P. 1
The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

|Views: 58|Likes:
Publicado porTimmot

More info:

Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

08/17/2011

pdf

text

original

Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. A piece of plank 12 in. away. as shown in Fig. distant. 1. Noble.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. Fig. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. Toronto. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. 1. 1. long will make six boomerangs. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. grasp it and hold the same as a club. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. The pieces are then dressed round. wide and 2 ft. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. Ontario. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. until it is bound as shown in Fig. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. as shown in Fig. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. apart. --Contributed by J. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. E. with the hollow side away from you. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated.Fig. 2. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. To throw a boomerang. 2 -. It is held in this curve until dry. 2. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve.

which makes the building simpler and easier. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. made of 6-in. dry snow will not pack easily. and it may be necessary to use a little water. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. but about 12 in. A wall. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. long. or rather no bottom at all. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. forcing it down closely. it is not essential to the support of the walls.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. minus the top. First. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. A very light. and with a movable bottom. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. 6 in. thick. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. however. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. high and 4 or 5 in. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. the block will drop out. If the snow is of the right consistency. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. blocks . it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. one inside of the circle and the other outside.

and the young architect can imitate them. Fig. Goodbrod. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. Ore. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. 2. The piece of wood. --Contributed by Geo. wide. C. is 6 or 8 in. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. Union. which can be made of wood. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. 1. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. 3. There is no outward thrust. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . 2. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. D.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. long and 1 in. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. a. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. or an old safe dial will do. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. above the ground. Fig. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. A nail. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. Fig. 3 -. It also keeps them out. 1. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. which is about 1 ft. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter.

I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. one pair of special hinges. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. If ordinary butts are used. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. New York. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. S. the box locked . one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. says the Sphinx.When taking hot dishes from the stove. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. --Contributed by R. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. Syracuse. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. as the weight always draws them back to place. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. Merrill. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use.

allowing each coat time to dry. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. Fig. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. When the sieve is shaken. If the measuring has been done properly. Alberta Norrell. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. one for each corner. -Contributed by L. 2. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. proceed as follows: First. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. Ga. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. smooth surface. as shown in Fig. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. draw one-half of it. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. on drawing paper. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. All . If they do not. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. as shown in Fig. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. 3. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. about 1-32 of an inch. Place the piece in a vise. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. as shown. It remains to bend the flaps. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. Augusta. 1. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. To make a design similar to the one shown. With the metal shears.and the performer steps out in view. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water.

In boring through rubber corks. To keep the metal from tarnishing. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. about 6 in. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. as shown at AA. heats the strip of German-silver wire. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. 25 gauge German-silver wire. causing it to expand. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. --Contributed by R.the edges should be left smooth. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. C. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. If a touch of color is desired. should be in the line. which is about 6 in. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. H. from the back end. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. Galbreath. After this has dried. long. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. in diameter. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. When the current is turned off. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. A resistance. if rolled under the shoe sole. B. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. in passing through the lamp. The current. Denver. of No. used for insulation. and in the positions shown in the sketch. A piece of porcelain tube. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. is fitted tightly in the third hole. R. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. The common cork. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. 25 German-silver wire. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. Colo.

Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Kansas City. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. leaving a space of 4 in. as shown in Fig. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. --Contributed by David Brown. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe.bottom ring. . 3. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Mo. with thin strips of wood. 1. 2. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. between them as shown in Fig. Purchase two long book straps. Fig.

Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. 4. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. 1. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. A. one weighing 15 lb. and a pocket battery. Kane. When the aeroplane tips. to form a handle. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. long. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. 3. Two strips of brass. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. N. --Contributed by Katharine D.. Syracuse. having a gong 2-1/2 in. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. Y. as . 1.An ordinary electric bell. which is the right weight for family use. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. 36 in.. Fig. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. are mounted on the outside of the box. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. and one weighing 25 lb. and tack smoothly. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. The folds are made over the string. 1. Doylestown. 2. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. Pa. Morse. --Contributed by James M. These are shown in Fig. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Fig. just the right weight for a woman to use. The string is then tied. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. C. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. in diameter. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Fig.

Y. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. Frame Made of a Rod . and many fancy knick-knacks. in diameter. four washers and four square nuts. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. long. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. N. 2. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. The saw. --Contributed by Louis J. such as brackets. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. bent as shown in Fig. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. Floral Park.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. AA. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. two 1/8 -in. machine screws. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. 3/32 or 1/4 in. if once used. 1. Day. 2. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it.

therefore. Detroit. after breaking up. of course. In the design shown. using a swab and an old stiff brush. of water in which dissolve. if copper or brass. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. be covered the same as the back. 1 part sulphuric acid. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. 1 part nitric acid. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. Of the leathers. Michigan. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. allowing each time to dry. Rub off the highlights. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. as well as the depth of etching desired. use them in place of the outside nuts. For etching. copper. green and browns are the most popular. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. Drying will cause this to change to purple. it has the correct strength. Silver is the most desirable but. the most expensive. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. as well as brass and copper. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt.may be made of either brass. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. If it colors the metal red. An Austrian Top [12] . --Contributed by W. Apply two coats. though almost any color may be obtained. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges.. or silver. treat it with color. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Watch Fob For coloring silver. A. The buckle is to be purchased. of water. File these edges. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Scranton.

F. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. Ypsilanti. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. A handle. in diameter. The handle is a piece of pine. long. allowing only 1-1/4 in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. thick. is formed on one end. 5-1/4 in. 1-1/4 in. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. wide and 3/4 in. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. A 1/16-in. Michigan. hole in this end for the top. Tholl. starting at the bottom and winding upward. hole. . 3/4 in. set the top in the 3/4 -in. pass one end through the 1/16-in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. long. When the shank is covered. --Contributed by J. Bore a 3/4-in. Parts of the Top To spin the top.

Ga. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. --A. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. The baking surface. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. having no sides. A. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Northville. Alberta Norrell. Houghton. For black leathers. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. . Mich. tarts or similar pastry. Augusta. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. --Contributed by Miss L. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle.

then solder cover and socket together. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . the eyes forming bearings for the wire. two turns will remove the jar. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. When you desire to work by white light. says Studio Light. the same as shown in the illustration. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. Centralia. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. Mo. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. glass fruit jar. Stringing Wires [13] A. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch.

By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. square by 12 in. . as shown in the cross-section sketch. Janesville. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue.for loading and development. 4 Vertical pieces. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. 1-1/4 in. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. Wis. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. 16 Horizontal bars. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. square by 62 in. They are fastened. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. 4 Braces. so it can be folded up. 1-1/4 in. and not tip over. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in.

the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. C. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. The front can be covered . Phillipsburg. The whole. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. H. --Contributed by Dr. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. from scrap material. New York. After rounding the ends of the studs. after filling the pail with water.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. O. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. and a loop made in the end. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. Cincinnati. Rosenthal. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. -Contributed by Charles Stem. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. If the loop is tied at the proper place. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler.

--Contributed by Gilbert A. Baltimore. 1 FIG. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. thoroughly fix. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. the mouth of which rests against a. either for contact printing or enlargements. principally mayonnaise dressing. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. If the gate is raised slightly. The . Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. Md. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. the color will be an undesirable. Develop them into strong prints. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. and. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. by all rules of the game. The results will be poor. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. FIG. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. if you try to tone them afterward. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. you are. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. sickly one.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. Wehr. In my own practice. By using the following method.

. when it starts to bleach. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses...... in size.. to make it 5 by 5 in.. 20 gr. Water .. without previous wetting.... A good final washing completes the process. where it will continue to bleach.... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. With a little practice. Gray. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in..... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. transfer it to a tray of water. 2. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. preferably the colored kind.. --Contributed by T.... 2 oz...... in this solution. When the desired reduction has taken place.. but. 5 by 15 in. San Francisco... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain... Place the dry print. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. etc. as it will appear clean much longer than the white...bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. The blotting paper can .... Cal.. wide and 4 in.. long to admit the angle support..... Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. Iodide of potassium ........." Cyanide of potassium .. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. 1 and again as in Fig..... three times.. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. 16 oz. L. It will bleach slowly and evenly.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone..

The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Wilson Aldred Toronto. --Contributed by L. the head of which is 2 in. Wisconsin. 20 gauge. Canada. wide. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Oshkosh. Make a design similar to that shown.J. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. --Contributed by J. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. 3.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. the shaft 1 in. wide below the . Monahan. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. and a length of 5 in.

FIG. For coloring olive green. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. After this has dried. 3. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. 4. then put on a second coat. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. freehand. With files. Fig. using turpentine. deep. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. The metal must be held firmly. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. Apply with a small brush. after folding along the center line. Make one-half of the design. With the metal shears. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. Trace the design on the metal. Pierce a hole with a small drill. using a small metal saw. 1. . 1 part sulphuric acid. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. using carbon paper. being held perpendicular to the work. as shown in Fig. After the sawing. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. 1 Fig. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. Do not put the hands in the solution. which gives the outline of the design Fig. then trace the other half in the usual way. but use a swab on a stick. Allow this to dry. 2. 1 part nitric acid. then coloring.

it does the work rapidly. Carl Cramer. --Contributed by M. Conn. --Contributed by Katharine D. Burnett. Ii is an ordinary staple. Richmond. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. When this is cold. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. . which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. M. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. --Contributed by H. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. Syracuse. thick. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. attach brass handles. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. then stain it a mahogany color. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. as shown. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Morse. New York. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. After the stain has dried. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. on a chopping board. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. Cal. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. East Hartford. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice.

about 3/16 in. thick. not over 1/4 in. 1/4 in. Florida. as shown in Fig. . brass. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. Atwell. WARNECKE Procure some brass. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. --Contributed by W. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. one shaft. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. or tin. A. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. in width at the shank. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. two enameled. indicating the depth of the slots. holes. and several 1/8-in. Fig. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. H. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. square. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. 1. saucers or pans. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. machine screws. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. Richmond. 4. thick and 4 in. Cal. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. as shown at A. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut.. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. some pieces of brass. also locate the drill holes. L. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. 53 steel pens. Kissimmee. Jaquythe. --Contributed by Mrs. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in.

for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. using two nuts on each screw. into the hole. machine screws. thick. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. with a 3/8-in. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. with the face of the disk. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. long and 5/16 in. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. lead should be run into the segments. A 3/4-in. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. If the shaft is square. If metal dishes. wide and bend as shown in Fig. 3. about 1/32 in. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. wide. There should be a space of 1/16 in. 6. as shown in Fig. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. supply pipe. 5. as shown. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. hole in the center. 7. machine screws and nuts. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. Fig. Bend as shown in Fig. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. 1. thick. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. can be procured. with 1/8-in. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. hole. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. brass and bolted to the casing. 3. and pins inserted. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. each about 1 in. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. Fig. These are connected to a 3/8-in. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. in diameter and 1/32 in. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. a square shaft used. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. hole is drilled to run off the water. 2. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig.. The shaft hole may also be filed square. as in Fig. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. Fig. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. long by 3/4 in. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. 2.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided.

Cooke. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. make these seams come between the two back legs. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. we will call the basket. The four legs are each 3/4-in. Stain the wood before putting in the . When assembling. to make the bottom. Hamilton. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Canada. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. three of which are in the basket. using four to each leg. Fasten with 3/4-in. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. from the bottom end of the legs. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. screws. Be sure to have the cover. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. V. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. 8-1/2 in. deep over all. The lower part. high and 15 in. deep and 1-1/4 in. With a string or tape measure.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. --Contributed by F. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. La Salle. long. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. from the top of the box. --Contributed by S. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Now you will have the box in two pieces. Ill. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. or more in diameter. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. square and 30-1/2 in. Smith. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife.

a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. wide. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. 2. wide and four strips 10 in. Mass. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. 1. you can. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. --also the lower edge when necessary. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. Boston. When making the display. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Fig. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. The side. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. -Contributed by Stanley H. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Packard.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . as shown in the sketch. Sew on to the covered cardboards. Cover them with the cretonne. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound.2 Fig. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker.lining. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. and gather it at that point. sewing on the back side. Md. Baltimore. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. If all the parts are well sandpapered.

It is cleanly. saving all the solid part. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. It is not difficult to . A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. N. L. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. When through using the pad. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Orlando Taylor. and. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. 3. Gloversville. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. --Contributed by B. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. --Contributed by H. Cross Timbers. Fig. Y. Crockett. with slight modifications. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Mo. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot.

Mount the shell on a small card with glue. S. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. If a file is used. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. El Paso. -Contributed by C. are shown in the diagram. --Contributed by Edith E. Both of these methods are wasteful. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. Mass. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Lowell. and secure it in place with glue or paste.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Bourne. it should be new and sharp. and scrape out the rough parts. Lane. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . across the face. Texas. remove the contents. or if desired. After this is done. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. After stirring.

the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. --Contributed by Loren Ward. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Turl.cooking utensil. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. After several hours' drying. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. circled over the funnel and disappeared. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. F. Iowa. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. The process works well and needs no watching. Oak Park. The insects came to the light. A Postcard Rack [25]. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. Ill. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Those having houses . Wheeler. Ill. As these were single-faced disk records. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. --Contributed by Geo. Des Moines. --Contributed by Marion P. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Greenleaf. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Oregon. Canton.

--Contributed by Wm. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. boards are preferable. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. plane and pocket knife. and as they are simple in design. the best material to use being matched boards. and the second one for the developing bench. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. Lay the floor next. material. Mass. The single boards can then be fixed. --Contributed by Thomas E. Both sides can be put together in this way. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. not even with the boards themselves. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. the bottom being 3/8 in. Only three pieces are required. but for cheapness 3/4 in. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. one on each side of what will be the . These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. and both exactly alike. by 2 ft. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. Worcester. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. Glenbrook. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. will do as well.. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. thick. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Dobbins. 6 in. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. Rosenberg. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. 6 in. the height to the eaves being 6 ft.. Conn.

The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. 2 in section. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. so that the water will drain off into the sink. 6. 10).. so that it will fit inside the sink. 11. At the top of the doorway.doorway. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. etc. which is fixed on as shown . of the top of the door for the same reason. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. The roof boards may next be put on. The developing bench is 18 in. 9). one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. It is shown in detail in Fig. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. 7. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. 6 and 9. nailing them to each other at the ridge. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. and act as a trap for the light.. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. 9 by 11 in. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. the closing side as at B. brown wrapping paper. In hinging the door. 3 and 4. 6. 8. as shown in Figs. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. below which is fixed the sink. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. and in the middle an opening. by screwing to the floor. hinged to it. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. and should be zinc lined. is cut. and to the outside board of the sides. Fig. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. and the top as at C in the same drawing. 5. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. wide. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig.. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in.

Details of the Dark Rook .

It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. preferably maple or ash. though this is hardly advisable. as at M. 16. hole bored in the center for a handle. as shown in the sections. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. after lining with brown paper. 13. The handle should be at least 12 in. 18. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. mixing flour and water. but not the red glass and frame. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. as at I. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. and a tank stand on it. 17. 20. Fig. The house will be much strengthened if strips. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. screwing them each way into the boards.in Fig. Karl Hilbrich. Fig. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. as shown in Fig. it is better than anything on the market. or red light as at K. as in Fig. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. these being shown in Fig. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. or the room may be made with a flat roof. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. 13. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. For beating up an egg in a glass. 1. and a 3/8-in. Fig. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. Pennsylvania. In use. Fig. are fastened in the corners inside. A circular piece about 2 in. 15. Erie. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. four coats at first is not too many. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. 2. --Contributed by W. which makes it possible to have white light. 19. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. 6. if desired. 14. 16.

for a handle. Mitchell. about 3/8 in. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Smith. as shown in the sketch. Kansas City. --Contributed by L. D. To operate. --Contributed by Wm. Mo. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. when put together properly is a puzzle. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. G. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Eureka Springs. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. Schweiger. long. New York. which. Ark. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . L. -Contributed by E.copper should be. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Yonkers. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons.

Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. . The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. The corks in use are shown in Fig. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. as is usually the case. as shown in Fig. A number of 1/2-in. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. as shown in Fig. 3. Having completed the bare box. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. The design shown in Fig. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. the box will require a greater height in front. as well as improve its appearance. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. which binds them together. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. 2. 1. to make it set level. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. need them. in order to thoroughly preserve it. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. for the moment. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. If the sill is inclined. 3. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. especially for filling-in purposes. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. the rustic work should be varnished. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. holes should be drilled in the bottom. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. Each cork is cut as in Fig. After the box is trimmed.

One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. 3. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. etc. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. it's easy. But I have solved the difficulty. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. share the same fate. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. life in the summer time is a vexation. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. Traps do no good. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. . but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. 4. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. being partly eaten into. as shown in Fig..Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. too dangerous. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. 1. 2. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. Each long projection represents a leg. When the corn is gone cucumbers. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. drilled at right angles. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. can't use poison. and observe results. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. F. cabbages.

-. the coil does not heat sufficiently. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. cut in 1/2-in. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. long. Iowa. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. About 9-1/2 ft. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. cut some of it off and try again.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. strips. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. and made up and kept in large bottles. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. The solution can be used over and over again. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. of No. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. . by trial. If. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores.

Y. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. D. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Kane. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. Texas. it falls to stop G.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. --Contributed by Katharine D. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. . C. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. of gasoline. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Knives. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Pa. Stir and mix thoroughly. is a good size--in this compound. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. and a strip. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. but with unsatisfactory results. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Syracuse. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. --Contributed by James M. Morse. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. 1) removed. Do not wash them. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. Doylestown. forks. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. In cleaning silver. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Fig 2. coffee pot. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. Dallas. to cause the door to swing shut. hot-water pot. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. N. as shown in the sketch.

which is. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of course. Harrisburg. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. --Contributed by Oliver S. --Contributed by Theodore L. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . New Orleans. . Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. using the paper dry. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Ill. Sprout. later fixed and washed as usual. Fisher. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. La. Pa. Waverly. negatives. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. but unfixed.

The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. 1. Fig. In this uncertainty lies the charm. To obviate this difficulty. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. a harmonograph is a good prescription. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. The harmonograph. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. then . metal. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest.

Rosemont. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. R. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. that is. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. Chicago. one-fifth. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit.. A small table or platform. with a nail set or punch. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. in diameter. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. as long as the other. --Contributed by Wm. as shown in the lower part of Fig. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. ceiling. which can be regulated. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. K. A pedestal. Arizona. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . for instance.. and unless the shorter pendulum is. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. Holes up to 3 in. one-fourth. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. A length of 7 ft. or the lines will overlap and blur. is attached as shown at H. provides a means of support for the stylus. Punch a hole. A small weight. The length of the short pendulum H. is about right for a 10-ft. of about 30 or 40 lb.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. what is most important. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. A weight. J. such as a shoe buttoner. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. Gaffney. in the center of the circle to be cut. exactly one-third. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. as shown in Fig. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. --Contributed by James T. G. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. 1-3/4 by 2 in. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. Another weight of about 10 lb. Ingham. etc. 1. makes respectively 3. to prevent any side motion. 1.

--Contributed by J. and proceed as before. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. 6. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. a correspondent of .J. 2. 5. distributing them over the whole card. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. then put 2 at the top. The capacity of the vise. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. 3. The two key cards are made alike. N. Fig. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block.J. Chicago. Morey. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. 1. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. Cape May City. one for the sender and one for the receiver. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. and 4 as in Fig. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. Fig. dividing them into quarters. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. Cruger. of course. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. then 3 as in Fig. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. 4. -Contributed by W.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig.H.

How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. citrate of iron and ammonia. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. the portion of the base under the coil.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. says Popular Electricity. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. Augusta. 22 gauge German-silver wire. wood-screws. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. from the top and bottom. of 18-per-cent No. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. long. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. Asbestos board is to be preferred. acetic acid and 4 oz. of water. To assemble. remove the prints. If constructed of the former. 1/2 oz. --Contributed by L. Wind the successive turns of . secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. of the uprights. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. Ga. 30 gr. Alberta Norrell. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. drill 15 holes. Cut through the center. After securing the tint desired. After preparing the base and uprights. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. respectively. deep. of ferricyanide of potash. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. 1/4 in. 6 gauge wires shown. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. sheet of well made asbestos paper.

Labels of some kind are needed. These may be procured from electrical supply houses.. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. Small knobs may be added if desired. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . 14 gauge. Ward. if one is not a smoker. --Contributed by Frederick E. as they are usually thrown away when empty. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. The case may be made of 1/2-in. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. N. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. which.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. rivets. etc. but these are not necessary. 16 gauge copper wire. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. screws. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. Y. cut and dressed 1/2 in. square. then fasten the upright in place. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. Ampere.

especially if a large tub is used. The parts are put together with dowel pins. the pure muriatic acid should be used. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap.14 oz. Jaquythe. This is considerable annoyance. it must be ground or filed to a point. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. G. If the soldering copper is an old one. D. Heat it until hot (not red hot). Richmond. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. or has become corroded. A. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. of water. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. galvanized iron." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. of glycerine to 16 oz. and rub the point of the copper on it. --C. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. . Kenosha. California. zinc. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. Ark. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. The material can be of any wood. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. and one made of poplar finished black. In soldering galvanized iron. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. tin. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. Wis. C. Larson. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. being careful about the heat. tinner's acid. Eureka Springs. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. sandpaper or steel wool. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. --Contributed by A. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. lead. B. Copper. and labeled "Poison. brass. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. --Contributed by W.. particularly so when the iron has once been used. as shown in the sketch. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. a piece of solder. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. S. E and F. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. then to the joint to be soldered.

Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. nut. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. Take a 3/4-in. This will leave a clear hole. 7/8 in. 1. -Contributed by H. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. in diameter. 2. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. I bind my magazines at home evenings. D. B. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. Hankin. round iron. a ring may be made from any metal.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. W. which gives two bound volumes each year. Fig. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . and drill out the threads. Brass rings can be plated when finished. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. The disk will come out pan shaped. The punch A. Y. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. Place the band. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. thick and 1-1/4 in. Fig. in diameter. The covers of the magazines are removed. The dimensions shown in Fig. Six issues make a well proportioned book. wide. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. This completes the die. C. Troy. however. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. such as copper. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Apart from this. brass and silver. with good results. N.

Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. . the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. which is fastened the same as the first. 1. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. then back through the notch on the right side. 2. The covering should be cut out 1 in. The sections are then prepared for sewing. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. threaded double. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. and place them against the strings in the frame. and a third piece. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. allowing about 2 in. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. on all edges except the back. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. is used for the sewing material. 1. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book.4. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. C. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. is nailed across the top. 1/8 in. Start with the front of the book. 2. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. using . Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. After drawing the thread tightly. size 16 or larger. of the ends extending on each side. and then to string No. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. Place the cardboard covers on the book. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. The string No. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. If started with the January or the July issue. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. as shown in Fig. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. 1 in Fig. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. The covering can be of cloth. deep. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. 1. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. Coarse white thread. through the notch on the left side of the string No. Five cuts. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. 5.

at opposite sides to each other. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. --Contributed by Clyde E. Cal. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. For the blade an old talking-machine . fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. Nebr. round iron. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Divine. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Encanto. and mark around each one. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. and. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. College View. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Tinplate. Place the cover on the book in the right position. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. on which to hook the blade. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson.

. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. bore. or double extra heavy. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. and another piece (B) 6 in. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. long. in order to drill the holes in the ends. and a long thread plug. Moorhead. by 4-1/2 in. Then on the board put . C. -Contributed by Willard J. and 1/4 in. as it is sometimes called. A. B. On the upper side. F. Summitville. hydraulic pipe. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. with 10 teeth to the inch. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. as shown. Hays. thick. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. and file in the teeth. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. and 1/4 in. at the same end. Miss. E. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. thick. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in.. by 1 in. fuse hole at D. Make the blade 12 in. with a steel sleeve. Ohio.

Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Connect up as shown. as from batteries. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. 4 jars. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. H. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. high around this apparatus. about 5 ft. A lid may be added if desired. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. of wire to each coil. and some No. Boyd. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. --Contributed by Chas. the jars need not be very large. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. of rubber-covered wire.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. Philadelphia. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. some sheet copper or brass for plates. If you are going to use a current of low tension. using about 8 in.

Construct the auto front (Fig. by 6 in. on No. two pieces 14 in. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. A variation of 1/16 in. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. long. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. are important. The connection between point No. 2. First sandpaper all the wood.. The stock required for them is oak.. wide and 2 in.. and four pieces 14 in. 30 in. No. is used to reduce friction. 4. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. See Fig. For the brass trimmings use No. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. C. and bolt through. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. 4 in.. and for the rear runners: A. by 5 in. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. steel rod makes a good steering rod. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. B and C. & S. wide. long. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. An iron washer. wide and 3/4 in. beginning at the rear. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. above the ground. 34 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. To wire the apparatus. 1 on switch. The top disk in jar No. with the cushion about 15 in. long by 22 in. Use no screws on the running surface. 2 and 3. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. however. B. 15-1/2 in. Put arm of switch on point No. 11 in. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. direct to wire across jars. Fig. and plane it on all edges. Equip block X with screw eyes. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. by 5 in. 2 is lower down than in No. 1 is connected to point No. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble.. by 1 in. making them clear those in the front runner. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. gives full current and full speed. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. For the front runners these measurements are: A. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. by 2 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. long.. as they are not substantial enough. two pieces 34 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. The sled completed should be 15 ft. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. The illustration shows how to shape it. Their size also depends on the voltage.. 2. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. On the door of the auto front put the . by 1-1/4 in. 7 in.the way. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. The current then will flow through the motor. 2. B. 16-1/2 in. thick. 3 in. . 5 on switch. 2 in. 27 B. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. or source of current. two pieces 30 in. thick. Use no nails. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. A 3/4-in. 4) of 3/4-in. by 1-1/4 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. square by 14 ft. wide by 3/4 in. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. 1. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. two for each jar. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. In proportioning them the points A. apart. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. At the front 24 or 26 in. sheet brass 1 in. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. 3. oak boards. long. Z. 3 and No. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. by 2 in. as they "snatch" the ice. C. 1 and so on for No.

This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. by 30 in. a brake may be added to the sled. cutting it out of sheet brass. If desired. etc. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. to improve the appearance. Fasten a horn. or with these for $25. sewing it to the burlap on the under side.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. Then get some upholstery buttons. to the wheel. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . by 1/2 in. cheap material. a number of boys may share in the ownership. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. If desired. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. may be stowed within. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. brass plated. If the expense is greater than one can afford. such as used on automobiles. parcels. overshoes. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. long. fasten a cord through the loop. which is somewhat moist. lunch. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. The best way is to get some strong. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. such as burlap.

--Contributed by Stewart H. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Leland. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Ill. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. .tree and bring. Lexington.

3. thick. 2. Fig. the same diameter as the wheel. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. With no other tools than a hacksaw. The first tooth may now be cut. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. when flat against it. E. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. The straight-edge. Fig. This guide should have a beveled edge. made from 1/16-in. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. a compass.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. which. outside diameter and 1/16 in. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. the cut will be central on the line. mild steel or iron. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . London. The Model Engineer. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. so that the center of the blade. A small clearance space. with twenty-four teeth. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. from F to G. Fig. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. by drawing diameters. Draw a circle on paper. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. CD. sheet metal. some files. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. say 1 in. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. FC. First take the case of a small gearwheel. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. 1. 4). though more difficult. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. will be over the line FG.

but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. 1. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. transmitter. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. either the pencils for arc lamps. R. 1. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. as shown in Fig. hold in one hand. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. Focus the camera in the usual manner. or several pieces bound tightly together. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. . ground it with a large piece of zinc. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. each in the center. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. If there is no faucet in the house. Then take one outlet wire. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. B. A bright. 2. No shock will be perceptible.Four Photos on One Plate of them. some wire and some carbons. and the other outlet wire. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. B. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. as shown in Fig. Make a hole in the other. as shown in Fig. electric lamp. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator.

