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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

away. --Contributed by J. Noble. 1. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw.Fig. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. 1. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. 2. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. A piece of plank 12 in. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. with the hollow side away from you. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. 2 -. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. 2. as shown in Fig. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. long will make six boomerangs. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. 1.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. Fig. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. distant. Ontario. until it is bound as shown in Fig. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. as shown in Fig. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. To throw a boomerang. apart. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. grasp it and hold the same as a club. E. It is held in this curve until dry. wide and 2 ft. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. Toronto. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . The pieces are then dressed round.

made of 6-in. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. minus the top. but about 12 in. and it may be necessary to use a little water. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. long. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. blocks . The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. however. and with a movable bottom. A wall.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. A very light. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. 6 in. one inside of the circle and the other outside. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. First. high and 4 or 5 in. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. it is not essential to the support of the walls. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. the block will drop out. thick. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. dry snow will not pack easily. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. or rather no bottom at all. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. forcing it down closely. which makes the building simpler and easier. If the snow is of the right consistency.

but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. Goodbrod. 2. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. Fig. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. D. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. long and 1 in. which can be made of wood. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. 1. There is no outward thrust. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. wide. or an old safe dial will do. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. It also keeps them out. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. 3 -. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. A nail. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. The piece of wood. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. which is about 1 ft. Ore. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. is 6 or 8 in. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. Fig. 3. a. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Geo. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. and the young architect can imitate them. Fig. 1. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. A little experience will enable one to do this work well.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . 2. Union. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. above the ground. C.

one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. one pair of special hinges. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. New York. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. S. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key.When taking hot dishes from the stove. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. says the Sphinx. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. If ordinary butts are used. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. Merrill. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. Syracuse. --Contributed by R. the box locked . For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. as the weight always draws them back to place.

make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. draw one-half of it. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. If the measuring has been done properly. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. It remains to bend the flaps. as shown. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. Ga. 2. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. about 1-32 of an inch. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. If they do not. -Contributed by L. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. All . smooth surface. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel.and the performer steps out in view. one for each corner. proceed as follows: First. on drawing paper. allowing each coat time to dry. as shown in Fig. Place the piece in a vise. as shown in Fig. Fig. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. 3. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. With the metal shears. Augusta. To make a design similar to the one shown. 1. Alberta Norrell. When the sieve is shaken. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner.

causing it to expand. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. in passing through the lamp. C. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. The current. of No. To keep the metal from tarnishing. R. A piece of porcelain tube. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. A resistance. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. Galbreath. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. which is about 6 in. from the back end. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. Denver. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. The common cork. 25 gauge German-silver wire. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. is fitted tightly in the third hole. used for insulation. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. After this has dried. If a touch of color is desired. as shown at AA. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. should be in the line. When the current is turned off. H. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. In boring through rubber corks. --Contributed by R. B. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. heats the strip of German-silver wire. and in the positions shown in the sketch. 25 German-silver wire. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. about 6 in. in diameter. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. long. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . Colo. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly.the edges should be left smooth. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. if rolled under the shoe sole. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft.

Purchase two long book straps. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. as shown in Fig.bottom ring. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Mo. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. 3. --Contributed by David Brown. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. leaving a space of 4 in. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. between them as shown in Fig. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. with thin strips of wood. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. Kansas City. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Fig. 2. 1. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. . The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely.

The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. The string is then tied. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. Fig. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. 2. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. 1. Pa. 36 in. Morse. 1. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Two strips of brass. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. and a pocket battery. to form a handle. N. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. and one weighing 25 lb. The folds are made over the string. --Contributed by James M. 1. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. These are shown in Fig. --Contributed by Katharine D. When the aeroplane tips. having a gong 2-1/2 in. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb.. Doylestown. 3.. in diameter. are mounted on the outside of the box. one weighing 15 lb. just the right weight for a woman to use. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Kane. and tack smoothly. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. Y. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Fig. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass.An ordinary electric bell. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Syracuse. A. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. 4. which is the right weight for family use. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. as . long. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Fig. C.

