. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. lay a needle.

an oblong one and a triangular one. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry.as possible. a round one. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. B. says the Pathfinder. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. This support or block. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. namely: a square hole. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. by soldering the joint. of course. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. This box can be square. Two binding-posts should be attached. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. or tube C. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. This. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. When mixing the acid and water. The other plate is connected to the zinc. does not need to be watertight. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. on each end. except for about 1 in. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. one to the positive. or tube B. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. D. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. and the other to the negative.

leaving about 1/16 in. is built 15 ft. long. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. 2. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. in place on the wood. as shown in Fig. wide. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. back and under. 1. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. C. 2. thick cut two pieces alike. This punt. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. and match them together. The third piece of brass. Only galvanized nails should be used. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. as it is not readily overturned. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. deep and 4 ft. Chicago. 3. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. . as shown in Fig. A and B. all around the edge. 1. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. about 20 in. Ill. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. wide. were fitted by this one plug. C. and has plenty of good seating capacity.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards.

Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. B. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. thick and 3-1/2 in. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. In Fig. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . A. Wash. gas pipe. A piece of 1/4-in. Tacoma. is cut 1 in. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. square (Fig 2).

Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. says the Model Engineer. H. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens.--Contributed by Charles H. which can be developed in the usual manner. may be of interest to some of our readers. no more current than a 16-cp. it had to be borne in mind that." has no connection with the outside circuit. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. The winding of the armature. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. Wagner. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. if possible. and to consume. lamp. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. which the writer has made. or "rotor. with the exception of insulated wire. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. without auxiliary phase. no special materials could be obtained.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. In designing. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum.

Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. were then drilled and 1/4-in. They are not particularly accurate as it is. After assembling a second time. in diameter were drilled in the corners. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. no steel being obtainable. being used. bolts put in and tightened up. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. holes. and filled with rivets. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. this little machine is not self-starting. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. or "stator. 2. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. 5. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. to be filed out after they are placed together. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. as shown in Fig. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. 3. The stator is wound full with No. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. with the dotted line. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. 4. 1. B. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. and all sparking is avoided. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. Holes 5-32 in. as shown in Fig. thick. about 2-1/2 lb. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. also varnished before they were put in. wrought iron. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. while the beginnings . in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. A. and is shown with dimensions in Fig.the field-magnet. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. Unfortunately. C.

J. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. and the other by reduction in the camera. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. and as the motor runs at constant speed. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. and as each layer of wire was wound. In making slides by contact. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. McKinney.. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. The lantern slide is a glass plate. 3-Contributed by C. film to film. having no commutator or brushes. as shown in Fig. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. 2. E. as a means of illustrating songs. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. as before stated. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. Jr. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. N. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. it would be very simple to build. and would not easily get out of order. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. One is by contact. and especially of colored ones. This type of motor has drawbacks. Newark. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. 1.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. if applied immediately. a regulating resistance is not needed. and all wound in the same direction. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. The rotor is wound with No. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. No starting resistance is needed. The image should . If too late for alcohol to be of use. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it.

These can be purchased from any photo material store. they are much used by travelers. Select a room with one window. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. to use a plain fixing bath. if possible. also. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . This will enable you to focus to the proper size. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. except that the binding is different. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. A. Draw lines with a pencil. Being unbreakable. 1. about a minute. D. 4. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate.appear in. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. the formulas being found in each package of plates. as shown in Fig. B. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. C. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. and then a plain glass. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. It is best. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. 3. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. as shown in Fig. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. If the exposure has been correct. Fig. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. 2. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. 5. over the mat. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. and development should be over in three or four minutes. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. a little extra work will be necessary.

The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. from the ends. 16 in. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. from the center of this dot draw a star. 1. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. holes bored in the end pieces. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. or other stout cloth. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. Hastings. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. These longer pieces can be made square. from the end piece of the chair. in diameter and 20 in. Vt. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. as shown in Fig. while the dot will be in front of the other. If the star is in front of the left eye. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. long. long. as shown at A. as shown at B. long. in diameter and 40 in. wide and 50 in. Fig. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . 1. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. Corinth. 2. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. known as rods and cones. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. A piece of canvas. Fig. is to be used for the seat.

. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. A belt. 1. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. as shown in Fig. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. per square inch. in thickness and 10 in. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. J. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. as shown in Fig.-Contributed by P. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. Cal. O'Gara. made from an ordinary sash cord. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. as well as to operate other household machines. 2. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. A disk 1 in. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. Auburn. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed.

A simple. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. square for a support. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. wide. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. Cut out a piece from the block combination. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. fairly accurate. and the construction is complete. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. says the Scientific American. divided by the number of threads to the inch. The part of a rotation of the bolt. 3/4 in. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. then removing the object. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. or inconvenient to measure. long. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. leaving it shaped like a bench. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. to the top of the bench. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. Put the bolt in the hole. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. screwing it through the nut. direction. with as fine a thread as possible. it serves a very useful purpose. thick and 2-1/2 in. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. Bore a 1/4-in. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. will be the thickness of the object. . A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it.

This may appear to be a hard thing to do. The wheel should be open . Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. globe that has been thrown away as useless. long is used for the center pole. which show up fine at night. beyond the end of the wood. Oal. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. material 12 ft. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. bolt in each hole. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Santa Maria. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Bore a 3/4-in. long. piece of wood 12 ft. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Place a 3/4-in.

A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. square and 3 or 4 in. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. C. L. of the ends with boards. from the top end. B. A piece of brass 2 in. at the bottom. made of the same material. long. at the top and 4 in. thick.-Contributed by A. pieces used for the spokes. wide and 1/8 in. wide and 1/8 in. to be operated by the magnet coil.Side and Top View or have spokes. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. which should be 1/4 in. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. P. 1/2 in. thick is used for the armature. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. from the ends. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. is soldered. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. Graham. The spool . Tex. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. H and J. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. Fort Worth. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. long. thick. long. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. A cross bar. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. O. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. C. The boards may be nailed or bolted. and the lower part 61/2 in. in diameter. long. and on its lower end a socket. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. The coil. A.

R.000. A. and in numerous other like instances. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. The armature. Mass.J. A soft piece of iron.is about 2-1/2 in. or a water rheostat heretofore described. for insulating the brass ferrule. S. At the bottom end of the frame. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. C. by soldering. Bradlev. do it without any apparent effort. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. --Contributed by Arthur D. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. 2. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. D and E.000 for irrigation work. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. Randolph. This tie can be used on grain sacks. one without either rubber or metal end. . When you slide the pencil along the casing. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. 1. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. S. and directly centering the holes H and J. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. then with a firm. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. which is also connected to the brass ferrule.--A. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw.E. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. is drilled. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. which may be had by using German silver wire. F. 2 the hat hanging on it. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. and place it against a door or window casing. long. B. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. that holds the lower carbon. This is a very neat trick if performed right.

Experiment with Heat [134] . in diameter. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. 2. in diameter and 1/16 in. is constructed in the usual manner. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. The vibrator. for the primary. for the secondary.500 turns of No. wide. leaving the projections as shown. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. hole in the center. about 3/16 in. about 1 in. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. A. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. S. B. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. long. D. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. About 70 turns of No. The core of the coil. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. from the core and directly opposite. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. may be made from a 3/8-in. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. and then 1. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. with a 3/16-in. 1. mixed with water to form a paste. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. thick. The switch. is connected to a flash lamp battery. in diameter. Fig. C. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. 1. for adjustment. Fig. long and 1 in. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. S.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. F. about 1/8 in. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. in diameter and 2 in. The vibrator B. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. The coil ends are made from cardboard. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core.

The water will rapidly rise in the glass. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. as shown. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. The hasp. between the boards. as shown in the sketch. wide. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. 2 to fit the two holes. The three screws were then put in the hasp. The knob on the dial extends out too far. and then well clinched. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. brass plate. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. The lock. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial.Place a small piece of paper. and the same distance inside of the new board. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. thick on the inside. which seemed to be insufficient. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. it laps down about 8 in. with which to operate the dial. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. 1. was to be secured by only three brass screws. in an ordinary water glass. 1. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. . lighted. The tin is 4 in. 16 in. which is only 3/8-in. which is cut with two holes. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. Fig. long and when placed over the board. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. board.

The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. high for use in window displays. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. square and 10-1/2 in. the glass. but when the front part is illuminated. which completely divides the box into two parts. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. not shiny. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . When the rear part is illuminated. When making of wood. black color. or in the larger size mentioned. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. square and 8-1/2 in. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. one in each division.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. and the back left dark. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. If the box is made large enough. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. clear glass as shown. any article placed therein will be reflected in.

long and 1 ft. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. into the other. Instead of changing the current operated by hand.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front.. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. . Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. and with the proper illumination one is changed. as shown in the sketch. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. wide will be about the right size. above the top of the tank. When there is no electric current available. as it appears. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. When using as a window display. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. alternately. as shown at A in the sketch. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. a tank 2 ft.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. high. O. 5 ft. The pieces can then be taken out.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. square and 40 in. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. square. each. as shown. bore from each end. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. bit. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. and 6 ft. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. hole bored the full length through the center. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. 6 in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. This precipitate is then washed. Columbus. 2 ft. long. with a length of 13 in. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. 1 in. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. thick and 3 in. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. but with a length of 12 in. long. If a planing mill is near. is built on the front. lines gauged on each side of each. This hole must be continued . Three windows are provided. and a door in front. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. hole. wide. and a solution of iron sulphate added. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. under sides together. two pieces 1-1/8 in. one for each side. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. from the ground. dried and mixed with linseed oil. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. Shape the under sides first. gauge for depth. is the green vitriol. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. and boring two holes with a 1-in. however. radius. A small platform. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. or ferrous sulphate. using a 3/4-in. then use a red-hot iron to finish. The 13-in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. Iron sulphate. wide.

When this is dry. Electric globes--two.through the pieces forming the base. hole in each block. apply two coats of wax. When the filler has hardened. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. If the parts are to be riveted. if shade is purchased. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. thick and 3 in. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. Directions will be found on the filler cans. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. square and drawing a diagonal on each. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. three or four may be attached as shown. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. A better way. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. For art-glass the metal panels are . Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Saw the two blocks apart. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult.

The Completed Lamp cut out. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. such as copper.Construction of Shade . as brass. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. METAL SHADE .

Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. The arms holding the glass. and Fig. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. as shown in the sketch. 2 the front view of this stand. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. the object and the background. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. the other. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. Figure 1 shows the side. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. one way and 1/2 in.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. as in ordinary devices. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length.

Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. channel in the circumference of the ring. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. If the light becomes dim. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. An ordinary pocket compass.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. thus forming a 1/4-in. Put the ring in place on the base. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. in diameter for a base. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. long. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. pointing north and south. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Before mounting the ring on the base. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. uncork and recork again. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. as shown in the sketch. wide and 11 in. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. and an inside diameter of 9 in. as it is very poisonous. thick 5/8-in. Cut another circular piece 11 in. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. and swinging freely. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. in diameter. wide and 6-5/16 in. outside diameter. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. as shown in the cut. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. about 1-1/4 in.

Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in.600 . are mounted on a base. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. from the second to the third. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can.088 . and mirrors. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. Corresponding mirrors. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. EE. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders.865 1.182 . CC. above the half can.500 .715 . into these cylinders. in diameter and 8 in. Place on top the so- . and north of the Ohio river. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. AA. The results given should be multiplied by 1.289 . B. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. of the top.420 . A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. 1 oz.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. black oxide of copper. to which a wire has been soldered for connections.

A Floating Electromagnet [152] . A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. little crystals forming in the liquid. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. of pulverized campor. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. Colo. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. slender bottle. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. 62 gr. In Fig. When renewing. 31 gr. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. then they will not rust fast. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. the wheel will revolve in one direction. Put the solution in a long. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. always remove the oil with a siphon. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. University Park.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. which otherwise remains clear. says Metal Worker. alcohol. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole.

the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. about 1-1/4 in. Attach to the wires. floating on a solution. If two of them are floating on the same solution.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. will allow the magnet to point north and south. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. on the under side of the cork. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. If zinc and carbon are used. A paper-fastener box. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. This is used in place of the spoon. Solder in the side of the box . leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. --Contributed by C. Lloyd Enos. If zinc and copper are used. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube.

26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. Rhamstine. D. long that has about 1/4-in. can be made of oak. is made from a piece of No. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. B. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. long. hole.Contributed by J.in. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. C. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. as shown in Fig. 1. E.1-in. C. long. and then solder on the cover. glass tubing . Take a small piece of soft iron. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. 10 wire about 10 in. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. H. or made with a little black paint. To this standard solder the supporting wire. B. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. Bore holes for binding-posts. A. Use a board 1/2. A. The standard. The bottom of the box. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. The base. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . of wire on each end extending from the coil. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. . C.in. piece of 1/4-in. If the hose is not a tight fit. D. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. to it. 1/2. thick. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. wide and 2-1/2 in. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. Wind evenly about 2 oz. away. wide and 6 in. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. G--No. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. and on the other around the glass tube. A circular piece of cardboard. F. Thos. D. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. 1-1/4 in. 3 in. one on each side of the board. stained and varnished. E. The spring should be about 1 in. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. 14 wire will do. Put ends. brass tubing. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet.not shorter than 18 in. of No. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring.

is drawn nearer to the coil. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. in diameter. two pieces 2 ft. 3-in. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. Y. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. long. The iron plunger. of mercury will be sufficient. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested.--Contributed by Edward M. from the right hand. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. When the glass becomes soft. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. making a support as shown in Fig.--Contributed by R. Cuba. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. long. Teasdale. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. Milwaukee. E. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. D. Smith. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. long. long. 3. 3 in. 5. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. of 8-oz.of the coil. 2. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. 1. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. canvas. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. about 1 in. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. as shown in Fig. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. four hinges. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. Wis. J.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. About 1-1/2 lb. N. . Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. of No. long. long are used for the legs. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in.

The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. 2. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. of vacuum at the top. expelling all the air. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. Measure 8 in. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube.. The tube now must be filled completely. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. leaving 8 in.. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. Toronto. Break off the piece of glass. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. Fig. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. This tube as described will be 8 in. Keys. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. holding in the left hand. Take 1/2 in. 4. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. 6. 3. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. long. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. 5. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. --Contributed by David A. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. thus leaving a. small aperture in the long tube. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. Can.

Fig.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. as shown in Fig. wide and 5 ft. and the single projection 3/4 in. This forms a slot. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. wide and 12 in. thick. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. 9 in. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. A crosspiece 3/4-in. cut in the shape shown in Fig. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . 3 in. and 1/4 in. 5. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. thick. 7. 6. wide and 3 in. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. as in Fig. long. 4. The large pulley is about 14 in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. 1 in. thick. in diameter. long. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. 1. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background.6 -. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. thick. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. long. with each projection 3-in. FIG. wood screws. material 2 in. These are bent and nailed. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. long. 3 in. 3. thick. joint be accurately put together. as shown in Fig. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. 1 in. wide and 5 ft. wide and 5 ft. but yellow pine is the best. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. from the end of same. 2. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. 4 in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. Four blocks 1/4 in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame.

Kan. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. attach runners and use it on the ice.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. says Photography. first removing the crank. Water 1 oz. above the runner level. R. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. by 1-in. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. . iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. Manhattan. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. --Contributed by C. Welsh.

Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. 2. Newton. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. of water. as shown in Fig. from an ordinary clamp skate. 3. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Mass. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. --Contributed by Edward M. 1 oz. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. --Contributed by Wallace C. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. The print is washed. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. and very much cheaper. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. also. Printing is carried rather far. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Treasdale. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. This is done with a camel's hair brush. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. as shown in Fig. 1. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. . Leominster.

and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. 1-1/2 ft. from one end. high. say. high for rabbits. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. Place a 10-in. too. Church. and bend them as shown in the sketch. A. as shown in the sketch. and 3 ft. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. extending the width of the box. about 10 in. with about 1/8-in. Take two glass tubes. fasten a 2-in. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. The swing door B. Fig. --Contributed by H. and to the bottom. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. Then. wide and 4 in. 1. The thread is broken off at the . square piece. wide. Va. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. 1. which represents the back side of the door. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. hole. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. Fig. causing the door to swing back and up. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. Alexandria. F. 1 ft. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. long. 2. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A.

black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. plates. wide. B. -Contributed by William M. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. as shown in Fig. automobiles. horses and dogs. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. shorter at each end. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. 10 in. This opening. trolley cars. being 1/8 in. D.proper place to make a small hole.by 5-in. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. 3.. and exactly 5 by 7 in. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. says Camera Craft. in size. high and 12 in. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. Paste a piece of strong black paper. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. inside of the opening. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. to be used as a driving pulley. Chicago. wide and 5 in. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. black surfaced if possible. 1. . Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. and go in the holder in the same way. camera and wish to use some 4. say 8 in. shorter. 2. Take two pieces of pasteboard. Fig. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. Jr. Out two rectangular holes. long. C. Cut an opening in the other piece. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. from the edge on each side of these openings. A and B. in size. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. long. but cut it 1/4 in. Fig. 1 in. Crilly. wide. Cut a piece of thin black cloth.by 7-in.

and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. long and 6 in. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. making a ." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. A cell of this kind can easily be made. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. if it has previously been magnetized. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile.. in diameter. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it.in. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. wide will be required. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. into which the dog is harnessed. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. The needle will then point north and south.