Ashland. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. a transmitter which induces no current is used. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. But in this experiment. and again wind the wire around it. one at the receiver can hear what is said. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. by 1 in. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. and will then burn the string C. If desired. 36 wire around it. are also needed. B. at each end for terminals. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. by 12 in. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. Then set the whole core away to dry. as indicated by E E. Wrenn. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. Emsworth. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. One like a loaf of bread. A is a wooden block. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. as shown. and about that size. of course. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. J. or more of the latter has been used. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. They have screw ends. D D are binding posts for electric wires. Pa. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. under the gable. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. Slattery. Dry batteries are most convenient. leaving about 10 in. Several battery cells. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. --Contributed by Geo. For a base use a pine board 10 in. serves admirably. Ohio.

in parallel. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. First make a support. until the hand points to zero on the scale. At one side secure two receptacles. and switch. D. 14 wire. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. F. From the other set of binding-posts. and the lamps. connecting lamp receptacles.wire.. 12 or No. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. for the . Fig. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. C. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. D. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. The oven is now ready to be connected. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. Newark. These should have hollow ends. in series with bindingpost. while C is open. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. 2. The coil will commence to become warm. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. E. the terminal of the coil. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. B B. as shown. Jr. as shown. Fig. The apparatus is now ready for operation. and one single post switch. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. B B. Connect these three to switch. Turn on switch. C. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. Place 16-cp. 1. run a No. Ohio. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling.

The core. drill through the entire case and valve. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. The box is 5-1/2 in. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. and D. To make one. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. D. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. 3 amperes. etc. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. Make the wire 4-1/2 in.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. thick.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. until the scale is full. a standard ammeter. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. Mine is wound with two layers of No. 1/2 in. is then made and provided with a glass front. but if for a 4way. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . 14 wire. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C.or 4-way valve or cock. 10 turns to each layer. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. deep. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. wide and 1-3/4 in. Fig. wide and 1/8 in. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. This may be made of wood. A wooden box. 7. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. although brass is better. If for 3-way. where A is the homemade ammeter. although copper or steel will do. 2. The pointer or hand. 1. long and make a loop. remove the valve. 36 magnet wire instead of No. a battery. 1. D. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. is made of wire. 3. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. At a point a little above the center. from the lower end. E. 1/4 in. After drilling. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. drill in only to the opening already through. 4. as shown in the cut. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. is made of iron. to prevent it turning on the axle. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. Fig. inside measurements.. Fig. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. Montreal. It is 1 in. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. 5. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. long. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. 14. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. high. wind with plenty of No. 4 in. long. drill a hole as shown at H. a variable resistance.E. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. This is slipped on the pivot. --Contributed by J. Dussault. C. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. B. 6. 4 amperes. Fig. 5.

it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. provided with a rubber stopper. and the arc light. A. To start the light. By connecting the motor. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. which is used for reducing the current. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. high. This stopper should be pierced. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. F. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. D. as shown. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. E. One wire runs to the switch. making two holes about 1/4 in. and a metal rod.performing electrical experiments. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. B. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. in diameter. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. and the other connects with the water rheostat. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. in thickness .

If all adjustments are correct. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Turn on the current and press the button. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. as shown in C. 2. where he is placed in an upright open . Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Having finished the interrupter. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. 1. Having fixed the lead plate in position. N. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Fig. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Carthage. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. Y. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Fig. B. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Fig. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. A piece of wood. 1. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. 1. Jones. If the interrupter does not work at first. 2. A. To insert the lead plate. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. long. As there shown. --Contributed by Harold L. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. as shown in B. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Fig. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved.

A. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. light-colored garments. within the limits of an ordinary room. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. is constructed as shown in the drawings.. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. The lights. The glass should be the clearest possible. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. The model. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. L and M. All . until it is dark there. could expect from a skeleton. which can be run by three dry cells. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. inside dimensions. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. by 7 in. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. loosejointed effect. If everything is not black. giving a limp. especially the joints and background near A. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. should be miniature electric lamps.coffin. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. If it is desired to place the box lower down. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. as the entire interior. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. high. A white shroud is thrown over his body. and wave his arms up and down. The skeleton is made of papier maché. by 7-1/2 in. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. and must be thoroughly cleansed. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. especially L. from which the gong has been removed. dressed in brilliant. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. They need to give a fairly strong light. with the exception of the glass. to aid the illusion. and can be bought at Japanese stores. should be colored a dull black. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. the illusion will be spoiled. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. figures and lights. Its edges should nowhere be visible. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view.

The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. placed about a foot apart. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Cal. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil.that is necessary is a two-point switch. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. Fry. San Jose. --Contributed by Geo. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. as shown in the sketch. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. after which it assumes its normal color. square block. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. fat spark. W. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. Two finishing nails were driven in. If a gradual transformation is desired.

the remaining space will be filled with air. If a lighted match . to make it airtight. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. One of these plates is connected to metal top. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. by a piece of hard rubber at each end.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. with two tubes. Cohen. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. 1. hydrogen gas is generated. as shown. soldered in the top. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. F. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. The plates are separated 6 in. B and C. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. New York. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. In Fig. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. -Contributed by Dudley H. This is a wide-mouth bottle. by small pieces of wood. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. or a solution of sal soda. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. In Fig. into the receiver G. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. A (see sketch). and should be separated about 1/8 in. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation.

which is plugged up at both ends. either by passing a current of electricity around it. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. N. A. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. The distance between the nipple. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. copper pipe. A. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. C C. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. 1-5/16 in. says the Model Engineer. in diameter and 6 in. long. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. A 1/64-in. as is shown in the illustration. A. A nipple. One row is drilled to come directly on top. 2 shows the end view. long. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. London. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. Fig. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. B. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. copper pipe.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. then a suitable burner is necessary. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. by means of the clips. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . from the bottom. If desired. P. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. A. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. which forms the vaporizing coil. of No. Fig. or by direct contact with another magnet. 1. should be only 5/16 of an inch. is then coiled around the brass tube. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. 1/2 in. N. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. is made by drilling a 1/8in. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. A piece of 1/8-in. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. 36 insulated wire. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. and the ends of the tube. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank.

Cut four pieces of cardboard. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. 1/4 in. Fig. longer and 1/4 in. trim both ends and the front edge. Take two strips of stout cloth. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. A disk of thin sheet-iron. 1. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. fold and cut it 1 in. but if the paper knife cannot be used. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). If you have access to a printer's paper knife. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. 3. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Fig. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. larger all around than the book. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. cut to the size of the pages. smoothly. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. should be cut to the diameter of the can. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. leaving the folded edge uncut. with a fine saw. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. at the front and back for fly leaves. Fig. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring.lamp cord. taking care not to bend the iron. about 8 or 10 in. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. boards and all. this makes a much nicer book. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. 2). Turn the book over and paste the other side. duck or linen. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper .

as shown in the sketch. . --Contributed by James E. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. or rather the top now. the joint will be gas tight. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. B. --Contributed by Joseph N. H. A gas cock. Va. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. is turned on it. Parker. is soldered onto tank A. is fitted in it and soldered.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. C. 4). This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. Another tank. A. Noble. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. Toronto. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. is made the same depth as B. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. which will just slip inside the little can. D. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. in diameter and 30 in. E. In the bottom. Bedford City. is perforated with a number of holes. and a little can. This will cause some air to be enclosed. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. as shown. but its diameter is a little smaller. Another can. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. without a head. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. 18 in. of tank A is cut a hole. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. pasting them down (Fig. deep. Ont.

as shown at C.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. B. long. J. square by 42 in. should be 1/4 in. The longitudinal corner spines. to prevent splitting. tacks. The wiring diagram. which moves to either right or left. exactly 12 in. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. thus adjusting the . fastened in the bottom. E. and sewed double to give extra strength. should be cut a little too long. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. 2. If the pushbutton A is closed. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. which may be either spruce. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. and about 26 in. when finished. If the back armature. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. B. The armature. basswood or white pine. are shown in detail at H and J. D. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. making the width. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. The bridle knots. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. long. D. H is a square knot. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. with an electric-bell magnet. A A. by 1/2 in. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. The diagonal struts. 1. N.. -Contributed by H. The small guards. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. Beverly. Bott. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. should be 3/8 in. Fig. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. A. shows how the connections are to be made. C. S. Fig. and the four diagonal struts. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. B.

and if a strong wind is blowing. A bowline knot should be tied at J. with gratifying results. however. Chicago. the batteries do not run down for a long time. can be made of a wooden . to prevent slipping. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. Stoddard. for producing electricity direct from heat. that refuse to slide easily. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. as shown. Harbert. D.lengths of F and G. If the kite is used in a light wind. Clay Center. E. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. Kan. shift toward F. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. Closing either key will operate both sounders. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. --Contributed by Edw. thus shortening G and lengthening F. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. and. --Contributed by A.

A and B. to the cannon. placed on top. with a number of nails. The wood screw. Then. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. A. C. 14 or No. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. E. Fasten a piece of wood. --Contributed by A. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. Chicago. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. in position. A. C. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after .. spark. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. with a pocket compass. 16 single-covered wire. E. by means of machine screws or. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. B. or parallel with the compass needle. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle.frame. A. and also holds the pieces of wood. D. C. which conducts the current into the cannon. When the cannon is loaded. and the current may then be detected by means. F. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. Turn the spool in a north and south direction.

requiring a strong magnet. screw is bored in the block. In Fig. Mich. To reverse. --Contributed by Joseph B. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. in this position the door is locked. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. Ohio. . A and S. A hole for a 1/2 in. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. when in position at A'. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. now at A' and S'. H. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. Connect as shown in the illustration. Big Rapids. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. B. A. 1. L. press the button. to receive the screw in the center. with the long arm at L'. Keil. A and S. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Fig. To unlock the door. where there is a staple. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. Marion. Bend the strips BB (Fig. To lock the door. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. Fig. --Contributed by Henry Peck. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. but no weights or strings. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm.the current is shut off. square and 3/8 in. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. Chicago. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. within the reach of the magnet. 1. 1. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms.

Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. Rand. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. and C is a dumbbell. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. and may be made at very slight expense. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. When ready for use. Mass. Thread the other end of the pipe. West Somerville. put in the handle. about 18 in. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. and if desired the handles may . --Contributed by C. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. The standard and base. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. When the holes are finished and your lines set. are enameled a jet black. J. or for microscopic work. long. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. if enameled white on the concave side. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. gas-pipe. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. pipe with 1-2-in. hole.

8 in.. across. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. D. This peculiar property is also found in ice. --Contributed by C. inside the pail. 1. long and 8 in. Fig. Mass. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. 1. as shown at A in the sketch. A. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. E. Fig. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. across. high by 1 ft. which shall project at least 2 in.be covered with leather. B. M. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. with a cover. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Make a cylindrical core of wood. North Easton. Warren.

the firing should be gradual. bottom and sides. 2 in. hotel china. hard porcelain. say 1/4 in. W. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. This done. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. as is shown in the sketch. the point of the blue flame. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. Wind about 1/8 in. and with especial caution the first time. and varnish. long over the lid hole as a chimney. thick.-G. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. thick. wider than the kiln. After finishing the core. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. and cut it 3-1/2 in. C. Line the pail. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. pack this space-top. After removing all the paper. and on it set the paper wrapped core. such . as dictated by fancy and expense. 1390°-1410°. 25%. pipe 2-ft. The 2 in. and graphite. projecting from each end (Fig. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. 15%. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. When lighted. L. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. strip of sheet iron. make two wood ends. 60%. but it will burn a great deal of gas. or make one yourself. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. of fine wire. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. diameter. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. Cover with paper and shellac as before. sand. If the cover of the pail has no rim. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. about 1 in. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. and 3/8 in. 1). In like manner make the cover of the kiln. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. 1).. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this.. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. cutting the hole a little smaller. Fig. and your kiln is ready for business.. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. to hold the clay mixture. in diameter. passing wire nails through and clinching them. if there is to be any glazing done. which is the hottest part. 2. E. 3) with false top and bottom. It is placed inside the kiln. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. layer of the clay mixture. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. C. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. Whatever burner is used. pipe.mixture of clay. but will be cheaper in operation. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. full length of iron core. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. 1330°. let this dry thoroughly. long. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. and 3/4 in. carefully centering it. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. if you have the materials. in diameter. Set aside for a few days until well dried. C. Fit all the parts together snugly. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail.

Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. Chicago. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. The funnel. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. square them up.. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. around the coil. red and black. Take the red cards. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. and so on. taking care to have the first card red. 8 in. T. and discharges into the tube. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. Then. as shown in the sketch herewith. 2. A. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. Then take the black cards. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. 2). The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. Washington. square them up and place in a vise. bind tightly with black silk. Of course. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. length of . C. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. as in Fig. about 1/16 in. and plane off about 1/16 in. all cards facing the same way. 1. C. overlaps and rests on the body. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. with a plane.53 in. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. leaving long terminals. every alternate card being the same color. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. diameter. R. 2. as in Fig. and divide it into two piles. . B. the next black. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. --Contributed by J. Next restore all the cards to one pack. procure a new deck. You can display either color called for. D. C.

the same ends will come together again. and this is inexpensive to build. C. about 20 in. E. To find the fall of snow. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. of the frame. to form a dovetail joint as shown. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. stove bolts. Let . and then the frame is ready to assemble. E. stove bolts. All the horizontal pieces. Long Branch. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. 1 gill of litharge. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. B. so that when they are assembled. B. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. A. as the difficulties increase with the size. The upright pieces. It should be placed in an exposed location.J. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. 1 gill of fine white sand. angle iron for the frame.. N. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. Drill all the horizontal pieces. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. F. the first thing to decide on is the size. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. A. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. through the holes already drilled. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass.C. D. The bottom glass should be a good fit. Fig. B. The cement. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. thus making all the holes coincide. When the glass is put in the frame a space. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. 1.

and. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. Fig. B. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . A. Aquarium Finished If desired. if desired. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. a centerpiece (A. Fasten the lever. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. D. on the door by means of a metal plate. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. having a swinging connection at C. to the door knob.

long. showing the paddle-wheel in position. Cut two of them 4 ft. They are shown in Fig. 2 is an end view. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. and Fig. hoping it may solve the same question for them. Fig. 2 ft. from the outside top of the frame. long. PAUL S. --Contributed by Orton E. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. with a water pressure of 70 lb. AA. 1. White. to form the slanting part. Fig.. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. will open the door about 1/2 in. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. To make the frame. C. Buffalo. wide by 1 in. soldered to the end of the cylinder. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. Y. B. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. long. 1 is the motor with one side removed. which is 15 in. Do not fasten these boards now. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. Fig. F. according to the slant given C. thus doing away with the spring. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. approximately 1 ft. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. Fig. Two short boards 1 in. but mark their position on the frame. several lengths of scantling 3 in. 1. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. E. A small piece of spring brass. long. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. another. 6 in. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. and another. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. screwed to the door frame. 2 at GG. Fig. another. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. for the top. I referred this question to my husband. to form the main supports of the frame.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. Fig. N. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. 3 shows one of the paddles. 26 in. D. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. 1 . to keep the frame from spreading. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. wide . Cut two pieces 30 in. as at E.

(It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. thick (HH. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. in diameter. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. 1. hole through them. holes. that is. hole through their sides centrally. 2) and another 1 in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. 2) with a 5/8-in. Fig.burlap will do -. take down the crosspieces. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. then drill a 3/16-in. Drill 1/8-in. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. remove the cardboard. Fasten them in their proper position. Take the side pieces. Fig. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. Next secure a 5/8-in. thick. after which drill a 5/8 in. to a full 1/2 in. Fig. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in.along the edges under the zinc to form . by 1-1/2 in. These are the paddles. hole through the exact center of the wheel. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. 24 in. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. with the wheel and shaft in place. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. 4. iron 3 by 4 in. Make this hole conical. Tack one side on. as shown in Fig. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). hole through its center. steel shaft 12 in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. and drill a 1/8-in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. hole to form the bearings. from one end by means of a key. Now block the wheel. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. tapering from 3/16 in. 2) form a substantial base. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. GG. (I. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. When it has cooled. long to the wheel about 8 in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. pipe. and a 1/4 -in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. and drill a 1-in. iron.

in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. but now I put them in the machine. Correct exposure depends. as this makes long exposure necessary. light and the plate. start the motor. place the outlet over a drain. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. it would be more durable. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. Raise the window shade half way. on the lens. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft.a water-tight joint. says the Photographic Times. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. shutting out all light from above and the sides. If the bearings are now oiled. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. sewing machine. Do not stop down the lens. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. of course. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. . dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. any window will do. as shown in the sketch at B. remove any white curtains there may be. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. drill press. and leave them for an hour or so. and as near to it as possible. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. If sheet-iron is used. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. and the subject may move. Drill a hole through the zinc. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. Darken the rest of the window. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. or what is called a process plate. It is obvious that. The best plate to use is a very slow one. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. but as it would have cost several times as much. Focus the camera carefully. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. ice-cream freezer. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose.

but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. A. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. With a piece of black paper. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. or can be taken from an old magnet. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. The current required is very small. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. as shown in Fig. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. with binding posts as shown. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. 2. On completing . a core. B. the core is drawn down out of sight.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. until the core slowly rises. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. 2. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. C. as a slight current will answer. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. or wood. or an empty developer tube. full of water. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. and without fog. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. which is made of iron and cork. The glass tube may be a test tube. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. without detail in the face. and a base. hard rubber. by twisting. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. The core C. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. D. a glass tube. an empty pill bottle may be used. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube.

The colors appear different to different people. and are changed by reversing the rotation. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . 1 lb. 1 pt. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. according to his control of the current. finest graphite. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. water and 3 oz. and one not easy to explain. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. is Benham's color top. This is a mysterious looking instrument. 1. and make a pinhole in the center. whale oil.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. white lead. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it.

when the action ceases. nearly every time. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. thus partly filling bottles A and C. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. or three spot. As this device is easily upset. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. before cutting.. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end.B. Chicago.L. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. A. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. B. fan-like. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. especially if the deck is a new one. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. -Contributed by D. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. In making hydrogen. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. deuce. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. C. In prize games.

in length and 3 in. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig.. Detail of Phonograph Horn . S. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. (Fig. Huron. 10 in. 1. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Fig. Bently. long and 3 in. Dak. --Contributed by C. Make a 10-sided stick. 4. --Contributed by F. 12 in. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. 3). Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. 2. Detroit. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. J. Form a cone of heavy paper.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. 9 in. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft.. W. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Fig. in diameter. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. as shown in Fig. S. long. Jr. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. . can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw.

Fasten the sections all around in like manner. making it three-ply thick. E. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. 6.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. Remove the form. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. it is equally easy to block that trick. will cause an increased movement of C. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. Fortunately. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. A. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. Denver. C. with a pin driven in each end. on one side and the top. about the size of a leadpencil. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. push back the bolt. bend it at right angles throughout its length. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. but bends toward D. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. A piece of tin. Cut out paper sections (Fig. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. long. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. and walk in. A second piece of silk thread. Fig. --Contributed by Reader. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . allowing 1 in. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip.

R. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . is connected each point to a battery. Paul. Jr. --Contributed by J. West St. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. or left to right. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. B.. 4 ft. By this arrangement one. S S. The reverse switch. B. put together as shown in the sketch. A. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. Fremont Hilscher. The reverse lever when moved from right to left.strip. while the lower switch. as shown. and rest on a brick placed under each end. Minn. long. Two wood-base switches. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. W. The upper switch.. long. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. The feet. S. S. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. are 7 ft. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. posts. are made 2 by 4 in. will last for several years. The 2 by 4-in. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with.

pulley wheel. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. H and K. The valve motion is shown in Figs. thick. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. 2. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. and the crank bearing C. Fig. The steam chest D. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. In Fig. FF. The base is made of wood. and valve crank S. 3/8 in. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood.every house. the other parts being used for the bearing B. cut in half. which is made of tin. and in Fig. with two washers. Fig. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. and has two wood blocks. The hose E connects to the boiler. 2 and 3. and a cylindrical . 1. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. or anything available. which will be described later. is an old bicycle pump. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. E. The piston is made of a stove bolt. either an old sewing-machine wheel. the size of the hole in the bearing B. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft.

using the positive wire as a pen. 1. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. 4. The boiler. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. W. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. First. Wis. Eustice. San Jose.piece of hard wood. 3. of Cuba. or galvanized iron. at that. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. as it is merely a trick of photography. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. . and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. G. This engine was built by W. and saturated with thick oil. This is wound with soft string. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. can be an old oil can. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. Fig. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. C. --Contributed by Geo. J. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. and the desired result is obtained. as shown in Fig. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. and a very amusing trick. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. Schuh and A. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. Cal. is cut out of tin. Fig. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. Fry. The valve crank S. G. powder can. to receive the connecting rod H.

1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. B. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. and place a bell on the four ends. as shown. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. Fig. The smaller wheel. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. and Fig.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. 1 will be seen to rotate. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. to cross in the center. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. and pass ropes around . and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. 1 by covering up Figs. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. as shown at AA. Fig. C. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. When turning. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. They may be of any size. Fig. B. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. Cut half circles out of each stave. diameter. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving.

Louis.. Mo. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. as shown in the illustration. To make this lensless microscope.G. This in turn will act on the transmitter. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. produces a higher magnifying power). long. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. A (a short spool. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. W. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. From a piece of thin . say 1/2 or 3/4 in. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E.M. St. procure a wooden spool. such as clothes lines. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. which allows the use of small sized ropes. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. from the transmitter. which accounts for the sound. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. --Contributed by H.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. but not on all.

. C. E. darting across the field in every direction. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. which are pieces of hard wood. in which hay has been soaking for several days. B. i. H. and so on.) But an object 3/4-in. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. is fastened at each end by pins. can be made of brass and the armature. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed.. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. 3. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. and look through the hole D. or 64 times. An innocent-looking drop of water. The lever. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. which costs little or nothing to make. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. To use this microscope. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. the object should be of a transparent nature. if the distance is reduced to one-third. the diameter will appear twice as large. e. cut out a small disk. by means of brads. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. fastened to a wooden base. bent as shown. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. is made of iron. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder.. The spring. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. The pivot. otherwise the image will be blurred. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. 1. and at the center. as in all microscopes of any power. B. the diameter will appear three times as large. held at arm's length. D. A. D. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. 2. Fig. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. C. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. Viewed through this microscope. place a small object on the transparent disk. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. (The area would appear 64 times as large. if the distance is reduced to one-half.

should be about 22 in. nail soldered on A. HH. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. brass. The binding posts. soft iron. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. wide and about 20 in. B. AA. wood: C. wide. or a single piece. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. 26 wire: E.SOUNDER-A. can be made panel as shown. between the armature and the magnet. 16 in. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. Fig. FF. coils wound with No. KEY-A. wide. wood. The door. A switch. fastened near the end. B. binding posts: H spring The stop. 1. D. wide. thick. Each side. brass: B. Cut the top. connection of D to nail. F. wide. K. The back. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. long by 16 in. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. C. is cut from a board about 36 in. in length and 16 in. brass: E. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. which are made to receive a pivot. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. brass or iron soldered to nail. 2. long and 14-1/2 in. Fig. The base of the key. wide and set in between sides AA. D. D. or taken from a small one-point switch. K. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. A. and are connected to the contacts. E. 16 in. . long. wood: F. C. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. DD. similar to the one used in the sounder.

In operation. with 3/4-in. AA. brads. material. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. 13-1/2 in. 2 and made from 1/4-in. Garfield. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. as shown. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. cut in them.. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . the only materials necessary being a glass tube. Ill. When the electrical waves strike the needle. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. E. long. Make 12 cleats. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. as shown in the sketch. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense.

N. will give a greater speed. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. When the pipe is used. N. --Contributed by R. F. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. B. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. E. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. Ridgewood. A. Y. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. down into the water increases the surface in contact. A. the magnet. A (see sketch). which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. and thus decreases the resistance. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. Brown. and. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. in order to increase the surface. A fairly stiff spring. pulls down the armature. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . J. C. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. filled with water. when used with a motor.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. The cord is also fastened to a lever. through which a piece of wire is passed. Pushing the wire. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. --Contributed by John Koehler. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. Fairport.

N. --Contributed by Perry A. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. B. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. Borden. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring.for the secret contact. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. if desired. Gachville. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. even those who read this description. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Of course. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder .

for 6-in. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. Cal. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Dobson. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. records. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Dr. From a piece of brass a switch. Nails for stops are placed at DD. 2. as shown in Fig. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in.whenever the bell rings. where the other end of wire is fastened. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. for 10in. Jr. N. Compton. H. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. deep and 3/4 in. in a semicircle 2 in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. and on both sides of the middle shelf. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. records and 5-5/8 in. long and full 12-in. wide. apart. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. C. Washington. wide. Mangold. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. thick and 12-in. long and 5 in. --Contributed by H. E. The top board is made 28-in. Connect switch to post B. D. . J. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. A. Two drawers are fitted in this space. With about 9 ft. The three shelves are cut 25-in. wide. C. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. from the bottom. wide. wide. 1. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. East Orange..

B. as shown in Fig.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. as shown by the dotted lines. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. E. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. When the cord is passed over pulley C. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. Va. Roanoke. closed. A. to which is fastened a cord. which in operation is bent. 1.

B. deep. to turn on pins of stout wire. through one of these holes. 4 shows the wheel-holder. 3). In the sides (Fig. wide. they will bind. Figs. in diameter. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. 1. Figs. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. which should be about 1/2 in. Fig. 1 in. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. Fig. The crankpin should fit tightly. Now put all these parts together. it too loose. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. they will let the air through. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. In these grooves place wheels. wide. D. deep and 1/2 in. 5) when they are placed. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. holes (HH. thick. apart. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. 3. 1 in. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. but a larger one could be built in proportion. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. Cut two grooves. E. Fig. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. as shown in the illustration. in diameter. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. thick (A. Notice the break (S) in the track. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. one in each end. is compressed by wheels. These wheels should be 3/4 in.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. long. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. in diameter. E. against which the rubber tubing. CC. If the wheels fit too tightly. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. in diameter. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. excepting the crank and tubing. Bore two 1/4 in. Do not fasten the sides too . Put the rubber tube. square and 7/8 in.

beyond each of these two. 1. B. 2. costing 10 cents. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. as shown in Fig. a platform should be added. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. as it gives steadiness to the motion. long. and are 30 in. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. from each end. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. Idana. If the motion of the wheels is regular. The three legs marked BBB. A in Fig. 17-1/2 in. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. mark again. Hubbard. and 3-1/2 in. The animal does not fear to enter the box. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. For ease in handling the pump. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. --Contributed by Dan H. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. from that mark the next hole. AA.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. from the bottom and 2 in. Fig. 15 in. from each end. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. stands 20 in. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. though a small iron wheel is better. 1. the pump will give a steady stream. Fig. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. because he can . Fig. tubing. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. 1. Two feet of 1/4-in. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Cut six pieces. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. of material. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. Kan. The screen which is shown in Fig. from each end. 1. In the two cross bars 1 in. iron. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. mark for hole and 3 in. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. the other wheel has reached the bottom. AA. and mark for a hole. is all the expense necessary. 1. 2. To use the pump. Fig. Then turn the crank from left to right. Take the center of the bar. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron.

Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. To cause a flow of electricity. there is too much liquid in the jar. until it is within 3 in. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. some of it should be poured out. or small electric motors. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. of the top. or. but if one casts his own zinc. sulphuric acid. 4 oz. stirring constantly. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. When through using the battery. and the solution (Fig. rub the zinc well. It is useful for running induction coils. --Contributed by H. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. potassium bichromate. The truncated. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. of water dissolve 4 oz. If the solution touches the zinc. If it is wet. silvery appearance. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. The battery is now ready for use. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. The battery is now complete. add slowly. Place the carbon in the jar. acid 1 part).see through it: when he enters. however. If the battery has been used before. C. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. 2). dropping. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. Meyer. shuts him in. Philadelphia. long having two thumb screws. 1) must be prepared. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. and touches the bait the lid is released and. The mercury will adhere. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. . When the bichromate has all dissolved. giving it a bright. 14 copper wire.

and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. while the coal door is being opened.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. Wis. After putting in the coal. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. e. The price of the coil depends upon its size. however. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. i. which opens the door. If. pressing the pedal closes the door. with slight changes.. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. the battery circuit. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use.Fig. Madison. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. the jump-spark coil .

as shown in Fig. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. 6. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. and closer for longer distances. being a 1-in. coil. apart. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. W W.described elsewhere in this book. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions.7. . Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. After winding. 7. made of No. the full length of the coil. Fig. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. 7). to suit the distance the message is to be worked. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. 6. diameter. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. 7. which is made of light copper wire. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. as shown in Fig. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. Change the coil described. in a partial vacuum. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. in a straight line from top to bottom. W W. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. while a 12-in. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. This coil. This will make an excellent receiver. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. Now for the receiving apparatus. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. 5. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit.

where A is the headstock. . B the bed and C the tailstock. Figs. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. The writer does not claim to be the originator. A large cone pulley would then be required. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated).6 stranded. at any point to any metal which is grounded. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. No. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. may be easily made at very little expense. but it could be run by foot power if desired. These circles. and hence the aerial line. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. above the ground. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. after all. using an electric motor and countershaft. being at right angles. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. For an illustration. only. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. being vertical. to the direction of the current. A. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil.The aerial line. 90°. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. 1 to 4. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. I run my lathe by power. Run a wire from the other binding post. 90°. 1). are analogous to the flow of induction. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. which will be described later. in the air. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. but simply illustrates the above to show that. as it matches the color well. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one.

Fig. 2 and 3. The bolts B (Fig. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. 5. B. The headstock. steel tubing about 1/8 in. one of which is shown in Fig. which are let into holes FIG. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. thick. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. 6. Fig. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. but not hot enough to burn it. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. just touching the shaft. Heat the babbitt well. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. and Fig. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. A. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. tapered wooden pin. 5. pitch and 1/8 in. and it is well to have the shaft hot. The bearing is then ready to be poured. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. 4. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. 6 Headstock Details D. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. Fig. on the under side of the bed. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . If the bearing has been properly made. Fig. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. To make these bearings. too. which pass through a piece of wood. deep. and runs in babbitt bearings. 4. After pouring.

the alarm is easy to fix up. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. so I had to buy one. and a 1/2-in.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. they may be turned up after assembling. If one has a wooden walk.J. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. Take up about 5 ft. This prevents corrosion. FIG. lock nut. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. A. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. Newark. If not perfectly true. The tail stock (Fig. N. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. Ill. B. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut.other machines. embedded in the wood. of the walk . Oak Park.

dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. save when a weight is on the trap. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. (A. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. --Contributed by R. of water. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. to roughen the surface slightly. to remove all traces of grease. leaving a clear solution. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. 2). by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. water. To avoid touching it. before dipping them in the potash solution. Connect up an electric bell. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. add potassium cyanide again. Finally. Minneapolis. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Do not touch the work with the hands again. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. clean the articles thoroughly. S. silver or other metal. Minn. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Jackson. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. Fig. hang the articles on the wires. and the alarm is complete. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Then make the solution . so that they will not touch. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated.

The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. but opens the door. If accumulators are used. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. when the point of the key touches the tin. A (Fig. also. copper. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. With an electric pressure of 3. make a key and keyhole. zinc. 1). Fig. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. will serve for the key. and the larger part (F. Can be made of a 2-in. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. if one does not possess a buffing machine. of clothesline rope and some No. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. an old electric bell or buzzer. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. This solution. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. Before silver plating. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. Screw the two blocks together. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour.up to 2 qt. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. nickel and such metals. 1 not only unlocks. When all this is set up. A 1/4 in. which is held by catch B. Then. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. light strokes. about 25 ft. The wooden catch. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. which . with water. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. Fig. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. 10 in. Make a somewhat larger block (E. a hand scratch brush is good. Repeat six times. a circuit is completed. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. piece of broomstick. To provide the keyhole. Fig. On brass. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. 18 wire. Fig. long. If more solution is required. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. 3) strikes the bent wire L. 3.5 to 4 volts. with the pivot 2 in. square. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. saw a piece of wood. of water. as at F. from the lower end. In rigging it to a sliding door. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. Having finished washing the precipitate. 3) directly over the hole. hole in its center. German silver. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. I. as shown in Fig. 1. and then treated as copper. Take quick. such metals as iron. B should be of the same wood. must be about 1 in. lead. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. 1 in. with water. pewter. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. long. Where Bunsen cells are used. which is advised. use 2 volts for large articles. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. --Model Engineer. and 4 volts for very small ones. shaking. thick by 3 in. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. silver can be plated direct. 1). The wooden block C.

with the lights turned low. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. The magician stands in front of this. between the parlor and the room back of it. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. 2. East Orange. One end is removed. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. which unlocks the door. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. One thing changes to another and back again. with a switch as in Fig. some black paint. no painting inside is required. 3. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. Next. Fig. shows catch B. should be cut a hole. although a little more trouble.. is the cut through which the rope runs. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. spoons and jackknives. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. H. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. Klipstein. heighten the illusion. and black art reigns supreme. so much the better. Fig. Fig. and finally lined inside with black cloth. B. --Contributed by E. and a slit. in his shirt sleeves. On either side of the box. . Holding his empty hand over this bowl. To prepare such a magic cave. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. and hands its contents round to the audience. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. 1. 0. the requisites are a large soap box. and plenty of candles. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. floor. the illumination in front must be arranged. one-third of the length from the remaining end. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. H. such as forks. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. some black cloth. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. sides and end. surrounding a perfectly black space. The interior must be a dead black.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. a few simple tools. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. He removes the bowl from the black box. Next. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. Objects appear and disappear. cut in one side. In front of you. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. Thus. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. 2. he points with one finger to the box. Receiving the bowl again. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. 116 Prospect St. New Jersey. enlarged. to throw the light toward the audience. half way from open end to closed end. 1. H. The box must be altered first. top. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. Heavy metal objects. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. he tosses it into the cave. or cave. the box should be painted black both inside and out. Fig. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house.

There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. is on a table) so much the better. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. The exhibitor should be . of course. which are let down through the slit in the top. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. you must have an assistant. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. The audience room should have only low lights. was identical with this. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. his confederate behind inserts his hand. had a big stage. in which are oranges and apples. one on each side of the box. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. a screen must be used. and if portieres are impossible. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. the room where the cave is should be dark. of course. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. if. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. only he. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. into the eyes of him who looks. and several black drop curtains. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. But illusions suggest themselves. The illusion. and pours them from the bag into a dish. as presented by Hermann. Consequently. which can be made to dance either by strings. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants.Finally. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut.

and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. their one end just slips under the strips b1. b3. respectively. if you turn handle K to the right. c4. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. Then.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig.. b2. e1 and e2. b3. is shown in the diagram. making contact with them. 1. making contact with them as shown at y. and c4 + electricity. held down by another disk F (Fig. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. when handle K is turned to one side. c1. so arranged that. d. c3. with three brass strips. c2. vice versa. by means of two wood screws. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. or b2. respectively. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. Finally. 2. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. FIG. square. On the disk G are two brass strips. f2. held down on it by two terminals. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. by 4 in.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. terminal c3 will show . or binding posts. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. respectively. and c1 – electricity. as shown in Fig. 2. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. at L. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). terminal c3 will show +. b1. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. About the center piece H moves a disk. 2). and c2 to the zinc. held down on disk F by two other terminals. b2.a boy who can talk. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. A. and a common screw. 1. Fig. A represents a pine board 4 in. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes .

The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. when on No.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. . and C and C1 are binding posts. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. Newark. from four batteries. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . B is a onepoint switch. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. when on No.. Jr. you have the current of one battery. 4. E. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). Ohio. thus making the message audible in the receiver. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. and then hold the receiver to your ear. and when on No. 5. jump spark coil. from five batteries. from three batteries. 1. 3. when A is on No. When switch B is closed and A is on No. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. Joerin. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. Tuttle. -Contributed by A. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. --Contributed by Eugene F.

is the device of H. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. mark. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. of Burlington. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. P. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. B. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. A. The device thus arranged. When you do not have a graduate at hand. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. so one can see the time. per second for each second. New Orleans. traveled by the thread. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. E. mark. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. and supporting the small weight. and placed on the windowsill of the car. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. Redmond. A. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. as shown in the sketch. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. Wis. over the bent portion of the rule. per second. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. rule. Thus. Handy Electric Alarm . which may be a button or other small object. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. A. La.

I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. but may be closed at F any time desired. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. Instead. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. Then I sat down on the porch to wait.which has a piece of metal. C. S. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. --C. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. which illuminates the face of the clock. Lane. . Crafton. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. for a wetting is the inevitable result. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. When the alarm goes off. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. --Contributed by Gordon T. Pa. Then if a mishap comes. and with the same result. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. B. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. wrapping the wire around the can several times. soldered to the alarm winder. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn.

This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. as shown. L. BE. bearings. With the easily made devices about to be described. binding posts. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. AA.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. 1 . the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. but it is a mistake to try to do this. ornaments of various kinds. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. models and miniature objects. which may. Macey. The first thing to make is a molding bench. --Contributed by A. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. New York City. Two cleats. small machinery parts. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. 1. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. A. It is possible to make molds without a bench. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. whence it is soon tracked into the house. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . battery zincs. engines. as shown in Fig. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. cannons. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. If there is no foundry Fig. when it is being prepared. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. C. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. and many other interesting and useful articles. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. and duplicates of all these.

CC. DD. H. is about the right mesh. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. 2. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. If desired the sieve may be homemade. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. is nailed to each end of the cope. previous to sawing. The rammer. A wedge-shaped piece. and the "drag." or upper half. is filled with coal dust. and saw it in half longitudinally. If the box is not very strong. try using sand from other sources. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. which can be either aluminum. which can be made of a knitted stocking.How to Make a Mold [96] . but this operation will be described more fully later on. An old teaspoon. G. by 8 in. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. a little larger than the outside of the flask. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated.near at hand. The flask. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. The cloth bag. the "cope. and a sieve. as shown. high. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. and this. makes a very good sieve. Fig. 1. 2 . 1. E. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. which should be nailed in. and the lower pieces. as shown. The dowels. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. CC. say 12 in. Fig." or lower part. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. A slight shake of the bag Fig. A A. II . white metal. J. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. F. is shown more clearly in Fig. D. will be required. by 6 in. It is made of wood and is in two halves. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. is made of wood. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold.

It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. or "drag. as shown at C. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. and if water is added. as shown at D. and scatter about 1/16 in. as described. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. as it is much easier to learn by observation. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. and by grasping with both hands. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. as shown at E. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. The sand is then ready for molding. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. the surface of the sand at . turn the drag other side up. or "cope. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. and thus judge for himself. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. Place another cover board on top. where they can watch the molders at work. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft." in position. It is then rammed again as before. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. and then more sand is added until Fig. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. in order to remove the lumps. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. In finishing the ramming. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. After ramming. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. as shown.

which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. place the cope back on the drag. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. wide and about 1/4 in. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. is next cut. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. as shown at F." or pouring-hole. and then pour. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. to give the air a chance to escape. Fig. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. . The pattern is then drawn from the mold. The "sprue. it shows that the sand is too wet. This is done with a spoon. After drawing the pattern. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. thus making a dirty casting. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. as shown at G. in order to prevent overheating. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern.E should be covered with coal-dust. III. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. as shown at J. made out of steel rod. from the surface of the mold to the pattern.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. as shown in the sketch. as shown at H. thus holding the crucible securely. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. deep. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. Place a brick or other flat. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. as shown at H. after being poured. in diameter.

--Contributed by Harold S. Although the effect in the illustration . and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. If a good furnace is available. Referring to the figure. Morton. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. although somewhat expensive. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. white metal and other scrap available. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. battery zincs. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. In my own case I used four batteries. 15% lead. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. or from any adjacent pair of cells. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. the following device will be found most convenient. Minneapolis. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. but any reasonable number may be used. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. and the casting is then ready for finishing. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. is very desirable. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. babbitt. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. used only for zinc. may be used in either direction. and.

may be made of hardwood. By replacing the oars with paddles.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. Fig. The bearings. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. outward. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. Make one of these pieces for each arm. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. backward. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. 2. connected by cords to the rudder. as shown at A. If desired. To make it take a sheet-iron band. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. Put a sharp needle point. Then walk down among the audience. --Contributed by Draughtsman. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. Then replace the table. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . shaft made. The brass rings also appear distorted. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. B. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. A. as shown in the illustration. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. which will be sufficient to hold it. Chicago. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. 3/4 in. B.

and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. C. 1. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. but when in motion. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. or the paint will come off. E. as shown in Fig. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. 3. spoiling its appearance. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. 2. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. should be made of wood. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. A block of ice. 2 and 3. A. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. The hubs. or under pressure. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. 1. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. and a weight. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. being simply finely divided ice. when it will again return to its original state. In the same way. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. 1. W.melted babbitt. D. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. If galvanized iron is used. Snow. as shown in Fig. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. It may seem strange that ice . Fig. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. The covers. If babbitt is used. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands.

An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. whenever there is any connection made at all. Lane. but by placing it between books. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in.. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. brass. and assume the shape shown at B. by 1/2 in. --Contributed by Gordon T. no matter how slow the motion may be. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. by 5 in. B. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. thus giving a high resistance contact. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. by 1/4. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. Pa. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. The rate of flow is often very slow. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. P. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. square. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. in. but. or supporting it in some similar way. which resembles ice in this respect. as per sketch. Crafton.should flow like water. by 2 in. sometimes only one or two feet a day. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. Pressing either push button. it will gradually change from the original shape A. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. as shown on page 65.

The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. pulleys. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. H. wooden supports. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. and five dry batteries. about the size used for automobiles. draft chain. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. J. A is the circuit breaker. B. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. Pa. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. as shown. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. horizontal lever. K . Wilkinsburg. B. cord. Ward. Indianapolis. In the wiring diagram.000 ft. the battery. --Contributed by A. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. as shown.thumb screws. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. weight. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. furnace. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. draft. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. G. and C. The parts are: A. I. G. alarm clock. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. the induction coil. E. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. C. vertical lever. F. The success depends upon a slow current. D.

such as used for a storm window. The frame (Fig. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. which will provide a fine place for the plants. How to Make an Electroscope [103] .shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. as well as the bottom. where house plants are kept in the home. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. material framed together as shown in Fig. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. Mich. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. will fit nicely in them. Artistic Window Boxes The top. Kalamazoo. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. 3. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. 2 are dressed to the right angle.

Push the needle into the cork. This is more economical than dry cells. Thus. i. so as to increase the current. Halifax. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. since a battery is the most popular source of power. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. Canada. for some time very satisfactorily. Grant. after a rest. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. However.... and a suitable source of power. where they are glad to have them taken away. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. one can regulate the batteries as required. and will give the . In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. as indicated by Fig. 1 cp. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. A certain number of these. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. The 1/2-cp. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. by connecting them in series. as if drawn upon for its total output. and the instrument will then be complete. this must be done with very great caution. in diameter. which sells for 25 cents. and cost 27 cents FIG. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. However. multiples of series of three. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. 1 each complete with base. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. W. in any system of lamps. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. e. but maintain the voltage constant. in this connection. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. can be connected up in series. It must be remembered. 1. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. --Contributed by Wm. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. S. a cork and a needle. N. is something that will interest the average American boy.

18 B & S.proper voltage. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. each. according to the water pressure obtainable. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. and diffused light in a room. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. especially those of low internal resistance. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. to secure light by this method. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. and for Christmas trees. which is the same as that of one battery. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. lamps. Thus. Thus. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. Chicago. 2 shows the scheme. generates the power for the lights. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. Fig. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. 3. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. However. we simply turn on the water. by the proper combination of these. for display of show cases. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. lamp. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and running the series in parallel. In conclusion. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. as in Fig. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. if wound for 6 volts. where the water pressure is the greatest. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. So. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. double insulated wire wherever needed. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. and then lead No. and insert in the nearest lamp socket.. FIG. making. or 22 lights. If wound for 10 volts. although the first cost is greater. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. lamps. 1-cp. These will give 3 cp. . and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. 11 series. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series.

A indicates the ground.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Parker. B. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. outside points of switch. a bait of meat. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. and C. B. --Contributed by Leonard E. thus reversing the machine. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. AA. Plymouth. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. simply change the switch. Emig. as shown in the sketch. switch. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. are cut just alike. and the sides. or from one pattern. CC. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. --Contributed by F. the letters indicate as follows: FF. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. To reverse the motor. or a tempting bone. field of motor. bars of pole-changing switch. BB. center points of switch. we were not bothered with them. . Cal. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. After I connected up my induction coil. DD. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. Santa Clara. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. brushes of motor. Ind. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. A.

The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. one cell being sufficient. as it is the key to the lock. attached to the end of the armature B. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. thus locking the door. Cal. Melchior. a piece of string. or would remain locked. -Contributed by Claude B. When the circuit is broken a weight. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. Fry. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. and a table or bench. a hammer. merely push the button E. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. W. 903 Vine St.. The experiment works best . Hutchinson. The button can be hidden. Minn. To unlock the door. San Jose. If it is not. which is in the door. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. A. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity.

Tie the ends of the string together. as shown in Fig.. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. forming a loop. Madison. 3. W. Porto Rico. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Brockville. 3. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Crawford Curry. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Ontario. where it will remain suspended as shown. D. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. 2. -. 1). 4). C. which pulls the draft open. the stick falls away. A. in the ceiling and has a window weight. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. the current flows with the small arrows. Schmidt. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. attached at the other end. the key turns. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. On another block of wood fasten two wires. --Contributed by Geo. Culebra. 18 Gorham St. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. --Contributed by Edward Whitney.Contributed by F. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. Wis. releasing the weight. Canada.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. . I. P. When the alarm rings in the early morning. run through a pulley.

J. or tree. which fasten to the horn. square and 1 in. and then to the receiver. R. running one direct to the receiver. J. get two pieces of plate glass. 6 in. Farley. --Contributed by Wm. and . made with his own hands.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. Connect two wires to the transmitter. N. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. First. and break the corners off to make them round. thence to a switch. D. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. The cut shows the arrangement. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. S. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. Jr. and the other to the battery. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. or from a bed of flowers. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described.. including the mouthpiece. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. Camden. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. thick. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. Use a barrel to work on.

the coarse grinding must be continued. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. by the side of the lamp. or it will not polish evenly. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. of water. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. When polishing the speculum. then take 2 lb. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. Have ready six large dishes.. unless a longer focal length is wanted. so the light . Then warm and press again with the speculum. wide around the convex glass or tool. a round 4-in.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. while walking around the barrel. melt 1 lb. In a dark room. Fig. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. also rotate the glass. twice the focal length away. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. and label. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. 1. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. 2. with 1/4-in. Use a binger to spread it on with. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. Fig.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. 2. When dry. When done the glass should be semitransparent. or less. A. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. and a large lamp. wet till soft like paint. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. and is ready for polishing. and spread on the glass. Fasten. then 8 minutes. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. set the speculum against the wall. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. with pitch. using straight strokes 2 in. L. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. spaces. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. as in Fig. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. wetting it to the consistency of cream. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. in length.. and the under glass or tool convex.

Place the speculum. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. the speculum will show some dark rings. if a hill in the center. With pitch. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. fill the dish with distilled water. face down. Fig. 4 oz. Two glass or earthenware dishes. Now add enough of the solution A.. touched with rouge.………………………………. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. then ammonia until bath is clear. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. and pour the rest into the empty dish. cement a strip of board 8 in. Nitric acid . The knife should not be more than 6 in. 840 gr. Then add solution B.…………….. the speculum is ready to be silvered. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film.. also how the rays R from a star .. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin... or hills. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears... 39 gr. Fig. 2. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. from the lamp. When dry. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. Then add 1 oz. 2. Silver nitrate ……………………………. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade.100 gr. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. 25 gr. 100 gr. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. add the ammonia solution drop by drop.. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. 4 oz. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. must be procured. as in K.. When the focus is found.……………………………. Place the speculum S. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. Solution D: Sugar loaf . Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. Fig. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. long to the back of the speculum. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. that was set aside. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. deep. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. with distilled water. If not. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. longer strokes. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. The polishing and testing done.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass.

is a satisfactory angle. with an outlay of only a few dollars. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. cover with paper and cloth. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. Place over lens. The flatter they are the less they will distort. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. two glass prisms. telescope can be made at home. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. using strawboard and black paper. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. stop down well after focusing.John E. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. Thus an excellent 6-in. .. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. My telescope is 64 in. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. Mellish. deg. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. Then I made the one described. long and cost me just $15. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. About 20. Make the tube I of sheet iron. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. slightly wider than the lens mount. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. and proceed as for any picture. which proves to be easy of execution.

A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. The paper is exposed. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. D. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. Boody. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. unobstructed light strike the mirror. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. Zimmerman. Ill. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. Do not stir it. The rays of the clear. push the button D. add the plaster gradually to the water. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. instead of the contrary. complete the arrangement. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. and reflect through the negative. says the Master Painter. as shown in Fig. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. . but will not preserve its hardening. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. Fig. B. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. 1. through the lens of the camera and on the board. To unlock. or powdered alum. then add a little sulphate of potash.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. A. -Contributed by A. 2.

thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. as at A and B. as in Fig. Fig. use a string. as shown in the sketch. 2. 1). If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. Then blow through the spool. 2. Fasten on the switch lever. To reverse. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. but will remain suspended without any visible support. throw . Connect the wires as shown in Fig. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. 3. also provide them with a handle. so that it can rotate about these points.

D. . Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. and rub dry with linen cloth. Tex. Take out. Push one end of the tire into the hole. A is the electricbell magnet. In the sketch. and E E. carbons. North Bend.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. Tex. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. --Contributed by R. Levy. as shown in the sketch. wash in running water. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. although this is not necessary. binding posts. Thomas. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. C C. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. -Contributed by Morris L. San Marcos. Go McVicker. B. San Antonio. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. L. Neb. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. carbon sockets. rinse in alcohol. --Contributed by Geo. the armature.

Brooklyn. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. By means of two or more layers of No. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. --Contributed by Joseph B. 16 magnet wire. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. Bell. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. 36 magnet wire. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. 14 or No. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. wound evenly about this core. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. long or more.

a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. A 7/8-in. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. and finally the fourth strip of paper. Beginning half an inch from one end. which is an important factor of the coil. No. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. the entire core may be purchased readymade. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. In shaping the condenser. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. in length. long and 2-5/8 in. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. 2 yd. one piece of the paper is laid down.which would be better to buy ready-made. or 8 in. diameter. at a time. a box like that shown in Fig. 1. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. as the maker prefers. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. about 6 in. After the core wires are bundled. then the strip of tin-foil. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. making two layers. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. The following method of completing a 1-in. 4. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. and the results are often unsatisfactory. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. in diameter. coil illustrates the general details of the work. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. but if it is not convenient to do this work. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. The condenser is next wrapped . as shown in Fig. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. hole is bored in the center of one end. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. This makes a condenser which may be folded. long and 5 in. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. When cut and laid in one continuous length. which is desirable. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. wide. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. with room also for a small condenser. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. The primary is made of fine annealed No.

then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. battery . If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. 4 in. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. shelf for clock. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. G. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. ready for assembling. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. 3. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. one from bell. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in.) The wiring diagram. round so that the inside . long to key. A. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. copper lever with 1-in. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. B. by 12 in. D.. spark. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. open switch C. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. I. flange turned on one side.securely with bands of paper or tape. forms the other pole or terminal. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. V-shaped copper strip. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. the letters indicate as follows: A. long and 12 in. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. C. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. wide. switch. lines H. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. bell. Fig. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. shows how the connections are made. F. which is insulated from the first. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. which allows wiring at the back. B. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. go. and one from battery. to the door. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. The alarm key will turn and drop down. and the other sheet. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. E. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. whole length. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter.

from the bottom. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. but with the circuit. Use a glass or metal shade. This is for blowing. If desired for use immediately. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. says the Model Engineer. instead of close to it. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. of zinc sulphate. of blue stone. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results.diameter is 7 in. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. but add 5 or 6 oz. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. That is what they are for. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade.. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. London. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. and the battery is ready for use. and then rivet the seam. Line the furnace. The circuit should also have a high resistance. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Short-circuit for three hours. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. do not shortcircuit. . Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. 2 in.

and many other things in order to make the arm operate. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. long. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. imparting to them a violet tinge. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. herein I describe a much better trick. oxygen to ozone. for some it will turn one way. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. If too low. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made.. At least it is amusing. 1. Enlarge the hole slightly. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. as in the other movement. Very few can make it turn both ways at will.9 of a volt." which created much merriment. This type of battery will give about 0. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. or think they can do the same let them try it. If any or your audience presume to dispute. 2. but the thing would not move at all. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. while for others it will not revolve at all. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. Try it and see. Outside of the scientific side involved. porcelain and paper. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. for others the opposite way. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. changes white phosphorus to yellow. To operate the trick. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. affects . square and about 9 in. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. and therein is the trick. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. the second finger along the side. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. below the bottom of the zinc. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. and then. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. thus producing two different vibrations. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. grip the stick firmly in one hand. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. Ohio. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. g.

a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. a means for holding it vertical. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. if possible. insects. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. earth. chemicals.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. says the Photographic Times. but not essential. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. an old tripod screw. and. however. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. a short-focus lens. but this is less satisfactory. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. To the front board is attached a box. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. and one of them is photomicrography. but small flowers. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion.

CD. AB. in Cu. 11 ft. 5 in. 9 ft. Fig. If the balloon is 10 ft. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. wide from which to cut a pattern. 65 4 lb. while it is not so with the quill. 113 7 lb. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Madison.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 7-1/2 in. 697 44 lb. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. long and 3 ft. The following table will give the size. or 3 ft. 179 11 lb. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 1. 12 ft. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. Cap. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. or 31 ft. balloon. Mass. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 7-1/2 in. 5 ft. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 381 24 lb. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 6 ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. and a line.--Contributed by George C. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 905 57 lb. which is 15 ft. in diameter. 268 17 lb. A line. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 7 ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 8 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. Ft Lifting Power. Boston. Get a piece of paper 15 ft.