bookracks and shelves can be made with one. AA. 2. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. bent as shown in Fig. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. The saw. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. Y. Floral Park. Day. Frame Made of a Rod .Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. two 1/8 -in. machine screws. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. if once used. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. N. 2. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. --Contributed by Louis J. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. long. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. such as brackets. in diameter. 3/32 or 1/4 in. four washers and four square nuts. 1. and many fancy knick-knacks.

green and browns are the most popular. Drying will cause this to change to purple. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. or silver. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. allowing each time to dry. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. therefore. Michigan.may be made of either brass. be covered the same as the back. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. though almost any color may be obtained. Scranton. of water in which dissolve. --Contributed by W. 1 part nitric acid. File these edges. as well as brass and copper. A. as well as the depth of etching desired. copper. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Rub off the highlights. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. using a swab and an old stiff brush. after breaking up. 1 part sulphuric acid. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. Detroit. In the design shown.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. For etching. If it colors the metal red. of water. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. Of the leathers. An Austrian Top [12] . of course.. Apply two coats. The buckle is to be purchased. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. Silver is the most desirable but. if copper or brass. use them in place of the outside nuts. it has the correct strength. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. the most expensive. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. treat it with color. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. Watch Fob For coloring silver. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium.

3/4 in. pass one end through the 1/16-in. --Contributed by J. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. long. hole. wide and 3/4 in.F. . Michigan. The handle is a piece of pine. When the shank is covered. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. set the top in the 3/4 -in. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. Ypsilanti. A handle. A 1/16-in. 5-1/4 in. 1-1/4 in. Tholl.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. Parts of the Top To spin the top. thick. starting at the bottom and winding upward. in diameter. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. is formed on one end. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. hole in this end for the top. allowing only 1-1/4 in. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. long. Bore a 3/4-in.

Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. --Contributed by Miss L. The baking surface. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. --A. having no sides. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Mich. For black leathers. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Augusta. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. . Ga. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Alberta Norrell. Northville.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. A. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. tarts or similar pastry. Houghton. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired.

and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. glass fruit jar. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . The weight of the broom keeps it in position. says Studio Light. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Stringing Wires [13] A. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. the same as shown in the illustration. then solder cover and socket together. two turns will remove the jar. Centralia. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. When you desire to work by white light.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. Mo. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt.

1/4 by 1 by 65 in. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. Janesville. They are fastened. Wis. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. square by 62 in. square by 12 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out.for loading and development. 1-1/4 in. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. as shown in the cross-section sketch. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. 1-1/4 in. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. and not tip over. 16 Horizontal bars. 4 Braces. . The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. 4 Vertical pieces. so it can be folded up. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration.

from scrap material. H. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. New York. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. --Contributed by Dr. If the loop is tied at the proper place. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. Phillipsburg. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. after filling the pail with water. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. Cincinnati. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. and a loop made in the end. After rounding the ends of the studs. O. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. Rosenthal. The whole. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. -Contributed by Charles Stem. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. C. The front can be covered . I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath.

1 FIG. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. either for contact printing or enlargements. the color will be an undesirable. and. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. by all rules of the game. Wehr. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. --Contributed by Gilbert A. If the gate is raised slightly. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. thoroughly fix. you are. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Baltimore. In my own practice. Md. The . 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. if you try to tone them afterward. sickly one. The results will be poor. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. FIG. principally mayonnaise dressing. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. Develop them into strong prints. the mouth of which rests against a. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. By using the following method.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle.

.. L.... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper... Water .. 16 oz..... when it starts to bleach... 5 by 15 in.. When the desired reduction has taken place. 20 gr. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. 2. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax... three times... where it will continue to bleach.. Place the dry print. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in... 1 and again as in Fig.. preferably the colored kind...... but. long to admit the angle support...... The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. transfer it to a tray of water. --Contributed by T. as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.. The blotting paper can ... They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. in this solution..... as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. Cal. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. Gray. Iodide of potassium . With a little practice. It will bleach slowly and evenly.. wide and 4 in.." Cyanide of potassium .. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper..... to make it 5 by 5 in.. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. without previous wetting. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.. etc... 2 oz. in size.. A good final washing completes the process...... San Francisco.