The details of the construction are given in the diagram. 3/4 lb. pull out the wire as needed. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. filter. 1 lb. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. beeswax melted together. F is a spool. of the plate at one end. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. plaster of paris. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. with narrow flanges. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. of rosin and 2 oz. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. long which are copper plated. fodder. Form a 1/2-in. only the joints. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. one that will hold about 1 qt. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. short time. fuel and packing purposes. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T.in. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. of water. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. . of the top. Pack the paste in. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. A is a block of l-in. under the spool in the paraffin. when the paraffin is melted. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. for a connection. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. Do not paint any surface. and a notch between the base and the pan. leaving about 1/2-in. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. sal ammoniac. says Electrician and Mechanic. in diameter and 6 in. zinc oxide. in which P is the pan. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. File the rods to remove the copper plate. B is a base of 1 in. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. Place the pan on the stove. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends.watertight receptacle. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. This makes the wire smooth. 1/4 lb. pine.

enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. while for others it will not revolve at all. g. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time." which created much merriment. and therein is the trick. or think they can do the same. long. Enlarge the hole slightly. Toledo. grip the stick firmly in one hand. thus producing two different vibrations.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. but the thing would not move at all. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. 2. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. by the Hindoos in India. from vexation. let them try it. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. for some it will turn one way. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. At least it is amusing. as in the other movement. square and about 9 in. and one friend tells me that they were . the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Try it and see. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top.. Ohio. for others the opposite way. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. and he finally. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. If any of your audience presume to dispute. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. and then.

and. A square stick with notches on edge is best. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. To operate. rotation was obtained. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. and I think the results may be of interest. Speeds between 700 and 1. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. m. 7. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. by means of a center punch. 6. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. gave the best results. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. The experiments were as follows: 1. 3. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. no rotation resulted. 5. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. the rotation may be obtained. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. 2. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. Thus a circular or . and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. p. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. If the pressure was upon an edge. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. secondly. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. 4. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion.100 r.

the upper portion is. unwetted by the liquid. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. forming a handle for carrying. a piece of wire and a candle. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. so far as can be seen from the photographs. C. or greasy. D. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. Duluth. A.D. and the resultant "basket splash. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. Sloan." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. --Contributed by M. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. Ph. if the pressure is from the left. and the height of the fall about 6 in. Lloyd. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. G. . is proved by experiments 3 and 4... graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. is driven violently away. as shown. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. Minn. A wire is tied around the can. --Contributed by G. it will be clockwise. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. at first. Washington. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

with a 1/16-in. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy ." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. as shown in Fig. axle. hole drilled in the center. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. flange and a 1/4-in. 1. as shown. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. long. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. in diameter. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. about 2-5/8 in. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. Each wheel is 1/4 in. thick and 1 in. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button.

Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. Fuller.brass. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. as shown in Fig. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. --Contributed by Maurice E. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. Fig. bent as shown. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. wood. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . bottom side up. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. 4. lamp in series with the coil. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. or main part of the frame. 2. 2. which must be 110 volt alternating current. with cardboard 3 in. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. 3/4 in. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. San Antonio. are shown in Fig. wide and 16 in. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. This will save buying a track. holes 1 in. long. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. The parts. 1 from 1/4-in. each in its proper place. These ends are fastened together. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. put together complete. A trolley. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together.50. is made from brass. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. 6. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. The current. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. 5. of No. If the ends are to be soldered. The motor is now bolted. 3. Fig. 3. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. Texas. The first piece. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. is made from a piece of clock spring. and the locomotive is ready for running. as shown in Fig.

Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. and as this end . 2. and holes drilled in them. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Cincinnati. 3. the length of a paper clip. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Fig. Fig 1. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. When cold treat the other end in the same way. as shown in Fig. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. O. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. as shown in Fig. but do not heat the center. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. The quarter will not go all the way down. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. then continue to tighten much more. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. 1.

2 and 1 respectively. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. When the cutter A. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. A pair of centers are fitted. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. In the sketch. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. or apparent security of the knot. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. has finished a cut for a tooth. and adjusted . A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. When the trick is to be performed.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. or should the lathe head be raised. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe.

Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. 2. book mark. above the surface. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. --Contributed by Howard S. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. 1. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. if four parts are to be alike. such as brass or marble. lady's belt bag. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). When connecting to batteries. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. Y. if but two parts. N. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. note book. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). (6. holding it in place with the left hand. The frame holding the mandrel. twisted around itself and soldered. tea cosey. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins.) Place the paper design on the leather and. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. gentleman's card case or bill book. (2. coin purse.) Make on paper the design wanted. dividing it into as many parts as desired. about 1-1/2 in. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. Fold over along these center lines. Second row: -Two book marks. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. An ordinary machine will do. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. Brooklyn. Bott.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. tea cosey. Bunker. blotter back. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. long. (3. swing lathe.to run true. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. (1. --Contributed by Samuel C. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. In this manner gears 3 in. watch fob ready for fastenings. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. and a nut pick. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. at the same time striking light. (5. or one-half of the design. Fig.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. trace the outline. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. draw center lines across the required space.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. lady's card case. (4.

Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle. some heavy rubber hose.

The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. If the needle is not horizontal. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. from Key West. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. The electrodes are made . Florida. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. and push it through a cork. B. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp.. where it condenses. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. D. a distance of 900 miles. C. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. Thrust a pin. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. into which fit a small piece of tube. and bore a hole through the center. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. A. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes.C.

1. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. lengths and splice them. wide and 3 ft. wide and 4 ft. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. 16 piano wire. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. Connect as shown in the illustration. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. 1. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. 1. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. long for the body of the operator. thick. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. If 20-ft. take the glider to the top of a hill. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. long. long. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. using a high resistance receiver. lumber cannot be procured. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. 12 uprights 1/2 in. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. wide and 4 ft long. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. 2 in. as shown in Fig. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. long. thick. wide and 3 ft. --Contributed by Edwin L. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. long. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. 1-1/2 in. thick. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. 2. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. 2. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. 2 arm sticks 1 in. 1/2. wide and 20 ft. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. 3. D. use 10-ft. The operator can then land safely and . slacken speed and settle. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. Powell.in. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. apart and extend 1 ft. long. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. and also to keep it steady in its flight. thick. as shown in Fig. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. To make a glide. All wiring is done with No. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. Four long beams 3/4 in. C. wide and 4 ft. as shown in Fig. or flying-machine. 1-1/4 in. which is tacked to the front edge.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. free from knots. 3/4 in. thick. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. by 3/4 in. square and 8 ft long. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. Washington. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. several strips 1/2 in. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. both laterally and longitudinally.

The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Great care should be . Glides are always made against the wind. and the balancing is done by moving the legs.gently on his feet. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. Of course. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. but this must be found by experience.

Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from.exercised in making landings. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. a creature of Greek mythology. 2. Olson. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. half man and half horse. When heated a little. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. Bellingham. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. as shown in Fig. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. which causes the dip in the line. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. M. 1. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. --Contributed by L.

These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. in diameter. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. of small rubber tubing. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. While at the drug store get 3 ft. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. square.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. will complete the material list. 14 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. a piece of brass or steel wire. The light from the . outside the box. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. making it 2-1/2 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. long and about 3/8 in. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. about the size of stove pipe wire. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. this will cost about 15 cents. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. long. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. at the other. about the size of door screen wire.

leaving the penny poised on the finger end.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. as shown in the sketch. O. 1. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. M. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. . Dayton. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. 2. as shown in Fig.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. --Photo by M. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. while others will fail time after time. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. This is very simple when you know how. as shown in Fig. If done properly the card will flyaway. Hunting. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply.

" or the Chinese students' favorite game. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. as described. Cool in water and dry. as before. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. hold the lump over the flame. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. place the other two.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. then put it on the hatpin head. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. closing both hands quickly. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . When the desired shape has been obtained. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. If a certain color is to be more prominent. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. This game is played by five persons. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. as shown. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve.

distribute electric charges . using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. passing through neutralizing brushes. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. or more in width. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. these sectors. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera.

Fig. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. in diameter and 15 in. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. GG. C C. 4. in diameter. to which insulating handles . long. in diameter. and this should be done before cutting the circle. at the other. The fork part is 6 in. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. 1-1/2 in. 3. long. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. and pins inserted and soldered. Two solid glass rods. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. in diameter. turned wood pieces. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. and 4 in. brass tubing and the discharging rods. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. or teeth. 3/4 in. free from wrinkles. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. as shown in Fig. and the outer end 11/2 in. the side pieces being 24 in. These pins. in diameter. 1. wide at one end. The plates. long and the shank 4 in. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. long and the standards 3 in. 2. in diameter.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. material 7 in. D. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. after they are mounted. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. and of a uniform thickness. are made from 7/8-in. The drive wheels. The collectors are made. 3. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. EE. The two pieces. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. as shown in Fig. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. Two pieces of 1-in. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. Fig. from about 1/4-in. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. 1 in. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. in diameter. are made from solid. wide. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. RR. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. The plates are trued up.

--Contributed by C. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. Colorado City. and the work was done by themselves. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. long. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. ball and the other one 3/4 in. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. which are bent as shown. D. one having a 2-in. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. KK.are attached.. wide and 22 ft. in diameter. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. 12 ft. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. Lloyd Enos. Colo.

Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. string together. deep. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. pens . Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up.is a good one. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. as at A. bit. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. They can be used to keep pins and needles. yet such a thing can be done. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. The key will drop from the string. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. using a 1-in. and bore a hole 1/2 in.

When the stamping is completed. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. Proceed as follows: 1. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. 4. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. also trace the decorative design. 7. Raise the ends. above the work and striking it with the hammer. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. slim screw. inside the first on all. flat and round-nosed pliers. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. They are easily made. using a nail filed to chisel edge. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. The second oblong was 3/4 in. Use . With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. two spikes. above the metal. 23 gauge. 3. stamp the background promiscuously. 9.. or cigar ashes.. 2. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. etc. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. and the third one 1/4 in. they make attractive little pieces to have about. Having determined the size of the tray. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. file. 8. Draw one-half the design free hand. 6. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. very rapid progress can be made. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one.and pencils. 5. extra metal on each of the four sides. This is to make a clean. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. then the other side. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. Inside this oblong. sharp division between background and design. inside the second on all. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. etc. about 3/4-in. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. unless it would be the metal shears.

The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . 8. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. The eyes. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. third fingers. first fingers. 10. 7. 9. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. and fourth fingers. second fingers. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. 6. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. In the first numbering. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. and the effect will be most pleasing. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown.

600.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. above 15 times 15 it is 200. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. which tens are added. Two times one are two. if we wish. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. or numbers above 10. viz. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. renumber your fingers. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. etc. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand.. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. In the second numbering. 25 times 25. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. 2 times 2 equals 4. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. etc. 400. . above 20 times 20. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. which would be 70. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. etc. 12. or 60. At a glance you see four tens or 40. Let us multiply 12 by 12. or the product of 6 times 6.. or 80. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. Still. Put your thumbs together. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. the product of 12 times 12. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. first fingers. and the six lower fingers as six tens. 11.. thumbs. or the product of 8 times 9. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. but being simple it saves time and trouble. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. there are no fingers above. which would be 16. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. as high as you want to go. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired.

the upper fingers representing a value of 20. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. the value of the upper fingers being 20. or from above or from below. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. being 80). at the will of the observer.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. first fingers 22. 75 and 85. however. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. and so on. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. the lump sum to add. etc. which is the half-way point between the two fives. in the case of a nearsighted person. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. thumbs. when he removes his spectacles. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. lastly. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. as one might suppose. further. For figures ending in 6. first finger 17. or what. Take For example 18 times 18. . not rotation. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. 7. twenties. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. adding 400 instead of 100. any two figures between 45 and 55. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. the value which the upper fingers have. 21. The inversion and reversion did not take place. And the lump sum to add. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. the revolution seems to reverse. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. forties. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. 8. thirties. It takes place also. For example. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. the inversion takes place against his will. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. the value of the upper fingers would be 50.. 3. 2. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. whether the one described in second or third numbering. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. and. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. beginning the thumbs with 16. about a vertical axis. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. Proceed as in the second lumbering.

Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. when he knows which direction is right. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. Looking at it in semidarkness. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. The ports were not easy to make.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. and putting a cork on the point. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. tee. A flat slide valve was used. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. the other appearance asserts itself. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. sometimes the point towards him. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. as . The cylinder consists of a 3-in. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel.

and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. Fasten the block solidly. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. it is easily built. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. pipe. . secure a piece of No. Springfield. If nothing better is at hand. -Contributed by W. inexpensive. deep. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. and make in one end a hollow. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. The steam chest is round. Kutscher. Ill. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. While this engine does not give much power. as in a vise. The eccentric is constructed of washers. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft.. bottom side up. saw off a section of a broom handle. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. The tools are simple and can be made easily. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. such as is shown in the illustration. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. across the head. about 2 in.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. if continued too long without proper treatment. Next take a block of wood. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. across and 1/2 in. Beating copper tends to harden it and. pipe 10 in. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. in diameter. H. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. apart. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing.

holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. S. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. Vinegar. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. To overcome this hardness. O. Hay.will cause the metal to break. This process is called annealing. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. To produce color effects on copper. C. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. --Contributed by W. especially when the object is near to the observer. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. Camden. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. as it softens the metal. the other to the left. and. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot.

Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. in the proper choice of colors. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. while both eyes together see a white background. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. and lies to the right on the picture. because of the rays coming from them. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. it. because. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. The red portions of the picture are not seen. the one for the left eye being blue. although they pass through the screen. In order to make them appear before the card. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. and without any picture. But they seem black. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. So with the stereograph. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. would serve the same purpose. they must be a very trifle apart. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. as for instance red and green. from the stereograph. disappears fully. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. diameter. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. the further from the card will the composite image appear. however. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. It is just as though they were not there. The further apart the pictures are. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. not two mounted side by side. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. with the stereograph. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. only the orange rays may pass through. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil.stereoscope. that for the right. . orange. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. the left eye sees through a blue screen.

12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. 1/4 in. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. in the shape of a crank. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. thick.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. San Francisco. A No. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. Place a NO. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. wireless. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. Cal. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. This should only be bored about half way through the block. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. in diameter. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. wide and 1 in. or the middle of the bottle. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. etc. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. The weight of the air in round . Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. long and a hole drilled in each end. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. 12 gauge wire.

The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. inside diameter and 2 in. In general. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. the instrument. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. or a column of mercury (density 13. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. The 4 in. a bottle 1 in. pine 3 in. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. internal diameter and about 34 in. high. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. But if a standard barometer is not available. or. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. Only redistilled mercury should be used. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather.6) 1 in. the contrary.numbers is 15 lb. 34 ft. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. long. 30 in. square. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. if accurately constructed. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. wide and 40 in. if you choose. thick. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. . will calibrate itself. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. Before fastening the scale. a glass tube 1/8 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. square. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. high. wide and 4 in. long. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. but before attempting to put in the mercury. long. and a slow fall. high. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube.. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in.

The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . a cover from a baking powder can will do. the size of the outside of the bottle. wide and 10 in. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. Number the pieces 1. which is slipped quickly over the end. Mark out seven 1-in. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. and place them as shown in Fig. thick. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. 5. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. 3. 1.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. 6 and 7. long. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. Procure a metal can cover. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. 2.

7 over No. 6. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 7. 6 over No. Woolson. Move 2-Jump No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 3. 5's place. 2 over No. This can be done on a checker board. 1. 3 over No. 3 to the center. 2 . which is the very best material for the purpose. Move 4-Jump No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. shaped like Fig. each 10 ft.-Contributed by W. 7 over No. 1 to No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 6 to No. Move 6-Move No. 2's place. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. Move 9-Jump No. 1. 6 into No. 7's place. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. using checkers for men. 6 in. N. 2's place. Move 3-Move No. Make 22 sections.Position of the Men move only one at a time. l over No. Move 10-Move No. Move 5-Jump No. 3. in diameter. 6. Move 12-Jump No. L. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. Move 13-Move No. 2 over No.J. 2. Move 7-Jump No. procure unbleached tent duck. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 5's place. Move 14-Jump No. Move ll-Jump No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. Cape May Point. 2. 5 over No. Move 15-Move No. long and 2 ft. as shown in Fig. 3 into No. 3. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 5. 5 over No. 1 into No. To make such a tent. Move 8-Jump No.