3. This test will show if the bag is airtight. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. The pattern is now cut. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. of the very best heavy body. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. The amounts necessary for a 10- . 70 thread. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. 2. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. Repeat this operation four times. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. Procure 1 gal. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. of beeswax and boil well together. on the curved line from B to C. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. The cloth segments are sewed together. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. cutting all four quarters at the same time. using a fine needle and No. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. making a double seam as shown in Fig. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. keeping the marked part on the outside. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. and so on. 4.

Water 1 oz. of iron borings and 125 lb. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. C. About 15 lb. . with the iron borings. 5 . Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. using a fine brush. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. 1 lb. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. Vegetable oils should never be used. with water 2 in. should not enter into the water over 8 in. which may sound rather absurd. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. ]. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. or dusting with a dry brush. oil the spindle holes carefully. a clean white rag.Green Iron ammonium citrate . C. but if any grease remains on the hand. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. by fixing. of water will make 4 cu.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris.ft. A. with 3/4in. above the level of the water in barrel A. When the clock has dried. All FIG. if it is good it will dry off. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. it is not fit to use. ft. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. this should be repeated frequently. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. capacity and connect them. After washing a part. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. of iron. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. leaving the hand quite clean. The 3/4-in. until no more dirt is seen.. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. B. 1 lb. pipe. B. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. or a fan. of gas in one hour. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. The outlet. In the barrel. of sulphuric acid. 150 gr. Fill the other barrel. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. . A. 5. as shown in Fig. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. B. balloon are 125 lb. A. to the bag.

This aerial collector can be made in . The negative pole. The miniature 16 cp.. fix in hypo. Dry the plates in the dark. . of any make. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. or battery. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. Exposure. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. keeping the fingers out of the solution. A cold. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. or zinc.Water 1 oz. Port Melbourne. 20 to 30 minutes. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Printing is done in the sun. The positive pole. dry atmosphere will give best results. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry.000 ft. at the time of employment. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. toning first if desired. A longer exposure will be necessary. . This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. says the Moving Picture World. and keep in the dark until used. Dry in the dark. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. and a vigorous negative must be used. to avoid blackened skin. or carbon. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe.

and as less current will flow the short way. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. the resistance is less. as described below. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. As the telephone offers a high resistance. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. If the waves strike across the needle. 5 in. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. lay a needle. If the wave ceases. This will complete the receiving station. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. when left exposed to the air. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. lead pipe. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. both positive and negative. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. long. and have the other connected with another aerial line. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. a positive and a negative. in diameter. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. forming a cup of the pipe. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. will soon become dry and useless. holes . The storage cell. making a ground with one wire.various ways.

of course. and the other to the negative. B. except for about 1 in. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. D. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. This box can be square. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. This. says the Pathfinder. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. by soldering the joint. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. an oblong one and a triangular one. Two binding-posts should be attached. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. a round one. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. or tube B. This support or block. When mixing the acid and water. or tube C. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. one to the positive. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . namely: a square hole. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. The other plate is connected to the zinc. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. does not need to be watertight.as possible. on each end.

. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. C. A and B. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. Chicago. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. is built 15 ft. leaving about 1/16 in. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. as shown in Fig. and match them together. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. wide. 2. were fitted by this one plug. 1. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. 2. as it is not readily overturned. as shown in Fig. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. C. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. about 20 in. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. back and under. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. This punt. in place on the wood. The third piece of brass. all around the edge. Ill. Only galvanized nails should be used. thick cut two pieces alike. 1. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. and has plenty of good seating capacity. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. deep and 4 ft. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. wide. 3. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. long.

thick and 3-1/2 in. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Wash. Tacoma. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. is cut 1 in. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. gas pipe. square (Fig 2). The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. A piece of 1/4-in. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. B. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . In Fig. A. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward.

--Contributed by Charles H. says the Model Engineer. if possible. no special materials could be obtained. no more current than a 16-cp. with the exception of insulated wire. H. In designing. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . Wagner. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. The winding of the armature. lamp. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. or "rotor. it had to be borne in mind that. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. may be of interest to some of our readers. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night." has no connection with the outside circuit.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. which the writer has made. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. without auxiliary phase. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. and to consume. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. which can be developed in the usual manner.

were then drilled and 1/4-in. The stator is wound full with No. this little machine is not self-starting. to be filed out after they are placed together. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. bolts put in and tightened up. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. as shown in Fig. 1. holes. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. They are not particularly accurate as it is. 2. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. and all sparking is avoided. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. B. no steel being obtainable. in diameter were drilled in the corners. C. being used. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. thick. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. or "stator. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. while the beginnings . which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. A. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. with the dotted line. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. and filled with rivets. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. 5. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. wrought iron. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. also varnished before they were put in. about 2-1/2 lb. Unfortunately. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. 4. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. as shown in Fig. 3. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required.the field-magnet. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. Holes 5-32 in. After assembling a second time.

as shown in Fig. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. as before stated. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. 2. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. McKinney. Jr. N. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. The rotor is wound with No. No starting resistance is needed. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. and as each layer of wire was wound. and the other by reduction in the camera.. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. if applied immediately. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. as a means of illustrating songs. Newark. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. J. a regulating resistance is not needed. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. and especially of colored ones. The lantern slide is a glass plate. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. 3-Contributed by C. and all wound in the same direction. 1. If too late for alcohol to be of use. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. and would not easily get out of order. and as the motor runs at constant speed. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. The image should . The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. In making slides by contact. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. it would be very simple to build. One is by contact. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. having no commutator or brushes. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. film to film.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. This type of motor has drawbacks. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. E.

if possible. 1. 3. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. as shown in Fig. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. 4. as shown in Fig. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. also. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. A. about a minute. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. the formulas being found in each package of plates. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. over the mat. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. Draw lines with a pencil. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. If the exposure has been correct. D. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. Being unbreakable. These can be purchased from any photo material store. a little extra work will be necessary. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. B. and then a plain glass. to use a plain fixing bath. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. they are much used by travelers. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . C. 2. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. Fig. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. and development should be over in three or four minutes. It is best. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. except that the binding is different. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. 5.appear in. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. Select a room with one window. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide.

Corinth. 1. in diameter and 20 in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. long. from the end piece of the chair. Fig. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. from the center of this dot draw a star. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. If the star is in front of the left eye. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. in diameter and 40 in.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. as shown at B. wide and 50 in. is to be used for the seat. known as rods and cones. or other stout cloth. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . from the ends. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. holes bored in the end pieces. These longer pieces can be made square. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. long. 2. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. while the dot will be in front of the other. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. as shown at A. Vt. 1. 16 in. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. Fig. Hastings. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. long. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. as shown in Fig. A piece of canvas. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in.

Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. made from an ordinary sash cord. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. 2. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. as shown in Fig. 1. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. Auburn. per square inch. as shown in Fig. Cal. . was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley.-Contributed by P. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. as well as to operate other household machines. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. in thickness and 10 in. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. A disk 1 in. O'Gara. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. A belt. J.

Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. will be the thickness of the object. then removing the object. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. says the Scientific American. leaving it shaped like a bench.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. long. it serves a very useful purpose. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. with as fine a thread as possible. or inconvenient to measure. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. A simple. direction. to the top of the bench. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. . screwing it through the nut. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. divided by the number of threads to the inch. Cut out a piece from the block combination. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. wide. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. The part of a rotation of the bolt. fairly accurate. Put the bolt in the hole. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. and the construction is complete. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. 3/4 in. square for a support. Bore a 1/4-in. thick and 2-1/2 in.

How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Santa Maria. material 12 ft. long is used for the center pole. beyond the end of the wood. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. bolt in each hole. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Place a 3/4-in. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Bore a 3/4-in. The wheel should be open . This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. which show up fine at night. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. globe that has been thrown away as useless.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. long. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. piece of wood 12 ft. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Oal.

Side and Top View or have spokes. A. The boards may be nailed or bolted. thick. long. square and 3 or 4 in. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. at the top and 4 in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. long. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. of the ends with boards. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. thick. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. A cross bar. and the lower part 61/2 in. O. Tex. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. Graham. H and J. thick is used for the armature. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. from the ends. C. L. The coil. which should be 1/4 in. B. is soldered. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. long. and on its lower end a socket. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. Fort Worth. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. wide and 1/8 in. long. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. C. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. wide and 1/8 in.-Contributed by A. P. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. A piece of brass 2 in. at the bottom. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. to be operated by the magnet coil. made of the same material. from the top end. The spool . in diameter. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. pieces used for the spokes. 1/2 in.

--Contributed by Arthur D. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. At the bottom end of the frame. F. or a water rheostat heretofore described. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. making a hole just a little larger than the rod.J. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. Randolph. is drilled.--A. and place it against a door or window casing. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. S. 2 the hat hanging on it. which may be had by using German silver wire. long.is about 2-1/2 in. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. Bradlev. 1. one without either rubber or metal end. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. S. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. for insulating the brass ferrule. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way.E. A soft piece of iron. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. and in numerous other like instances. The armature. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. This is a very neat trick if performed right. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. This tie can be used on grain sacks. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. . When you slide the pencil along the casing. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in.000 for irrigation work. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. A. C. then with a firm. do it without any apparent effort. Mass. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. B. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame.000. 2. D and E. by soldering. that holds the lower carbon. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. R. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. and directly centering the holes H and J.

about 1 in. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. B. mixed with water to form a paste. for the primary. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. about 1/8 in. hole in the center. The switch. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. in diameter and 2 in. The vibrator. in diameter. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. The coil ends are made from cardboard. for the secondary. F. long and 1 in. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. 1. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. The vibrator B. about 3/16 in.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. S. S. for adjustment. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. C. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. A. wide. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. Fig. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. 1. in diameter and 1/16 in. Experiment with Heat [134] . and then 1. with a 3/16-in. 2. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. Fig. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support.500 turns of No. from the core and directly opposite. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. About 70 turns of No. is constructed in the usual manner. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. in diameter. thick. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. long. D. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. may be made from a 3/8-in. leaving the projections as shown. is connected to a flash lamp battery. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. The core of the coil.

says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. as shown. long and when placed over the board. and then well clinched. between the boards. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. lighted. it laps down about 8 in. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. board. and the same distance inside of the new board. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. 2 to fit the two holes. 1. The lock. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. The knob on the dial extends out too far. as shown in the sketch. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. brass plate. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. wide. which is only 3/8-in. which is cut with two holes. thick on the inside. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. The hasp. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. with which to operate the dial. in an ordinary water glass. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. 1. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. .Place a small piece of paper. The tin is 4 in. was to be secured by only three brass screws. 16 in. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. Fig. The three screws were then put in the hasp. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. which seemed to be insufficient.

and the back left dark. not shiny. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. black color. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. or in the larger size mentioned. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. but when the front part is illuminated. which completely divides the box into two parts. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. When the rear part is illuminated. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. high for use in window displays. clear glass as shown. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. one in each division. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. any article placed therein will be reflected in. square and 8-1/2 in.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. When making of wood. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. the glass. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . If the box is made large enough. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. square and 10-1/2 in.

wide will be about the right size. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. above the top of the tank. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. . and with the proper illumination one is changed. When using as a window display.. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. into the other. as shown at A in the sketch. When there is no electric current available. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. alternately. long and 1 ft. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. a tank 2 ft.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. as shown in the sketch. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. as it appears.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. bit. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. Shape the under sides first. under sides together. O. square and 40 in. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. is the green vitriol. each. 2 ft. long. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. gauge for depth. but with a length of 12 in. This precipitate is then washed. or ferrous sulphate. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. wide. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. Three windows are provided. 5 ft. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. using a 3/4-in. If a planing mill is near. long. The pieces can then be taken out. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. 6 in. from the ground. radius. as shown. and 6 ft. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. hole. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. one for each side. square. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. thick and 3 in. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. and boring two holes with a 1-in. high. bore from each end. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. hole bored the full length through the center. dried and mixed with linseed oil. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. is built on the front. and a door in front. with a length of 13 in. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. This hole must be continued . however. A small platform. and a solution of iron sulphate added. then use a red-hot iron to finish. The 13-in. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. lines gauged on each side of each. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. wide. 1 in. Columbus. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. Iron sulphate. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. two pieces 1-1/8 in. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch.

When this is dry. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. Electric globes--two. Saw the two blocks apart. hole in each block. if shade is purchased. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult.through the pieces forming the base. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. When the filler has hardened. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. three or four may be attached as shown. A better way. thick and 3 in. apply two coats of wax. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. Directions will be found on the filler cans. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. If the parts are to be riveted. For art-glass the metal panels are . The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. square and drawing a diagonal on each.

METAL SHADE .Construction of Shade .The Completed Lamp cut out. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. such as copper. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. as brass.

with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. the object and the background. 2 the front view of this stand. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . one way and 1/2 in. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. and Fig. the other. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The arms holding the glass. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. as shown in the sketch. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. Figure 1 shows the side. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. as in ordinary devices. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows.

long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. as shown in the sketch. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. uncork and recork again. wide and 11 in. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. outside diameter. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. wide and 6-5/16 in. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. in diameter. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. pointing north and south. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Cut another circular piece 11 in. in diameter for a base. Before mounting the ring on the base. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. and an inside diameter of 9 in. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . An ordinary pocket compass. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. long. If the light becomes dim. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. and swinging freely. thick 5/8-in. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. as it is very poisonous. about 1-1/4 in. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. thus forming a 1/4-in. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. Put the ring in place on the base. as shown in the cut. channel in the circumference of the ring.

but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . AA. are mounted on a base. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. black oxide of copper. and mirrors.500 . EE.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.865 1.088 . 1 oz. The results given should be multiplied by 1. B. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. Place on top the so- . The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere.715 . above the half can. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. CC. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. and north of the Ohio river. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.420 . in diameter and 8 in.600 .182 .289 . black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. of the top. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. Corresponding mirrors. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. from the second to the third.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. into these cylinders.

alcohol. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. slender bottle.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. 62 gr. little crystals forming in the liquid. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. of pulverized campor. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. 31 gr. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. In Fig. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . It makes no difference which way the wind blows. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. says Metal Worker. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. Put the solution in a long. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. When renewing. the wheel will revolve in one direction. which otherwise remains clear. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. always remove the oil with a siphon. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. then they will not rust fast. Colo. University Park. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz.

the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. Lloyd Enos. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. If zinc and carbon are used. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. Solder in the side of the box . Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. on the under side of the cork. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. If zinc and copper are used. If two of them are floating on the same solution. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. This is used in place of the spoon. about 1-1/4 in. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. floating on a solution. --Contributed by C. will allow the magnet to point north and south. Attach to the wires. A paper-fastener box.

D. C. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. of wire on each end extending from the coil. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. To this standard solder the supporting wire. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. Put ends. can be made of oak. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. 14 wire will do. 10 wire about 10 in. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. 3 in. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. D. long that has about 1/4-in. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. Rhamstine. D. A. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. C. away. 1. thick. and then solder on the cover. If the hose is not a tight fit. The bottom of the box. wide and 2-1/2 in. The standard. Take a small piece of soft iron.not shorter than 18 in. to it. C. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. H.in. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. hole. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. Thos. and connect the two wires from the coil to them.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. A. as shown in Fig.1-in. F.in. 1/2. Bore holes for binding-posts. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. E. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube.Contributed by J. The base. Use a board 1/2. A circular piece of cardboard. is made from a piece of No. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. long. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. long. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. of No. or made with a little black paint. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. B. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. and on the other around the glass tube. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. wide and 6 in. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. G--No. B. 1-1/4 in. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. piece of 1/4-in. stained and varnished. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. one on each side of the board. Wind evenly about 2 oz. . At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. The spring should be about 1 in. brass tubing. glass tubing . The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. E.

N. four hinges. Teasdale. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. 1. in diameter. Wis. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. long. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. The iron plunger. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. long. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. 3. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. long. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. of mercury will be sufficient. When the glass becomes soft.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. of No. 5. is drawn nearer to the coil. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. 3 in. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. long. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. as shown in Fig. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. Milwaukee. Cuba. D. about 1 in. long are used for the legs.of the coil. J. from the right hand.--Contributed by R. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. making a support as shown in Fig. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. two pieces 2 ft. long. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. E. Smith. . Y. canvas. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. of 8-oz. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. About 1-1/2 lb. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. 2.--Contributed by Edward M. 3-in. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd.

Keys. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. small aperture in the long tube. Break off the piece of glass. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. holding in the left hand.. 5. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. The tube now must be filled completely. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. 6. 2. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. 3.. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. Fig. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. leaving 8 in. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. thus leaving a. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. 4. expelling all the air. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. Take 1/2 in. Can. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. long. --Contributed by David A. Measure 8 in. Toronto. of vacuum at the top. This tube as described will be 8 in. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame.

long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . This forms a slot. cut in the shape shown in Fig. wide and 5 ft. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. 3 in. 3. 5. thick. 9 in. but yellow pine is the best. 4 in. wood screws. and the single projection 3/4 in. Fig. Four blocks 1/4 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. FIG. long. long. joint be accurately put together. These are bent and nailed. wide and 3 in. as in Fig. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. 6. and 1/4 in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. long. The large pulley is about 14 in. 4. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. in diameter. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. thick. as shown in Fig. thick.6 -. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. wide and 5 ft. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. 1 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. A crosspiece 3/4-in. thick. 1. 7. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. thick. 3 in. with each projection 3-in. from the end of same.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. 1 in.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. material 2 in. 2. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. long. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. wide and 5 ft. wide and 12 in.

Kan. by 1-in. first removing the crank. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. attach runners and use it on the ice. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. above the runner level. Water 1 oz. . The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. R. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Manhattan. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. says Photography.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. --Contributed by C. Welsh. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in.

Mass. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. Newton. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. 2. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. . Printing is carried rather far. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. --Contributed by Wallace C. as shown in Fig. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. --Contributed by Edward M. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. The print is washed. Treasdale. Leominster. 3. 1. from an ordinary clamp skate. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. and very much cheaper.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. This is done with a camel's hair brush. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. as shown in Fig. 1 oz. also. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. of water. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass.

--Contributed by H. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. Fig. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. The swing door B. and 3 ft. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. high. wide. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. 1. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. 1 ft. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. and to the bottom. causing the door to swing back and up. Take two glass tubes. long. 1-1/2 ft. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. as shown in the sketch. extending the width of the box. square piece. F. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. from one end. Church. Then. hole. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. fasten a 2-in. which represents the back side of the door. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. high for rabbits. too. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. 1. Place a 10-in. and bend them as shown in the sketch. Va. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. with about 1/8-in. wide and 4 in. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. about 10 in. Fig. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. The thread is broken off at the .How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. Alexandria. 2. A. say.

2. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. long. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. shorter. long. Jr. 10 in. 1 in. inside of the opening. -Contributed by William M. B. 3. from the edge on each side of these openings. plates. one in each end and exactly opposite each other.. to be used as a driving pulley. camera and wish to use some 4. wide and 5 in. horses and dogs. in size. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. black surfaced if possible. automobiles. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. Cut an opening in the other piece. Crilly. Take two pieces of pasteboard. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. A and B.by 5-in. shorter at each end. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. Chicago. being 1/8 in. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. and go in the holder in the same way. says Camera Craft. but cut it 1/4 in. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. wide. This opening. . wide. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. C. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. as shown in Fig. Cut a piece of thin black cloth.by 7-in.proper place to make a small hole. trolley cars. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. and exactly 5 by 7 in. say 8 in. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. Fig. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. D. Paste a piece of strong black paper. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. in size. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. high and 12 in. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Out two rectangular holes. 1. Fig. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera.

but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water.. long and 6 in. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. A cell of this kind can easily be made. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. if it has previously been magnetized. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon.in. making a . in diameter. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. The needle will then point north and south. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. wide will be required. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. into which the dog is harnessed. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed.

closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. fodder. sal ammoniac. filter. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. of the plate at one end. with narrow flanges. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. This makes the wire smooth. in diameter and 6 in. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. pine. Do not paint any surface. beeswax melted together. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. short time. says Electrician and Mechanic. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. 3/4 lb. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. long which are copper plated. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. of water. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. in which P is the pan. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. 1 lb. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. Form a 1/2-in. B is a base of 1 in. of rosin and 2 oz. leaving about 1/2-in. only the joints. Pack the paste in. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. plaster of paris. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. Place the pan on the stove. and a notch between the base and the pan. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up.watertight receptacle. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. fuel and packing purposes. zinc oxide. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. under the spool in the paraffin. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. one that will hold about 1 qt. 1/4 lb. .in. for a connection. File the rods to remove the copper plate. of the top. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. F is a spool. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. A is a block of l-in. pull out the wire as needed. when the paraffin is melted.

* * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Enlarge the hole slightly. but the thing would not move at all. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. and he finally. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made.. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. square and about 9 in. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and one friend tells me that they were . no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. while for others it will not revolve at all. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Ohio. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Toledo. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. or think they can do the same. as in the other movement. At least it is amusing. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. long. by the Hindoos in India. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. and then. and many other things in order to make the arm operate." which created much merriment. If any of your audience presume to dispute. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. 2. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. from vexation. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Try it and see. g. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. thus producing two different vibrations. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. for others the opposite way. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. let them try it. for some it will turn one way. and therein is the trick.

gave the best results. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. and. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. Speeds between 700 and 1. 7. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape.100 r. A square stick with notches on edge is best. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. no rotation resulted. rotation was obtained. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. If the pressure was upon an edge. 6. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. the rotation may be obtained. by means of a center punch. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. 5. 4. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. 3. secondly. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. m. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. 2. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. p. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. The experiments were as follows: 1. and I think the results may be of interest. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. Thus a circular or . To operate. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again.

Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. so far as can be seen from the photographs.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. the upper portion is. Ph. and the height of the fall about 6 in. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. is driven violently away. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. at first. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. it will be clockwise. Washington. and the resultant "basket splash.. if the pressure is from the left. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. C. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. Minn. . Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. or greasy. as shown. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. Lloyd. G. --Contributed by M." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out.D. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). Duluth. A wire is tied around the can. --Contributed by G. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. unwetted by the liquid. Sloan. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. forming a handle for carrying. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. a piece of wire and a candle. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. D.. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. A.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. as shown. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. as shown in Fig.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. in diameter. Each wheel is 1/4 in. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. thick and 1 in. axle. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. long. hole drilled in the center. about 2-5/8 in. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. with a 1/16-in. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. flange and a 1/4-in. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. 1. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button.

The other two pieces are 1/2-in. is made from brass. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. 5. or main part of the frame. long. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. as shown in Fig. which must be 110 volt alternating current. 3. put together complete. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig.50. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. Fuller. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. 4. Texas. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. The motor is now bolted. The parts. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. holes 1 in. are shown in Fig. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. This will save buying a track.brass. The current. as shown in Fig. is made from a piece of clock spring. These ends are fastened together. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. of No. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. 2. each in its proper place. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. --Contributed by Maurice E. 6. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. lamp in series with the coil. San Antonio. with cardboard 3 in. 1 from 1/4-in. Fig. bent as shown. 3. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . The first piece. Fig. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. and the locomotive is ready for running. 2. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. wood. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. bottom side up. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. wide and 16 in. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. A trolley. If the ends are to be soldered. 3/4 in.

Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. and as this end . the length of a paper clip. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Fig 1. Cincinnati. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Fig. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. but do not heat the center. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. 2. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. as shown in Fig.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. The quarter will not go all the way down. When cold treat the other end in the same way. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. as shown in Fig. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. 1. O. and holes drilled in them. 3. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. then continue to tighten much more.

tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. has finished a cut for a tooth. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. 2 and 1 respectively. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. A pair of centers are fitted.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. or should the lathe head be raised. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. In the sketch. When the cutter A. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. and adjusted . In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. or apparent security of the knot. When the trick is to be performed.

tea cosey. 1. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. coin purse. dividing it into as many parts as desired. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Second row: -Two book marks. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. lady's belt bag. twisted around itself and soldered. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. note book. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. if but two parts. and a nut pick. In this manner gears 3 in. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. (1. When connecting to batteries. swing lathe. long. (6.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig.) Place the paper design on the leather and. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. watch fob ready for fastenings. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . N. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. 2. book mark. --Contributed by Samuel C. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. tea cosey. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). (5. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. (3. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. at the same time striking light. lady's card case. (4. (2. trace the outline. or one-half of the design.) Make on paper the design wanted. The frame holding the mandrel. Y. about 1-1/2 in. blotter back.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. Fold over along these center lines. if four parts are to be alike. Bunker. Fig. Bott.to run true. holding it in place with the left hand. An ordinary machine will do.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. --Contributed by Howard S. above the surface. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. such as brass or marble. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. Brooklyn. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). draw center lines across the required space. gentleman's card case or bill book. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use.

Secure . and an ordinary bottle. some heavy rubber hose.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube.

One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. A. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. Thrust a pin. a distance of 900 miles. into which fit a small piece of tube.C. where it condenses. and bore a hole through the center. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The electrodes are made . Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. C. If the needle is not horizontal. and push it through a cork. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches.. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. B. Florida. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. from Key West. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. D. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle.

This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. thick. D. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. long for the body of the operator. thick. thick. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. 2. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. take the glider to the top of a hill. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. as shown in Fig. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. wide and 20 ft. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. long. long. If 20-ft. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. wide and 4 ft. 3. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. long. lumber cannot be procured. which is tacked to the front edge. apart and extend 1 ft. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. Washington. lengths and splice them. The operator can then land safely and . the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. 16 piano wire. 1. as shown in Fig. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. 1. 3/4 in. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. long.in. 1-1/2 in. C. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. 2 in. All wiring is done with No. 1. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. 12 uprights 1/2 in. or flying-machine. wide and 4 ft long. as shown in Fig. thick. --Contributed by Edwin L. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. 2. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. use 10-ft. long. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. both laterally and longitudinally. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. 1/2. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. 2 arm sticks 1 in. Powell. To make a glide. Connect as shown in the illustration. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. wide and 3 ft. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. and also to keep it steady in its flight. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. square and 8 ft long. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. by 3/4 in.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. wide and 3 ft. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. Four long beams 3/4 in. several strips 1/2 in. 1-1/4 in. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. thick. free from knots. using a high resistance receiver. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. slacken speed and settle. wide and 4 ft. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first.

Great care should be . gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Of course. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Glides are always made against the wind. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. but this must be found by experience. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes.gently on his feet.

M. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. Olson. a creature of Greek mythology. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. When heated a little. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . which causes the dip in the line. half man and half horse. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. Bellingham. 1.exercised in making landings. as shown in Fig. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. 2. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. --Contributed by L. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a.

wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. of small rubber tubing. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. making it 2-1/2 in.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. outside the box. a piece of brass or steel wire. at the other. long and about 3/8 in. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. will complete the material list. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. The light from the . pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. this will cost about 15 cents. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. long. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. about the size of stove pipe wire. about the size of door screen wire. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. 14 in. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. square. in diameter.

--Photo by M. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. while others will fail time after time. M. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. . If done properly the card will flyaway. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. as shown in the sketch. This is very simple when you know how. Dayton. as shown in Fig. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. O. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. 1. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. as shown in Fig. 2. Hunting. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair.

Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. Cool in water and dry. hold the lump over the flame. as described. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. closing both hands quickly. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. This game is played by five persons. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. When the desired shape has been obtained. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. If a certain color is to be more prominent. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. as shown. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. then put it on the hatpin head. as before." or the Chinese students' favorite game. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. place the other two.

Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. or more in width. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. these sectors. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. passing through neutralizing brushes. distribute electric charges . Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in.

The two pieces. at the other. These pins. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. The plates. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. 1. 4. 3. long and the shank 4 in. as shown in Fig. The collectors are made. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. wide. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. 2. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. The fork part is 6 in. 1 in. the side pieces being 24 in. and this should be done before cutting the circle. RR. and of a uniform thickness. and the outer end 11/2 in. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. in diameter. 1-1/2 in. and pins inserted and soldered. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. material 7 in. from about 1/4-in. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. GG. in diameter. long and the standards 3 in. D. and 4 in. in diameter. or teeth. in diameter and 15 in. 3/4 in. Fig. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. EE. in diameter. as shown in Fig. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. Two pieces of 1-in. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. are made from 7/8-in. are made from solid. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. The drive wheels.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. turned wood pieces. brass tubing and the discharging rods. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. The plates are trued up. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. Fig. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. free from wrinkles. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. C C. Two solid glass rods. in diameter. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. to which insulating handles . long. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. wide at one end. after they are mounted. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. 3. in diameter. long. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center.

which are bent as shown. Colo. wide and 22 ft.. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. KK. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. ball and the other one 3/4 in. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. Lloyd Enos. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. Colorado City. long. and the work was done by themselves. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. in diameter. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft.are attached. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. 12 ft. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . one having a 2-in. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. --Contributed by C. D.

and bore a hole 1/2 in. as at A. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. pens . yet such a thing can be done. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. bit. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. The key will drop from the string. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. string together. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. deep.is a good one. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. using a 1-in. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. They can be used to keep pins and needles. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded.

File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. 23 gauge. Inside this oblong. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Raise the ends.and pencils. stamp the background promiscuously. unless it would be the metal shears. above the metal. The second oblong was 3/4 in. then the other side. etc. 8. When the stamping is completed. extra metal on each of the four sides. Having determined the size of the tray. etc. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. above the work and striking it with the hammer. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. 3.. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. slim screw. 2. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. very rapid progress can be made.. they make attractive little pieces to have about. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. file. using a nail filed to chisel edge. about 3/4-in. Draw one-half the design free hand. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. and the third one 1/4 in. This is to make a clean. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. Proceed as follows: 1. They are easily made. 6. Use . screw-driver and sheet copper of No. flat and round-nosed pliers. 4. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. two spikes. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. inside the first on all. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. inside the second on all. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. sharp division between background and design. 9. 7. 5. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. also trace the decorative design. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. or cigar ashes. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes.

third fingers. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. 9. and the effect will be most pleasing.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. In the first numbering. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. The eyes. 7. 6. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. first fingers. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. 10. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. 8. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. and fourth fingers. second fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72.

. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. etc. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. or the product of 6 times 6. which would be 70. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. 11. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. Still. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. In the second numbering. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. At a glance you see four tens or 40. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. thumbs. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. or 80. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. 12. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. Put your thumbs together. and the six lower fingers as six tens. or the product of 8 times 9. first fingers. viz. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. which tens are added. above 15 times 15 it is 200.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. 400. 25 times 25. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. or 60. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. Let us multiply 12 by 12. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. there are no fingers above. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. above 20 times 20.. or numbers above 10. 600.. if we wish. which would be 16. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. 2 times 2 equals 4. renumber your fingers. as high as you want to go. etc. but being simple it saves time and trouble. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. . Two times one are two. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. the product of 12 times 12. etc.

in the case of a nearsighted person. about a vertical axis. For figures ending in 6. For example. the value which the upper fingers have. 3. any two figures between 45 and 55. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. at the will of the observer. . twenties. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. the inversion takes place against his will. the value of the upper fingers being 20. lastly. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. or from above or from below. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. etc. the revolution seems to reverse. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. which is the half-way point between the two fives. forties. The inversion and reversion did not take place. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. 21. first finger 17. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. Take For example 18 times 18. and so on. further. being 80). 2. It takes place also. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. thumbs. not rotation. And the lump sum to add. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. however. when he removes his spectacles. first fingers 22. 7. Proceed as in the second lumbering. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. or what. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. 75 and 85. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. and. as one might suppose. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. 8. thirties. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked.. whether the one described in second or third numbering. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. adding 400 instead of 100. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. the lump sum to add. beginning the thumbs with 16.

sometimes the point towards him. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. A flat slide valve was used. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. and putting a cork on the point. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. when he knows which direction is right. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. The ports were not easy to make. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. the other appearance asserts itself. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. Looking at it in semidarkness. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. as .Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. tee.

as in a vise. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. Beating copper tends to harden it and. The steam chest is round. pipe. in diameter. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. . inexpensive. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. bottom side up. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. Kutscher. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. The eccentric is constructed of washers. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. The tools are simple and can be made easily. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. pipe 10 in. -Contributed by W. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. saw off a section of a broom handle. and make in one end a hollow. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. it is easily built. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. While this engine does not give much power. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. Fasten the block solidly.. secure a piece of No. Ill. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. apart. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. deep. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. across and 1/2 in. about 2 in. Springfield. such as is shown in the illustration. if continued too long without proper treatment. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. H. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. Next take a block of wood. across the head. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. If nothing better is at hand.

Hay. the other to the left. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. To produce color effects on copper. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . and. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. especially when the object is near to the observer. This process is called annealing. C. Camden. O. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture.will cause the metal to break. --Contributed by W. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. S. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. Vinegar. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. as it softens the metal. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. To overcome this hardness. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side.

Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. So with the stereograph. in the proper choice of colors. they must be a very trifle apart. not two mounted side by side. while both eyes together see a white background. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. as for instance red and green. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. In order to make them appear before the card. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. The red portions of the picture are not seen. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms.stereoscope. because of the rays coming from them. however. and lies to the right on the picture. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. because. only the orange rays may pass through. the one for the left eye being blue." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. from the stereograph. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. . with the stereograph. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. although they pass through the screen. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. The further apart the pictures are. It is just as though they were not there. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. the left eye sees through a blue screen. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. orange. diameter. and without any picture. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. the further from the card will the composite image appear. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. it. But they seem black. disappears fully. that for the right. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. would serve the same purpose.

The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. Place a NO. etc. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. Cal. wireless. in the shape of a crank. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. or the middle of the bottle. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. thick. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. wide and 1 in. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. A No. 1/4 in. in diameter. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. long and a hole drilled in each end. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. 12 gauge wire. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. The weight of the air in round . This should only be bored about half way through the block. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. San Francisco.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running.

In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. high. a bottle 1 in. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in.numbers is 15 lb. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. long. if you choose. the contrary. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. pine 3 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. Before fastening the scale. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. but before attempting to put in the mercury. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. high. thick. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. . and a slow fall. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. wide and 40 in. inside diameter and 2 in. a glass tube 1/8 in. wide and 4 in. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. the instrument. long. Only redistilled mercury should be used. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. In general. will calibrate itself. or. high. if accurately constructed. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. 34 ft. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. But if a standard barometer is not available. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. internal diameter and about 34 in. square. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. The 4 in. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. or a column of mercury (density 13.6) 1 in. When the tube is filled to within 1 in.. square. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. long. 30 in.

The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. Procure a metal can cover. 1. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . a cover from a baking powder can will do. Number the pieces 1. 2. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. which is slipped quickly over the end. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. long. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. and place them as shown in Fig. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. thick. 3.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. the size of the outside of the bottle. Mark out seven 1-in. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. 5. 6 and 7. wide and 10 in.

6 over No. Move 10-Move No. 7 over No. 1. 5's place. 7's place.-Contributed by W. each 10 ft. Move 14-Jump No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 6 in. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. This can be done on a checker board. Make 22 sections. 1. Move 12-Jump No. 2. Cape May Point. 5. 2's place. 2. 2 over No. 3. 7. 3 over No. 6. 5 over No. 2 . Woolson. 3. procure unbleached tent duck. as shown in Fig.Position of the Men move only one at a time. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 2's place. 7 over No.J. Move 15-Move No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 1 into No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. which is the very best material for the purpose. Move 5-Jump No. 6 to No. Move ll-Jump No. using checkers for men. Move 13-Move No. in diameter. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Move 3-Move No. 6 into No. L. 3 into No. 2 over No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. l over No. 5's place. Move 6-Move No. 1 to No. Move 8-Jump No. long and 2 ft. 3. Move 4-Jump No. To make such a tent. Move 7-Jump No. shaped like Fig. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 3 to the center. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. N. 6. Move 2-Jump No. 5 over No. Move 9-Jump No.

Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. As shown in the sketch.J. about 9 in. fill with canvas edging. These are ventilators. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. added. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. long and 4 in. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. long. 9 by 12 in. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. made in two sections. as in Fig. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass.. round galvanized iron. Have the tent pole 3 in. to a smooth board of soft wood. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. After transferring the design to the brass. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. 2.in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. 6-in. diameter. 3 in. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. 5. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. wide at the bottom. in diameter. Pa. 6. Fig. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. leaving the rest for an opening. Punch holes in the brass in . In raising the tent. wide by 12 in. Use blocks. Tress. 5) stuck in the ground. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. wide at the bottom. --Contributed by G. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. Fig. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. from the top. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Emsworth. 2 in. high. will do. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip.

the spaces around the outlined figures. When the edges are brought together by bending. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. excepting the 1/4-in. When all the holes are punched. . The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. apart. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. bend into shape. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. Corr. cut out the brass on the outside lines. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. Chicago. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. around the outside of the pattern. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. It will not. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. but before punching the holes. The pattern is traced as before. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E.

A cast-iron ring. --Contributed by Geo. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Oregon. G. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. pipe is used for the hub. Stevens. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in.however. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post.. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. allowing 2 ft. or less. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. If a wheel is selected. --Contributed by H. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. or center on which the frame swings. or. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. Que. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. These pipes are . partially filled with cream. between which is placed the fruit jar. Badger. Dunham. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. pipe. E. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. better still. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. A 6-in. Mayger. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end.

This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . An extra wheel 18 in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. bent to the desired circle. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. pipe clamps. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange.

while doing this.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. and the guide withdrawn. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. 1. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. as shown in Fig. which was placed in an upright position. 3. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. and dropped on the table. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The performer. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand.

Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Mo. Harkins. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. -Contributed by C. D. White. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. --Contributed by H. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. St. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. 2. 1. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Denver. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Louis. in diameter on another piece of tin. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. first. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. F. Colo. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. in a half circle. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. The box can be made of selected oak or . it requires no expensive condensing lens. and second. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines.

This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. and 2 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. from each end of the outside of the box. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. 3-1/2 in. 2. wide and 5 in. long and should be placed vertically. focal length. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. 5-1/2 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. 1. long. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight.mahogany. The door covering this hole in the back. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. wide. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. An open space 4 in. Two or three holes about 1 in. from each end. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. This will be 3/4 in. high and must . The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. but not tight. long. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. wide by 5 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. AA. If a camera lens is used. and. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. wide and 6-1/2 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. high and 11 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. wide and 6-1/2 in. fit into the runners. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in.

Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. Ohio. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. provided it is airtight.. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. and so on. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. and extending the whole height of the lantern. the article may be propped up . or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. then the second knuckle will be March. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. calling that knuckle January. --Contributed by Chas. This process is rather a difficult one. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. 1. calling this February. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. as it requires an airtight case. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. Bradley. June and November. C. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. April." etc. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. West Toledo. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct.

The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. Pour in a little turpentine. and set aside for half a day. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. 1 and 2. Y. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. in. fruit jars are required. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. the lid or cover closed. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. Crawford. giving it an occasional stir. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. --Contributed by J. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. In each place two electrodes. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one.with small sticks. and the lead 24 sq. but waxed. or suspended by a string. 1. The top of a table will do. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. taking care to have all the edges closed. H. 2. in. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. N. Schenectady. In both Fig. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. one of lead and one of aluminum. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. . The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. running small motors and lighting small lamps.

are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. he throws the other. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. This trick is very simple. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. After a few seconds' time. He.. which you warm with your hands. O. as you have held it all the time. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. as well as others. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. Cleveland. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. You have an understanding with some one in the company.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. you remove the glass. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will .

Colo. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. near a partition or curtain. J. but in making one. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. Victor. in diameter in the center. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. Pull the ends quickly. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. if any snags are encountered. but by being careful at shores. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Be sure that this is the right one.take the handiest one. put it under the glass. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. . on a table. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish.-Contributed by E. Crocker. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table.

wide and 12 ft. for cockpit frame. long. square by 16 ft. 4 outwales. 1 in. by 16 ft. of 1-yd. clear pine. wide and 12 ft. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 3 in. for the bow. by 15 ft. The keelson. 14 rib bands. wide. of 1-1/2-yd. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. from each end to 1 in. wide 12-oz. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. 50 ft. 1/8 in. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. wide unbleached muslin. 7 ft. and.. apart. are as follows: 1 keelson. drilled and fastened with screws. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 1 piece. ducking. by 12 in. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. long. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. from the bow and the large one. for the stern piece. 1 in. is 14 ft. by 16 ft. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 3 and 4. 3 in. 2 and braced with an iron band. and is removed after the ribs are in place. 1 mast. long. of rope. for center deck braces. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. by 2 in..Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. from the stern. one 6 in. selected pine. 1 in. 9 ft. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . as illustrated in the engraving. the smaller is placed 3 ft. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 11 yd. Fig. 1 piece. 2 gunwales. by 8 in. at the ends. 1 in. 8 in. by 2 in. 1/4 in. by 10 ft. thick and 3/4 in. 1. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. and fastened with screws. and the other 12 in. 8 yd. Paint. Both ends are mortised. long. 2 in. screws and cleats.

corner braces. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. The deck is not so hard to do. A 6-in. in diameter through the block. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. 1 in. and fastened to them with bolts. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. They are 1 in. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. 7 and 8. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. long. from the bow. screws. a piece 1/4 in. thick. thick. wide. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. thick and 12 in. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. thick and 1/2 in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. Fig. 4 in. The 11-yd. apart. . also. This block. long is well soaked in water. These are put in 6 in. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. The trimming is wood. 6. long. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. 1/4 in. The block is fastened to the keelson. 9. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. 3-1/2 ft. length of canvas is cut in the center. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. Figs. doubled. is cut to fit under the top boards. Fig. gunwales and keelson. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. Before making the deck. Braces. A block of pine. 1 in. 6 and 7. 5. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. A seam should be made along the center piece. wood screws. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. long. wide and 3 ft. wide and 14 in. wide and 24 in. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. A piece of oak. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. 6 in. is a cube having sides 6 in. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. thick 1-1/2 in. wide. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs.

or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. at the other. Tronnes. wide. . E. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. The mast has two side and one front stay. The keel. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. apart in the muslin. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. 10 with a movable handle. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. is 6 in. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. Wilmette. each 1 in. thick by 2 in. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. The sail is a triangle. 11. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. Ill. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. 12. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. A strip 1 in. long. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. The house will accommodate 20 families. --Contributed by O. are used for the boom and gaff. in diameter and 10 ft. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. long. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. wide at one end and 12 in. Fig.

into two 14-in. flat on one side. flat-headed screws. thick. thick. Cut the maple. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. and the other 18 in. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. long. and 3 ft. with the ends and the other side rounding. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. square. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. flat headed screws. thick. 2 in. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. 5. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. E. 1. --Contributed by O. five 1/2-in. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. long. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. 1 yd. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. Wilmette. Tronnes. about 5/16 in. long. Ill. 4. long and five 1/2-in. wide. 2. one 11-1/2 in. wide and 30 in. 3. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. wide. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. Bevel both sides of the pieces. 2-1/2 in. Take this and fold it over . The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. wide and 2 ft. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. as shown in Fig. 2-1/2 in. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. Fig. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in.

A. and take care that the pieces are all square. is set. wide and 2-1/2 in. square. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking.once. After the glue. long. forming an eye for a screw. long. as well as the edges around the opening. long. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. thick. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. Fig. C. 3/8 in. The bag is then turned inside out. wide and 5 in. The front. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. 3 in. E. 5 from 1/16-in. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. About 1/2 in. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. long. then centered. wide and 4-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. C. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. thick. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. the top and bottom. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. B. long. leaving a small opening at one corner. soaked with water and blown up. pieces 2-5/8 in. F. Figs. Make a double stitch all around the edge. Cut another piece of board. Wind three layers of about No. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. long. The sides are 3-1/4 in. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. wide and 6-3/4 in. long. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. A. wide . wide and 2-3/4 in. St. and the four outside edges. 6-1/2 in. Louis. Glue a three cornered piece. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. 1-1/4 in. wide and 3 ft. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. thick and 3 in. about 3/8 in. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. 2 and 3. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. D. Bliss. this square box is well sandpapered. and make a turn in each end of the wires. When the glue is set. Mo. --Contributed by W. are rounded. of each end unwound for connections. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. 1. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. long. but can be governed by circumstances. the mechanical parts can be put together. 3-1/4 in. If carefully and neatly made. Another piece. square. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. These wires are about 2-1/2 in.

and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. The resistance is now adjusted to show . These wires should be about 1 in. showing a greater defection of the pointer. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. and the farther apart they will be forced. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. 1/4 in. 5-1/2 in. that has the end turned with a shoulder. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. in diameter. long. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. --Contributed by George Heimroth. The base is a board 5 in. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. board. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. Richmond Hill. 1/16 in. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. 4. 5.A. wide and 9 in. The stronger the current. and fasten in place. When the current flows through the coil. Another strip of tin.S. from the spindle. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. The end of the polar axis B. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. Chapman. 4 is not movable. W. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. and as the part Fig. I. from one end. long. so it will just clear the tin. thick. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. G. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center .R. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. Austwick Hall. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. F. Fig. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. the part carrying the pointer moves away. wide and 2-1/2 in. long. L. Like poles repel each other. hole is fastened to the pointer.and 2-5/8 in. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. 4. the same size as the first. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. A pointer 12 in. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. C. R. Fig. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. bored in the back. Yorkshire. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. Place the tin. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H.

1881. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. shows mean siderial. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. at 9 hr. The following formula will show how this may be found.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. thus: 9 hr. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. say Venus at the date of observation. M. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. A. and vice . 10 min. 30 min. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. 10 min. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye.

owing to the low internal resistance. Hall. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in.f. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess.m. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Robert W. New Haven. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. .The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. Conn. and then verify its correctness by measurement. if one of these cannot be had. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. or. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection.

The boring bar. 1. inside diameter and about 5 in. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. When the follower is screwed down. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. long. of alum and 4 oz. arsenic to every 20 lb. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. put the fish among the ashes. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. especially for cooking fish. Fig. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. and heap the glowing coals on top. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. fresh grass. Wet paper will answer. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. cover up with the same. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. 1-3/4 in. leaves or bark. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. thick. as shown in the accompanying picture. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. Then. 3/8 in.

and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. about 1/2 in. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . when they were turned in. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. pipe. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. and threaded on both ends. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. thick. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. fastened with a pin. pipe.

Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. thick and 3 in. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. and which gave such satisfactory results. 2. It . The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. A 1-in. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. Iowa. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. wide. bent in the shape of a U. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. but never one which required so little material. Fig. 3. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. however. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. as the one illustrated herewith. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in.valve stems. Fig. Clermont. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. a jump spark would be much better. 30 in. then it should be ground to a fit. The rough frame. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. labor and time. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. 5. the float is too high. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. long. square iron. Fig. was then finished on an emery wheel. 4. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. If the valve keeps dripping. This plate also supports the rocker arms. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe.

It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. with no trees or buildings in the way." little and big. Use a heavy washer at the head. Nieman. long. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. in diameter and 15 in. from all over the neighborhood. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. being held in position by spikes as shown. long is the pivot. If it is to be used for adults. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. strengthened by a piece 4 in. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. from the center. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. W. As there is no bracing. and a little junk. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. for the "motive power" to grasp. hole bored in the post. square and 5 ft. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. square. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. strong clear material only should be employed. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. extending above. square and 2 ft. This makes an easy adjustment. A 3/4 -in. no matter what your age or size may be. It looks like a toy. The illustration largely explains itself. The seats are regular swing boards. --Contributed by C. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. set 3 ft. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. timber. 3/4 in. long. rope is not too heavy. so it must be strong enough. completes the merry-go-round. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. in fact. butting against short stakes. The crosspiece is 2 in. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. long. A malleable iron bolt. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. and. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. in the ground with 8 ft. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. 12 ft.

away. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. A reel is next made.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. if nothing better is at hand. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. long. 4. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. 2. These ends are placed about 14 in. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel.2 emery. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. 1. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. one for the backbone and one for the bow. and sent to earth. square. To wind the string upon the reel. The backbone is flat. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. as shown in Fig. 1/4 by 3/32 in. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. The bow is now bent.the fingers. then it is securely fastened. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. Having placed the backbone in position. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. Both have large reels full of . a wreck. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. and 18 in. light and strong.

The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. Y. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. N. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. First.string. --Contributed' by Harry S. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. the balance. common packing thread. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Brooklyn. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Bunker. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. C. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can .-Contributed by S. The handle end is held down with a staple. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. Newburyport. he pays out a large amount of string. Moody. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. If the second kite is close enough. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. Mass. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. or glass-covered string. often several hundred yards of it.

length of 2-in. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. Corinth.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Hastings. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. then a dust protector. must be attached to a 3-ft. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Vt. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. lengths (Fig. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. square (Fig. cutting the circular piece into quarters. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. If the table is round. each the size of half the table top. make the pad as shown in the illustration. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. then draw the string up tight. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. such as mill men use. --Contributed by Earl R.

get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. . If leaves are wanted in extending the table. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Use a smooth. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. and E to G. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. Oakland. 6-1/4 in. trace this or some other appropriate design on it... Make the other half circular disk in the same way.. which spoils the leather effect. 2-1/4 in. from C to D.9-1/4 in. G to H. 17-1/2 in. Calif. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. 16-1/4 in. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad.-Contributed by H. E. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. Wharton. from E to F. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. trace the design carefully on the leather. hard pencil. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. Moisten the .

Cut it the same size as the bag. and corresponding lines on the other side. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. about 1/8 in. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Now cut narrow thongs. get something with which to make a lining. place both together and with a leather punch. Trace the openings for the handles. To complete the bag. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. G-J. I made this motor . until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. with the rounded sides of the tools. wide. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. and lace through the holes. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. if not more than 1 in. also lines A-G. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. and E-G. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. apart. H-B. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. is taken off at a time.

1. of No.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. Pasadena. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. --Contributed by J. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. . 2. as shown in Fig. each being a half circle. 1. 24 gauge magnet wire. iron. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. in length. Shannon. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. Calif. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. 2-1/4 in. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. B. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. long. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel.M. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. D.

pasted in alternately. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. are the best kind to make. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. near the center. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. from the bottom end. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. 1. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. and the gores cut from these. The gores for a 6-ft. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. balloon should be about 8 ft. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. high. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors.

Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. in diameter. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . coming through the small pipe A. lap on the edges. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. If the gores have been put together right. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. using about 1/2-in. so it will hang as shown in Fig. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. 1.widest point. Staunton. leaving the solution on over night. A. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. In removing grease from wood. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. after which the paint will adhere permanently. These are to hold the wick ball. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. 5. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. The boat soon attains considerable speed. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. somewhat larger in size. B. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. as shown in Fig. After washing. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. As the boat is driven forward by this force. leaving a long wake behind. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. The steam. 2. saturating it thoroughly. 4. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. In starting the balloon on its flight. 3. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. E. Fig. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by R. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat.

carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . Third. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. wide by 6 in. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. Second. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. long. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. 1. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. as is shown in Fig. apart on these lines. There are three ways of doing this: First. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. long and each provided with a handle. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. in bowling form. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. if you have several copies of the photograph. The blocks are about 6 in. In using either of the two methods described. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. high and 8 in.

--Contributed by John A. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Rinse the plate in cold water. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. being careful not to dent the metal. Hellwig. 2. Albany. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. not pointed down at the road at an angle. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. thick. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Fig. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed .Fig. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. N. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Y.

and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. A. Richmond. A circular piece of wood. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. 1 Fig. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. thick.upon any particular object. S. wide and 8 in. with a set screw. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. in diameter. Break off the frame. is fastened to a common camera tripod. With this device. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. Va. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Corner irons. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. which is 4 in. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. Paine. B. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . and not produce the right sound. and Fig. In Fig. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. --Contributed by R. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. are screwed to the circular piece. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. 2 the front view. wide and of any desired height. long for the base. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. A. through which passes the set screw S. 6 in. 5 in. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. and. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. CC. These corner irons are also screwed to.

Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. as only the can is visible. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. S. Ill. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. D. I made a wheel 26 in. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. This horn. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. Mount the bell vibrator on the base.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. . if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. R. -1. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. La Salle. Lake Preston. pine boards. thus producing sound waves. in diameter of some 1-in. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. This will make a very compact electric horn. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. Kidder. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal.

The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Purdy. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Doylestown. O. The frame is made of a heavy card. thick and 12 in. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. the same thickness as the coins. 1.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. square. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Ghent. 1. A. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. --Contributed by James R. 2. If there is a large collection of coins. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Kane. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. --Contributed by C. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . B. Fig. Feet may be added to the base if desired. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig.

--Contributed by R. melted and applied with a brush. If desired. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. into which to place the screws .E. One Cloud. Smith. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. A lead pencil. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. Neyer. cut and grooved. --Contributed by August T. The material required is a sheet of No. and then glued together as indicated. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. thick. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. Cal. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Milwaukee. of developer. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. border all around. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. Canada. a hammer or mallet. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. they become uninteresting. --Contributed by J. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. for after the slides have been shown a few times. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. It will hold 4 oz.J. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Noble. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. Toronto. A rivet punch is desirable. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. several large nails.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. plus a 3/8-in. though not absolutely necessary. Wis.

To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. Remove the screws. using 1/2-in. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. and file it to a chisel edge. draw one part. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. never upon the metal directly. There are several ways of working up the design. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. Take the nail. both outline and decoration. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. like the one shown. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Fasten the metal to the board firmly. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. screws placed about 1 in.