How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. the head of which is 2 in. Monahan.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Wisconsin. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Make a design similar to that shown. 3. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. 20 gauge. wide. and a length of 5 in. Oshkosh. --Contributed by J. wide below the . Corners complete are shown in Fig. --Contributed by L. the shaft 1 in. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Canada.J. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use.

After this has dried. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. then trace the other half in the usual way. With the metal shears. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. After the sawing. being held perpendicular to the work. . use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. Make one-half of the design. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. 4. With files. 1 Fig. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. Allow this to dry. then put on a second coat. after folding along the center line. 3. 2. 1 part nitric acid. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. then coloring. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. 1. Fig. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. freehand. Do not put the hands in the solution. Pierce a hole with a small drill. using turpentine. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. For coloring olive green. using carbon paper. but use a swab on a stick. Apply with a small brush. Trace the design on the metal. 1 part sulphuric acid. deep. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig.FIG. The metal must be held firmly. which gives the outline of the design Fig. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. using a small metal saw.

After the stain has dried. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. Syracuse. Conn. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. --Contributed by H. then stain it a mahogany color. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. on a chopping board. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Richmond. Morse. . thick. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. attach brass handles. M. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. it does the work rapidly. --Contributed by M. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. East Hartford. Carl Cramer. New York. When this is cold. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. Burnett. Cal. as shown. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Ii is an ordinary staple. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. --Contributed by Katharine D. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted.

The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. . two stopcocks with 1/8 in. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. thick. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. L. about 3/16 in. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. Cal. and several 1/8-in. indicating the depth of the slots. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work.. machine screws. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. A. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. saucers or pans. holes. 53 steel pens. brass. also locate the drill holes. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. --Contributed by Mrs. Fig. as shown in Fig. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. or tin. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. 1. as shown at A. some pieces of brass. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. square. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. 4. two enameled. Richmond. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. Kissimmee. --Contributed by W. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. not over 1/4 in. Atwell. in width at the shank. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. one shaft. Jaquythe. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. WARNECKE Procure some brass. 1/4 in. Florida. H. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered.

and one hole in the top part for a machine screw.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. with 1/8-in. wide. 5. in diameter and 1/32 in. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. with the face of the disk. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. thick. 1. Fig. A 3/4-in. machine screws and nuts. lead should be run into the segments. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. and pins inserted. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. hole is drilled to run off the water. 2. using two nuts on each screw. supply pipe. 7. as in Fig. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. long by 3/4 in. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. The shaft hole may also be filed square. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. into the hole. These are connected to a 3/8-in. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. hole. thick. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. can be procured. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. 2. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. and the ends filed round for the bearings. about 1/32 in. Fig. as shown in Fig. Bend as shown in Fig. 3. There should be a space of 1/16 in. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. Fig. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. hole in the center. 3. long and 5/16 in. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. brass and bolted to the casing. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. with a 3/8-in. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. machine screws.. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. wide and bend as shown in Fig. as shown. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. each about 1 in. If metal dishes. 6. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. a square shaft used. If the shaft is square.

high and 15 in. and the smaller part will be known as the tray.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. La Salle. square and 30-1/2 in. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Hamilton. 8-1/2 in. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Canada. screws. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Stain the wood before putting in the . three of which are in the basket. deep over all. Smith. V. or more in diameter. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. When assembling. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. using four to each leg. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Fasten with 3/4-in. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. from the bottom end of the legs. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. we will call the basket. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Ill. Now you will have the box in two pieces. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. With a string or tape measure. deep and 1-1/4 in. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. from the top of the box. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. make these seams come between the two back legs. Cooke. --Contributed by S. The four legs are each 3/4-in. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. --Contributed by F. long. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Be sure to have the cover. The lower part. to make the bottom.

The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Sew on to the covered cardboards. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. as shown in the sketch. and gather it at that point. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Boston.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . If all the parts are well sandpapered. Md. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. The side. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. wide and four strips 10 in. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen.lining. Baltimore. you can. wide. --also the lower edge when necessary. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Packard. sewing on the back side. Mass. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Fig. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. When making the display. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. 2. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. 1. -Contributed by Stanley H. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things.2 Fig. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Cover them with the cretonne. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound.

Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. 3. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. and. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. --Contributed by H. Cross Timbers.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Crockett. It is cleanly. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. When through using the pad. Y. with slight modifications. Gloversville. Mo. Fig. saving all the solid part. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. It is not difficult to . a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. L. Orlando Taylor. --Contributed by B. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. N. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position.

Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. If a file is used. and scrape out the rough parts. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. -Contributed by C. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Both of these methods are wasteful. Lowell. After this is done. After stirring. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Bourne. El Paso. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. across the face.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Mass. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. S. are shown in the diagram. remove the contents. and secure it in place with glue or paste. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. or if desired. Lane. Texas. it should be new and sharp. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. --Contributed by Edith E. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell.

air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Greenleaf. Ill. Turl. Ill. --Contributed by Geo. A Postcard Rack [25]. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. After several hours' drying. Those having houses . and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. circled over the funnel and disappeared. Iowa. Oregon. Wheeler. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. As these were single-faced disk records. He captured several pounds in a few hours. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. --Contributed by Loren Ward. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Des Moines. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. F. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Canton. The process works well and needs no watching. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new.cooking utensil. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. Oak Park. --Contributed by Marion P. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. The insects came to the light. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe.

the height to the eaves being 6 ft. Both sides can be put together in this way. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. and as they are simple in design. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. will do as well. 6 in. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. Dobbins. and both exactly alike. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. thick. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. but for cheapness 3/4 in. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. Lay the floor next. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. Mass. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. material. the bottom being 3/8 in. Glenbrook. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Only three pieces are required. and the second one for the developing bench. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. 6 in. Conn. one on each side of what will be the . The single boards can then be fixed. Rosenberg.. by 2 ft. Worcester. plane and pocket knife. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. the best material to use being matched boards. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. not even with the boards themselves. boards are preferable. --Contributed by Wm.. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. --Contributed by Thomas E.

2 in section. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. nailing them to each other at the ridge. so that it will fit inside the sink. 9 by 11 in. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. 10). 6) and another as F in the same drawing. etc.doorway. 11. and the top as at C in the same drawing. is cut. and act as a trap for the light. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. which is fixed on as shown . 5. and should be zinc lined. 6. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. below which is fixed the sink. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. 8. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. 7. The developing bench is 18 in. as shown in Figs. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. and an arrangement of slats (Fig.. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. so that the water will drain off into the sink. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. 3 and 4. 9). The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. 6. brown wrapping paper. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy.. At the top of the doorway. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. by screwing to the floor. the closing side as at B. wide. hinged to it. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. Fig. 6 and 9. In hinging the door. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig.. The roof boards may next be put on. It is shown in detail in Fig. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. and in the middle an opening. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. of the top of the door for the same reason. and to the outside board of the sides.

Details of the Dark Rook .

as shown in the sections. Fig. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. if desired. and a tank stand on it. though this is hardly advisable. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. Pennsylvania. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. 13. or red light as at K. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. but not the red glass and frame. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. Fig. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. four coats at first is not too many. as in Fig. 18. 13. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. Karl Hilbrich. 14.in Fig. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. or the room may be made with a flat roof. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. 16. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. after lining with brown paper. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. 1. 15. A circular piece about 2 in. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. hole bored in the center for a handle. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. preferably maple or ash. 19. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. 17. In use. screwing them each way into the boards. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. Fig. mixing flour and water. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. it is better than anything on the market. --Contributed by W. these being shown in Fig. 6. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . The house will be much strengthened if strips. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. For beating up an egg in a glass. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. Erie. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. which makes it possible to have white light. as at I. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. are fastened in the corners inside. 16. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. and a 3/8-in. 20. as at M. 2. as shown in Fig. The handle should be at least 12 in. Fig. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G.

simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. long. To operate. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. about 3/8 in. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Ark. G. --Contributed by L. -Contributed by E. L. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. D. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. --Contributed by Wm. Smith. Mitchell. when put together properly is a puzzle.copper should be. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. for a handle. Mo. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Schweiger. which. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Yonkers. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Eureka Springs. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. New York. Kansas City.

to make it set level.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. which binds them together. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. . It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. 1. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. After the box is trimmed. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. 2. 3. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. A number of 1/2-in. Each cork is cut as in Fig. as shown in Fig. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. for the moment. as shown in Fig. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. as is usually the case. need them. The corks in use are shown in Fig. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. If the sill is inclined. especially for filling-in purposes. 3. The design shown in Fig. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. Having completed the bare box. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. the rustic work should be varnished. in order to thoroughly preserve it. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. the box will require a greater height in front. as well as improve its appearance. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. holes should be drilled in the bottom. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming.