In raising the tent. high. made in two sections. wide by 12 in. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft.. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. 6. 6-in. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Emsworth. 5) stuck in the ground. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. 2 in. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. After transferring the design to the brass. Tress. These are ventilators. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. leaving the rest for an opening. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. fill with canvas edging.in. Punch holes in the brass in . wide at the bottom. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. from the top. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. in diameter. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. long. diameter. Use blocks. As shown in the sketch. 3 in. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas.J. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. Fig. will do. Have the tent pole 3 in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. 2. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Pa. wide at the bottom. --Contributed by G. Fig. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. about 9 in. 9 by 12 in. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. long and 4 in. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. 5. added. to a smooth board of soft wood. round galvanized iron. as in Fig.

--Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. bend into shape. around the outside of the pattern. It will not. but before punching the holes. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. excepting the 1/4-in. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. The pattern is traced as before. Corr. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. cut out the brass on the outside lines. . the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. apart. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes.the spaces around the outlined figures. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. When the edges are brought together by bending. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. When all the holes are punched. Chicago. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand.

Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. allowing 2 ft. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. Oregon. E. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. If a wheel is selected. partially filled with cream. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. or less. A 6-in. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. between which is placed the fruit jar.however. These pipes are . the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post.. --Contributed by H. or. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. better still. Que. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. or center on which the frame swings. pipe. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. Badger. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. Mayger. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. A cast-iron ring. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. --Contributed by Geo. Dunham. pipe is used for the hub. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. G. Stevens. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard.

wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. An extra wheel 18 in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. pipe. Four braces made from 1/2-in. pipe clamps. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. bent to the desired circle. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel.

The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. while doing this. which was placed in an upright position. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. 3. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. and dropped on the table. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. and the guide withdrawn. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. 1. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can .The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. as shown in Fig. The performer. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes.

The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. in a half circle. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. St. Mo. first. --Contributed by H. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Louis. D. Denver. in diameter on another piece of tin. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. -Contributed by C. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. it requires no expensive condensing lens. and second. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. 2. The box can be made of selected oak or . 1. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. F. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. White. Colo. Harkins. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives.

This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in.mahogany. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. from each end of the outside of the box. wide and 6-1/2 in. high and 11 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. wide. as shown in Fig. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. long and should be placed vertically. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. wide and 6-1/2 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. Two or three holes about 1 in. 1. wide and 5 in. long. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. wide by 5 in. An open space 4 in. 3-1/2 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. If a camera lens is used. AA. but not tight. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. and. focal length. fit into the runners. This will be 3/4 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. long. The door covering this hole in the back. high and must . 5-1/2 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. and 2 in. from each end. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. 2. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown.

Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. and extending the whole height of the lantern. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. then the second knuckle will be March. C. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. --Contributed by Chas. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached..Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions." etc. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. June and November. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. calling this February. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. Bradley. April. provided it is airtight. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. calling that knuckle January. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. West Toledo. 1. Ohio. the article may be propped up . This process is rather a difficult one. as it requires an airtight case. and so on. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year.

and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. and set aside for half a day. Y.with small sticks. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. fruit jars are required. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. The top of a table will do. and the lead 24 sq. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. H. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. Pour in a little turpentine. taking care to have all the edges closed. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. in. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. In each place two electrodes. 1 and 2. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. 2. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. one of lead and one of aluminum. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. giving it an occasional stir. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. but waxed. N. Schenectady. . Crawford. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. running small motors and lighting small lamps. the lid or cover closed. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. In both Fig. --Contributed by J. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. or suspended by a string. 1. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. in.

he throws the other. as well as others. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. O. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. which you warm with your hands. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . as you have held it all the time. He. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. After a few seconds' time. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up.. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. you remove the glass. Cleveland. This trick is very simple.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. You have an understanding with some one in the company. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated.

it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint.take the handiest one. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. put it under the glass. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. but by being careful at shores. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. near a partition or curtain. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. . Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. Be sure that this is the right one. Pull the ends quickly.-Contributed by E. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. if any snags are encountered. in diameter in the center. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Crocker. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Victor. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. but in making one. on a table. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Colo. J. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use.

See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. 1/4 in. long. the smaller is placed 3 ft. screws and cleats. 3 in. from the bow and the large one. selected pine. are as follows: 1 keelson. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 3 in. Paint. from each end to 1 in. and is removed after the ribs are in place.. of 1-1/2-yd. 1 in. by 8 in. by 16 ft. for cockpit frame. at the ends. square by 16 ft. long. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 2 in. wide 12-oz.. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 50 ft. ducking. 4 outwales. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. 1. Both ends are mortised. wide. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. clear pine. one 6 in. by 16 ft. and the other 12 in. 1 piece. 8 in. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. thick and 3/4 in. 9 ft. The keelson. long. is 14 ft. for the stern piece. by 2 in. of 1-yd. 8 yd. by 15 ft. wide and 12 ft. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. for the bow. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. 14 rib bands. and fastened with screws. by 2 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. long. 11 yd. drilled and fastened with screws. for center deck braces. 2 gunwales. apart. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. 2 and braced with an iron band. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. Fig.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 3 and 4. 1 in. 7 ft. by 10 ft. 1 piece. 1 in. 1 in. wide and 12 ft. as illustrated in the engraving. from the stern. and. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. 1 mast. 1/8 in. of rope. wide unbleached muslin. by 12 in.

bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. thick. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. in diameter through the block. 6. wide and 14 in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. 1/4 in. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. long is well soaked in water. is a cube having sides 6 in. The 11-yd. A 6-in. 6 and 7. screws. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. A seam should be made along the center piece. . is cut to fit under the top boards. wide. thick and 1/2 in. long. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. 4 in. Figs. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. wood screws. corner braces. thick 1-1/2 in. thick. long. long. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. gunwales and keelson. 1 in. Fig. The trimming is wood. length of canvas is cut in the center. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. apart. from the bow. Fig. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. wide. The deck is not so hard to do. 9. This block. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. wide and 24 in. Braces. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. The block is fastened to the keelson. and fastened to them with bolts. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. wide and 3 ft. Before making the deck. 5. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. also. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. thick and 12 in. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. They are 1 in. 1 in. 3-1/2 ft. These are put in 6 in. A piece of oak. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. 6 in. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. doubled. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. a piece 1/4 in.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. A block of pine. 7 and 8. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson.

11. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. The mast has two side and one front stay. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. . Wilmette. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The keel. 12. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. in diameter and 10 ft. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. wide at one end and 12 in. --Contributed by O. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. E. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. long. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. apart in the muslin. 10 with a movable handle. Tronnes. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. is 6 in. long. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. thick by 2 in. A strip 1 in. Fig. are used for the boom and gaff. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. The sail is a triangle. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. at the other. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. each 1 in. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The house will accommodate 20 families. Ill. wide. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun.

thick. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. long and five 1/2-in. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. thick. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. 5. and the other 18 in. square. Cut the maple. 2. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. Ill.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. flat-headed screws. long. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. flat headed screws. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. 1 yd.into two 14-in. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. thick. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. 1. wide and 30 in. and 3 ft. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. about 5/16 in. wide. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. 4. wide and 2 ft. 2-1/2 in. wide. 2-1/2 in. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. long. --Contributed by O. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. E. Fig. 3. with the ends and the other side rounding. as shown in Fig. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. flat on one side. Tronnes. five 1/2-in. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. one 11-1/2 in. 2 in. Wilmette. long. Bevel both sides of the pieces. Take this and fold it over .

The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. thick. wide . as well as the edges around the opening. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. A. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. 1-1/4 in. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. soaked with water and blown up. wide and 5 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. long. Figs. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. wide and 4-1/2 in. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. long. wide and 6-3/4 in. The front. but can be governed by circumstances. long. The bag is then turned inside out. C. are rounded. about 3/8 in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. square. 3 in. A. long. square. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. After the glue. D. E. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. long. 3-1/4 in. thick and 3 in. The sides are 3-1/4 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. 5 from 1/16-in. long. Bliss. wide and 2-1/2 in. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. Another piece. the top and bottom. About 1/2 in. of each end unwound for connections. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. Glue a three cornered piece. and make a turn in each end of the wires. forming an eye for a screw. C. long. and take care that the pieces are all square. then centered. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. If carefully and neatly made. is set. B. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. Wind three layers of about No. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. 1. 2 and 3. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. Cut another piece of board. thick. 6-1/2 in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. 3/8 in. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. this square box is well sandpapered. When the glue is set. wide and 2-3/4 in. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. and the four outside edges. pieces 2-5/8 in. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. --Contributed by W. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. wide and 3 ft. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. St. Mo. F. Fig.once. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. the mechanical parts can be put together. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. Louis. long. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping.

4. 1/16 in. --Contributed by George Heimroth. 4. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. F. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. long.and 2-5/8 in. R. in diameter. and fasten in place. Like poles repel each other. hole is fastened to the pointer. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. When the current flows through the coil. showing a greater defection of the pointer. Austwick Hall. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. the part carrying the pointer moves away. board. The stronger the current. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. from one end. Fig. 5-1/2 in. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. Place the tin. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. The base is a board 5 in.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. wide and 9 in. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. from the spindle. Another strip of tin. long. The resistance is now adjusted to show . All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass.S. 4 is not movable.A. thick. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. C. W. A pointer 12 in. long. Yorkshire. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. that has the end turned with a shoulder. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. bored in the back. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. 5. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. and the farther apart they will be forced. Fig. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center.R. and as the part Fig. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. The end of the polar axis B. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. I. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. 1/4 in. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. Chapman. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. L. Richmond Hill. These wires should be about 1 in. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. G. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. the same size as the first. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. so it will just clear the tin. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. wide and 2-1/2 in.

M. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. thus: 9 hr. 30 min. at 9 hr. A. The following formula will show how this may be found. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. and vice . There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. shows mean siderial. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. 1881. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. 10 min. 10 min. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. say Venus at the date of observation.

Conn. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. if one of these cannot be had. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. and then verify its correctness by measurement. --Contributed by Robert W. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches.m. Hall. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. . get a glazed vessel of similar construction. owing to the low internal resistance.f. or. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. New Haven.

Then. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. 3/8 in. put the fish among the ashes. leaves or bark. especially for cooking fish. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. and heap the glowing coals on top. 1. 1-3/4 in. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. of alum and 4 oz. Fig. inside diameter and about 5 in. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. thick. Wet paper will answer. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. long. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. When the follower is screwed down. The boring bar. cover up with the same. as shown in the accompanying picture.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. arsenic to every 20 lb. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. fresh grass. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . after scraping away the greater part of the coals.

thick. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. pipe. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. about 1/2 in. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. and threaded on both ends. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. fastened with a pin. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. pipe. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. when they were turned in.

Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. wide. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds.valve stems. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. 3. then it should be ground to a fit. the float is too high. A 1-in. The rough frame. as the one illustrated herewith. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. long. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. but never one which required so little material. labor and time. Clermont. Fig. Fig. Fig. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. thick and 3 in. a jump spark would be much better. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. however. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. bent in the shape of a U. was then finished on an emery wheel. square iron. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. 2. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. This plate also supports the rocker arms. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. and which gave such satisfactory results. 4. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. 30 in. If the valve keeps dripping. Iowa. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. It . angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. 5.

This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. The seats are regular swing boards. As there is no bracing. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. in fact. no matter what your age or size may be. long. --Contributed by C. This makes an easy adjustment. from the center. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. A 3/4 -in. being held in position by spikes as shown. extending above. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. in diameter and 15 in. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. set 3 ft. Nieman. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. square and 2 ft. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. W. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. in the ground with 8 ft. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion." little and big. and. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. Use a heavy washer at the head. square. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. If it is to be used for adults. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. long. so it must be strong enough. 3/4 in. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. hole bored in the post. rope is not too heavy. butting against short stakes. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. strengthened by a piece 4 in. from all over the neighborhood. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. and a little junk. The illustration largely explains itself. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. 12 ft.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. with no trees or buildings in the way. long is the pivot. strong clear material only should be employed. timber. long. for the "motive power" to grasp. It looks like a toy. The crosspiece is 2 in. A malleable iron bolt. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. completes the merry-go-round. square and 5 ft.

light and strong. then it is securely fastened. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. long. a wreck. away. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. square. and 18 in. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. 1. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. if nothing better is at hand. 4. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. and sent to earth. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. A reel is next made. The backbone is flat. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. To wind the string upon the reel. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. 1/4 by 3/32 in. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. Having placed the backbone in position. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand.the fingers. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. 2. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. as shown in Fig. Both have large reels full of . one for the backbone and one for the bow.2 emery. These ends are placed about 14 in. The bow is now bent. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching.

Newburyport.string. Bunker. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. he pays out a large amount of string. N. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. or glass-covered string. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Moody. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. Brooklyn. Mass.-Contributed by S. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Y. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. the balance. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . If the second kite is close enough. First. C. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. common packing thread. The handle end is held down with a staple. often several hundred yards of it. --Contributed' by Harry S. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench.

square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Hastings. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. lengths (Fig. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. length of 2-in. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. each the size of half the table top. cutting the circular piece into quarters. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. such as mill men use. then a dust protector. Vt. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. then draw the string up tight. Corinth. must be attached to a 3-ft. --Contributed by Earl R. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. square (Fig. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. make the pad as shown in the illustration. If the table is round. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd.

G to H. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. Moisten the . and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. from C to D. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. trace the design carefully on the leather. and E to G.. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. trace this or some other appropriate design on it..-Contributed by H. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. 17-1/2 in. which spoils the leather effect. from E to F. 2-1/4 in. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. E. 16-1/4 in. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp.9-1/4 in. hard pencil. Use a smooth. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. Oakland. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. Calif. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. Wharton.. . 6-1/4 in. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working.

Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. Now cut narrow thongs. also lines A-G. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. and E-G. Trace the openings for the handles. I made this motor . and lace through the holes. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. and corresponding lines on the other side. apart. To complete the bag. about 1/8 in. wide. with the rounded sides of the tools. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. Cut it the same size as the bag. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. H-B. is taken off at a time. G-J. place both together and with a leather punch. get something with which to make a lining. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. if not more than 1 in. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag.

long. B. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. Shannon. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. iron. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. Calif. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. 2. 24 gauge magnet wire. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. in length. D. as shown in Fig. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. of No. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. Pasadena. 2-1/4 in. each being a half circle. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. 1. --Contributed by J. . The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax.M. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. 1.

and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . balloon should be about 8 ft. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. The gores for a 6-ft. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. from the bottom end. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. 1. high. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. are the best kind to make. and the gores cut from these.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. near the center. pasted in alternately.

2. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. As the boat is driven forward by this force. 5. Staunton. lap on the edges. leaving the solution on over night. A. 4. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. After washing. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. The boat soon attains considerable speed. E. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. B. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. as shown in Fig. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. These are to hold the wick ball. 1. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. coming through the small pipe A. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. somewhat larger in size. after which the paint will adhere permanently. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. as shown in Fig. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. --Contributed by R. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose.widest point. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. so it will hang as shown in Fig. In starting the balloon on its flight. If the gores have been put together right. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . In removing grease from wood. 3. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. in diameter. Fig. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. saturating it thoroughly. The steam. leaving a long wake behind. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. using about 1/2-in. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed.

The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. in bowling form. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. There are three ways of doing this: First. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware .Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. The blocks are about 6 in. if you have several copies of the photograph. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. wide by 6 in. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. long. apart on these lines. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. high and 8 in. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. long and each provided with a handle. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. In using either of the two methods described. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. Third. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. as is shown in Fig. 1. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. Second.

The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. Hellwig. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Y. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. N. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. 2. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Fig. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Rinse the plate in cold water. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel.Fig. Albany. being careful not to dent the metal. thick. --Contributed by John A. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig.

Paine. and. Corner irons. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. 1 Fig. 6 in. 5 in. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. are screwed to the circular piece. long for the base. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. CC. Va. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. --Contributed by R. S. These corner irons are also screwed to. A. thick. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. With this device. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. and not produce the right sound. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. Break off the frame. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. through which passes the set screw S. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. wide and 8 in. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. and Fig. Richmond. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. in diameter. with a set screw. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. In Fig. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. 2 the front view. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. A circular piece of wood. wide and of any desired height.upon any particular object. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. which is 4 in. B. is fastened to a common camera tripod. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. A.

Ill.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. -1. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. This horn. D. R. S. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. . pine boards. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. Lake Preston. Kidder. La Salle. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. This will make a very compact electric horn. I made a wheel 26 in. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. in diameter of some 1-in. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. thus producing sound waves. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. as only the can is visible.

O. Doylestown. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. If there is a large collection of coins. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. 1. thick and 12 in. --Contributed by C. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. --Contributed by James R. The frame is made of a heavy card. 2. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Fig. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. square. Ghent. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. B. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Kane. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. If the collection consists of only a few coins. A. the same thickness as the coins. Feet may be added to the base if desired. 1. Purdy.