A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. and two lengths. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. Do not bend it over or flatten it. being ball bearing. up from the lower end. as shown in Fig. 2. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. l-1/8 in. two lengths. The pedal. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. of 11-in. in the other. Provide four lengths for the legs. using a 1/2in. 3. for the lower rails. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. square. . long. each 1 in. 3/4 in. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. About 1/2 yd. for the top. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. long. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. Rivet the band to the holder. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. square and 181/2 in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. square and 11 in. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close.wall. 1. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. long. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto.

they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. F. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. Attalla. --Contributed by John Shahan. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] .The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. --Contributed by W. New York City. Quackenbush. Ala. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. having quite a length of threads.

each 1-1/4 in. and the other 2-3/4 in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. making a lap of about 1 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. Ironwood. and two holes in the other. stitched on both edges for appearance. in depth. D. from the end. long. from one end. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. long. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. The desired emblem. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Purchase a 1/2-in. using class. initial. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. Luther. the end of the other piece is folded over. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . and 3/8 in. --Contributed by C. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece.. one about 1 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. Two pieces of felt. long. wide and 8-1/4 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. college or lodge colors. something that is carbonated. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. Mich.

then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. is cut in the shape shown in Fig.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. as shown in the sketch. This method allows a wide range of designs. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . and the cork will be driven out. Ind. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Indianapolis. 1/4 in. 2. --Contributed by John H. A piece of lead. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. Schatz. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. or a pasteboard box. in the cover and the bottom. 1. as shown at B. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. Punch two holes A. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Fig. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. about 2 in. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. in diameter and 2 in. from the center and opposite each other. which can be procured from a plumber. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. if desired by the operator. or more in height. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in.

made of paper strips pasted on the tin. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. Columbus. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand.Rolling Can Toy lead. or marble will serve. as shown in Fig. A piece of thick glass. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. . 4. it winds up the rubber band. Fig. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. on both top and bottom. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. 3. When the can is rolled away from you. The pieces of tin between the holes A. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. 1. 5. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. and the ends of the bands looped over them. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. putting in the design. are turned up as in Fig. O. allowing the two ends to be free. metal. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return.

and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . face up. New York City. and. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. from each end. long and bored a 1/2-in. 1 in. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. deep in its face. thicker than the pinion. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. 3 in. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. After this has been done. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. wide and 20 in. or more thick on each side. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. If it is desired to "line" the inside. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. hole through it.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. mark over the design. A pencil may be used the first time over. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. Next place the leather on the glass. The edges should be about 1/8 in. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. thick. I secured a board 3/4 in.

If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 1 piece for clamp. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 4 guides. Now fit up the two clamps. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. Brooklyn. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 1 by 12 by 77 in. in diameter. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 2 by 2 by 18 in. and fit it in place for the side vise. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Y. pieces for the vise slides. countersinking the heads of the vise end. 1 back board. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 2 by 12 by 77 in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 2. thick top board. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 3 by 3 by 36. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1. M. N. much of the hard labor will be saved. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 2 side rails. Cut the 2-in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 2 end rails. 1 screw block. Rice. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 1 by 9 by 80 in. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 2 crosspieces. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Syracuse. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. lag screws as shown. 1 top board. 1 piece for clamp. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. Fig. 1 piece. New York. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. --Contributed by A. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. Make the lower frame first. 1 top board.in the board into the bench top. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in.

put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 compass saw. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 rip saw. in diameter.. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. it can be easily found when wanted.screws. 1 set chisels. as well as the pattern maker. . They can be purchased at a hardware store. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 jack plane or smoother. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. The bench is now complete. 3 and 6 in. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used.. 1 wood scraper. 1 cross cut saw. 1 marking gauge. The amateur workman. 24 in. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 2-ft. 1 bench plane or jointer. 24 in. 2 screwdrivers. 1 monkey wrench.. 1 countersink. 1 brace and set of bits. Only the long run. 1 set gimlets. 1 pair pliers. 1 claw hammer. 1 pocket level. 1 nail set. 1 pair dividers. rule. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted.

and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness.1 6-in. Pa. Fig. after constant use. ---Contributed by James M. will sink into the handle as shown at D.1. The calf skin. Fig. 2. the projecting point A. Fig. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. Fig. becomes like A. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. 1. No. Kane. 2 and 00 sandpaper. Doylestown. 1. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. will be easier to work. 1 oilstone. try square. 3. being softer. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. but will not make . it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful.

Two pieces will be required of this size. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. cover it completely with water enamel and. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster.as rigid a case as the cow skin. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. -Contributed by Julia A. First draw the design on paper. New York City. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. such as copper or brass. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. secure a piece of modeling calf. but a V-shaped nut pick. If cow hide is preferred. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. when dry. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. After the outlines are traced. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. and the length 6-5/8 in. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. which steam. Having prepared the two sides. will do just as well. Turn the leather. If calf skin is to be used. the same method of treatment is used. lay the design on the face. water or heat will not affect. White. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. . The form can be made of a stick of wood. then prepare the leather.

--Contributed by W. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. --Contributed by Chas. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. . and an adjustable friction-held loop. --Contributed by Chester L. C. Richmond. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. Maine. Cobb. Cal. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. New York City. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. A. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Jaquythe. Herrman. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Portland. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. as shown in the sketch.

Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. was marked out as shown. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. --Contributed by Wm. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Cambridge. Conn. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. Wright. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. This was very difficult. Middletown. B. --Contributed by Geo. . The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Mass. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. for instance. A thick piece of tin. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg.. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. an inverted stewpan. Roberts.

such as chair seats. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass.. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. well calcined and powdered. face down. Herbert. pulverized and applied. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. but only an odor which soon vanished. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. used as part of furniture. A beautifully bound book. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. Indianapolis. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. Illinois. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. . had oil from a lamp spilled over it. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. of boiling water. F. If any traces of the grease are left. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. and quite new. L. If the article is highly polished. --Contributed by Paul Keller. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. which has been tried out several times with success. Chicago.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. --Contributed by C. so some bones were quickly calcined. apply powdered calcined magnesia. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. on a clear piece of glass. When dry. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. as shown. Ind. but not running over. and the grease will disappear. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. There was no quicklime to be had. The next morning there was no trace of oil. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. Bone.

Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. Tarrytown. --Contributed by Geo. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. thick. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel.. If properly adjusted. high and are bolted to a block of wood. deep and 5 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make. long. A. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. New York. 2 in. The pieces marked S are single. Howe. set and thumbscrews. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. soft steel with the opening 6 in. the pieces . wide and 12 in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine.. 6 in. says Scientific American.

Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. E. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . If the letters are all cut the same height.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. albums and the like. Their size depends on the plate used. A sharp knife. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. for sending to friends. says Camera Craft. to the underside of which is a block. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. they will look remarkably uniform. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. The seat is a board. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. no doubt. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months.

and. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. photographing them down to the desired size. for example. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. So arranged. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. pasting the prints on some thin card. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. The puzzle is to get . mount them on short pieces of corks. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. after. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. In cutting out an 0. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. So made. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. using care to get it in the right position.

squeezes along past the center of the tube. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. Cape May Point.J. Old-Time Magic .Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . long that will just fit are set in.-Contributed by I. of its top. with the longest end outside. hung on pivots. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. G. so they will lie horizontal. snow or anything to hide it. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. A hole 6 or 7 in. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. says the American Thresherman. N. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. He smells the bait. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. Bayley.

--Contributed by L. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Pawtucket. --Contributed by Charles Graham.faced up. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. then spread the string. then expose again. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Pocatello. E. Szerlip. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. or rub the hands a little before doing so. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Brooklyn. Y. --Contributed by L. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Idaho. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. N. Press the hands together. Rhode Island. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Parker.

then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. full size. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The pieces. wipe the blade . as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old.Genuine antique swords and armor. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. in width. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. wide and 2 in. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. near the point end. whether he requires a single sword only. in building up his work from the illustrations. 1. end of the blade. 2 Fig. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. The handle is next made. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. 3 Fig. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle.. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty.. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. The blade should be about 27 in. if any. long. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. and if carefully made. narrower. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. When the whole is quite dry. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. says the English Mechanic. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. they will look very much like the genuine article. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. using a straightedge and a pencil. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. dark red. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. thick. or green oil paint. Glue the other side of the blade. 4 on the blade. 1 Fig. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. or a complete suit of armor.

In the finished piece. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. 3. as it is . and 3 in. 1. 2. allowing for a good hold with both hands. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. This sword is about 68 in. thick and 5 in. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. the other is flat or half-round. In making. shows only two sides. Both edges of the blade are sharp. follow the directions as for Fig. not for use only in cases of tableaux. the length of the blade 28 in. square and of any length desired. the other is flat or halfround. 1. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. 2. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. the illustration.. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. 1/8 in. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. Fig.. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. long. of course. 1. 4. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. 1. take two pieces of wood.with light strokes up and down several times. should be about 9 in. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. The length of the handle. preferably of contrasting colors. in diameter. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. about 1-1/2 in. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. In making this scimitar. 3. in the widest part at the lower end. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. the other two are identical. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side.

It is made of a plank. Franklin. and. as there was some at hand. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. 2 in. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. A cold . Morse. about 3/8 in. Both can be made easily. --Contributed by John Blake. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. --Contributed by Katharine D. The thinness of the plank. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. Doctors probed for the button without success. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. square. A piece of mild steel. On each edge of the board. as shown in the sketch. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. as can the pitch bed or block. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. and if so. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. each about 1 ft. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. N. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. at the lower end. or an insecure fastening. however. Y. in an attempt to remove it. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Syracuse. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. piping and jackets by hard water.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. Mass. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. long. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent.

Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening.. To remedy this.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. Trim up the edges and file them . 18 gauge. secure a piece of brass of about No. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. 5 lb. plaster of Paris. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. When this has been done. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow.. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. on the pitch. To put it in another way. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. tallow. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. When the desired form has been obtained. using a small metal saw. design down. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. 5 lb. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. a file to reduce the ends to shape. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened.

and hang a bird swing. 2). Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. to keep it from floating. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. in one second. 30 ft. one 18 in. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. lb. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. or 550 ft. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. That is lifting 33. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. but not to stop it. The smaller is placed within the larger.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. in the center. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. 1 ft. Fig. it may be well to know what horsepower means.000 lb. in diameter (Fig. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. --Contributed by Harold H. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. A. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. using powdered pumice with lye. lb. or fraction of a horsepower. This in turn divided by 33. per second. Before giving the description. 1) and the other 12 in.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. per minute. 1 ft. 3. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. in diameter (Fig. and still revolve. make an unusual show window attraction. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Cutter. space between the vessels with water. over the smaller vessel. Fill the 3-in.smooth. in one minute or 550 lb. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Clean the metal thoroughly. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. . Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine.000 ft. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass.

To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Campbell. The effect is surprising.18 in. Diameter 12 in. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use.3 Fig. or on a pedestal. F. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Diameter Fig. Szerlip. Somerville. 1 Fig. --Contributed by J. 2 Fig. Y. by L. Mass. N. Brooklyn. --Contributed.

copper of No. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. the same as removing writing from a slate. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. after which it is ready for use. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. keeping the center high. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. away from the edge. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. using any of the common metal polishes. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. This compound is impervious to water. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. is. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. Polish both of these pieces. Do not be content merely to bend them over. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. and then. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. as a rule. often render it useless after a few months service. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. unsatisfactory. with other defects. In riveting. which may be of wood or tin. and the clay . Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. Rivet the cup to the base. then by drawing a straightedge over it. which. and cut out the shape with the shears. with the pliers. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. to keep the metal from tarnishing. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray.

Scotland. Houghton. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. It is made of a glass tube. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. Grand Rapids. A. Shettleston. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. -Contributed by Thos. .can be pressed back and leveled. The siphon is made of glass tubes. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. 3/4 in. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by John T. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. 1. Mich. in diameter and 5 in. --Contributed by A. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. 2. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Dunlop. Mich. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. long. Northville. the device will work for an indefinite time. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. DeLoof.

The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. long. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. This sword is 4 ft.1 FIG.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. stilettos and battle-axes. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. put up as ornaments. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. in width and 2 in. 1. London. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.FIG. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. As the handle is to . The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles.

paint it a dark brown or black. wood with a keyhole saw. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. small rope and round-headed nails. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. with both edges sharp. 5. 7. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. 9. 4. sometimes called cuirass breakers. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. in width. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. When the whole is quite dry. firmly glued on. the upper part iron or steel. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. 8. When dry.represent copper. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. This stiletto has a wood handle. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. This axe is made similar to the one . long. Three large. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. studded with brass or steel nails. In Fig. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. A German poniard is shown in Fig. In Fig. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. These must be cut from pieces of wood. In Fig. in length. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The handle is of wood. This sword is about 4 ft. 11 were used. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. long with a dark handle of wood. in length. the axe is of steel. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. sharp edges on both sides. The crossbar and blade are steel. string. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. The sword shown in Fig. then glued on the blade as shown. A German stiletto. Both handle and axe are of steel. The lower half of the handle is of wood. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. 6. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. one about 1/2 in. with wire or string' bound handle. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. Cut two strips of tinfoil. the same as used on the end of the handle. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. This weapon is about 1 ft. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. 3 is shown a claymore. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. This weapon is also about 1 ft. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. which is about 2-1/2 ft. 20 spike. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. The ball is made as described in Fig. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. is shown in Fig. glue and put it in place. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. narrower. with both edges of the blade sharp. very broad. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in.

The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. When wrapped all the way around. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. such as braided fishline. 10. high. the ends are tied and cut off. --Contributed by E. together as shown in Fig. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. Chicago. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. Old-Time Magic . W.described in Fig. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. This will make a very good flexible belt. Davis. so the contents cannot be seen. . 2. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. will pull where other belts slip.

with the circle centrally located. filled with water. some of the liquid. about one-third the way down from the top. four glass tumblers. in a few seconds' time. causing the flowers to grow. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. These wires are put in the jar. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Oakland. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. or using small wedges of wood. There will be no change in color.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Bridgeton. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. Before the performance. an acid.J. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. 2. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. held in the right hand. --Contributed by A. apparently. N. 1 and put together as in Fig. Macdonald. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. The dotted lines in Fig. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. Calif. S.

place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. and kept ready for use at any time. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. Cal. and equally worthy of individual treatment. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. If the size wanted is No. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. Richmond. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. says a correspondent of Photo Era. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. unless some special device is used. not only because of the fact just mentioned. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. 4 for width and No. 2 for height. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. practical and costs nothing. which are numbered for convenience in working. --Contributed by W. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. When many slides are to be masked. A. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. Jaquythe. This outlines the desired opening.

This done. possibly. which is dangerous.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. The decoration. may be changed. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. or a pair of old tongs. about half and half. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. not the water into the acid. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. The one shown is merely suggestive. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. too. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. using the carbon paper. When etched to the desired depth. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. Draw a design. paint the design. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . is about right for the No. Secure a sheet of No. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. 16 gauge. or. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. the paper is folded along the center line. With a stick. and the extreme length 7 in. and do not inhale the fumes. the margin and the entire back of the metal. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. a little less acid than water. but they can be easily revived.

C and D. about 3 ft. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. the bell will ring. about 1 in. and about 2-1/2 ft. 2. The connections are simple: I. as at H. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. Fig. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. attached to a post at each end. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. Fig. with the wires underneath. 5. Fig. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. in diameter and 1/4 in. Cut out a piece of tin. When the button S is pressed. 24 parts water. 2. Then get two posts. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. about 2-1/2 in. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. 0 indicates the batteries. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. to the table. J is another wire attached in the same way. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. repeat as many times as is necessary. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. It may be either nailed or screwed down. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. through it. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. 4. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. Fig. wide and of the same length as the table. Fig. as shown in the illustration. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. A. . If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. about 8 in. Paint the table any color desired. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. thick. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. and bore two holes. 3/8 in. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. high. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. 5. long. Nail a board. as in Fig. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. 1. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. so that when it is pressed down. long and 1 ft. wide. it will touch post F. 2. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. 3. or more wide.

The imitation articles are made of wood. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. After the glue is dry. is to appear as steel. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. 1. 2. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.Imitation Arms and Armor . but they are somewhat difficult to make. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. says the English Mechanic. the wood peg inserted in one of them. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. The circle is marked out with a compass. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. These rings can be carved out.. The entire weapon. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. A wood peg about 2 in. long. handle and all. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. This weapon is about 22 in. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. long serves as the dowel. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. such as . The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. thick.

long. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. with a sharp carving tool. If such a tool is not at hand. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. is shown in Fig. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. flowers. the hammer and spike. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 8. . The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. as described in Fig. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. covered with red velvet. All of these axes are about the same length. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. used at the end of the fifteenth century. The axe is shown in steel. 2. as before mentioned. This weapon is about 22 in. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. The handle is of wood. leaves. etc. 6. or the amateur cannot use it well. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. 5. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. studded with large brass or steel nails. 3. as shown. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth.ornamental scrolls. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. The spikes are cut out of wood. The lower half of the handle is wood. The entire handle should be made of one piece. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. Its length is about 3 ft. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. also. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. The handle is of steel imitation. The upper half of the handle is steel. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil.

1. calls for a home run. 3. then the other plays. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 4). 7) calls for one out. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. Chicago. The knife falling on its side (Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. a three-base hit. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. . 6. 2. as in Fig.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. and so on for nine innings. Each person plays until three outs have been made. 5. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. as shown in Fig. Fig. the knife resting on its back. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig.

while the committee is tying him up. Campbell. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. as shown in Fig.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. If it is spotted at all. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. Mass. as shown in Fig. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz.-Contributed by J. with the rope laced in the cloth. 2. one of them burning . When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. Somerville. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. 1. of the rope and holds it. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. 3. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. F. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. hypo to 1 pt. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. It may be found that the negative is not colored. of water for an hour or two. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. This he does. Old-Time Magic .

and the audience gaze on and see nothing.. 3/4 in. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. shades the light for a few seconds. New York City. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. He then walks over to the other candle. etc. --Contributed by C. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood.brightly. Evans. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. bolt. thick. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. the other without a light. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. 4 oz. Brown. with which he is going to light the other candle. of turpentine. B. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. --Contributed by L. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. Ky. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. . thus causing it to light. invisible to them (the audience). He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. of sugar. of water and 1 oz. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. 4 oz. Drill Gauge screw.Contributed by Andrew G. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. Ky. Lebanon. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. Louisville. and. of plumbago. showing that there is nothing between them. The magician walks over to the burning candle. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Thome. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down.

Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's .A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Denniston. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. 5 in. about 5 in. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. H. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. Its current strength is about one volt. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. In making up the solution. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. To make the porous cell. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. diameter. but is not so good. into a tube of several thicknesses. Do not add water to the acid. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. N. thick. Y. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. for the material. --Contributed by C. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. which will give a strong. steady current. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. long. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. or blotting paper. Pulteney. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can.

The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. while the other end is attached by two screws. steel. Finally. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. carrying the hour circle at one end. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in.) may be obtained. As to thickness. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. one drawing them together. the other holding them apart. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in.station. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. The . A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. long with a bearing at each end. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. but somewhat lighter. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. One hole was bored as well as possible. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. a positive adjustment was provided. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. steel. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. steel. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. After much experimentation with bearings. To insure this. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in.

but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. When properly set it will describe a great circle. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. It is. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer." When this is done. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. and 15 min. is provided with this adjustment. save the one in the pipe. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. and if it is not again directed to the same point.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. need not be changed. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. subtract 24. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. The pole is 1 deg. If the result is more than 24 hours.. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. Each shaft. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. apart. To locate a known star on the map.. Declination is read directly." Only a rough setting is necessary. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. The pointer is directed to Alpha." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. turn the pointer to the star. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. Instead. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. Point it approximately to the north star. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. 45 min. The aperture should be 1/4 in. excepting those on the declination axis. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. All these adjustments. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. Cassiopiae. All set screws. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. are tightened. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. in each direction from two points 180 deg. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. To find a star in the heavens. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. Set the declination circle to its reading. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. once carefully made.

The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. is folded several times. a great effect will be produced. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. The dance will begin. If this will be too transparent. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. Ohio. Strosnider. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. In reality the first ball. benzole. add a little more benzole. long. La. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. which is the one examined. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. then add 1 2-3 dr. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. New Orleans. Plain City.. The ball is found to be the genuine article. cannon balls. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. is the real cannon ball. taking care not to add too much. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. of ether. -Contributed by Ray E. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. the others . as shown in the sketch. 3 or 4 in.

take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. Milwaukee. 1). Cal. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. San Francisco. Somerville. Mass. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. etc. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. as shown in the illustration. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. small brooches. Campbell. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. without taking up any great amount of space. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. taps. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. 2. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them.. In boxes having a sliding cover. Fig. Wis. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. F. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Return the card to the pack. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. --Contributed by J. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated.

Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. thus giving ample store room for colors. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Hartford. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. slides and extra brushes. Beller. Connecticut. This box has done good service. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. as shown in the illustration. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. from the bottom of the box. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. prints.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. round pieces 2-1/4 in. . Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned.

2). the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. tacking the gauze well at the corners. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. . and especially are the end pieces objectionable. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. costing 5 cents. with well packed horse manure. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. 1). and pour water on it until it is well soaked. FIG. When the ends are turned under. O. holes in the bottom of one. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. West Lynn. will answer the purpose. -Contributed by C.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. Mass. Darke. Fill the upper tub. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. or placed against a wall. about threefourths full.

oil or other fluid. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. Eifel. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. If the following directions are carried out. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. when they are raised from the pan. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. cutting the cane between the holes. --Contributed by L. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. they should be knocked out. If plugs are found in any of the holes. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. Chicago. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. and each bundle contains . if this is not available. M. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment.

which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. as it must be removed again. 1. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. as shown in Fig. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. In addition to the cane. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. and. a square pointed wedge. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. then across and down. after having been pulled tight. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. held there by inserting another plug. put about 3 or 4 in. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. it should be held by a plug. No plugs . Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked.

as shown in Fig. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. and the one we shall describe in this article. 1. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside.2 in. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. --Contributed by M. If handled with a little care. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. Even with this lubrication. Fig. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. it is 4. for 2°. and for lat. R. All added to the lesser or 40°. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. Patrick. The style or gnomon. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. 1 lat. 5 in.= 4.15 in. This will make three layers. After completing the second layer. 40°. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. There are several different designs of sundials. as it always equals the latitude of the place. If you have a table of natural functions. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. It consists of a flat circular table. and for 1° it would be .2+. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . the next smallest. is the horizontal dial. stretch the third one. lat.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. as shown in Fig. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. in this case) times the .42 in.3 in. During the weaving. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. as for example. -Contributed by E. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. 3.075 in. the height of the line BC.075 in. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. called the gnomon. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. Fig. 4. we have 4. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. W. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. 1. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. 42° is 4. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. or the style. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. using the same holes as for the first layer. 41 °-30'. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. Detroit.15+. 5. From table No. When cool. 41°-30'.5 in. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. 3. trim off the surplus rosin. but the most common. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. D. is the base (5 in. 1. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. Michigan. as the height of the line BC for lat. the height of which is taken from table No. Their difference is . No weaving has been done up to this time.

82 3.40 1.29 4-30 7-30 3.49 3. and intersecting the semicircles.42 . The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. if of metal. according to the size of the dial.83 27° 2.50 26° 2.81 4.tangent of the degree of latitude.42 1. Draw the line AD.66 48° 5. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.99 2.66 1.07 4.55 46° 5.55 5.46 . Its thickness. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.41 38° 3.00 40° 4.88 36° 3. using the points A and C as centers. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.96 32° 3.46 3.68 5-30 6-30 5. circle Sundial.18 28° 2.76 1. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.39 . or more.37 5.37 54° 6.94 1. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.27 2.85 35 .14 5.97 5 7 4. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. 1. long. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. gives the 6 o'clock points.59 2. . Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .87 4.91 58° 8.87 1. For latitudes not given.19 1.66 latitude.32 6.93 6.20 60° 8.56 .26 4. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.79 4. Chords in inches for a 10 in. an inch or two.55 4. Draw two semi-circles. Table NO. with a radius of 5 in.16 40 .77 2.06 2. and perpendicular to the base or style.89 50° 5.28 . base.93 2.82 2.16 1.33 . Height of stile in inches for a 5in.49 30 .12 52° 6.10 6. and for this size dial (10 in.38 .02 1.30 2. To layout the hour circle.42 45 . Fig. 2.55 30° 2.23 6. or if of stone. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.85 1.33 42° 4. 2.30 1. 2 for given latitudes.64 4 8 3. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.11 3.57 1.40 34° 3.03 3.63 56° 7.82 5. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.44 44° 4.57 3. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. which will represent the base in length and thickness.

50 55 . The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .34 5. 25. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.53 1. An ordinary compass. Sept.60 4. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. and for the difference between standard and local time. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.12 5. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. 3.89 3. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. April 16. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.71 2. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.54 60 . This correction can be added to the values in table No. Sioux City. London. then the watch is slower. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. adding to each piece interest and value. 3.72 5.21 2. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. will enable one to set the dial. if west. Each weapon is cut from wood.57 1.46 5.49 3.10 4. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.68 3.52 Table No. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position.19 2.means that the dial is faster than the sun.from Sundial lime.79 6.82 3.98 4. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. 2 and Dec.49 5. and the . The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.14 1.24 5. it will be faster. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. each article can be labelled with the name. As they are the genuine reproductions.30 2.add those marked + subtract those Marked . 900 Chicago. Sun time to local mean time.93 6. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.63 1. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.01 1.08 1. Mitchell. says the English Mechanic. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. after allowing for the declination. --Contributed by J. June 15. E.77 3.46 4. Iowa.06 2. The + means that the clock is faster.50 . and on these dates the dial needs no correction.37 2.87 6. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.

The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. Partisan. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. . A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color.. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. When putting on the tinfoil. 3.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. the length of which is about 5 ft. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. 1. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil.

which are a part of the axe. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. This weapon is about 6 ft.. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. long. The edges are sharp. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. The spear is steel. the holes being about 1/4 in. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The extreme length is 9 ft. long with a round staff or handle. is shown in Fig. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. about 4 in. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. long with a round wooden handle. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. used about the seventeenth century. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. in diameter. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century.which is square. A gisarm or glaive. 5. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. 8. . The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. press it well into the carved depressions. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. It is about 6 ft. 7. long. 6 ft. sharp on the outer edges.

and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. are less durable and will quickly show wear. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. Ohio. 5. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. They can be made of various materials. Cut all the cords the same length. the cross cords. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. 4. as shown in Fig. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. are put in place. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. apart. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. the most durable being bamboo. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Substances such as straw. or in holes punched in a leather strap. 1. In Figs. 2 and 3.-Contributed by R. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. H. The twisted cross cords should . although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. Loudonville.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. B. Workman. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. used for spacing and binding the whole together. This is important to secure neatness. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement.

shaped as shown at C. To remedy this. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material.be of such material. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. Harrer. for a length extending from a point 2 in. A slit was cut in the bottom. This was turned over the top of the other can. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. Four V-shaped notches were cut. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. bamboo or rolled paper. 3 in. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . of the bottom. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The first design shown is for using bamboo. Lockport. wide. New York. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. M. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. New Orleans. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. as shown at B. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. below the top to within 1/4 in. -Contributed by Geo. La. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. in which was placed a piece of glass.

--Contributed by Joseph H. Sanford. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. After this is finished. turned over but not fastened. --Contributed by W. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. the brass is loosened from the block. N. Y. --Contributed by Chas. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. It would be well to polish the brass at first. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. Ill. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. wide. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. is shown in the accompanying sketch. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. Newburgh. Pasadena. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall.tape from sticking to the carpet. Shay. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. Cal. Maywood. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. This should be done gradually. do not throw away the gloves. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. about 1/16 in. and two along the side for attaching the staff. H. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. This plank. Schaffner. giving the appearance of hammered brass. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat.