. When the corn is gone cucumbers. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. Each long projection represents a leg. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. cabbages. it's easy. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. etc.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. being partly eaten into. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. 4. 1. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. can't use poison. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. F. Traps do no good. drilled at right angles. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. But I have solved the difficulty.. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. 3. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. and observe results. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. 2. as shown in Fig. life in the summer time is a vexation. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. too dangerous. share the same fate. to hold the coil on the bottom plate.

Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. the coil does not heat sufficiently. cut some of it off and try again. If. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. Iowa. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. by trial. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. . About 9-1/2 ft. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. cut in 1/2-in. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. of No. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. and made up and kept in large bottles. -. long. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. strips. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. The solution can be used over and over again.

releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. coffee pot. Kane. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Doylestown. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Morse. . being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Fig 2. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. as shown in the sketch. of whiting and 1/2 oz. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. but with unsatisfactory results. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. is a good size--in this compound. forks. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. hot-water pot.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. D. --Contributed by James M. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Do not wash them. 1) removed. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. of gasoline. and a strip. Stir and mix thoroughly. Syracuse. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Dallas. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Texas. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. C. Pa. In cleaning silver. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Y. --Contributed by Katharine D. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. it falls to stop G. to cause the door to swing shut. Knives. N. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds.

Pa. of course. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. using the paper dry. Harrisburg. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Waverly. but unfixed. Sprout. . --Contributed by Theodore L. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. New Orleans. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. Fisher. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. Ill. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. --Contributed by Oliver S. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. negatives. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. La.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. which is. later fixed and washed as usual.

1. To obviate this difficulty. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. a harmonograph is a good prescription. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. In this uncertainty lies the charm. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. then . The harmonograph.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. metal. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. Fig.

. Punch a hole. A pedestal. A small weight. Another weight of about 10 lb. A weight. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. ceiling. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. which can be regulated. one-fifth. G. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. The length of the short pendulum H. and unless the shorter pendulum is. makes respectively 3. such as a shoe buttoner. or the lines will overlap and blur. is attached as shown at H. in the center of the circle to be cut. 1-3/4 by 2 in. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. provides a means of support for the stylus. J. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. is about right for a 10-ft. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. Gaffney. to prevent any side motion. Holes up to 3 in. 1. exactly one-third. K.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. --Contributed by James T. of about 30 or 40 lb. what is most important. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass.. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . R. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. Arizona. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. A small table or platform. Rosemont. as shown in Fig.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. as long as the other. one-fourth. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. --Contributed by Wm. that is. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. 1. etc. in diameter. Chicago. A length of 7 ft. for instance. Ingham. with a nail set or punch. as shown in the lower part of Fig.

4. -Contributed by W. The two key cards are made alike. Fig. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement.J. Cruger. and proceed as before. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. 2.J. of course.H. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. 6. N.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. 1. Cape May City. a correspondent of . distributing them over the whole card. then 3 as in Fig. The capacity of the vise. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. one for the sender and one for the receiver. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. 3. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. dividing them into quarters. --Contributed by J. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. and 4 as in Fig. Fig. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. Chicago. 5. Morey. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. then put 2 at the top.