--Contributed by August T. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. of developer. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. It will hold 4 oz. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. A lead pencil. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. --Contributed by J. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. thick. and then glued together as indicated. One Cloud. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing.E. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. border all around. into which to place the screws . If desired. The material required is a sheet of No. a hammer or mallet. for after the slides have been shown a few times. Canada. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Toronto. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Noble. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. A rivet punch is desirable. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. cut and grooved. though not absolutely necessary. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. Smith. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. they become uninteresting. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. plus a 3/8-in. Milwaukee. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. several large nails. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. Wis.J. Neyer. melted and applied with a brush.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. Cal. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. --Contributed by R. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder.

Take the nail. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. draw one part. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Remove the screws. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. and file it to a chisel edge. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. never upon the metal directly. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. screws placed about 1 in. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. There are several ways of working up the design. like the one shown. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. using 1/2-in. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. both outline and decoration. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal.

and two lengths. l-1/8 in. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. Rivet the band to the holder.wall. 3/4 in. up from the lower end. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. About 1/2 yd. square and 181/2 in. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. for the top. 2. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. of 11-in. long. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. each 1 in. being ball bearing. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. square and 11 in. Do not bend it over or flatten it. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. using a 1/2in. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. 3. long. as shown in Fig. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. Provide four lengths for the legs. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. long. two lengths. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. . 1. The pedal. for the lower rails. in the other. square.

having quite a length of threads. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. New York City. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . F. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. Attalla. --Contributed by John Shahan. Quackenbush. --Contributed by W. Ala. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel.

wide and 4-1/4 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. D. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob.. Ironwood.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. --Contributed by C. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. from one end. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. long. in depth. wide and 8-1/4 in. each 1-1/4 in. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. and two holes in the other. stitched on both edges for appearance. Assemble as shown in the sketch. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. Luther. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. long. initial. Mich. using class. the end of the other piece is folded over. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. from the end. college or lodge colors. long. and the other 2-3/4 in. making a lap of about 1 in. The desired emblem. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. and 3/8 in. one about 1 in. something that is carbonated. Two pieces of felt. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture.

or more in height. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. 1/4 in. --Contributed by John H. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. as shown at B. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . Indianapolis. 2. about 2 in. in the cover and the bottom. Schatz. 1. or a pasteboard box. Fig. and the cork will be driven out. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. Punch two holes A. if desired by the operator. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. in diameter and 2 in. A piece of lead. which can be procured from a plumber. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. This method allows a wide range of designs. Ind. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. as shown in the sketch. from the center and opposite each other. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid.

When the can is rolled away from you. 1. and the ends of the bands looped over them. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. 5. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. metal. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. allowing the two ends to be free. Columbus. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. on both top and bottom. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. putting in the design. are turned up as in Fig. or marble will serve. A piece of thick glass. 4. Fig. it winds up the rubber band. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. . 3. as shown in Fig. O. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. The pieces of tin between the holes A. made of paper strips pasted on the tin.Rolling Can Toy lead.

from each end. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. long and bored a 1/2-in. and. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. A pencil may be used the first time over. New York City. thicker than the pinion. The edges should be about 1/8 in. face up. thick. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. or more thick on each side. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. wide and 20 in. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. deep in its face. If it is desired to "line" the inside. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. 3 in. mark over the design. Next place the leather on the glass. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . 1 in. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. After this has been done. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. hole through it. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. I secured a board 3/4 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced.

2 by 12 by 77 in. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 3 by 3 by 36. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 1 piece for clamp. in diameter. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Fig. countersinking the heads of the vise end. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 1 top board. 1 top board. Syracuse. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. Now fit up the two clamps. Rice. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 1 piece for clamp. Brooklyn. Cut the 2-in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. --Contributed by A. 1. 2 end rails. Make the lower frame first. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 2. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. New York. Y. 4 guides. N. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 2 crosspieces. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. much of the hard labor will be saved. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip.in the board into the bench top. 1 screw block. 2 side rails. lag screws as shown. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 1 back board. pieces for the vise slides. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. M. thick top board. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. and fit it in place for the side vise. 1 by 12 by 77 in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 1 piece. 2 by 2 by 18 in.

24 in. Only the long run. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 24 in. 1 set gimlets. 1 monkey wrench. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. The bench is now complete.. 1 marking gauge. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. as well as the pattern maker. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. They can be purchased at a hardware store. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 2 screwdrivers. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 pair dividers. 1 bench plane or jointer. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 1 wood scraper. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 2-ft. . 1 pocket level. 1 nail set. it can be easily found when wanted. 3 and 6 in. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 brace and set of bits.. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work.screws. 1 countersink. 1 set chisels. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 claw hammer.. rule. 1 pair pliers. The amateur workman. 1 compass saw. in diameter. 1 rip saw. 1 cross cut saw.

the projecting point A. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump.1. 2. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. 1. but will not make . after constant use. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. 1. Doylestown. Kane. Fig. Pa. The calf skin. 2 and 00 sandpaper. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. Fig. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. being softer. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. Fig. will be easier to work. 3. try square. Fig. 1 oilstone. No. will sink into the handle as shown at D.1 6-in. ---Contributed by James M. becomes like A.

. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. Two pieces will be required of this size. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. First draw the design on paper. cover it completely with water enamel and. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. when dry. then prepare the leather. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. which steam.as rigid a case as the cow skin. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. If calf skin is to be used. such as copper or brass. Turn the leather. The form can be made of a stick of wood. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. water or heat will not affect. White. secure a piece of modeling calf. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. If cow hide is preferred. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. -Contributed by Julia A. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. Having prepared the two sides. will do just as well. but a V-shaped nut pick. the same method of treatment is used. and the length 6-5/8 in. After the outlines are traced. New York City. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. lay the design on the face.

C. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Herrman. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. --Contributed by Chester L. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Cal. A. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. as shown in the sketch. Maine. . Portland. Richmond. New York City. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. --Contributed by W. Cobb.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. --Contributed by Chas. Jaquythe.

Conn. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. Wright. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Roberts.. This was very difficult. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. --Contributed by Geo. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. Middletown. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. for instance. Cambridge. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. was marked out as shown. B. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. Mass. an inverted stewpan. . A thick piece of tin. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. --Contributed by Wm.

the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. but only an odor which soon vanished. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. When dry. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. There was no quicklime to be had. pulverized and applied. Herbert. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. well calcined and powdered. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass.. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. If any traces of the grease are left. Illinois. which has been tried out several times with success. Ind. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. Chicago. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. and quite new. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. but not running over. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. so some bones were quickly calcined. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. --Contributed by C. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. Indianapolis. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. Bone. . L. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. of boiling water. The next morning there was no trace of oil. F. and the grease will disappear. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. A beautifully bound book. such as chair seats. --Contributed by Paul Keller. face down. as shown. used as part of furniture. If the article is highly polished. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. on a clear piece of glass. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. apply powdered calcined magnesia.

high and are bolted to a block of wood. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. Howe. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by Geo. long. This coaster is simple and easy to make. The pieces marked S are single. thick. deep and 5 in. wide and 12 in.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired.. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. says Scientific American. If properly adjusted. 2 in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. New York. soft steel with the opening 6 in. 6 in. A. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in.. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. the pieces . Tarrytown. set and thumbscrews.

so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. for sending to friends. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. Their size depends on the plate used. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. they will look remarkably uniform. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. A sharp knife. albums and the like. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. to the underside of which is a block. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. no doubt.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. says Camera Craft. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. E. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. If the letters are all cut the same height. The seat is a board. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes .

do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. for example. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. So made. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. So arranged. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. mount them on short pieces of corks. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. using care to get it in the right position. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. photographing them down to the desired size. after. pasting the prints on some thin card. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. In cutting out an 0. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. The puzzle is to get . trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. and.

Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. with the longest end outside. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. N. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. A hole 6 or 7 in. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside.J. of its top. Bayley. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. snow or anything to hide it. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. says the American Thresherman.-Contributed by I. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. G.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. He smells the bait. so they will lie horizontal. Cape May Point. squeezes along past the center of the tube. long that will just fit are set in. Old-Time Magic . hung on pivots. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in.

With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. --Contributed by Charles Graham. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. N. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Brooklyn. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Parker. Press the hands together. E. Pawtucket. then expose again. Szerlip. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . --Contributed by L. then spread the string. Y. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Idaho. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through.faced up. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. --Contributed by L. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Rhode Island. Pocatello. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve.

Genuine antique swords and armor. wipe the blade . full size. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. and if carefully made. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. thick. using a straightedge and a pencil. wide and 2 in. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. or a complete suit of armor. Glue the other side of the blade.. 1. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. The blade should be about 27 in. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. if any. says the English Mechanic. When the whole is quite dry. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. The pieces. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. 3 Fig. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. long. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. whether he requires a single sword only. narrower. in building up his work from the illustrations. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. 1 Fig. near the point end. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. end of the blade.. When the glue is thoroughly dry. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. dark red. or green oil paint. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. they will look very much like the genuine article. The handle is next made. 2 Fig. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. in width. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. 4 on the blade.

as it is . not for use only in cases of tableaux. 2. 1. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. This sword is about 68 in. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. the illustration. preferably of contrasting colors. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. 3. and 3 in. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. about 1-1/2 in. 4. should be about 9 in.. 1. The length of the handle. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. allowing for a good hold with both hands. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. 1. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. the other is flat or half-round. follow the directions as for Fig. thick and 5 in. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. 3. take two pieces of wood. shows only two sides. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. Both edges of the blade are sharp. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. in the widest part at the lower end. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. In making. 1. the other two are identical. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. of course. in diameter. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. In making this scimitar. Fig. square and of any length desired. 2. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. In the finished piece. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. 1/8 in. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord.. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. long.with light strokes up and down several times. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. the other is flat or halfround. the length of the blade 28 in.

The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. On each edge of the board. A piece of mild steel. as there was some at hand. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. as can the pitch bed or block. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. each about 1 ft. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. Mass. square. at the lower end. about 3/8 in. and. Franklin. however. Both can be made easily. in an attempt to remove it. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. and if so. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. or an insecure fastening. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. It is made of a plank. --Contributed by Katharine D. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. --Contributed by John Blake. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. as shown in the sketch. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. Y. A cold . Morse. Syracuse. The thinness of the plank. piping and jackets by hard water. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. Doctors probed for the button without success. 2 in. long. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. N.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator.

chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. 5 lb. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. secure a piece of brass of about No. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. design down. plaster of Paris.. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. 18 gauge. To put it in another way. When the desired form has been obtained. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. using a small metal saw. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. a file to reduce the ends to shape. tallow.. 5 lb. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. When this has been done. Trim up the edges and file them . The metal will probably be warped somewhat. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. To remedy this. on the pitch. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch.

Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. over the smaller vessel. 2). Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. make an unusual show window attraction. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. 30 ft. using powdered pumice with lye. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Fill the 3-in. This in turn divided by 33. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. or 550 ft. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. in the center. in one second.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. and still revolve. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. A. 1 ft. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. or fraction of a horsepower. lb. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. one 18 in. it may be well to know what horsepower means.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine.000 ft. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest.000 lb. per second. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. in diameter (Fig. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. in one minute or 550 lb. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. The smaller is placed within the larger. Before giving the description. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height.smooth. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. to keep it from floating. lb. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Clean the metal thoroughly. space between the vessels with water. per minute. . in diameter (Fig. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Cutter. but not to stop it. 1 ft. and hang a bird swing. 3. That is lifting 33. 1) and the other 12 in. --Contributed by Harold H. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Fig. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines.

or on a pedestal.3 Fig. 2 Fig. Somerville. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. F. Mass. --Contributed by J. Diameter Fig. --Contributed. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. Campbell. Brooklyn. The effect is surprising. 1 Fig. Diameter 12 in. Szerlip. by L.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water.18 in. N. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Y.

A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. using any of the common metal polishes. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. and cut out the shape with the shears. unsatisfactory. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. as a rule. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. is. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. keeping the center high. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. away from the edge. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. then by drawing a straightedge over it. and then. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. with the pliers. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. the same as removing writing from a slate. In riveting. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. Do not be content merely to bend them over. Rivet the cup to the base. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. with other defects. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. often render it useless after a few months service. This compound is impervious to water. shape the sides as shown in the photograph.copper of No. to keep the metal from tarnishing. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. Polish both of these pieces. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. which. and the clay . The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. after which it is ready for use. which may be of wood or tin.

--Contributed by A. Northville. A. Grand Rapids. long. Shettleston. . 3/4 in. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. -Contributed by Thos. the device will work for an indefinite time. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws.can be pressed back and leveled. 2. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. Scotland. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. 1. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The siphon is made of glass tubes. DeLoof. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. --Contributed by John T. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. It is made of a glass tube. Mich. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Mich. in diameter and 5 in. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Houghton. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. as shown in Fig. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. Dunlop.

As the handle is to .FIG. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. This sword is 4 ft. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. 1. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. put up as ornaments. stilettos and battle-axes. London. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. long. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords.1 FIG. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. in width and 2 in. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles.

The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. the same as used on the end of the handle. glue and put it in place. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. 8. narrower. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. This weapon is also about 1 ft. very broad. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. Both handle and axe are of steel. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. 6. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. the axe is of steel. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. string. in length. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. The lower half of the handle is of wood. paint it a dark brown or black. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. When the whole is quite dry. wood with a keyhole saw. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. This sword is about 4 ft. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. This weapon is about 1 ft. firmly glued on. sharp edges on both sides. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. This stiletto has a wood handle. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. A German stiletto. 4. The ball is made as described in Fig. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. 11 were used. which is about 2-1/2 ft. These must be cut from pieces of wood. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. The handle is of wood. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. 5. 9. in width. Cut two strips of tinfoil. then glued on the blade as shown. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. This axe is made similar to the one . 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. In Fig. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. When the glue is thoroughly dry. 7. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. the upper part iron or steel. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. in length. long with a dark handle of wood. Three large. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. A German poniard is shown in Fig. In Fig. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. The sword shown in Fig. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. When dry. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. The crossbar and blade are steel. studded with brass or steel nails. with wire or string' bound handle. with both edges sharp. 20 spike. is shown in Fig. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. In Fig. 3 is shown a claymore. one about 1/2 in. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. sometimes called cuirass breakers. with both edges of the blade sharp.represent copper. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. small rope and round-headed nails. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. long.

When wrapped all the way around. high. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. 10. This will make a very good flexible belt. .The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. will pull where other belts slip. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. Old-Time Magic . together as shown in Fig. Davis. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. Chicago. such as braided fishline. --Contributed by E. so the contents cannot be seen. the ends are tied and cut off. 2.described in Fig. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. W.

Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. There will be no change in color. apparently. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. Macdonald. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. These wires are put in the jar. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. 1 and put together as in Fig. 2. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. held in the right hand. To make the flowers grow in an instant. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. with the circle centrally located. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Calif. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. four glass tumblers. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. or using small wedges of wood. Oakland. Bridgeton. about one-third the way down from the top. in a few seconds' time. As zinc is much lighter than iron.J. N. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. some of the liquid. filled with water. S. Before the performance. causing the flowers to grow. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. an acid. --Contributed by A. The dotted lines in Fig.

Cal. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. 2 for height. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. Richmond. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. practical and costs nothing. unless some special device is used. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. If the size wanted is No.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. not only because of the fact just mentioned. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. and equally worthy of individual treatment. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. 4 for width and No. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. This outlines the desired opening. --Contributed by W. A. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. When many slides are to be masked. and kept ready for use at any time. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. which are numbered for convenience in working. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. Jaquythe. says a correspondent of Photo Era. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple.

The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. or. 16 gauge. and the extreme length 7 in. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. a little less acid than water. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. the paper is folded along the center line. not the water into the acid. and do not inhale the fumes. too. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. The one shown is merely suggestive. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. Draw a design. possibly. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. the margin and the entire back of the metal. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. may be changed. paint the design. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. is about right for the No. The decoration. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. This done. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. Secure a sheet of No. using the carbon paper. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. or a pair of old tongs. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. With a stick. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. about half and half. which is dangerous. When etched to the desired depth. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. but they can be easily revived. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third.Etching copper is not a very difficult process.

Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. as in Fig. When the button S is pressed. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. repeat as many times as is necessary. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. through it. with the wires underneath. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. wide and of the same length as the table. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 24 parts water. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. as shown in the illustration. 0 indicates the batteries. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. so that when it is pressed down. 2. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. It may be either nailed or screwed down. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. Fig. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. . Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. 1. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. The connections are simple: I. in diameter and 1/4 in. or more wide. and bore two holes. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. long and 1 ft. C and D. high. about 8 in. the bell will ring. long. about 2-1/2 in. 3 parts ammonia carbonate.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. 5. attached to a post at each end. Paint the table any color desired. as at H. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. Then get two posts. thick. and about 2-1/2 ft. Fig. J is another wire attached in the same way. 4. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. A. wide. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. as shown in Fig. 5. Fig. about 3 ft. Nail a board. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. Fig. to the table. Fig. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. 3. about 1 in. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. Cut out a piece of tin. it will touch post F. 3/8 in. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. 2. 2.

but they are somewhat difficult to make.. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. This weapon is about 22 in. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 1. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary.Imitation Arms and Armor . An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. long serves as the dowel. The entire weapon. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. long. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. The imitation articles are made of wood. These rings can be carved out. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. handle and all. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. is to appear as steel. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. After the glue is dry. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. The circle is marked out with a compass. the wood peg inserted in one of them. A wood peg about 2 in. 2. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. such as . thick. says the English Mechanic.

fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. with a sharp carving tool. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. as before mentioned. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. as described in Fig. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The spikes are cut out of wood. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. The upper half of the handle is steel. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. used at the end of the fifteenth century. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 8. is shown in Fig. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. flowers. the hammer and spike. 3. etc. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. covered with red velvet. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. The entire handle should be made of one piece. The axe is shown in steel. also. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. The handle is of steel imitation. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. studded with large brass or steel nails. Its length is about 3 ft. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The handle is of wood. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 6. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. as shown. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The lower half of the handle is wood. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. . and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. or the amateur cannot use it well. 2. All of these axes are about the same length. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. If such a tool is not at hand. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. This weapon is about 22 in. 5. leaves. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. long. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil.ornamental scrolls. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig.

Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. the knife resting on its back. as shown in Fig. 5. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 6. 4). The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. 2. Each person plays until three outs have been made. a three-base hit. Chicago. The knife falling on its side (Fig. 7) calls for one out. . 3. 1. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. as in Fig. and so on for nine innings. calls for a home run.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. then the other plays.

1. as shown in Fig. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. 2. one of them burning . Old-Time Magic . Campbell. as shown in Fig. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. with the rope laced in the cloth. 3. Mass. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. of the rope and holds it. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in.-Contributed by J. hypo to 1 pt. Somerville. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. This he does. F. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. If it is spotted at all. It may be found that the negative is not colored. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. while the committee is tying him up. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. of water for an hour or two. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours.

Contributed by Andrew G. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. B. with which he is going to light the other candle. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. --Contributed by L. . Lebanon. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. 4 oz. --Contributed by C. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. bolt. Ky. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern.brightly. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. Thome. of sugar. 4 oz. Evans. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. He then walks over to the other candle. showing that there is nothing between them. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. The magician walks over to the burning candle. Brown. the other without a light. 3/4 in. thus causing it to light. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. of plumbago. invisible to them (the audience). shades the light for a few seconds. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. Louisville. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. thick. etc. of turpentine. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. Ky.. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. New York City. Drill Gauge screw. of water and 1 oz. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. and. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp.

Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. In making up the solution. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. thick. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. Denniston. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. long. for the material. 5 in. N. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. --Contributed by C. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Pulteney. into a tube of several thicknesses. but is not so good. about 5 in. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. or blotting paper. Its current strength is about one volt. Y. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. steady current. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. Do not add water to the acid. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. To make the porous cell. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. which will give a strong. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. H. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. diameter.

The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. To insure this. One hole was bored as well as possible. Finally. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. As to thickness. steel. but somewhat lighter. long with a bearing at each end. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. After much experimentation with bearings. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. carrying the hour circle at one end. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. the other holding them apart. one drawing them together. a positive adjustment was provided. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The . The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. steel. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company.station. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. while the other end is attached by two screws. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts.) may be obtained. steel.

the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. subtract 24. Each shaft.. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. apart. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. save the one in the pipe. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. The pointer is directed to Alpha. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. Cassiopiae." Only a rough setting is necessary. Point it approximately to the north star. The pole is 1 deg. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. and if it is not again directed to the same point. Set the declination circle to its reading. When properly set it will describe a great circle. To find a star in the heavens. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. Instead." When this is done. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. To locate a known star on the map. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. turn the pointer to the star. are tightened. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. excepting those on the declination axis. is provided with this adjustment. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. 45 min." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. All set screws. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. It is. If the result is more than 24 hours. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. Declination is read directly.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer.. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. need not be changed. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. and 15 min. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. The aperture should be 1/4 in. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. All these adjustments. once carefully made.

He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. taking care not to add too much. benzole. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. add a little more benzole. is folded several times. Strosnider. If this will be too transparent. long. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. La. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. The dance will begin. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. In reality the first ball. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. which is the one examined. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.. 3 or 4 in. -Contributed by Ray E. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. then add 1 2-3 dr. New Orleans. of ether.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. is the real cannon ball. Ohio. The ball is found to be the genuine article. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. Plain City. the others . cannon balls. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. as shown in the sketch. a great effect will be produced. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan.

How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized .are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. without taking up any great amount of space. Cal. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. as shown in the illustration. taps. etc. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. San Francisco. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. --Contributed by J. Return the card to the pack. Milwaukee. Campbell. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. In boxes having a sliding cover. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box.. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. 2. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. small brooches. Fig. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Mass. Wis. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. Somerville. F. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. 1). and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack.

and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. . as shown in the illustration.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. Hartford. This box has done good service. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. slides and extra brushes. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. round pieces 2-1/4 in. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. from the bottom of the box. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. prints. thus giving ample store room for colors. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. Beller. Connecticut. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in.

a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. Mass. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. or placed against a wall. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. 2). FIG. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. When the ends are turned under. Darke. -Contributed by C.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. will answer the purpose. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. tacking the gauze well at the corners. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. . and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. O. costing 5 cents. West Lynn. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. Fill the upper tub. about threefourths full.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. 1). it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. holes in the bottom of one. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. with well packed horse manure.

and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. if this is not available. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. and each bundle contains . he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. they should be knocked out. Chicago. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. Eifel. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. If plugs are found in any of the holes. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. when they are raised from the pan. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. oil or other fluid. M.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. --Contributed by L. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. If the following directions are carried out. cutting the cane between the holes. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel.

after having been pulled tight. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. as it must be removed again. No plugs . and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. as shown in Fig. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. and. then across and down. a square pointed wedge. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. put about 3 or 4 in. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. In addition to the cane. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. it should be held by a plug. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. held there by inserting another plug. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. 1.

or the style. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. This will make three layers. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. Fig. W.2 in.15+. is the base (5 in. lat. we have 4. D. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. No weaving has been done up to this time. the next smallest. as it always equals the latitude of the place.15 in. for 2°. 1. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. as for example. -Contributed by E. Their difference is . Even with this lubrication.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. --Contributed by M. 5. as shown in Fig. Fig. 3. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. and the one we shall describe in this article. After completing the second layer. Patrick. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. If you have a table of natural functions. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. trim off the surplus rosin. R. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. If handled with a little care. There are several different designs of sundials. During the weaving. 5 in. stretch the third one. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. the height of which is taken from table No. The style or gnomon. When cool. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. as the height of the line BC for lat. 1. but the most common. is the horizontal dial. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. and for lat. 1. 41°-30'. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . 42° is 4. 40°. and for 1° it would be . the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third.2+. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. using the same holes as for the first layer. All added to the lesser or 40°. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts.= 4. in this case) times the .42 in. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. From table No. 41 °-30'. as shown in Fig. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. the height of the line BC. 4.075 in. It consists of a flat circular table. 3. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving.3 in. called the gnomon.075 in. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. it is 4. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. Michigan. Detroit. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. 1 lat.5 in.

and perpendicular to the base or style.28 . Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.55 46° 5. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .42 1.02 1.79 4. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.66 48° 5.40 1. Table NO.55 4. and for this size dial (10 in.87 4.tangent of the degree of latitude. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.27 2.76 1. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.55 30° 2.44 44° 4. and intersecting the semicircles. base. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.81 4. . Draw the line AD.49 3.32 6.85 1.59 2.42 .68 5-30 6-30 5. if of metal.64 4 8 3. 2.19 1.11 3. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.49 30 . Fig. 2.00 40° 4.03 3.50 26° 2.93 6.23 6. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. 1. To layout the hour circle. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.85 35 . gives the 6 o'clock points. long.66 latitude.57 1.20 60° 8.33 42° 4.91 58° 8. with a radius of 5 in.89 50° 5.55 5.33 .16 1.10 6.38 . Chords in inches for a 10 in.96 32° 3.99 2. Its thickness.87 1.56 . and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.82 3. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.12 52° 6.97 5 7 4.07 4. using the points A and C as centers.41 38° 3. Draw two semi-circles.77 2.42 45 .63 56° 7. 2 for given latitudes. or if of stone. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. or more.18 28° 2.14 5. which will represent the base in length and thickness. an inch or two.39 .66 1.37 54° 6.37 5.83 27° 2.82 2.46 3.94 1.06 2.82 5.93 2. circle Sundial.57 3.29 4-30 7-30 3. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. according to the size of the dial. For latitudes not given.30 1.46 .26 4.40 34° 3.16 40 .88 36° 3.30 2. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.

14 1. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. Iowa.46 4. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.24 5. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.53 1.30 2. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. An ordinary compass. adding to each piece interest and value. Mitchell.79 6. after allowing for the declination.06 2. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.add those marked + subtract those Marked . This correction can be added to the values in table No. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.means that the dial is faster than the sun. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. 25.49 5.49 3.72 5. --Contributed by J.60 4. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. As they are the genuine reproductions.08 1. it will be faster. Sept. says the English Mechanic.50 55 . The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.37 2.89 3. each article can be labelled with the name. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.from Sundial lime. will enable one to set the dial. Sun time to local mean time. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. and for the difference between standard and local time. Each weapon is cut from wood.21 2.52 Table No.12 5.68 3.46 5.57 1.87 6. if west. 3. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. E. London.54 60 . Sioux City. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. and the . The + means that the clock is faster. then the watch is slower.93 6.. June 15.82 3. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. April 16.63 1. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.10 4.19 2. 900 Chicago.50 . 3.01 1. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.98 4.71 2.77 3.34 5. 2 and Dec.

The spear head is of steel about 15 in.. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. . The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. When putting on the tinfoil. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. the length of which is about 5 ft. 3.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. Partisan. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. 1.

A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. It is about 6 ft. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. 8. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. 5. long. long with a round wooden handle. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. This weapon is about 6 ft. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. 7. the holes being about 1/4 in. long with a round staff or handle.which is square. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel.. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. in diameter. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. sharp on the outer edges. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. which are a part of the axe. A gisarm or glaive. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. used about the seventeenth century. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The edges are sharp. The spear is steel. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. about 4 in. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. press it well into the carved depressions. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. long. is shown in Fig. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The length of this bar is about 5 in. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. 6 ft. The extreme length is 9 ft. . The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color.

This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. B. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. Workman. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. Ohio.-Contributed by R. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. They can be made of various materials. 1. This is important to secure neatness. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. are put in place. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. 4. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. apart. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. and if placed from 6 to 12 in.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. H. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. Substances such as straw. or in holes punched in a leather strap. 2 and 3. Cut all the cords the same length. are less durable and will quickly show wear. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. used for spacing and binding the whole together. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. the cross cords. In Figs. 5. Loudonville. as shown in Fig. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. The twisted cross cords should . the most durable being bamboo.

be of such material. shaped as shown at C. of the bottom. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. Lockport. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . 3 in. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. below the top to within 1/4 in. Four V-shaped notches were cut. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. The first design shown is for using bamboo. A slit was cut in the bottom. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. wide. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. To remedy this. for a length extending from a point 2 in. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. La. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. New Orleans. This was turned over the top of the other can. in which was placed a piece of glass. as shown at B. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. bamboo or rolled paper. New York. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. Harrer. -Contributed by Geo. M. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin.

is shown in the accompanying sketch. about 1/16 in. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. turned over but not fastened. Schaffner. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. It would be well to polish the brass at first. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. N. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. After this is finished. Cal. Shay.tape from sticking to the carpet. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. Ill. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. and two along the side for attaching the staff. Pasadena. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. wide. --Contributed by Chas. --Contributed by W. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. giving the appearance of hammered brass. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. Maywood. Y. --Contributed by Joseph H. Newburgh. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. This should be done gradually. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. H. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. the brass is loosened from the block. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. do not throw away the gloves. This plank. Sanford. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design.

Oak Park. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. K. -Contributed by W. Ill. in diameter.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. A. the pendulum swings . It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Jaquythe. Marshall. --E. Cal. Richmond. Unlike most clocks. bent as shown. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water.

thick. wide that is perfectly flat. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. Two uprights. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. on the board B. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. 3/4 in. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. wide. In using this method. 5/16 in. to the first one with screws or glue. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. A.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. The construction is very simple. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts.. is an electromagnet. B. the center one being 2-3/4 in. in diameter. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. bar. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. high. 7-1/2 in. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. Metzech. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. says the Scientific American. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. are secured in the base bar. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. C. long and at each side of this. bearing on the latter. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. such as this one. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. by 1-5/16 in. high. about 6 in. about 12 in. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. high. Fasten another board. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. only have the opposite side up. --Contributed by V. away. and the other two 2-5/8 in. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. Secure a board. Now place the board to be joined. 6 in. high and 1/4 in. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. . Chicago. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip.

Pa. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. wide and 5 in. or more. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. . These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. 4. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. 2. whose dimensions are given in Fig. Fig. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. wide and 1 in. plates should be made 8 in. 1. Vanderslice. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. from one end. Fig.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. square inside. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. long. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. --Contributed by Elmer A. by driving a pin through the wood. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. Phoenixville. 1. 1. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. square. as shown at A. is fastened in the hole A. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. The trigger. 3.

one-half the length of the side pieces. which allows 1/4 in. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. -Contributed by J.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. by weight. as shown in the illustration. rubbing varnish and turpentine. 3 parts of stiff keg lead.A. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. square. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. Ohio. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. 2 parts of whiting. Simonis. if only two bands are put in the . Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. Fostoria. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. 5 parts of black filler.

The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. and the picture can be drawn as described. is set at an angle of 45 deg. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. In constructing helmets. DeLoof. preferably copper. long. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. A double convex lens. II. Michigan. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. -Contributed by Abner B. If a plain glass is used. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. Mass. --Contributed by Thos. in the opposite end of the box. 8 in. wide and about 1 ft. A mirror. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. place tracing paper on its surface. Shaw. is necessary. A piece of metal. It must be kept moist and well . In use. which may be either of ground or plain glass. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. London. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. deep. Dartmouth. 1. Grand Rapids. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. and it may be made as a model or full sized. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. as shown in Fig. keeps the strong light out when sketching. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. No. says the English Mechanic.lower strings. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. G.

joined closely together. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. and over the crest on top. and continue until the clay is completely covered. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. a few clay-modeling tools. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. 2. The clay. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. 1. on which to place the clay. with a keyhole saw. All being ready. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . 3. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. Scraps of thin. and the deft use of the fingers. take. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. will be necessary. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. or some thin glue. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. After the clay model is finished. brown. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. This being done. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. 1. and left over night to soak. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. the clay model oiled. as in bas-relief. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. as shown in Fig. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. shown in Fig.kneaded. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well.

The band is decorated with brass studs. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. with the exception of the vizor. or. square in shape. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. When dry. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. then another coating of glue. will make it look neat. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. and the ear guards in two pieces. The whole helmet. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. a crest on top. as shown: in the design. 7. In Fig. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. the skullcap. which should be no difficult matter.as possible. The center of the ear guards are perforated. 1. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. They are all covered with tinfoil. When the helmet is off the model. Before taking it off the model. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. should be modeled and made in one piece. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. Indianapolis. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. 9. and so on. --Contributed by Paul Keller. a few lines running down. owing to the clay being oiled. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. 5. the piecing could not be detected. This contrivance should be made of wood. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. When perfectly dry. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. one for each side. Indiana. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. In Fig. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. as seen in the other part of the sketch.

two ordinary binding posts. The two holes. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. of the top. 4. in diameter and 9 in. AA. about 1/4 in. 12 in. A round collar of galvanized iron. long. also the switch B and the fuse block C. one oblong piece of wood. 2. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. as it stands a higher temperature. wide and 15 in. 4. long. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. one fuse block. Fig. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. The holes B and C are about 3 in. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. 4. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. This will allow the plate. about 1 lb. and two large 3in. 1. until it is within 1 in. and C. JJ. as shown in Fig.same size. Fig. This will make an open space between the plates. which can be bought from a local druggist. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. Fig. thick. 1. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. each 4-1/2 in. The reverse side of the base. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. of No. Fig. as shown in Fig. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. when they are placed in opposite positions. the holes leading to the switch. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. are allowed to project about 1 in. above the collar. one glass tube. 4. should extend about 1/4 in. Fig. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. long. 4. as shown in Fig. German-silver wire is better. Fig. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. 3 in. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. high. FF. GG. Fig. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. E and F. screws. The mineral wool. and. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. 1. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. 1 in. 1. with slits cut for the wires. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. of fire clay. 4 lb. Fig. thick sheet asbestos. if the measurements are correct. if this cannot be obtained. If asbestos is used. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. Fig. about 80 ft. 2. for connections. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . 1. Fig. 3. AA. is shown in Fig. Fig. of mineral wool. The plate. If a neat appearance is desired. 4. Fig. or. to receive screws for holding it to the base. AA. one small switch. 1. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. 22 gauge resistance wire. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. is then packed down inside the collar. 4. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. Fig. the fuse block. 2.