Ill. Marshall.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Richmond. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Unlike most clocks. A. K. Oak Park. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. --E. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. in diameter. Cal. the pendulum swings . -Contributed by W. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Jaquythe. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. bent as shown.

long and at each side of this. B. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. about 6 in. bearing on the latter. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. are secured in the base bar. Two uprights. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. by 1-5/16 in. bar. high. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. The construction is very simple. Now place the board to be joined. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. . 6 in. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. the center one being 2-3/4 in. thick. wide that is perfectly flat. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. --Contributed by V. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. high and 1/4 in. 5/16 in. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. in diameter. and the other two 2-5/8 in. such as this one. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. on the board B. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. Chicago. wide. C. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. 3/4 in. is an electromagnet. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. to the first one with screws or glue. Secure a board. says the Scientific American. high. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. Metzech. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical.. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. high. A. Fasten another board. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. only have the opposite side up. In using this method. 7-1/2 in. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. away. about 12 in.

wide and 1 in. 2. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. as shown at A. The trigger. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. Vanderslice. plates should be made 8 in. or more. 3. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. square inside. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. Fig. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. 1. 1. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. is fastened in the hole A. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. 4. Phoenixville. whose dimensions are given in Fig. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. 1. square. Pa. long. --Contributed by Elmer A. wide and 5 in. . The assembled parts are shown in Fig. from one end.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. Fig. by driving a pin through the wood. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work.

Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take.A.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. which allows 1/4 in. by weight. if only two bands are put in the . one-half the length of the side pieces. -Contributed by J. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. Ohio. 2 parts of whiting. as shown in the illustration. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. rubbing varnish and turpentine. square. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. 5 parts of black filler. Fostoria. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. Simonis.

Dartmouth. -Contributed by Abner B. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. A double convex lens. is set at an angle of 45 deg. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. If a plain glass is used. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. It must be kept moist and well . says the English Mechanic.lower strings. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. 1. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. 8 in. A mirror. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. Grand Rapids. --Contributed by Thos. in the opposite end of the box. No. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. place tracing paper on its surface. wide and about 1 ft. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. II. Michigan. which may be either of ground or plain glass. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. G. preferably copper. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. Shaw. Mass. London. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. and the picture can be drawn as described. keeps the strong light out when sketching. is necessary. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. DeLoof. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. A piece of metal. as shown in Fig. and it may be made as a model or full sized. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. deep. long. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. In use. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. In constructing helmets. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training.

wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. as in bas-relief. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. and continue until the clay is completely covered. as shown in Fig. After the clay model is finished. the clay model oiled. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. a few clay-modeling tools. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. The clay. This being done. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . or some thin glue. with a keyhole saw. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. will be necessary. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. joined closely together. and over the crest on top. on which to place the clay. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand.kneaded. shown in Fig. 1. and left over night to soak. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. 2. 1. and the deft use of the fingers. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. Scraps of thin. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. 3. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. All being ready. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. take. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. brown.

the skullcap. 5. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. as shown: in the design. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. 7. 1. 9. In Fig. They are all covered with tinfoil. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. When perfectly dry. The center of the ear guards are perforated. This contrivance should be made of wood. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. Indianapolis. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. When dry. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. a crest on top. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. the piecing could not be detected. should be modeled and made in one piece. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. with the exception of the vizor. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. and the ear guards in two pieces. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. will make it look neat. a few lines running down. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. The whole helmet.as possible. When the helmet is off the model. Indiana. --Contributed by Paul Keller. as seen in the other part of the sketch. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. which should be no difficult matter. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. owing to the clay being oiled. then another coating of glue. Before taking it off the model. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. The band is decorated with brass studs. square in shape. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. In Fig. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. and so on. one for each side. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. or.

as shown in Fig. Fig. German-silver wire is better. long. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. also the switch B and the fuse block C. FF.same size. 2. 22 gauge resistance wire. long. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. If a neat appearance is desired. when they are placed in opposite positions. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. AA. one oblong piece of wood. Fig. 3 in. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. as shown in Fig. of the top. 4. 4. 4 lb. wide and 15 in. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. 4. the fuse block. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. is then packed down inside the collar. AA. Fig. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. 4. of fire clay. or. 4. if this cannot be obtained. E and F. about 1 lb. GG. 1. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. 1 in. 4. the holes leading to the switch. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. The plate. should extend about 1/4 in. 1. Fig. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. and. JJ. if the measurements are correct. 1. for connections. AA. If asbestos is used. Fig. This will allow the plate. The two holes. one glass tube. Fig. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. one fuse block. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . in diameter and 9 in. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. Fig. Fig. with slits cut for the wires. as it stands a higher temperature. until it is within 1 in. thick sheet asbestos. as shown in Fig. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. each 4-1/2 in. to receive screws for holding it to the base. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. about 80 ft. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. and C. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. 2. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. 1. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. screws. 3. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. one small switch. The mineral wool. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. The reverse side of the base. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. long. two ordinary binding posts. thick. which can be bought from a local druggist. Fig. This will make an open space between the plates. about 1/4 in. Fig. Fig. high. 1. A round collar of galvanized iron. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. of No. 4. 12 in. Fig. of mineral wool. The holes B and C are about 3 in. 1. Fig. are allowed to project about 1 in. 2. above the collar. is shown in Fig. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. and two large 3in.

KK. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. above the rim. when cool. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. allowing a space between each turn. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. H. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. The clay. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. 2. causing a short circuit. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. When this is done. When the tile is in place. deep. This completes the stove. will slip and come in contact with each other. then. --Contributed by W. Richmond. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. and pressed into it. as the turns of the wires. II. Fig. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. While the clay is damp. 4. A. Jaquythe. If this is the case. St. Cal. it leaves a gate for the metal. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. Cnonyn. It should not be left heated in this condition. apart. --Contributed by R. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. It should not be set on end. more wire should be added. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. This point marks the proper length to cut it. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. As these connections cannot be soldered. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. A file can be used to remove any rough places. when heated. Can. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. Next. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. Catherines. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. Fig. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. Cut a 1/2-in. so that the circuit will not become broken. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. Cover over about 1 in. using care not to get it too wet. If it is not thoroughly dry. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. steam will form when the current is applied. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together.

The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. Then clip a little off the . If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. says the Photographic Times.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. and the prints will dry rapidly. constructed of 3/4-in. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. as shown. is large enough. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. square material in any size. Louisville." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. Thorne. and the frame set near a window. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. the air can enter from both top and bottom. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. but 12 by 24 in. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. --Contributed by Andrew G. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. the pie will be damaged. Ky.

Iowa. An offset is bent in the center. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. wide and 7 in. Fig. 3. 2-1/2 in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. which gives the shaft a half turn. long. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. A 1/8-in. 4 in. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. thick and 3 in. W. Le Mars. long. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. for the crank. 1/2 in. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes.Paper Funnel point. which are fastened to the base. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. 1. The connecting rod E. 1 and 3. The connections are made as shown in Fig. long. open out. Herron. causing a break in the current. 2. Fig. in diameter and about 4 in. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. in diameter. The board can be raised to place . It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. slip on two cardboard washers. The driving arm D. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. 22 gauge magnet wire. high. long. thereby saving time and washing. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. high. as shown. 1. As the shaft revolves. Figs. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. -Contributed by S. 14 in. wide and 3 in. each 1/2 in. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. thick. 1/2 in. Fig. each 1 in. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. allowing each end to project for connections. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. wide. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. 1. Two supports. The upright B. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. thick and 3 in. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. high. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. at GG. 1.

The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. Mass. One or more pots may be used.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. In designing the roost. . or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. in height. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by William F. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. 3 in. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. making a framework suitable for a roost. on a board. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. bottom side up. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. Stecher. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. Dorchester. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Place the pot.

paraffin and paint or varnish. ordinary glue. Wind the . How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time.. adopt the method described. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. will produce the pattern desired. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. when combined. Fig. if it is other than straight lines. and give it time to dry. in diameter.. etc. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. odd corners.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. The materials required are rope or. F. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. F. that it is heated. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. shelves. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. as shown in Fig. 1. windows. preferably. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. grills and gratings for doors. The bottom part of the sketch. without any corresponding benefit. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. 1.

Harrer. M. -Contributed by Geo. Fig. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. cut and glue them together. six designs are shown. N. Y.Fig. Lockport. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. 2. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry.

and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers.. when it will be observed that any organic matter. which was used in front of a horse's head. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. but no farther. London..Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. etc. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. This piece of horse armor. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. chips of iron rust. and the sides do not cover the jaws. says the English Mechanic. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support.. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. As the . 1. etc. will be retained by the cotton. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.

6 and 7. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. with the exception of the thumb shield. the same as in Fig. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. except the thumb and fingers. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. This can be made in one piece. and will require less clay. the rougher the better. The armor is now removed from the model. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. but for . An arrangement is shown in Fig. 8. All being ready. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. and the clay model oiled. as the surface will hold the clay. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. which is separate. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. but the back is not necessary. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. This triangularshaped support. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. 4. which can be made in any size.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. In Fig. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. as shown in the sketch. and therefore it is not described. 2. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. This being done. 2. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. This will make the model light and easy to move around. then another coat of glue. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight.

A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. each about 1/4 in. cut into the shape shown in Fig. long. will be about right. the foils will not move. running down the plate. 2. the two pieces of foil will draw together. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. La Rue. --Contributed by Ralph L. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. are better shown in Fig. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. two for the jaws and one a wedge. A piece of board. Y. 9. . Goshen. are glued to it. Buxton. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Calif. Redondo Beach. If it does not hold a charge. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. When locating the place for the screw eyes. The two pieces of foil. 1/2 in. but 3-1/2 in. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. --Contributed by John G. and the instrument is ready for use. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. in depth. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. fastened to the rod. N. the top of the rod. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. wide and 1/2 in. two in each jaw.

2-1/2 in. as shown in the illustration. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. from the smaller end. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. is made of a 1/4-in.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. pine board. as this will cut under the water without splashing. A. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. hole bored through it. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. enameled or otherwise decorated. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. Texas. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. long. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. Corsicana. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. M. When a fish is hooked. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. --Contributed by Mrs. about 15 in. Bryan. silvered. The can may be bronzed. At a point 6 in. as indicated in the .

Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. punch the holes. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. as shown. 22 is plenty heavy enough." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. A good size is 5 in. using a piece of carbon paper. put a coat or two of wax and polish . If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. Next prepare the metal holder. using powdered pumice and lye. wide by 6 in.Match Holder accompanying sketch. or even pine. If soft wood. long over all. Having completed the drawing. 3/8 or 1/4 in. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. such as basswood or pine was used. take a piece of thin wood. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. thick. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. then with a nail. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. When it has dried over night. and trace upon it the design and outline. Polish the metal. will do as well as the more expensive woods. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Basswood or butternut. Any kind of wood will do.

Richmond. 1/2 in.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. If carving is contemplated. the whole being finished in linseed oil. --Contributed by W. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. If one has some insight in carving. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. long. thick. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. of pure olive oil. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. are used for the cores of the magnets. long. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. is used for the base of this instrument. . wide and 5 in. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. It is useful for photographers. Cal. Two wire nails. 2 in. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. Jaquythe. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. A. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. Instead of the usual two short ropes. each 1 in. can be made on the same standards. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers.

behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. --Contributed by W. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. 1. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. 25 gauge.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. acts as a spring to keep the key open. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. Lynas. except that for the legs. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. cloth or baize to represent the legs. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. . passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. then covered with red. cut in the shape of the letter T. at A. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. as shown in Fig. similar to that used in electric bells. About 1 in. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. All of the parts for the armor have been described. leaving about 1/4 in. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. 3. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. the paper covering put on. when the key is pushed down. about No. London. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. A piece of tin. H. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. in the shape shown in the sketch. A rubber band. says the English Mechanic. as shown by the dotted lines.

and eight small holes. long. So set up. Secure two strips of wood. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. apart. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. or ordinary plaster laths will do. By moving the position of the bolt from.. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. can be made in a few minutes' time. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. says Camera Craft. The two pieces are bolted together. make the same series of eight small holes and. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. A 1/4-in. Silver paper will do very well. about 1 in. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. These can be purchased at a stationery store. holes.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. 2. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. one to another . Instead of using brass headed nails. at each end. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. 1 and drill a 1/4in. completes the equipment. not too tight. 1 in. for the sake of lightness. Take the piece shown in Fig. Fig. in the other end. hole in the center. flat headed carriage bolt. 3 in. apart. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. In one end of the piece. drill six 1/4-in. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. Cut them to a length or 40 in. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts.

for instance. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. taking the same start as for the square fob. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. 2. of the ends remain unwoven. A is the first string and B is the second. Then take B and lay it over A. In this sketch. A round fob is made in a similar way. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. as in portraiture and the like. C over D and B. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. Fig. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Then draw all four ends up snugly. but instead of reversing . 4. in Fig. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about.of the larger holes in the strip. 2. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. 2. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. and the one beneath C. long. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. then B over C and the end stuck under A. and lay it over the one to the right. doubled and run through the web of A. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. 1. as shown in Fig. the one marked A. D over A and C. Start with one end. lay Cover B and the one under D.

Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. Rupp. Ohio. over the one to its right. especially if silk strings are used. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. as at A in Fig. 5. Monroeville. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. as B. A loop. --Contributed by John P. 3. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. is left out at the center before starting on one side. is to be made of leather. 1-1/2 in. as in making the square fob. The round fob is shown in Fig. always lap one string. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. Other designs can be made in the same manner. the design of which is shown herewith. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . long.

pressing it against the wood. Mich. it can be easily renewed. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. When the supply of wax is exhausted. using the reverse side. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. door facing or door panel. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. A. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. beeswax or paraffin. filling them with wax. Houghton. Northville. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. such as a nut pick. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. . and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. Any smooth piece of steel. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. -Contributed by A. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase.

The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. but any kind that will not stick may be used. Ill.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. D. it is best to leave a plain white margin. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. although tin ones can be used with good success. E and F. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Fold together on lines C. Petersburg. remaining above the surface of the board. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. --Contributed by O. and after wetting. long. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. those on matte paper will work best. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. apart and driven in only part way. and about 12 in. N. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. . The tacks should be about 1 in. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. if blueprints are used. Y. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. New York. Thompson. Enough plaster should. leaving about 1/4 in. place it face down in the dish. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. says Photographic Times. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. thick. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Select the print you wish to mount. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. J. Platinum or blueprint papers work well.

Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. roses. Lower into the test tube a wire. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. One of the . etc. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. filling the same about onehalf full. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. as shown at the left in the sketch. without mixing the solutions.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. as shown in the right of the sketch. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. will be rendered perfectly white. violets. bell flowers. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water..

Shabino. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. to keep the core from coming off in turning. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. 1. 3..most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. and at the larger end. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. not too tightly. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. When soldering these parts together. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. or delicate tints of the egg. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. 2. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. 1-7/8 in. should be soldered to the box. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. in diameter and 1 in. Millstown. made of heavy tin. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. --Contributed by L. A rod that will fit the brass tube. but which will not wobble loose. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. about 1/8s in. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. South Dakota. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. L. The sound box. as shown. is about 2-1/2 in. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. The diaphragm. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. long. thick. The first point should be ground blunt. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. long and made of wood. Fig. shading. The tin horn can be easily made. turned a little tapering.

The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass.Contributed by E. and. E. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. Victor. says the Iowa Homestead. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. and weighted it with a heavy stone. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. Gold. Colo. Chicago. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Jr. Ill. wondering what it was. put a board on top. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . mice in the bottom. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy.

or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. N. Ottawa. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Y. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. Pereira. . Buffalo. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. Can. --Contributed by Lyndwode. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time.

as shown. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . on the side and at the lower edge of the box.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Mich. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. cut round. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. and at one end of the stick fasten. --Contributed by W. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Cal. by means of a flatheaded tack. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. a piece of tin. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. A. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. This cart has no axle. --Contributed by Thos. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. longer than the length of the can. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Richmond. Jaquythe. Grand Rapids. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. above the end of the dasher. through which several holes have been punched. Put a small nail 2 in. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. as it can be made quickly in any size. De Loof.

--Contributed by James M. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. board. New Orleans. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. Doylestown.1. cut in the center of the rounding edge. 1-1/2 in. deep and 3 in. wide and 3 ft. thick. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. were below the level of the bullseye. screwed it on the inside of a store box. La.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2. as shown. 1 ft. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. apart. wide. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. 2. Kane. of course. 2 in. The baseboard and top are separable. The candles. long. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. Fig. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. wide and as long as the box. Pa. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. 2. 1. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. I reversed a door gong. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. A wedge-shaped piece of . The strip of wood is 1/4 in. Notches 1/8 in.

Mass. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. For the handle. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. A. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. Ia. as shown in Fig. the shelf could not be put on the window. 1. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. West Union. etc. take two pieces of hard wood. by cutting away the ends. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. when placed as in Fig. Needles. The block can also be used as a paperweight. dressing one surface of each piece. When not in use. Wood. Cover the block with rubber. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. This device is very convenient for invalids. wide rubber bands or felt. After the glue has dried. the reason being that if both were solid.. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. wide into each side of the casing. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. After completing the handle. stone or wood. will. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. as one end must be dropped in place before the other.Book Back Holders metal. the blade is put back into the groove . scissors. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. 3. Worcester. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. can be picked up without any trouble. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. to prevent its scratching the desk top. --Contributed by G. it can be removed without marring the casing.

and sharpened to a cutting edge. as shown in Fig. long. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. square and 4 in. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. 2. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Ohio. Pa. thus carrying the car up the incline. --Contributed by H. Jacobs. . Each one is made of a hardwood block. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. 1. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. -Contributed by W. A notch is cut in one side. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. as shown in Fig. If desired. A. 1 in. S. Erie. Malden. Mass. is shown in the accompanying sketch. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Hutchins. Cleveland. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop.

It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. Prepare a design for the front. This will insure having all parts alike. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. and an awl and hammer. Cape May Point. 6 by 9-1/2 in. will be needed.. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. . Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. The letters can be put on afterward.J. One sheet of metal. If one such as is shown is to be used.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. N. a board on which to work it.

says Master Painter. only the marginal line is to be pierced. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. in the waste metal. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. 2 parts white vitriol. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. or. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. The stick may be placed by the side of. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed." In all appearance. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. On the back. as shown. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. placed on a table. flat brush. paste the paper design right on the metal. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. varnish. 3/4 part. Remove the metal. mandolin or guitar. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. which is desirable. behind or through the center of a table leg. applied by means of a brush. turpentine. but weird and distant. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. 1/4 part.Fasten the metal to the board. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. if desired. to right angles. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. If any polishing is required. a violin. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. The music will not sound natural. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. 1 part. that can be worked in your own parlor. So impressive are the results. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. . If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. One coat will do. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal.

The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. . London. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. long. thick by 1/2 in. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. The longest piece. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. long and measuring 26 in. apart. 3. round-head machine screws. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. Two pairs of feet. and is easy to construct. is bent square so as to form two uprights. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. are shaped as shown in Fig. With proper tools this is easy. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. 2. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. square bar iron. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. without them. it might be difficult. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. says Work. each 6 in. long and spread about 8 in. across the top. wide.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. each 28 in.

7. on it as shown. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. as shown in Fig. special flux purchased for this purpose. The brads are then removed. The glass. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. A. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. After the glass is cut. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. The design is formed in the lead. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. 4. Fig. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. After the joints are soldered. better still. in the grooves of the borders. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. lead. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. and the base border. cut a long piece of lead. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. is held by the brads. 5. Place the corner piece of glass. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. using rosin as a flux. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. or. Fig. C. B. the latter being tapped to . 6. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. D.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. While the piece of lead D. 5. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in.

wood screws in each washer. one on each side and central with the hole. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. and round the corners of one end for a ring. Fasten the plates to the block B. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. Camden. Dreier. plates. holes through their centers. square and of the length given in the drawing. then drill a 3/4-in. Two styles of hand holds are shown. and two wood blocks. rocker bolt. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. bolt. thick and drill 3/4-in. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in.. in diameter and about 9 in. Make three washers 3-in. Secure a post. not less than 4 in. H. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. N. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. This . hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. plank about 12 ft. Bore a 3/4-in. J. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. This ring can be made of 1-in. long. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. in diameter and 1/4 in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. rounded at the top as shown. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. Jr. 8. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. bolt. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in.the base of the clip. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Bore a 5/8-in. A and B. long. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. The center pin is 3/4-in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. then flatten its end on the under side. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. long. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. --Contributed by W.

long. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . and some one can swing an axe. shanks. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 3 in. 50 ft. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. 1/2 in. can make a first class gymnasium. long. La. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. 4 pieces. 1-1/4in. hickory. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. The four 7-in. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. To substitute small. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. bolts and rope. square by 9-1/2 ft. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. long. 2 by 4 in. 1 by 7 in. long. of 1/4-in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. maple. horse and rings. straight-grained hickory. 16 screws. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. in diameter and 7 in. 4 in. chestnut or ash.will make an excellent cover for a pot. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. 2-1/2 in. apart for a distance of 3 ft. square by 5 ft. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. If trees are convenient. by 2 ft. 3/4 by 3 in. 1. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. by 3 ft. bit. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. long. by 6-1/2 ft. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. 4 in. from one edge. 4 filler pieces. screws. 7 in. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. 9 in. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. boards along the side of each from end to end. long and 1 piece. Draw a line on the four 7-in. New Orleans. because it will not stand the weather. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. 4 pieces.

These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. each 3 ft. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. deep and remove all loose dirt. at each end. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft.bored. 2. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. from the end. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place.. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. piece of wood. apart. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . 8 in. boards coincide. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. apart. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. so the 1/2-in. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut.. Bore a 9/16-in.

it follows the edge for about 1 in. just visible against the dark evening sky. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. . then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. He stretched the thread between two buildings. not even the tumbler. and materially heightened the illusion. And all he used was a black thread. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. the effect is very striking. which at once gathered. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. apart. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. W. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip.. When the interest of the crowd.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. and then passes in a curve across the base. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. not much to look at in daytime. was at its height. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. and ascends the stem. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. in an endless belt. If the tumbler is rotated. disappearing only to reappear again." which skimmed along the distant horizon. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. it is taken to the edge of the foot. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. passing through a screweye at either end. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. but most deceptive at dusk. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. about 100 ft.

wide and 1 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. 8 in. 2 by 3 in. by 10 ft. by 2 ft. To make the apparatus. long. 2 by 4 in. long. 4 knee braces. preferably cedar. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 4 wood screws. 2 cross braces. Bevel the ends of . deep. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. New Orleans. 2 in. 7 in. La. 4 in. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. long. 2 base pieces. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. long. 4 bolts. long. so the point will be on top. by 3 ft. 8 in. long. 8 bolts. long and 1 doz. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. 2 by 4 in. long. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 1. 6 in. Fig. 2 by 4 in. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 8 in. beginning at a point 9 in. The cork will come out easily. A wire about No. by 7 ft. large spikes. and turned in a spiral D. Chisel out two notches 4 in. square and 51/2 ft. square and 6 ft. 2 side braces. long. from either side of the center. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 4 in.

. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. leave it undressed. A large sized ladle. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. so the bolts in both will not meet.. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. If using mill-cut lumber. except the bars. but even unpainted they are very durable. additional long. Jaquythe. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. These will allow the ladle to be turned. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts.the knee braces. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. Two endpieces must be made. --Contributed by W. Richmond. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. equipped with a strainer. The wood so treated will last for years. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. After the trenches are dug. ( To be Continued. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. as shown in the diagram. etc. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. and countersinking the heads. using four of the 7-in bolts. which face each other. of 7 ft. jellies. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. A. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. Cal. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. screws. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. save the bars. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. leaving the strainer always in position.

Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. partly a barrier for jumps. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. In order to accomplish this experiment. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. thus holding the pail as shown. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. or various cutting compounds of oil. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. which seems impossible. . Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. milling machine. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. Oil. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. of sufficient 1ength. drill press or planer. it is necessary to place a stick. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. A. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing.

long. in the ground. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. bolts. 4 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. long. 2 by 4 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in.. 2 by 4 in. 4 knee braces. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. 4-1/2 in. two 1/2-in. and free from knots. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. apart.. These are well nailed in place. long. long. bolts. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. ten 1/2-in. in diameter--the larger the better. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. piece of 2 by 4-in. 2 bases. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. 1 in. long. long. Hand holds must be provided next. square by 5 ft. 4 in. projections and splinters. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. To construct. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. wood yard or from the woods.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. by 3 ft. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. beginning 1-1/2 in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. apart in a central position on the horse. square by 5-1/2 ft. The material required is as follows: Two posts. from each end. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. These are placed 18 in. by 3 ft. 3 in. stud cut rounding on one edge. 7 in. long. 1 cross brace. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. Procure from a saw mill. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. The round part of this log must be planed. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. by 3 ft. bolts. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. to fasten the knee braces at the top. bolt. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. 2 by 4 in. 2 adjusting pieces. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. is a good length. but 5 ft. 4 in. long.

over and around. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. Richmond. then bending to the shape desired. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. A.horse top. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. it is caused by an overloaded shell. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. but nevertheless. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. Jaquythe. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. pipe and fittings. snow. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Also. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. no one is responsible but himself. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. such as a dent. water. Cal. it is caused by some obstruction. etc.--Contributed by W. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Such a hand sled can be made in a . The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant.

This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. --Contributed by James E. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. --Contributed by Arthur E. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. Paris. 2. when straightened out. 1/4 or 3/16 in. Vener. Mass. is much better than a wood sled. when complete. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. at E and F.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Noble. . one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Toronto. France. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. will give the length. Boston. in width and 1/32 in. then run a string over each part. 1. --Contributed by J. thick. Ontario. W. which. The end elevation. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. are all the tools necessary. These. Joerin. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock.

are nailed. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. nor that which is partly oxidized. and the latter will take on a bright luster. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. . 4. It is best to use soft water. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. 3. AA and BB. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. The method shown in Figs. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked.

Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. The materials used are: backbone. Broad lines can be made. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. as shown in Fig. class ice-yacht. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. or various rulings may be made. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. 4. 2. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. 3. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. 1). If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. as shown in Fig. . Percy Ashley in Rudder. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 8 and 9. or unequal widths as in Fig. 2. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. 1-Details of Lathe sort. a tee and a forging. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. bent and drilled as shown. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in.Fig. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. It can be made longer or shorter. about 30 in. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. out from the collar. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. pipe. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. 1. Both the lower . pins to keep them from turning. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. a larger size of pipe should be used. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. but if it is made much longer. The point should extend about 11/2 in. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. long. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The headstock is made of two tees.

M. UpDeGraff. 2. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. 2. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. 1. Boissevain. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. Man. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. . as shown in Fig. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. thick as desired. as shown in Fig. a corresponding line made on this. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. To do this. else taper turning will result. Held. or a key can be used as well. It is about 1 in. W. 3/4 or 1 in. a straight line should be scratched Fig. Cal. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. and will answer for a great variety of work. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. Laporte. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. --Contributed by M. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. --Contributed by W. Indiana. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. but also their insulating properties. 2. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. Fruitvale. Musgrove.

The handle is of pine about 18 in. Ft. Ark. To obviate this. In use. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. J. long. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. --Contributed by E. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. Cline. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. Smith. as shown. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn.