Cut through the center. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. After preparing the base and uprights. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. drill 15 holes. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. citrate of iron and ammonia. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. Augusta. 1/2 oz. Wind the successive turns of . 1/4 in. acetic acid and 4 oz. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. says Popular Electricity. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. Alberta Norrell. 22 gauge German-silver wire. Asbestos board is to be preferred. --Contributed by L. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. the portion of the base under the coil. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. wood-screws. 6 gauge wires shown. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. of 18-per-cent No. deep. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. long. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. To assemble. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. After securing the tint desired. of water. respectively. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. 30 gr. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. of ferricyanide of potash. from the top and bottom. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. sheet of well made asbestos paper. of the uprights. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. remove the prints. Ga. If constructed of the former.

by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films.. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. cut and dressed 1/2 in. Small knobs may be added if desired.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . rivets. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. 16 gauge copper wire. if one is not a smoker. etc. as they are usually thrown away when empty. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Labels of some kind are needed. 14 gauge. Y. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. Ward. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. N. square. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. then fasten the upright in place. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. but these are not necessary. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. screws. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Ampere. --Contributed by Frederick E. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. which. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench.

particularly so when the iron has once been used. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. the pure muriatic acid should be used. The parts are put together with dowel pins. California. Eureka Springs. and labeled "Poison. zinc. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. If the soldering copper is an old one. This is considerable annoyance. of water. . especially if a large tub is used. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. sandpaper or steel wool. In soldering galvanized iron. D. Kenosha. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. Wis. and rub the point of the copper on it. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. then to the joint to be soldered. E and F. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. A. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions.14 oz. S. --Contributed by A. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. tin. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. --C. Richmond. brass. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. galvanized iron. as shown in the sketch. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. a piece of solder. B. lead. Copper. --Contributed by W. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. being careful about the heat. Jaquythe. it must be ground or filed to a point. or has become corroded. Larson.. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. and one made of poplar finished black. G. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. C. of glycerine to 16 oz. The material can be of any wood. Ark. tinner's acid. Heat it until hot (not red hot).

brass and silver. -Contributed by H. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Brass rings can be plated when finished. round iron. 2. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. wide. D. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. N. Six issues make a well proportioned book. thick and 1-1/4 in. The dimensions shown in Fig. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. C. such as copper. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. Apart from this. in diameter. The punch A. with good results. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. which gives two bound volumes each year. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Take a 3/4-in.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. The disk will come out pan shaped. 7/8 in. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. B. Fig. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . This completes the die. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. 1. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. Y. in diameter. however. This will leave a clear hole. a ring may be made from any metal. The covers of the magazines are removed. Hankin. W. nut. and drill out the threads. Fig. Place the band. Troy. I bind my magazines at home evenings. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in.

longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied.4. of the ends extending on each side. is used for the sewing material. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. allowing about 2 in. 1/8 in. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. 1 in Fig. then back through the notch on the right side. threaded double. and a third piece. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. The sections are then prepared for sewing. The covering can be of cloth. using . Start with the front of the book. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. If started with the January or the July issue. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. deep. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. as shown in Fig. 1. C. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. size 16 or larger. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. . The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. and then to string No. is nailed across the top. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. The string No. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. through the notch on the left side of the string No. Place the cardboard covers on the book. 1.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. which is fastened the same as the first. 2. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. After drawing the thread tightly. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. The covering should be cut out 1 in. Coarse white thread. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. 5. and place them against the strings in the frame. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. 1. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. 2. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. Five cuts. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. on all edges except the back.

glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Divine. round iron. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Nebr. College View. and. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Encanto. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. Cal. at opposite sides to each other. and mark around each one. Tinplate. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Place the cover on the book in the right position. --Contributed by Clyde E. on which to hook the blade. For the blade an old talking-machine . --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood.

Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). by means of a U-bolt or large staple. -Contributed by Willard J. On the upper side. long.. by 4-1/2 in. Ohio. at the same end. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. fuse hole at D. E. in order to drill the holes in the ends. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. B. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. Miss. Hays.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. or double extra heavy. bore. thick. Moorhead. A. as it is sometimes called. Summitville. and file in the teeth. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. and a long thread plug. and 1/4 in. with 10 teeth to the inch.. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Then on the board put . Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. with a steel sleeve. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. thick. and 1/4 in. by 1 in. F. and another piece (B) 6 in. Make the blade 12 in. C. hydraulic pipe. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. as shown.

Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. --Contributed by Chas. If you are going to use a current of low tension. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. 4 jars. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. about 5 ft. of wire to each coil. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. as from batteries. the jars need not be very large. Connect up as shown. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. high around this apparatus. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Boyd.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. A lid may be added if desired. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. using about 8 in. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. of rubber-covered wire. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. and some No. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. H. Philadelphia.

cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. 27 B. wide and 3/4 in. The top disk in jar No. B. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. In proportioning them the points A. A 3/4-in. 2 is lower down than in No. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. by 5 in. For the brass trimmings use No. Put arm of switch on point No. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. long. 5 on switch. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. 4) of 3/4-in. 2 and 3. wide and 2 in. above the ground. Their size also depends on the voltage. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. making them clear those in the front runner. & S. or source of current. and four pieces 14 in. gives full current and full speed. 15-1/2 in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. 3. 2 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. An iron washer. The connection between point No. 2. 34 in. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. Use no screws on the running surface. as they are not substantial enough. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. and for the rear runners: A. Construct the auto front (Fig. 2. by 1 in. by 2 in. by 2 in.. On the door of the auto front put the . oak boards.. Equip block X with screw eyes. is used to reduce friction. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. wide. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. Z. as they "snatch" the ice. two for each jar. long. square by 14 ft. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. apart. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. See Fig. by 5 in.. however. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. 3 in. steel rod makes a good steering rod. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. on No. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. The current then will flow through the motor. 4. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. 30 in. A variation of 1/16 in. long. Use no nails. 7 in. The stock required for them is oak. and plane it on all edges. thick. 16-1/2 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. two pieces 30 in. The sled completed should be 15 ft. For the steel runners use 3/8 in.. by 6 in. by 1-1/4 in. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. direct to wire across jars. C. long.the way. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. B. 4 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. 2. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. two pieces 34 in.. and bolt through. To wire the apparatus. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. 1. At the front 24 or 26 in. wide by 3/4 in. beginning at the rear. The illustration shows how to shape it. 3 and No. For the front runners these measurements are: A. sheet brass 1 in. are important. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. No. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. B and C. Fig. 1 and so on for No. . Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. with the cushion about 15 in. by 1-1/4 in. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. 11 in.. two pieces 14 in. long by 22 in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. thick. First sandpaper all the wood. 1 on switch. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. 1 is connected to point No. Let stand for three days and apply another coat.. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. C. These are to keep the cushion from falling out.

by 1/2 in. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. long. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. cheap material. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . If desired. cutting it out of sheet brass. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. overshoes. to the wheel. If desired. which is somewhat moist. by 30 in. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. etc. brass plated. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. parcels. to improve the appearance. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. such as burlap.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. The best way is to get some strong. a brake may be added to the sled. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. Then get some upholstery buttons. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. may be stowed within. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. fasten a cord through the loop. If the expense is greater than one can afford. a number of boys may share in the ownership. or with these for $25. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. lunch. such as used on automobiles. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. Fasten a horn.

and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks.tree and bring. --Contributed by Stewart H. Lexington. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. Leland. Ill. . the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written.

Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. which. will be over the line FG. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. by drawing diameters. 4). The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. E. mild steel or iron. The straight-edge. Fig. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. so that the center of the blade. 3.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. This guide should have a beveled edge. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. though more difficult. the same diameter as the wheel. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. say 1 in. The Model Engineer. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. Fig. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. with twenty-four teeth. The first tooth may now be cut. 2. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. 1. A small clearance space. thick. from F to G. sheet metal. when flat against it. outside diameter and 1/16 in. the cut will be central on the line. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. CD. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. First take the case of a small gearwheel. With no other tools than a hacksaw. some files. a compass. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . made from 1/16-in. London. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. Draw a circle on paper. FC. Fig. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle.

To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. and the other outlet wire. 1. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. as shown in Fig. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. Focus the camera in the usual manner. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. No shock will be perceptible. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. A bright. B. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. transmitter. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. hold in one hand. B. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. some wire and some carbons. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. electric lamp. as shown in Fig. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. 2. either the pencils for arc lamps. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. or several pieces bound tightly together. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. each in the center. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. ground it with a large piece of zinc. If there is no faucet in the house. R.Four Photos on One Plate of them. as shown in Fig. Then take one outlet wire. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. Make a hole in the other. . 1.