The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. Cut a 1/2-in. Next. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. If this is the case. St. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. KK. A file can be used to remove any rough places. A. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. 2. when heated. It should not be set on end. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. Catherines. apart. deep. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. If it is not thoroughly dry. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. --Contributed by R. As these connections cannot be soldered. This completes the stove. H. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . Cal. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. will slip and come in contact with each other. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. steam will form when the current is applied. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. using care not to get it too wet. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. it leaves a gate for the metal. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. Fig. above the rim. then. Cnonyn. While the clay is damp. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. When the tile is in place. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. and pressed into it. When this is done. more wire should be added. so that the circuit will not become broken. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. --Contributed by W. Jaquythe.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. This point marks the proper length to cut it. II. 4. The clay. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. Cover over about 1 in. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. as the turns of the wires. It should not be left heated in this condition. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. Can. causing a short circuit. Richmond. when cool. Fig. allowing a space between each turn.

Louisville. the pie will be damaged." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. and the prints will dry rapidly. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. Thorne. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. but 12 by 24 in. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. as shown.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. constructed of 3/4-in. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. is large enough. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. the air can enter from both top and bottom. square material in any size. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Then clip a little off the . says the Photographic Times. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. and the frame set near a window. --Contributed by Andrew G. Ky.

high. causing a break in the current. 4 in. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. Herron. thick. each 1/2 in. An offset is bent in the center. each 1 in. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. 1. at GG. Figs. allowing each end to project for connections. long. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. long. 2. 1. The board can be raised to place . which gives the shaft a half turn. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. open out. thereby saving time and washing. thick and 3 in. The upright B. 14 in. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. Fig. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. wide and 3 in. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. A 1/8-in. wide and 7 in. The connecting rod E. in diameter and about 4 in. long. 1/2 in. Fig. 1. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. which are fastened to the base. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. slip on two cardboard washers. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. Fig. -Contributed by S. 1 and 3. high. 22 gauge magnet wire. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. as shown. 3. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. Le Mars.Paper Funnel point. The connections are made as shown in Fig. 1/2 in. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. The driving arm D. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. 2-1/2 in. high. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. for the crank. in diameter. long. Two supports. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. Iowa. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. W. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. As the shaft revolves. 1. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. wide. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. thick and 3 in.

Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. One or more pots may be used. In designing the roost. --Contributed by William F. Stecher. bottom side up.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. as shown in the sketch. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. Place the pot. on a board. 3 in. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. in height. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. . Mass. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. making a framework suitable for a roost. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. Dorchester. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used.

Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. if it is other than straight lines. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. ordinary glue. when combined. paraffin and paint or varnish. 1. that it is heated. shelves. and give it time to dry. will produce the pattern desired. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. etc. Wind the . A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. F. The materials required are rope or. preferably. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in.. The bottom part of the sketch. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. odd corners.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. adopt the method described. windows. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. F. as shown in Fig. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. Fig. without any corresponding benefit. in diameter. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. grills and gratings for doors. 1..

cut and glue them together. Fig. 2. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . six designs are shown. Lockport.Fig. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Harrer. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Y. N. -Contributed by Geo. M.

Pour the water in until the filter is filled. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. etc. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. chips of iron rust.. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. and the sides do not cover the jaws. when it will be observed that any organic matter. 1. London. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. will be retained by the cotton.. As the . but no farther. which was used in front of a horse's head. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers.. This piece of horse armor. etc. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. says the English Mechanic. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in.

a weak solution of glue will do equally well. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. This being done. This triangularshaped support. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. 8. 2. but for . take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. with the exception of the thumb shield. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. and the clay model oiled. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. This will make the model light and easy to move around. which can be made in any size. 2. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. as the surface will hold the clay. but the back is not necessary. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. All being ready. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. In Fig. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. which is separate. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 6 and 7. except the thumb and fingers. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. The armor is now removed from the model. and therefore it is not described. the rougher the better. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. 4. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. as shown in the sketch. and will require less clay. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. then another coat of glue. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. An arrangement is shown in Fig. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. the same as in Fig. This can be made in one piece. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets.

cut into the shape shown in Fig. will be about right. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. If it does not hold a charge.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. the top of the rod. each about 1/4 in. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. 9. 2. are better shown in Fig. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. --Contributed by John G. two for the jaws and one a wedge. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. . and the instrument is ready for use. the foils will not move. running down the plate. long. fastened to the rod. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. La Rue. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. the two pieces of foil will draw together. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. but 3-1/2 in. 1/2 in. wide and 1/2 in. --Contributed by Ralph L. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. are glued to it. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. Y. Redondo Beach. Goshen. A piece of board. The two pieces of foil. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. in depth. When locating the place for the screw eyes. Buxton. N. two in each jaw. Calif.

--Contributed by Mrs. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. as this will cut under the water without splashing. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. When a fish is hooked. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. about 15 in. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. is made of a 1/4-in. A. At a point 6 in. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. from the smaller end. pine board. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. 2-1/2 in. Texas. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. The can may be bronzed. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Corsicana. silvered. M. as indicated in the .Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. hole bored through it. long. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. as shown in the illustration. Bryan. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. enameled or otherwise decorated. thus making it ornamental as well as useful.

thick. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. using a piece of carbon paper. 22 is plenty heavy enough. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. using powdered pumice and lye. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. long over all. Next prepare the metal holder. put a coat or two of wax and polish . The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. 3/8 or 1/4 in. and trace upon it the design and outline.Match Holder accompanying sketch. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. or even pine. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. If soft wood. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. then with a nail. such as basswood or pine was used. Basswood or butternut. wide by 6 in. as shown. punch the holes. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. Polish the metal. Having completed the drawing. take a piece of thin wood. Any kind of wood will do. A good size is 5 in. will do as well as the more expensive woods. When it has dried over night. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown.

Cal. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. 2 in. --Contributed by W. If one has some insight in carving. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. is used for the base of this instrument. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. wide and 5 in.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. long. Two wire nails. A. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. can be made on the same standards. each 1 in. If carving is contemplated. of pure olive oil. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. thick. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. Jaquythe. long. It is useful for photographers. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. Richmond. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. Instead of the usual two short ropes. . with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. 1/2 in. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. are used for the cores of the magnets. the whole being finished in linseed oil.

behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. About 1 in. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. cloth or baize to represent the legs. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. 25 gauge. says the English Mechanic. when the key is pushed down. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. cut in the shape of the letter T. leaving about 1/4 in. at A. A piece of tin. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. in the shape shown in the sketch. . then covered with red. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. similar to that used in electric bells. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. 3. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. the paper covering put on. acts as a spring to keep the key open. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. A rubber band. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. London. Lynas. 1. All of the parts for the armor have been described. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. --Contributed by W. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. about No. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. as shown in Fig. except that for the legs. as shown by the dotted lines. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. H.

In one end of the piece. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. hole in the center. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. Take the piece shown in Fig. The two pieces are bolted together. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. long. at each end. Instead of using brass headed nails. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. for the sake of lightness. in the other end. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. drill six 1/4-in. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. By moving the position of the bolt from. can be made in a few minutes' time. 3 in. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. Fig. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. 1 and drill a 1/4in. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. completes the equipment. Secure two strips of wood. apart. says Camera Craft. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. A 1/4-in. apart. make the same series of eight small holes and. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. and eight small holes. or ordinary plaster laths will do. 2. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. Cut them to a length or 40 in. holes. 1 in.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. not too tight. Silver paper will do very well.. These can be purchased at a stationery store. flat headed carriage bolt. So set up. about 1 in. one to another .

A round fob is made in a similar way. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. taking the same start as for the square fob. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. for instance. 2. 2. A is the first string and B is the second. Then draw all four ends up snugly. 4. long. C over D and B. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. then B over C and the end stuck under A. as in portraiture and the like. Fig. doubled and run through the web of A. and the one beneath C. D over A and C. In this sketch. 1. Start with one end. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. but instead of reversing . lay Cover B and the one under D. as shown in Fig. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. Then take B and lay it over A. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. the one marked A. in Fig. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. 2. of the ends remain unwoven. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured.of the larger holes in the strip. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. and lay it over the one to the right.

How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. Monroeville.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. --Contributed by John P. always lap one string. Rupp. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. The round fob is shown in Fig. is left out at the center before starting on one side. long. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. A loop. 1-1/2 in. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. especially if silk strings are used. as at A in Fig. over the one to its right. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. is to be made of leather. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. the design of which is shown herewith. 3. as in making the square fob. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. Ohio. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . 5. Other designs can be made in the same manner. as B.

Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. Houghton. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. using the reverse side. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. Mich. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. filling them with wax. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. beeswax or paraffin. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. such as a nut pick. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. Northville. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. -Contributed by A. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. door facing or door panel. Any smooth piece of steel. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. it can be easily renewed. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. pressing it against the wood. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. A. When the supply of wax is exhausted. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. .Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work.

and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. New York. apart and driven in only part way. it is best to leave a plain white margin. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Thompson. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. place it face down in the dish. J. D. Enough plaster should. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. Petersburg. leaving about 1/4 in. Fold together on lines C. thick. long. . any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Select the print you wish to mount. if blueprints are used. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. --Contributed by O. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. those on matte paper will work best. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. The tacks should be about 1 in. remaining above the surface of the board. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. and about 12 in. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. E and F. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. N. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. and after wetting. Y. Ill. although tin ones can be used with good success. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. says Photographic Times. but any kind that will not stick may be used. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish.

roses. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. without mixing the solutions. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. filling the same about onehalf full.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. etc. violets. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. as shown in the right of the sketch. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. bell flowers. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. One of the . Lower into the test tube a wire. as shown at the left in the sketch. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer.. will be rendered perfectly white. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution.

in diameter and 1 in. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. not too tightly. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. 3. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. L. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . Shabino. thick. South Dakota..most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. made of heavy tin. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. or delicate tints of the egg. and at the larger end. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. The first point should be ground blunt. A rod that will fit the brass tube. shading. is about 2-1/2 in. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. The tin horn can be easily made. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. The diaphragm. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. 1-7/8 in. When soldering these parts together. long and made of wood. --Contributed by L. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. Fig. about 1/8s in. should be soldered to the box. long. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. as shown. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. Millstown. but which will not wobble loose. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The sound box. turned a little tapering. 1. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. to keep the core from coming off in turning. 2.

dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. put a board on top. E. wondering what it was. Chicago. Gold. Colo. Jr. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Victor. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Ill. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand.Contributed by E. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. and.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. says the Iowa Homestead. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. mice in the bottom.

Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Can. --Contributed by Lyndwode. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Pereira. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. N. Buffalo. . -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. Y. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. Ottawa. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation.

Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. --Contributed by Thos. De Loof. by means of a flatheaded tack. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Cal. longer than the length of the can. a piece of tin. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Jaquythe. Richmond. --Contributed by W. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. and at one end of the stick fasten. cut round. This cart has no axle. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. above the end of the dasher. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. Mich. A. Put a small nail 2 in. Grand Rapids.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. through which several holes have been punched. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. as it can be made quickly in any size. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. as shown. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels.

notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. 2. 1/4 in. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. I reversed a door gong. 1 ft. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. Kane. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood.1.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. 2. --Contributed by James M. were below the level of the bullseye. La. 2. apart. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. 2 in. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. long. New Orleans. wide and as long as the box. Doylestown. Fig. A wedge-shaped piece of . --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. deep and 3 in. board. cut in the center of the rounding edge. The candles. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. wide and 3 ft. as shown. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. The baseboard and top are separable. screwed it on the inside of a store box. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. 1. of course. 1-1/2 in. Pa. Notches 1/8 in. wide. wide and 1/8 in. thick. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches.

The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. Worcester. --Contributed by G. stone or wood. etc. will. when placed as in Fig. Needles. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. After completing the handle. 3. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. Cover the block with rubber. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. dressing one surface of each piece. take two pieces of hard wood. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. West Union. wide into each side of the casing. A. the reason being that if both were solid. After the glue has dried. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. This device is very convenient for invalids. Ia. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. can be picked up without any trouble. wide rubber bands or felt.. For the handle. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. as shown in Fig. The block can also be used as a paperweight.Book Back Holders metal. the shelf could not be put on the window. Wood. the blade is put back into the groove . raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. Mass. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. by cutting away the ends. 1. it can be removed without marring the casing. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. to prevent its scratching the desk top. When not in use. scissors. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding.

a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. 1 in. Hutchins. Ohio. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Cleveland. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. long. --Contributed by H. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Mass. If desired. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. as shown in Fig. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. A. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Each one is made of a hardwood block. thus carrying the car up the incline.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Erie. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Pa. Jacobs. -Contributed by W. --Contributed by Maud McKee. 1. Malden. as shown in Fig. S. A notch is cut in one side. . square and 4 in. 2.

One sheet of metal. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. This will insure having all parts alike. a board on which to work it. and an awl and hammer. . N. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen.. 6 by 9-1/2 in.J. will be needed.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. The letters can be put on afterward. If one such as is shown is to be used. Cape May Point. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. Prepare a design for the front.

The stick may be placed by the side of. to right angles. behind or through the center of a table leg. which is desirable. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. as shown. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. placed on a table. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. only the marginal line is to be pierced. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. says Master Painter. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. 1 part. if desired. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. but weird and distant. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. 1/4 part.Fasten the metal to the board. If any polishing is required. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. Remove the metal. . Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. applied by means of a brush. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. turpentine. So impressive are the results. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing." In all appearance. in the waste metal. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. varnish. paste the paper design right on the metal. 3/4 part. that can be worked in your own parlor. 2 parts white vitriol. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. or. mandolin or guitar. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. On the back. flat brush. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. One coat will do. The music will not sound natural. a violin.

The longest piece. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. .The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. without them. long and measuring 26 in. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. 3. it might be difficult. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. round-head machine screws. across the top. apart. London. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. long. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. each 6 in. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. long and spread about 8 in. is bent square so as to form two uprights. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. are shaped as shown in Fig. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. each 28 in. wide. says Work. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. 2. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. With proper tools this is easy. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. and is easy to construct. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. Two pairs of feet. thick by 1/2 in. square bar iron.

5. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. D. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. C.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. While the piece of lead D. or. Fig. Place the corner piece of glass. special flux purchased for this purpose. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. 5. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. After the joints are soldered. is held by the brads. on it as shown. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. After the glass is cut. cut a long piece of lead. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. lead. A. 6. as shown in Fig. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. better still. 4. The brads are then removed. the latter being tapped to . the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. using rosin as a flux. Fig. and the base border. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. in the grooves of the borders. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. 7. B. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. The glass. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. The design is formed in the lead.

plates. long. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. A and B. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. holes through their centers. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. square and of the length given in the drawing. rounded at the top as shown. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. J. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. Bore a 5/8-in. N. Camden. This . Concrete is much better if it can be secured. not less than 4 in. and two wood blocks. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. rocker bolt. thick and drill 3/4-in. Fasten the plates to the block B. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. Dreier. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. one on each side and central with the hole. and round the corners of one end for a ring. wood screws in each washer. Two styles of hand holds are shown. long. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. H. Jr. then flatten its end on the under side. This ring can be made of 1-in. bolt. 8. as shown in Fig. Make three washers 3-in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. long. --Contributed by W. in diameter and 1/4 in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in.. bolt. plank about 12 ft. in diameter and about 9 in. The center pin is 3/4-in. then drill a 3/4-in. Secure a post. Bore a 3/4-in.the base of the clip.

the money outlay will be almost nothing. because it will not stand the weather. 3/4 by 3 in. and some one can swing an axe. straight-grained hickory. screws. shanks. If trees are convenient. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. Draw a line on the four 7-in. long. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. square by 5 ft. 4 in. To substitute small. hickory. 2-1/2 in. chestnut or ash. long. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. apart for a distance of 3 ft. in diameter and 7 in. by 2 ft. 1-1/4in. by 6-1/2 ft. 4 pieces. long. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. bit. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. long. 3 in. from one edge. 7 in. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 1 by 7 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The four 7-in. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars.will make an excellent cover for a pot. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. 16 screws. long. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. 9 in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. La. 50 ft. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. of 1/4-in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. boards along the side of each from end to end. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. 1/2 in. bolts and rope. can make a first class gymnasium. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. by 3 ft. maple. long and 1 piece. 2 by 4 in. 4 pieces. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. 4 in. long. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. 4 filler pieces. 1. square by 9-1/2 ft. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . horse and rings. New Orleans. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft.

It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. each 3 ft. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft.. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. deep and remove all loose dirt. 2. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. 8 in. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. Bore a 9/16-in. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. from the end. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. so the 1/2-in. boards coincide. at each end. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel.bored. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. apart. apart. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft.. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. piece of wood. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly.