This prevents the drill from wobbling. and when once in true up to its size. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. if this method is followed: First. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. --Contributed by Walter W. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. which should be backed out of contact. La. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. take . A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. on starting the lathe. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Denver. Colo. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. centering is just one operation too many.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. After being entered. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. the drill does not need the tool. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. New Orleans. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. White. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. face off the end of the piece.

as shown in D. a bout 1/2 in. is put into the paper tube A. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. The handkerchief rod.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. In doing this. vanishing wand. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. says the Sphinx. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. After the wand is removed. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. and this given to someone to hold. shown at C. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. The glass tube B. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. all the better. by applying caustic soda or . It can be used in a great number of tricks. unknown to the spectators. and can be varied to suit the performer. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. shorter t h a n the wand. a long piece of glass tubing. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. the cap is placed over the paper tube. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. after being shown empty. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief.

square and 1-7/8 in. 1/4 in. with the back side rounding. 1 Bottom. Cut a piece of hard wood. by 14 by 17 in. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. This dimension and those for the frets . 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. End. 3/16. thick. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters.potash around the edges of the letters. Glue the neck to the box. and glue it to the neck at F. With care and patience. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. 1 Neck. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. preferably hard maple. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. cut to any shape desired. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. as shown by K. The sides. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. Glue strips of soft wood. long. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. The brace at D is 1 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. 2 Sides. can be made by the home mechanic. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. As the cement softens. 1. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. and if care is taken in selecting the material. across the front and back to strengthen them. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. 1 End. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in.

H. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. Stoddard. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. O. --Contributed by Chas. or backbone. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. Carbondale. 1) on which to stretch the paper. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Frary. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. thick and about 1 ft. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. and beveled . HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. long is used for a keel. Norwalk. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. -Contributed by J. Six holes. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. 3/16 in. but it is not. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. toward each end. When it is completed you will have a canoe.Pa. A board 1 in. E. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. in diameter. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins.should be made accurately.

) in notches. 1 and 2. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. Fig. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. some tight strips of ash. and notched at the end to receive them (B. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. will answer nearly as well. Any tough. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. Osiers probably make the best ribs. twigs 5 or 6 ft. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. buy some split cane or rattan. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. . by means of a string or wire. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. when made of green elm. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. in such cases. two twigs may be used to make one rib. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. 2. and are not fastened. long are required. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. Fig. 2). apart. 3. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. Fig. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. long. thick. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. 4). and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. such as hazel or birch. the loose strips of ash (b. as shown in Fig. such as is used for making chairbottoms. These are better. as before described. Fig. Shape these as shown by A. B. or similar material. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. in thickness and should be cut. thick. but before doing this. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. as shown in Fig. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. In drying. The ribs. For the gunwales (a. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. 13 in. b. b. which are easily made of long. Fig. or other place. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. C. Fig. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. b. Green wood is preferable. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. wide by 26 in. 3. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. Fig. but twigs of some other trees. a. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. with long stout screws. Fig. slender switches of osier willow. and. 3). by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. Fig. 3). C. 4. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. and so. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. two strips of wood (b. 2). The ribs having all been fastened in place as described.. 3/8 in. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. procure at a carriage factory. The cross-boards (B. 1. as they are apt to do. probably. are next put in.

Then take some of the split rattan and. When the paper is dry. but neither stiff nor very thick. Fig. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. It should be smooth on the surface. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. It should be drawn tight along the edges. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. tacking it to the bottom-board. however. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. and steady in the water. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. 5). and as soon as that has soaked in. if it has been properly constructed of good material. If not. but with less turpentine. and held in place by means of small clamps. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. and very tough. after wetting it. When thoroughly dry. The paper is then trimmed. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. You may put in . of very strong wrapping-paper. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. preferably iron. apply a second coat of the same varnish. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. B. wide. If the paper be 1 yd. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. and light oars. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. Being made in long rolls.

to fit it easily. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. they will support very heavy weights. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. Fig.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. Drive the lower nail first. 5). A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. fore and aft. and make a movable seat (A. 5. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. Fig. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. 1. and if driven as shown in the cut. 1 and the end in . 2. Fig. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. We procured a box and made a frame. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames.

The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. 5. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another.Fig. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. Pa. This is an easy . The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. and the result is. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. Close the other end with the same operation. 3. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. and the glass. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. this makes the tube airtight. This way has its drawbacks. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. 4. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. being softer where the flame has been applied. A good way to handle this work. Pittsburg.

The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. extra metal all around. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. or six arms. After the bulb is formed. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. three. very rapid progress can be made. third. The candle holders may have two. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. 23 gauge. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. second. Oswald. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. fifth.way to make a thermometer tube. flat and round-nosed pliers. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. above the metal. Give the metal a circular motion. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. four. also trace the decorative design. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. file. fourth. metal shears. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. rivet punch. Seventh. Sixth. thin screw. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. above the work and striking it with the hammer. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. with a piece of carbon paper. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. then reverse. -Contributed by A.

Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . and holder. drip cup. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. Metal polish of any kind will do. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. Having pierced the bracket. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. Small copper rivets are used.

lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. the stick at the bottom of the sail. J.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. glycerine 4 parts. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. winding the ends where they came together with wire. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. F. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. Twenty cents was all I spent. N. deep. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. sugar 1 part. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. thus it was utilized. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. if it has not absorbed too much ink. when it will be ready for use. on a water bath. hammer. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. I steer with the front wheel. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. and other things as they were needed. and brace and bit were the tools used. and add the gelatine. Fifty. Heat 6-1/2 oz. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. The gaff. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. Mother let me have a sheet. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. is a broomstick. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. they were like an ice boat with a sail. and in a week . Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. A saw. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. and it will be ready for future use. Soak 1 oz. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. using a steel pen. Shiloh. The boom. and water 24 parts. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. except they had wheels instead of runners. smooth it down and then remove as before. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. alcohol 2 parts. of glycerine to about 200 deg. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. all the rest I found.

A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. a projecting lens .

and the lens slide. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. as desired. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. and the work carefully done. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. high. The board is centered both ways. well seasoned pine. wide and 15 in. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. above the center. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. 1/2 to 3/4 in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. or glue. at a distance of 24 ft. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. Fig. at a point 1 in. and 14 in. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. slide to about 6 ft. and a projecting lens 2 in. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. describe a 9-in. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. thick. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. 8 in. and. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. or a lens of 12-in. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. are . If a small saw is used. provided the material is of metal. This ring is made up from two rings. DD. H. The slide support. focus enlarging a 3-in. E. 3. wire brads. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. about 2 ft. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. long.. but if such a box is not found. A and B. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. A table. wide. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. 1. G.

placed on the water. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. Minn. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. To reach the water. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. and when the right position is found for each. The arrangement is quite safe as. Paul. but not long enough.constructed to slip easily on the table.-Contributed by G. Small strips of tin. E. the water at once extinguishes the flame. B. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. JJ. P. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. St. light burning oil. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. of safe. the strips II serving as guides. should the glass happen to upset. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. apply two coats of shellac varnish. A sheet . A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in.

H. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. Crawford. 9 in. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . form a piece of wire in the same shape. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. by 12 ft. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. Schenectady. N. If one of these clips is not at hand. 2. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer.. 3. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. to cover the mattresses. then the corners on one end are doubled over. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 3. --Contributed by J.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. from a tent company. 1. Fig. 3 in. I ordered a canvas bag. 12 ft. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. Fig. 4. Y.

for amperes and the other post. 3/4 in. An arc is cut in the paper. Fig. and insert two binding-posts. 3 to swing freely on the tack. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. through which the indicator works. C. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. 2.each edge. Fasten the wire with gummed label. 1. White. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Pa. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. A rubber band. holes in the edge. --Contributed by Walter W. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. Teasdale. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. A Film Washing Trough [331] . Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. --Contributed by Edward M. 3/4 in. Do not use too strong a rubber. 1/2 in. thick. apart. Denver. to keep it from unwinding. Attach a piece of steel rod. D. 1. V. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. Colo. To calibrate the instrument. Fig. in the center coil. to the coil of small wire for volts. 1/2 in. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. long and 3/16 in. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. as shown in Fig. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. first mark the binding-post A. so as to form two oblong boxes. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. insulating them from the case with cardboard. Warren. open on the edges. wide. long. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. 2. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. drill two 3/16 in. 2. Fold two strips of light cardboard.

O.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Place this can on one end of the trough. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. with the large hole up. Dayton. Hunting. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. --Contributed by M. as shown. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Wood Burning [331] . apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Cut a 1/4-in. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. M. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing.

then into this bottle place. mouth downward. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat.

The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. long. Whitehouse. but not very thick. provided the bottle is wide. 3/4 in. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. If the small bottle used is opaque. thick. If the cork is adjusted properly. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . --Contributed by John Shahan. --Contributed by Fred W. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. This will make a very pretty ornament. Upper Troy. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. as shown in the sketch. many puzzling effects may be obtained. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. N. wide and 4 in. 1. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend.Y. Ala. Place the small bottle in as before. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. Auburn. 2.

and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. The wire L was put . The shaft C. by the method shown in Fig. in diameter and 1 in. thick.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. pulley F. iron rod. sugar pine on account of its softness. A staple. If a transmitter is used. to the shaft. --Contributed by D. even in a light breeze. which was 6 in. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. Milter. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. 2 ft. high without the upper half. Its smaller parts. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. K. was keyed to shaft C. or ordinary telephone transmitters. was 1/4in. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. 3. Fig. 2. 4. B. 1. 1. were constructed of 1-in. Fig. Fig. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. I. W. On a 1000-ft. pulley. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. The bearing blocks were 3 in. thick and 3 in. 1. line. thick. 1. which extended to the ground. G. Fig. which was nailed to the face plate. wide. 1. Both bearings were made in this manner. 1 in. which gave considerable power for its size. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. The 21/2-in. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. as shown in Fig. such as blades and pulleys. Fig. long. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone.

apart in the tower. The bed plate D. 0. 25 ft. To make the key. This completes the receiver or sounder. This fan was made of 1/4-in. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. with all parts in place. 6. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. as. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. so that the 1/4-in. 2. long. a 1/2-in. for instance. 1. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. wide and 1 in. providing one has a few old materials on hand. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. To lessen the friction here. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. in diameter. was 2 ft. Fig. 1. top down also. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. Fig. 6. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. cut out another piece of tin (X. when the windmill needed oiling. The smaller one. long and 3 in. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. in the center of the board P. pine 18 by 12 in. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. This board was 12 in. 1. If you have no bell. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. Fig. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. H. Fig. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. washers were placed under pulley F. was tacked. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. 1. with brass headed furniture tacks. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. strips. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. across the thin edge of a board. hole was bored for it. long and bend it as . wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. There a 1/4-in. long and bend it as shown at A. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. Fig. Two washers were placed on shaft C. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. hole for the shaft G was in the center.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. R. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. and was cut the shape shown. 3 in. square to the board P at the top of the tower. 5. 1) 4 in. Fig. through the latter. The other lid. Fig. The power was put to various uses. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. G. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. long. long and 1/2 in. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each.

The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. after the manner of bicycle wheels. -Contributed by John R. as indicated. The rear barrels are. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. 2. Before tacking it to the board. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. When tired of this instrument. at the front. Now. Going back to Fig. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle.shown. leaving the other wire as it is. using cleats to hold the board frame. as shown at Water. and. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. like many another device boys make. fitted with paddles as at M. causing a buzzing sound. although it can be made with but two. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. 1. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. By adjusting the coils. McConnell. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Thus a center drive is made.

To propel it. 1. 3. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. There is no danger. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. as shown in Fig. there will not be much friction. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. copper piping and brass tubing for base. feet on the pedals. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. or even a little houseboat. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. can be built. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. The speed is slow at first. which will give any amount of pleasure. If the journals thus made are well oiled.

to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. 1. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. 2. and so creating a false circuit. Shape small blocks of boxwood. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. Then melt out the rosin or lead. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Fig. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. Fig. Place one brass ring in cylinder. B. then the glass disc and then the other ring. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. C. or it may be put to other uses if desired. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. 2. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. Fig. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. If it is desired to make the light very complete. Fig. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. 2. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. A. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter.of pleasure for a little work. D. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. Turn a small circle of wood. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. If magnifying glass cannot be had. 1. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. 1.

point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. after two turns have been made on the key. long. or 1/4in. Throw lever off from the right to center. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . 4-1/2 in. such as is used for cycle valves. near the bed. H.india rubber tubing. 5-1/4 by 10 in. by having the switch on the baseboard. C. switch. if too small. In placing clock on shelf. 4 in. some glue will secure them. E. To operate this. C. T. key of alarm clock. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. X. brass strip. wire from light to switch. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. Swissvale. after setting alarm. bracket. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. G. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . The parts indicated are as follows: A.. set alarm key as shown in diagram. dry batteries. and pulled tight. Pa. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. long. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. When alarm goes off. while lying in bed. wire from batteries to switch. copper tubing. B. brass rod. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. D. --Contributed by Geo. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. J. wire from bell to switch. To throw on light throw levers to the left. contact post. shelf. --Contributed by C. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. Brinkerhoff. which stops bell ringing. S. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. I. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. bell. thick. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. 3/8 in. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. wide and 1/16 in. Utah. F. Ogden. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. To get the cylinder into its carriage. Chatland.

for instance. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. beyond the end of the spindle. Make a shoulder. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. 2. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. --Contributed by Chas. making it as true and smooth as possible. letting it extend 3/4 in. Pull out the nail and stick. Chapman. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. 4 in. This is to form the fuse hole. S. Lanesboro. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. 3. will do the heating. 1/4 in. A flannel bag. as at B. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. Make the spindle as in Fig. in diameter. Fig. as at A. about 6 in. Having finished this. wide. Minn. 1. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. which can be made of an old can. Fig. Fig. as at A. long. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. A small lamp of about 5 cp. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. as in Fig. being careful not to get the sand in it. gives the heater a more finished appearance. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. as . a bed warmer. about 3-1/2 in. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. from one end. in diameter. place stick and all in a pail of sand. 1. All that is required is a tin covering. 2.

1 in. The material must be 1-1/2 in. A piece of oak. 3/8 in. or hickory. wide and 6 ft. wide and 3 ft. The illustration shows how this is done. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. long. thick. wide and 3/8 in. but if this wood cannot be procured. thick.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. A piece of tin. --Contributed by Arthur E. long. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. thick. this is to keep the edges from splitting. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. spring and arrows. will be sufficient to make the trigger. long. ash. 6 in. 1. good straight-grained pine will do. deep. 5/8 in. Joerin. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. 11/2 in. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire.

Fig. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. having the latter swing quite freely. The trigger. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. it lifts the spring up. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. place the arrow in the groove. as shown in Fig. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. wide at each end. Wilmette. better still. 2. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. 6. 9. Ill. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. The bow is not fastened in the stock. thick. 8. 3.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. or through the necessity of. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Fig. from the opposite end. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. which is 1/4 in. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. A spring. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. The stick for the bow. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. 4. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. When the trigger is pulled. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. To throw the arrow. E. from the end of the stock. Such a temporary safe light may be . 7. --Contributed by O. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. as shown in Fig. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. and one for the trigger 12 in. To shoot the crossbow. Trownes. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. in diameter. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. Fig. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig.

Remove the bottom of the box. The cut should be about 5 ft. it is the easiest camp to make. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. from the ground. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. Moreover. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. making lighting and trimming convenient. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. and nail it in position as shown at A. the bark lean-to is a . Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. Remove one end. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. By chopping the trunk almost through. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. and replace as shown at B. C. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. respectively. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. since the flame of the candle is above A. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. says Photo Era. apart. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. The hinged cover E. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. or only as a camp on a short excursion. from the ground. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. make the frame of the wigwam. is used as a door. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. This lamp is safe. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction.

a 2-in. nails are necessary to hold it in place. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. In the early summer. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. and cedar. A piece of elm or hickory. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. For a foot in the middle of the stick. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. selecting a site for a camp. long and 1-1/2 in. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. spruce. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. 6 ft. make the best kind of a camp bed. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. deep and covered with blankets.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. and split the tops with an ax. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. will dry flat. For a permanent camp. are a convenient size for camp construction. long and 2 or 3 ft. makes a good pair of tongs. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. and when the camp is pitched. Sheets of bark. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. Tongs are very useful in camp. Where bark is used. . 3 ft. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. wide and 6 ft. long. thick. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. wide. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. piled 2 or 3 ft. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs.

Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. and affording accommodation for several persons. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. hinges. . or even a rough lock for the camp larder.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried.

B. Pa.. A. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. about 4 in. B. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. and provide a cover or door. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Fig.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. 1. Doylestown. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. the interior can. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. to another . I drove a small cork. changing the water both morning and night. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. Kane. --Contributed by James M. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. deep and 4 in. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. wide. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner.

for instance. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. if necessary. limit. 4 and 5). The diagram. until. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. fused into one side. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. 2. E. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. which project inside and outside of the tube. 2. to pass through an increasing resistance. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. Fig. 3. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. for instance. a liquid.glass tube. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. C. This makes . The current is thus compelled. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. such as ether.

It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. they will make a frame 3/4 in. mark off a space. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. between centers. Before removing the field from the lathe. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. A. on a lathe. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. After cleaning them with the solution. Alpena. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. 4-1/2 in. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. If the thickness is sufficient. A 5/8in. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. 2. hole is . in diameter. Then the field can be finished to these marks. 3-3/8 in. as shown in the left-hand sketch. thick. and for the outside of the frame. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. cannot be used so often. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. thick. 1. in diameter. or pattern. Fig. 3-3/8 in. when several pieces are placed together. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. larger than the dimensions given. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. bent at right angles as shown. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. brass. These holes are for the bearing studs. but merely discolored. or even 1/16 in. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. The bearing studs are now made. 3. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. as shown in Fig. assemble and rivet them solidly. Michigan. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. making it 1/16 in. screws. by turning the lathe with the hand. which may be of any thickness so that. drill the four rivet holes. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. Fig. thicker. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. When the frame is finished so far. therefore. clamp the template. two holes. to allow for finishing. which will make it uniform in size. After the template is marked out. set at 1/8 in. tap. is composed of wrought sheet iron. brass or iron.

These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. Fig. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . file them out to make the proper adjustment. and build up the solder well. The shaft of the armature. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. into which a piece of 5/8-in. 4. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. is turned up from machine steel. soldered into place. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. or otherwise finished. When the bearings are located. solder them to the supports. brass rod is inserted.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports.

as shown in Fig. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. as shown in Fig. or segments. washers. and held with a setscrew. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. When this is accomplished. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. thick. 9. Armature-Ring Core. thick. 6. hole and tap it for a pin. 5. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. 6. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. After the pieces are cut out. wide. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. Procure 12 strips of mica. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. holes through them for rivets. deep and 7/16 in. sheet fiber. to allow for finishing to size. by 1-1/2 in. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. Rivet them together. wide. When annealed. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. 1-1/8 in. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. then drill a 1/8-in. 1/8 in. 7. Find the centers of each segment at one end. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. brass rod. being formed for the ends. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. as shown m Fig. thick. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. thick and 1/4 in.. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. 8. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. 3/4 in. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. After they . until they become flexible enough to be put in place. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. as shown in Fig. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. Make the core 3/4 in. The sides are also faced off and finished.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. 3. and then they are soaked in warm water. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. inside diameter. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. The pins are made of brass. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. 3/4 in. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. 3. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. threaded. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. thick are cut like the pattern.

All connections should be securely soldered. After one coil. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. being required. In starting to wind. about 100 ft. and wind on four layers. Fig. 5. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. until the 12 slots are filled. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. sheet fiber. after the motor is on the stand. When the glue is set. sheet fiber. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. This winding is for a series motor. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. they are glued to the core insulation. 1. Run one end of the field wire. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. The source of current is connected to the terminals. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig.have dried. by bending the end around one of the projections. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. are soldered together. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. The winding is started at A. 8 in. 6 in. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. The two ends are joined at B. or side. shown at A. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. Fig. 1. of the end to protrude. The field is wound with No. To connect the wires. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. the two ends of the wire. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. yet it shows a series of . thick. wide and 1 in. long. which will take 50 ft. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. of No. of the wire. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. shown at B.

A 1/2-in. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. as in the case of a spiral. is fastened to the metallic body. Nine wires run from the timer. still more simply. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. which serves as the ground wire. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. and one. one from each of the eight contacts. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. or. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact.

apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. thus giving 16 different directions. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. of the dial. long. Covering these is a thin. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. board. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. Without this attachment. It should be . two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. circle. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. 6 in. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. 45 deg.The Wind Vane. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing.

will be sufficient. -Contributed by James L. Place the leather on some level. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. Blackmer. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. will answer the purpose just as well. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. N. and about 6 in. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. Fill the box with any handy ballast. and securely nail on the top of the box. is most satisfactory. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. To make it. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. high. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. if not too high. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. long to give the best results. will be enough for the two sides. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. however. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. . called a chip carving knife. also a piece of new carpet. or. making it heavy or light.about 6 ft. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. according to who is going to use it. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. Before tacking the fourth side. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. 14 by 18 in. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. To work these outlines. Y. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. Cut 3-in. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. thus making a universal joint. though a special knife. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. Buffalo.

Paste the silk plush to the inner side.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. A good leather paste will be required. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. An ordinary sewing-machine . Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining.

The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. of water. as in cases of a sprained ankle. B. rather than the smooth side. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. or a hip that has been wrenched. --Contributed by Katharine D. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. Morse. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft.will do if a good stout needle is used. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. of common salt and 10 lb. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. a needle and some feathers. and tie them together securely at the bottom. temporary lameness. can be thrown away when no longer needed. Syracuse. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. N. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Y. If a fire breaks out. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. square and tying a piece of . The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. away from it.

allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. A small wooden or fiber end. which is the essential part of the instrument. Albany. board all around the bottom on the inside. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. and a coil of wire. is cut on the wood. thus helping the rats to enter. E. laying poisoned meat and meal. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. --Contributed by J. made up of four layers of No. setting traps. The body of the receiver. Gordon Dempsey. Hellwig. but not sharp. wound on the head end. Ashland. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. deep. B. and tacked it to the boards.J. There is a 1-in. the corners being wired. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding.. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. Y. as shown. One end is removed entirely. commonly called tintype tin. --Contributed by John A. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. and the receiver is ready for use. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. G. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. high. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. etc. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. N. A. long. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind.string to each corner. letting it go at arm's length. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. The coil is 1 in. Paterson. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. The end is filed to an edge. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. . Wis. N. 1/8 in. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. cut to the length of the spool. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. The strings should be about 15 in. F. The diaphragm C. wide and 1/16 in. This not only keeps the rats out. long. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax.

gold. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. and bend each strip in shape. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. To clean small articles. A single line will be sufficient. The vase is to have three supports. wide. a piece of small wire.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. begin with the smallest scrolls. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. Take a piece of string or. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. to . dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. better still. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper.

stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. 4-1/4 in.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. sharp pencil. thus raising it. 3-1/2 in. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Press or model down the leather all around the design. After taking off the pattern. through which to slip the fly AGH. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B.. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. Trace also the line around the purse. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. using a duller point of the tool. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. from the lines EF on the piece. Fold the leather on the line EF. 3-1/4 in. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. About 1 in. as shown in the sketch. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. 6-3/8 in. from E to F. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. and does not require coloring.which the supports are fastened with rivets. Work down the outside line of the design. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used.. wide when stitching up the purse. from C to D. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. .

Now take another piece of wood. and a model for speed and power. and which will be very interesting. and. following the dotted lines. It can be made without the use of a lathe. deep. thick. 1/2 in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. b.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. 2. Then nail the wheel down firmly. the "open" side. with the open side down. square. as shown in Fig. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. with the largest side down. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. deep. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. long. and tack the other piece slightly. and cut out a wheel. as well as useful. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. Fit this to the two . It is neat and efficient. 3. with a compass saw. being cast in wooden molds. all the way around. When it is finished. leaving the lug a. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. Cut off six pieces 12 in. Make the lug 1/4 in. then nail it. with pins or small nails. This also should be slightly beveled. First. around the wheel. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. by 12 ft. 1 was cut. and the projections B. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. 1. then place the square piece out of which Fig.

holes through it. 1. as shown by the .1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. and lay it away to dry. After it is finished. square pieces of wood. bolts. as shown by the black dots in Fig. hole bored through its center. square pieces of wood. Now put mold No. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. deep. hole 1/4 in. Take the mold apart. hole entirely through at the same place. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in.pieces just finished. and bore six 1/4-in. place it between two of the 12-in. 4. in the center of it. slightly beveled. and boring a 3/8-in. Now take another of the 12-in. and clean all the shavings out of it. then bolt it together. one of which should have a 3/8-in. and cut it out as shown in Fig.

the other right-handed. see that the bolts are all tight. take an ordinary brace. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. fasten a 3/8-in. This will cast a paddle-wheel. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. b. and lay it away to dry. only the one is left-handed. drill in it. long. 1. wide and 16 in. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. holes. screw down. B. place it under the drill. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. from the one end. over the defective part. put the top of the brace through this hole. d. and drill it entirely through. and 3/8-in.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. as shown in illustration. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. in diameter must now be obtained. instead of the right-handed piece. until it is full. and bore three 1/4-in. so that it will turn easily. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. A piece of mild steel 5 in. lay it on a level place. This is mold No. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. true it up with a square. and the other in the base. long. Using the Brace . and run in babbitt metal again. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and pouring metal in to fill it up. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. where the casting did not fill out. and pour babbitt metal into it.1. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings.1. 5. Commencing 1-1/2 in. 4. Fig. This is for a shaft. one in the projections. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. and connect to the boiler.2. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. place the entire machine in a vise. and two 1/4-in. This is the same as Fig. Pour metal into mold No. Then bolt the castings together. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. 6. Let it stand for half an hour.2. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. one in the lug. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. and the exhaust hole in projection b.black dots in Fig. After it is fitted in. Now cut out one of the 12-in. holes at d. 6. and drill them in the same manner. Now take mold No. Put this together in mold No.

while it is running at full speed. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. one 6 ft. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. and if instructions have been carefully followed. with a boss and a set screw. and the other 8 ft. long. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. turn the wheel to the shape desired. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. piece and at right angles to it. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. will do good service. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. and. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Then take a knife or a chisel. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Plan of Ice Boat . At each end of the 6ft.. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal.

This fits in the square hole. at the end. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. in diameter in the center. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. where they often did considerable damage. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. leaving 1 ft. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. Fig. long. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. long. The spar should be 9 ft. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . piece and at right angles to it. at the butt and 1 in. Run the seam on a machine. and about 8 in. Make your runners as long as possible. plank. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. 8 a reef point knot. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. bolt the 8-ft. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. which may come in handy in heavy winds. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. in diameter. as the runners were fastened. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. Over the middle of the 6-ft. To the under side of the 8-ft. Fig.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. The tiller. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. 1. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. in the top before the skate is put on. tapering to 1-1/2 in. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. in front of the rudder block. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. boards to make the platform. in diameter at the base. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. 3. plank nail 8-in. distant. at the top. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. 1. should be of hardwood. 2 by 3 in. projecting as in Fig. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. long and 2-1/2 in. so much the better will be your boat.

and place it behind a stove.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. --Contributed by J. --Contributed by John D. The arrangement proved quite too effective. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. bent into a hook at each end. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. Pa. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. small piece of wood. P. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. Mechanicsburg. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. so that they come in contact at C. wide. Adams. to block B. S S. P. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. The . Phoenix. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. and the alarm bell will ring. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. Its parts are as follows: A. allowing the springs to contact at C. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. R. B. block of wood nailed to A. Comstock. Ariz.

and the pole works in the wheel as an axle.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. including the . Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flanges or washers having a slight concave to their face. says the American Boy. A passenger rides in each seat and the motorman takes his station at the middle. high. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. The stump makes the best support. 2. and make it into a clock to hang on the wall. 1. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. Then get a 10-cent frying pan. The wheel is anchored out by several guy H