" which skimmed along the distant horizon. about 100 ft. And all he used was a black thread. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. and materially heightened the illusion. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. and ascends the stem. which at once gathered. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. but most deceptive at dusk. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. disappearing only to reappear again. not even the tumbler. apart. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. He stretched the thread between two buildings. in an endless belt. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. W. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. was at its height. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. it follows the edge for about 1 in. the effect is very striking. just visible against the dark evening sky. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. it is taken to the edge of the foot. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. . If the tumbler is rotated. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. When the interest of the crowd. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. not much to look at in daytime. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. passing through a screweye at either end.. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. and then passes in a curve across the base.

New Orleans. square and 51/2 ft. 8 in. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 2 by 3 in. 4 bolts. beginning at a point 9 in. 4 in. long. 2 by 4 in. wide and 1 in. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. 2 base pieces. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. long. 2 side braces. Bevel the ends of . by 3 ft. square and 6 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. so the point will be on top. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 1. The cork will come out easily. from either side of the center. large spikes. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 2 in. long. preferably cedar. To make the apparatus. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 8 in. 2 by 4 in. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 7 in. Chisel out two notches 4 in. long. long. long. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. A wire about No. 4 knee braces. long. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 4 wood screws. by 10 ft. 6 in. 8 in. 4 in. and turned in a spiral D. 2 by 4 in. by 7 ft. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. Fig. deep. La. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 8 bolts. long. 2 cross braces. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. by 2 ft. long and 1 doz.

Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. ( To be Continued. . It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. These will allow the ladle to be turned. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. additional long. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. jellies. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. etc. save the bars. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. leaving the strainer always in position. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. screws. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. from the bottom of the base up along the posts.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. A. and countersinking the heads. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. After the trenches are dug. Richmond. which face each other. except the bars. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. of 7 ft. If using mill-cut lumber. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. The wood so treated will last for years. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. but even unpainted they are very durable. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. so the bolts in both will not meet. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. Cal. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts.the knee braces.. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. Two endpieces must be made. Jaquythe. equipped with a strainer. as shown in the diagram. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. leave it undressed. --Contributed by W. A large sized ladle. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. using four of the 7-in bolts.

A. In order to accomplish this experiment. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. or various cutting compounds of oil. partly a barrier for jumps. . A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. milling machine. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. Oil. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. drill press or planer. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. thus holding the pail as shown. it is necessary to place a stick. of sufficient 1ength. which seems impossible.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe.

by 3 ft. by 3 ft. long. These are well nailed in place. two 1/2-in. 4-1/2 in. apart. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. bolts. The material required is as follows: Two posts. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. bolts. bolts. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. Procure from a saw mill. is a good length. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. bolt. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. stud cut rounding on one edge. These are placed 18 in. ten 1/2-in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. 4 knee braces. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts.. in the ground. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. beginning 1-1/2 in. and free from knots. 4 in. long. 2 by 4 in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. apart in a central position on the horse. square by 5-1/2 ft.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. long. To construct. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. long. Hand holds must be provided next. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. by 3 ft. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. but 5 ft. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. long. 3 in. piece of 2 by 4-in. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 1 in. 4 in.. to fasten the knee braces at the top. wood yard or from the woods. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. in diameter--the larger the better. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. 2 bases. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. 7 in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. 2 by 4 in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. 1 cross brace. long. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. long. 2 by 4 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. square by 5 ft. 4 in. long. from each end. 2 adjusting pieces. projections and splinters. The round part of this log must be planed.

Also. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. no one is responsible but himself. such as a dent. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. A. Cal. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Such a hand sled can be made in a . water. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating.--Contributed by W. it is caused by an overloaded shell. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. Richmond. but nevertheless. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. snow. it is caused by some obstruction. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. pipe and fittings. Jaquythe. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. etc. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in.horse top. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. then bending to the shape desired. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. over and around. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle.

when straightened out. Joerin. Ontario. These. Noble. France. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. 2. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. 1. at E and F. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. which. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. --Contributed by James E. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. is much better than a wood sled. Boston. Vener. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. --Contributed by J. then run a string over each part. with a pair of flat-nose pliers.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. will give the length. W. Toronto. Paris. when complete. --Contributed by Arthur E. 1/4 or 3/16 in. . Mass. The end elevation. in width and 1/32 in. are all the tools necessary. thick.

The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. It is best to use soft water. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. and the latter will take on a bright luster. are nailed. 3. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. The method shown in Figs. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. AA and BB. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. . Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. nor that which is partly oxidized. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. 4.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc.

The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. 8 and 9. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. as shown in Fig. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. 2. Percy Ashley in Rudder. 2. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. or various rulings may be made. Broad lines can be made. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 4. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. class ice-yacht. The materials used are: backbone. or unequal widths as in Fig. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 1). The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 3. as shown in Fig. .

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The point should extend about 11/2 in. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. about 30 in. It can be made longer or shorter. out from the collar. bent and drilled as shown. 1. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. a larger size of pipe should be used. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. 1-Details of Lathe sort. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. pins to keep them from turning. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. pipe. long. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig.Fig. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. Both the lower . The headstock is made of two tees. but if it is made much longer. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. a tee and a forging. A good and substantial homemade lathe.

Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. 2. and will answer for a great variety of work. --Contributed by W. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Musgrove. --Contributed by W. a corresponding line made on this. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. Indiana. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. M. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. 2. 1. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. a straight line should be scratched Fig. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. . Laporte. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. UpDeGraff. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. or a key can be used as well. It is about 1 in. 3/4 or 1 in. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. as shown in Fig. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Man. Boissevain. else taper turning will result. --Contributed by M. but also their insulating properties. To do this. 2. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. as shown in Fig. thick as desired. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. Fruitvale. W. Held. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. Cal.

The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. Cline. long. Ft. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. J. Smith. --Contributed by E. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. In use. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. as shown. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. The handle is of pine about 18 in. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. Ark. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. To obviate this.

After being entered. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. and when once in true up to its size. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. White. the drill does not need the tool. centering is just one operation too many. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. This prevents the drill from wobbling. --Contributed by Walter W. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. La. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. New Orleans. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. Colo. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. which should be backed out of contact. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. face off the end of the piece. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. take . Denver. on starting the lathe. if this method is followed: First. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece.

all the better. After the wand is removed. and this given to someone to hold. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. It can be used in a great number of tricks. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. by applying caustic soda or . unknown to the spectators. a long piece of glass tubing. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. The glass tube B. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. and can be varied to suit the performer. shown at C. shorter t h a n the wand. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. after being shown empty. says the Sphinx.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. The handkerchief rod. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. as shown in D. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. a bout 1/2 in. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. vanishing wand. the cap is placed over the paper tube. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. is put into the paper tube A. In doing this.

and glue it to the neck at F. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. 1 Neck. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. square and 1-7/8 in. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. 1 Bottom. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. Cut a piece of hard wood. This dimension and those for the frets . cut to any shape desired. across the front and back to strengthen them. thick. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. 1/4 in. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. preferably hard maple. long. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. The sides. and if care is taken in selecting the material. 1 End. Glue strips of soft wood. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. by 14 by 17 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. As the cement softens. 3/16. as shown by K. 1. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. Glue the neck to the box. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. with the back side rounding. End. With care and patience. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. 2 Sides. The brace at D is 1 in. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. can be made by the home mechanic. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in.potash around the edges of the letters. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. giving it an old-fashioned appearance.

Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. H. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. but it is not. Norwalk.Pa. or backbone. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Six holes. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing.should be made accurately. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. toward each end. Stoddard. E. When it is completed you will have a canoe. in diameter. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. 1) on which to stretch the paper. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. A board 1 in. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. --Contributed by Chas. thick and about 1 ft. long is used for a keel. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. -Contributed by J. and beveled . 3/16 in. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. Frary. O. Carbondale.

the loose strips of ash (b. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. Fig. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. by means of a string or wire. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. Shape these as shown by A. long. twigs 5 or 6 ft. 3/8 in. Any tough. Fig. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. Fig. as shown in Fig. and are not fastened. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. 1 and 2. and notched at the end to receive them (B. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. wide by 26 in.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. thick. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. 3. two strips of wood (b. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. will answer nearly as well. For the gunwales (a. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. 2. and. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. as they are apt to do. with long stout screws. such as hazel or birch. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. some tight strips of ash. two twigs may be used to make one rib. a. in such cases. b. in thickness and should be cut. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. Fig. as shown in Fig. The ribs. such as is used for making chairbottoms. or other place. apart. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame.. These are better. b. 2). fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. 13 in. b. Fig. long are required. . when made of green elm. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. 3). and so. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. but before doing this. 3. or similar material. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. 4). 1.) in notches. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. probably. Fig. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. The cross-boards (B. C. 4. 2). Green wood is preferable. are next put in. C. Fig. 3). the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. buy some split cane or rattan. procure at a carriage factory. Fig. thick. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. as before described. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. slender switches of osier willow. Osiers probably make the best ribs. In drying. Fig. which are easily made of long. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. but twigs of some other trees. B.

varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. When the paper is dry. Then take some of the split rattan and. apply a second coat of the same varnish. It should be smooth on the surface. You may put in . after wetting it. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. and light oars. The paper is then trimmed. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. If the paper be 1 yd. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. and steady in the water. but with less turpentine. If not. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. of very strong wrapping-paper. tacking it to the bottom-board. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. Being made in long rolls. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. but neither stiff nor very thick. and held in place by means of small clamps. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Fig. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. It should be drawn tight along the edges. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. however. preferably iron. wide. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. and as soon as that has soaked in. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. When thoroughly dry. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. if it has been properly constructed of good material. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. and very tough. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. 5). B.

allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. Fig. to fit it easily. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. 1. and make a movable seat (A. Drive the lower nail first. and if driven as shown in the cut. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. 5. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. 1 and the end in . The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. Fig. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. they will support very heavy weights. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. 2. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. We procured a box and made a frame. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. fore and aft. Fig. 5). For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C.

then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. this makes the tube airtight.Fig. Pa. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. being softer where the flame has been applied. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. 4. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. This way has its drawbacks. and the result is. 5. This is an easy . as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. Close the other end with the same operation. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. and the glass. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. 3. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. Pittsburg. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. A good way to handle this work. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another.

and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . Work from the center along concentric rings outward. four. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. -Contributed by A. three. Seventh. or six arms. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. Give the metal a circular motion. metal shears. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. thin screw. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. file. extra metal all around. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. very rapid progress can be made. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. third. flat and round-nosed pliers. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. After the bulb is formed. Oswald. 23 gauge. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. rivet punch. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. with a piece of carbon paper. second. then reverse. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. also trace the decorative design. above the metal. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block.way to make a thermometer tube. fourth. fifth. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. above the work and striking it with the hammer. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. Sixth. The candle holders may have two.

How To Make a Hectograph [326] . After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. Small copper rivets are used. and holder. Having pierced the bracket. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. Metal polish of any kind will do. drip cup.

Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. if it has not absorbed too much ink. I steer with the front wheel.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. winding the ends where they came together with wire. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. The boom. Soak 1 oz. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. and in a week . which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. and add the gelatine. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. on a water bath. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. deep. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. sugar 1 part. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. they were like an ice boat with a sail. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. The gaff. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. N. thus it was utilized. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. Shiloh. Mother let me have a sheet. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. Fifty. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. the stick at the bottom of the sail. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. using a steel pen. is a broomstick. Twenty cents was all I spent. and brace and bit were the tools used. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. all the rest I found. hammer. except they had wheels instead of runners. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. J. F. and other things as they were needed. smooth it down and then remove as before. when it will be ready for use. glycerine 4 parts. Heat 6-1/2 oz. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. A saw. alcohol 2 parts. of glycerine to about 200 deg. and water 24 parts. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. and it will be ready for future use.

A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. at a distance of 24 ft. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. well seasoned pine. and. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. and the work carefully done. about 2 ft. DD. 3. The slide support. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. but if such a box is not found. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. focus enlarging a 3-in. thick. A and B. Fig. and the lens slide. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. and a projecting lens 2 in. provided the material is of metal. A table. high. or glue. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. above the center. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. as desired. E. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. If a small saw is used. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. are . wire brads. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. H.. 8 in. 1. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. The board is centered both ways. or a lens of 12-in. G. This ring is made up from two rings. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. wide. wide and 15 in. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. long. at a point 1 in. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. 1/2 to 3/4 in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. describe a 9-in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. slide to about 6 ft. and 14 in.

E. and when the right position is found for each. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. placed on the water. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. the strips II serving as guides. B. P. the water at once extinguishes the flame. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. The arrangement is quite safe as. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. St. apply two coats of shellac varnish. light burning oil. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. Minn. of safe. but not long enough. To reach the water. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. Small strips of tin. A sheet . should the glass happen to upset.-Contributed by G. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. Paul.constructed to slip easily on the table. JJ.

Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig.H. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. Y. Crawford. by 12 ft. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along ..Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. 3. Schenectady. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. then the corners on one end are doubled over. Fig. 1. 9 in. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. --Contributed by J. I ordered a canvas bag. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. 2. 3. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. If one of these clips is not at hand. form a piece of wire in the same shape. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. to cover the mattresses. 4. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 3 in. N. from a tent company. Fig. 12 ft.

The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. Do not use too strong a rubber. Attach a piece of steel rod. 1/2 in. To calibrate the instrument. 2. 1. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. --Contributed by Edward M.each edge. --Contributed by Walter W. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. Fasten the wire with gummed label. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Fold two strips of light cardboard. 1. Fig. to the coil of small wire for volts. thick. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. A rubber band. Teasdale. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. drill two 3/16 in. 2. to keep it from unwinding. A Film Washing Trough [331] . and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. long. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. Denver. Pa. An arc is cut in the paper. 1/2 in. in the center coil. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. Colo. for amperes and the other post. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. wide. V. insulating them from the case with cardboard. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. 3 to swing freely on the tack. first mark the binding-post A. open on the edges. White. holes in the edge. 3/4 in. 2. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. through which the indicator works. 3/4 in. Fig. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. as shown in Fig. C. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. long and 3/16 in. apart. Warren. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. so as to form two oblong boxes. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. and insert two binding-posts. D.

Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. --Contributed by M. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Place this can on one end of the trough. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Hunting. M. Wood Burning [331] . A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. with the large hole up. O. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. as shown. Cut a 1/4-in. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Dayton. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet.

a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. then into this bottle place. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. mouth downward.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays.

as shown in the sketch. many puzzling effects may be obtained. 1. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. If the cork is adjusted properly. Place the small bottle in as before. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. N. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. provided the bottle is wide. Auburn. Upper Troy. long. wide and 4 in. --Contributed by Fred W. --Contributed by John Shahan. 3/4 in. If the small bottle used is opaque.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system .Y. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. Ala. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. but not very thick. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. thick. Whitehouse. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. This will make a very pretty ornament. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. 2.

1. 1 in. Fig. The bearing blocks were 3 in. A staple. Fig. iron rod. pulley F. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. If a transmitter is used. thick. 1. long. high without the upper half. The 21/2-in. in diameter and 1 in. G. On a 1000-ft. thick. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. were constructed of 1-in. 2. was 1/4in. by the method shown in Fig. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. Its smaller parts. 2 ft. 1. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. 4.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. Fig. W. 3. which gave considerable power for its size. The shaft C. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. was keyed to shaft C. thick and 3 in. pulley. even in a light breeze. which extended to the ground. K. Both bearings were made in this manner. sugar pine on account of its softness. 1. as shown in Fig. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. 1. wide. or ordinary telephone transmitters. such as blades and pulleys. which was nailed to the face plate. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. Milter. I. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. Fig. The wire L was put . line. Fig. which was 6 in. B. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. to the shaft. --Contributed by D.

Fig. Fig. long and 3 in. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. H. The other lid. 0. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. when the windmill needed oiling. This board was 12 in. The bed plate D. The power was put to various uses. a 1/2-in. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. Fig. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. 6. To make the key. This completes the receiver or sounder. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. through the latter. cut out another piece of tin (X. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. If you have no bell. Fig. with all parts in place. across the thin edge of a board. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. There a 1/4-in. long. providing one has a few old materials on hand. 2. with brass headed furniture tacks. strips. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. square to the board P at the top of the tower. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. long and 1/2 in. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. as. R. pine 18 by 12 in. apart in the tower. 3 in. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. and was cut the shape shown. hole for the shaft G was in the center. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. for instance. 1. top down also. G. 1) 4 in. was tacked. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. The smaller one. This fan was made of 1/4-in. 1. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. 25 ft. wide and 1 in. hole was bored for it. 5. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. in the center of the board P. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. Fig. so that the 1/4-in. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. Fig. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. long and bend it as . 6. 1. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. washers were placed under pulley F. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. Two washers were placed on shaft C. Fig. in diameter. was 2 ft. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. 1. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. To lessen the friction here. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. long and bend it as shown at A. long. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans.

Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. fitted with paddles as at M. using cleats to hold the board frame. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. as shown at Water. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. Going back to Fig. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. leaving the other wire as it is. -Contributed by John R. Now. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. When tired of this instrument. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. causing a buzzing sound. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. like many another device boys make. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. although it can be made with but two. 1. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. The rear barrels are. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. after the manner of bicycle wheels. at the front. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle.shown. as indicated. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . 2. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Thus a center drive is made. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. McConnell. and. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. By adjusting the coils. Before tacking it to the board. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels.

Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. There is no danger. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. can be built. 3. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. To propel it. or even a little houseboat. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . copper piping and brass tubing for base. feet on the pedals. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. which will give any amount of pleasure. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. If the journals thus made are well oiled. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. 1. there will not be much friction. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. The speed is slow at first. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. as shown in Fig.

place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. Shape small blocks of boxwood. 1. If magnifying glass cannot be had. C. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. Turn a small circle of wood. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. Fig. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. 2. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. and so creating a false circuit. D. A.of pleasure for a little work. If it is desired to make the light very complete. or it may be put to other uses if desired. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. Fig. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. Place one brass ring in cylinder. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. B. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. 2. 1. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. Fig. 2. then the glass disc and then the other ring. Fig. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Then melt out the rosin or lead. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. 1.

contact post. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. wide and 1/16 in. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. while lying in bed. D. wire from batteries to switch. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. The parts indicated are as follows: A. --Contributed by C. and pulled tight. switch. 3/8 in. copper tubing. G. near the bed. J. C. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. if too small. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . by having the switch on the baseboard. or 1/4in. F.india rubber tubing. S. bracket. key of alarm clock. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. wire from light to switch. dry batteries. 4 in. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. Ogden. long. T. which stops bell ringing. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. B. Swissvale. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. Chatland. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. thick. Pa. C. 4-1/2 in. bell. X. shelf. Throw lever off from the right to center. Utah. wire from bell to switch. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . E. To operate this. set alarm key as shown in diagram. To get the cylinder into its carriage. --Contributed by Geo. When alarm goes off. I. after two turns have been made on the key.. long. some glue will secure them. H. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. 5-1/4 by 10 in. In placing clock on shelf. brass strip. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. Brinkerhoff. To throw on light throw levers to the left. after setting alarm. such as is used for cycle valves. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. brass rod.

in diameter. Fig. as in Fig. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. gives the heater a more finished appearance. in diameter. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. Chapman. A flannel bag. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Fig. 2. beyond the end of the spindle. as at A. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. about 3-1/2 in. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. All that is required is a tin covering. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. A small lamp of about 5 cp. being careful not to get the sand in it. place stick and all in a pail of sand. will do the heating. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. 1/4 in. 4 in. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Make a shoulder. as at B. 2. as . Lanesboro. which can be made of an old can. long. from one end. Fig. making it as true and smooth as possible. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. This is to form the fuse hole. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. S. Pull out the nail and stick. wide. 1. Minn. as at A. Make the spindle as in Fig. --Contributed by Chas. about 6 in. for instance. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. 3. 1. Having finished this. a bed warmer. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. letting it extend 3/4 in.

or hickory. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. long. ash. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. 6 in. 3/8 in. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . 11/2 in. spring and arrows. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. will be sufficient to make the trigger. 5/8 in. wide and 6 ft. thick. but if this wood cannot be procured. deep. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. The material must be 1-1/2 in. 1 in. Joerin. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. 1. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. good straight-grained pine will do. --Contributed by Arthur E. wide and 3/8 in. The illustration shows how this is done. this is to keep the edges from splitting. long. thick. A piece of tin. A piece of oak. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. wide and 3 ft. thick. long.well as making it more pleasant to the touch.

in diameter. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. better still. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. as shown in Fig. or through the necessity of. The trigger. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. Fig. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. Such a temporary safe light may be . insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. from the end of the stock. E. 4. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. Wilmette. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. Ill. 3. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. 2. having the latter swing quite freely. The bow is not fastened in the stock. Trownes. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. and one for the trigger 12 in. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. which is 1/4 in. place the arrow in the groove. it lifts the spring up. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Fig. thick. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. To shoot the crossbow. Fig. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. A spring. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. 8. wide at each end. from the opposite end. --Contributed by O. To throw the arrow. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. 9. 7. The stick for the bow. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. When the trigger is pulled. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. 6.

Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. The hinged cover E. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. The cut should be about 5 ft. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. respectively. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. making lighting and trimming convenient. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. This lamp is safe. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. and nail it in position as shown at A. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. from the ground. Remove one end. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. make the frame of the wigwam. since the flame of the candle is above A. and replace as shown at B. C. is used as a door. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. it is the easiest camp to make. apart. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. from the ground. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. or only as a camp on a short excursion. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. Remove the bottom of the box. says Photo Era. Moreover. By chopping the trunk almost through. the bark lean-to is a .made from an empty cigar box in a short time. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum.

nails are necessary to hold it in place. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. 3 ft. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. In the early summer. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. Sheets of bark. thick. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. For a permanent camp. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. selecting a site for a camp. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. A piece of elm or hickory. spruce. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. and cedar. piled 2 or 3 ft. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. are a convenient size for camp construction. makes a good pair of tongs. 6 ft. and when the camp is pitched. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. and split the tops with an ax. . long and 2 or 3 ft. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. will dry flat. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. For a foot in the middle of the stick. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. long and 1-1/2 in. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. Where bark is used. long. a 2-in. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. Tongs are very useful in camp. wide. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. deep and covered with blankets. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. make the best kind of a camp bed. wide and 6 ft.

Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. hinges. and affording accommodation for several persons. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. .

--Contributed by James M. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. Kane. Fig. Doylestown. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. and provide a cover or door. B. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. the interior can.. deep and 4 in. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. about 4 in. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. B. to another . I drove a small cork. changing the water both morning and night. A. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. wide. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. 1. Pa.

shows how the connections to the supply current are made. for instance. fused into one side. for instance. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. The diagram. such as ether. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. This makes . the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. 4 and 5). Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. 2. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. The current is thus compelled. which project inside and outside of the tube. 2. 3. Fig. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. limit. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. until. E. if necessary. a liquid. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. C.glass tube. to pass through an increasing resistance.

is composed of wrought sheet iron. After the template is marked out. mark off a space. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. 1. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. brass. brass or iron. 3-3/8 in. Before removing the field from the lathe. A. When the frame is finished so far. and for the outside of the frame. two holes. making it 1/16 in. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. or pattern. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. A 5/8in. The bearing studs are now made. 3. set at 1/8 in. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. These holes are for the bearing studs. therefore. when several pieces are placed together. thick. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. or even 1/16 in. 2. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. as shown in the left-hand sketch. they will make a frame 3/4 in. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. screws. which will make it uniform in size. Then the field can be finished to these marks. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. clamp the template. to allow for finishing. Michigan. 4-1/2 in. assemble and rivet them solidly. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. as shown in Fig. but merely discolored. which may be of any thickness so that. on a lathe. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. Fig. 3-3/8 in. hole is . tap. larger than the dimensions given. Alpena. bent at right angles as shown. cannot be used so often.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. by turning the lathe with the hand. If the thickness is sufficient. After cleaning them with the solution. drill the four rivet holes. between centers. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. in diameter. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. thick. thicker. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. Fig. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. in diameter. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth.

Fig. and drilled to receive the armature shaft.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. brass rod is inserted. and build up the solder well. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. into which a piece of 5/8-in. The shaft of the armature. file them out to make the proper adjustment. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. soldered into place. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. solder them to the supports. is turned up from machine steel. 4. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . When the bearings are located. or otherwise finished.

or segments. being formed for the ends. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. then drill a 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. The pins are made of brass. inside diameter. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. thick and 1/4 in. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. 1/8 in. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. brass rod. deep and 7/16 in. 7. Find the centers of each segment at one end. hole and tap it for a pin. 6. Armature-Ring Core. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. sheet fiber. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. as shown in Fig. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. as shown in Fig. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. Make the core 3/4 in. to allow for finishing to size. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. After the pieces are cut out. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. wide. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. 3/4 in. and held with a setscrew. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. When annealed.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. thick are cut like the pattern. as shown in Fig. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. by 1-1/2 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig.. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. 1-1/8 in. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. as shown m Fig. washers. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. Procure 12 strips of mica. Rivet them together. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. 3. thick. 3. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. 8. and then they are soaked in warm water. wide. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. 6. thick. thick. When this is accomplished. holes through them for rivets. 9. 5. After they . 3/4 in. The sides are also faced off and finished. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. threaded. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe.

sheet fiber. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. 8 in. The source of current is connected to the terminals. All connections should be securely soldered. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. The field is wound with No. of No. shown at A. about 100 ft. The two ends are joined at B. To connect the wires. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. of the end to protrude. the two ends of the wire. When the glue is set. In starting to wind. by bending the end around one of the projections. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. Run one end of the field wire.have dried. Fig. they are glued to the core insulation. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. thick. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. sheet fiber. being required. until the 12 slots are filled. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. or side. of the wire. long. and wind on four layers. Fig. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. wide and 1 in. shown at B. which will take 50 ft. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. 5. After one coil. 6 in. and bring the end of the wire out at B. yet it shows a series of . 1. are soldered together. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. after the motor is on the stand. The winding is started at A. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. 1. This winding is for a series motor. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass.

The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. which serves as the ground wire. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. and one. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. Nine wires run from the timer. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. is fastened to the metallic body. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. A 1/2-in. still more simply. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. or. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. one from each of the eight contacts. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. as in the case of a spiral. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support.

two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. of the dial. Covering these is a thin. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. long. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. thus giving 16 different directions. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. 6 in. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. 45 deg. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. It should be . The pointer end of the needle is painted black. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts.The Wind Vane. board. circle. Without this attachment. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration.

nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. making it heavy or light. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. Y. will answer the purpose just as well. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. Before tacking the fourth side. will be sufficient. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. -Contributed by James L. also a piece of new carpet. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. will be enough for the two sides. high. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. To make it. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. long to give the best results. . thus making a universal joint. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. Cut 3-in. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. if not too high. N. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. called a chip carving knife. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. Place the leather on some level. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. or. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. 14 by 18 in. and securely nail on the top of the box. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. according to who is going to use it. though a special knife. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. To work these outlines." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find.about 6 ft. is most satisfactory. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. however. Blackmer. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. Fill the box with any handy ballast. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. and about 6 in. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. Buffalo. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in.

Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. A good leather paste will be required. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. An ordinary sewing-machine . being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Paste the silk plush to the inner side.

Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. rather than the smooth side. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. away from it. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. or a hip that has been wrenched. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Morse. as in cases of a sprained ankle. of common salt and 10 lb. Syracuse. and tie them together securely at the bottom. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. B. of water. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. temporary lameness. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Y. a needle and some feathers. --Contributed by Katharine D. can be thrown away when no longer needed. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. N. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames.will do if a good stout needle is used. If a fire breaks out. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. square and tying a piece of . With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig.

openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. wide and 1/16 in. . is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. The body of the receiver. but not sharp. setting traps. The coil is 1 in. Albany. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. Ashland. N. One end is removed entirely. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. A. E. The strings should be about 15 in. etc. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. is cut on the wood. A small wooden or fiber end. F. and the receiver is ready for use. cut to the length of the spool. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. The diaphragm C. Wis. 1/8 in. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind.J. wound on the head end. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. B. G. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. Y. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. board all around the bottom on the inside. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. as shown. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws.. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. --Contributed by John A. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. When the distance to produce the right sound is found.string to each corner. Hellwig. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. N. high. Gordon Dempsey. long. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. the corners being wired. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. The end is filed to an edge. made up of four layers of No. and tacked it to the boards. Paterson. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. This not only keeps the rats out. and a coil of wire. thus helping the rats to enter. laying poisoned meat and meal. --Contributed by J. letting it go at arm's length. There is a 1-in. which is the essential part of the instrument. deep. long. commonly called tintype tin.

As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. Take a piece of string or. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. The vase is to have three supports. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. to . begin with the smallest scrolls. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. A single line will be sufficient. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. and bend each strip in shape. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. gold. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. a piece of small wire. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. better still. To clean small articles. wide.

This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. 4-1/4 in. from C to D. About 1 in.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. from the lines EF on the piece.. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. thus raising it. Fold the leather on the line EF.which the supports are fastened with rivets. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Trace also the line around the purse. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. 6-3/8 in. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. as shown in the sketch. Work down the outside line of the design. wide when stitching up the purse. Press or model down the leather all around the design. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. sharp pencil. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. from E to F. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. After taking off the pattern. through which to slip the fly AGH.. using a duller point of the tool. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. and does not require coloring. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. 3-1/4 in. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. . 3-1/2 in. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water.

The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. leaving the lug a. all the way around. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. deep. deep. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. Then nail the wheel down firmly. as shown in Fig. with the largest side down. This also should be slightly beveled. thick. and cut it out as shown in Fig. with a compass saw. square.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. Make the lug 1/4 in. then place the square piece out of which Fig. It can be made without the use of a lathe. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. 1 was cut. b. and which will be very interesting. with pins or small nails. and the projections B. the "open" side. It is neat and efficient. First. Now take another piece of wood. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. as well as useful. and. being cast in wooden molds. and cut out a wheel. by 12 ft. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. and a model for speed and power. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. with the open side down. 1. around the wheel. and tack the other piece slightly. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. When it is finished. following the dotted lines. 2. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. 1/2 in. long. Fit this to the two . 3. Cut off six pieces 12 in. then nail it.

Now take another of the 12-in. slightly beveled. holes through it. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. 4. one of which should have a 3/8-in. After it is finished. hole entirely through at the same place. place it between two of the 12-in.pieces just finished.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. hole bored through its center. then bolt it together. and bore six 1/4-in. 1. Now put mold No. in the center of it. bolts. deep. square pieces of wood. square pieces of wood. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. Take the mold apart. and clean all the shavings out of it. and lay it away to dry. and boring a 3/8-in. as shown by the . hole 1/4 in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. as shown by the black dots in Fig.

wide and 16 in. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles.1. B. d. Now cut out one of the 12-in. holes. one in the projections. 4. This is for a shaft. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. until it is full. drill in it. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. 1. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. Now take mold No. and two 1/4-in. the other right-handed. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. and bore three 1/4-in. After it is fitted in. over the defective part. lay it on a level place. Then bolt the castings together. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. only the one is left-handed. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. so that it will turn easily. Using the Brace . b. and lay it away to dry. and run in babbitt metal again. This is mold No. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings.2. Fig. Let it stand for half an hour. and drill it entirely through. true it up with a square. from the one end. 5. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. as shown in illustration. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. and pouring metal in to fill it up. and connect to the boiler. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings.2. in diameter must now be obtained. Commencing 1-1/2 in. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. take an ordinary brace. and the exhaust hole in projection b. holes at d. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel.black dots in Fig. screw down. place it under the drill. This will cast a paddle-wheel. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. 6.1. This is the same as Fig. Pour metal into mold No. as shown by the black dots in Fig. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. and the other in the base. Put this together in mold No. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. long. instead of the right-handed piece. and 3/8-in. see that the bolts are all tight. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. 6. one in the lug. fasten a 3/8-in. where the casting did not fill out. and pour babbitt metal into it. and drill them in the same manner. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. long. A piece of mild steel 5 in. put the top of the brace through this hole.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. place the entire machine in a vise.

Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. long. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing.. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. piece and at right angles to it. Then take a knife or a chisel. At each end of the 6ft. and the other 8 ft. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. while it is running at full speed. one 6 ft. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. will do good service. Plan of Ice Boat . and if instructions have been carefully followed. turn the wheel to the shape desired. with a boss and a set screw. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. and. and with three small screw holes around the edge.

being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. as the runners were fastened. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. 1. leaving 1 ft. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. 3. where they often did considerable damage. long. in diameter at the base. at the top. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. To the under side of the 8-ft. Over the middle of the 6-ft. Fig. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. in the top before the skate is put on. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. projecting as in Fig. tapering to 1-1/2 in. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. 2 by 3 in. This fits in the square hole. at the end. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. 8 a reef point knot. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. in diameter in the center. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. should be of hardwood. The tiller. in front of the rudder block. long and 2-1/2 in. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. plank nail 8-in. boards to make the platform. Run the seam on a machine. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. at the butt and 1 in. so much the better will be your boat. The spar should be 9 ft. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . distant. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. bolt the 8-ft. Make your runners as long as possible. Fig. in diameter. long. and about 8 in. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. plank. piece and at right angles to it. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. which may come in handy in heavy winds. 1.

Ariz. Phoenix. P. and the alarm bell will ring. small piece of wood. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. Mechanicsburg. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. Adams. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by J. block of wood nailed to A. --Contributed by John D. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. R. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. wide. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. to block B. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. Its parts are as follows: A. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. Comstock. and place it behind a stove. B. so that they come in contact at C. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. The arrangement proved quite too effective. P. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. The . S S. allowing the springs to contact at C. Pa. bent into a hook at each end.

The seat arms may be any length desired. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred. The stump makes the best support. Take the glass. says the American Boy. high. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. in diameter. 2. Then get a 10-cent frying pan. The center pole should be 10 ft. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for th