A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. One like a loaf of bread. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. are also needed. If desired. leaving about 10 in. But in this experiment. Slattery. of course. B. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. serves admirably. J. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. Wrenn. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. one at the receiver can hear what is said. Pa. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. under the gable. A is a wooden block. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. and will then burn the string C. by 12 in. or more of the latter has been used. Several battery cells. Then set the whole core away to dry. as shown. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. Dry batteries are most convenient. --Contributed by Geo. and about that size. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. They have screw ends. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. Emsworth. by 1 in. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. a transmitter which induces no current is used. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. Ohio. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. and again wind the wire around it. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. Ashland. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. D D are binding posts for electric wires. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. as indicated by E E. For a base use a pine board 10 in. at each end for terminals. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. 36 wire around it. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse .

and switch. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. Fig. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. The apparatus is now ready for operation. Fig. 12 or No. Connect these three to switch. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. Place 16-cp. connecting lamp receptacles. in series with bindingpost. until the hand points to zero on the scale. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. Jr. as shown. D. C. while C is open. First make a support. and the lamps. 14 wire. B B. Turn on switch. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. E. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. The oven is now ready to be connected. From the other set of binding-posts. Ohio. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. F. as shown. run a No. D. and one single post switch. 2. the terminal of the coil. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. in parallel.wire. These should have hollow ends. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. B B. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. C. 1. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F.. Newark. At one side secure two receptacles. for the . The coil will commence to become warm.

drill through the entire case and valve. drill a hole as shown at H. until the scale is full. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. as shown in the cut. This is slipped on the pivot. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. 10 turns to each layer. It is 1 in. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. The pointer or hand. If for 3-way. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. 4 amperes. C. --Contributed by J. Fig. Montreal. 3 amperes. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. E. from the lower end. to prevent it turning on the axle. After drilling. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . To make one. although brass is better.E. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. The box is 5-1/2 in. D. wide and 1/8 in. This may be made of wood. Mine is wound with two layers of No. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. At a point a little above the center. and D. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. deep. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. thick. Fig. is made of iron. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated.. is then made and provided with a glass front. 14. Dussault. The core. 36 magnet wire instead of No. 6. 5. 1. although copper or steel will do. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. a standard ammeter. drill in only to the opening already through. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. 4 in. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. Fig. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. D. 1. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. long. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. long. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. 1/2 in. is made of wire. etc. high. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. 2. 3. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. wide and 1-3/4 in. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. but if for a 4way. 5. 14 wire. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. B. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. remove the valve. wind with plenty of No. aluminum being preferable for this purpose.or 4-way valve or cock. a battery.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. inside measurements. 1/4 in. a variable resistance. 7. long and make a loop. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. A wooden box. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. where A is the homemade ammeter. Fig. 4. Continue in this way with 2 amperes.

and a metal rod. E. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. B. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. and the arc light. This stopper should be pierced. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. making two holes about 1/4 in. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. in thickness . Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. and the other connects with the water rheostat. as shown. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. By connecting the motor. D. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. One wire runs to the switch.performing electrical experiments. A. which is used for reducing the current. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. provided with a rubber stopper. in diameter. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. high. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. F. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. To start the light.

Turn on the current and press the button. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. Fig. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. where he is placed in an upright open . A piece of wood. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. If all adjustments are correct. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. As there shown. --Contributed by Harold L. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. 1. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. 1. If the interrupter does not work at first. 2. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. Carthage. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. Fig. Jones. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. 2. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. as shown in B. Fig. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. 1. To insert the lead plate. as shown in C. Fig. Having finished the interrupter. Y. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. long. B. N. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. A. Having fixed the lead plate in position. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A.

is constructed as shown in the drawings.. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. The glass should be the clearest possible. until it is dark there. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. should be colored a dull black. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. and must be thoroughly cleansed. L and M. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. If everything is not black. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. with the exception of the glass. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. by 7-1/2 in. high. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. especially L. could expect from a skeleton. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. The model. inside dimensions. to aid the illusion. The skeleton is made of papier maché. and can be bought at Japanese stores. especially the joints and background near A. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. and wave his arms up and down. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. as the entire interior. within the limits of an ordinary room. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. the illusion will be spoiled. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. dressed in brilliant. by 7 in. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. They need to give a fairly strong light. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. A white shroud is thrown over his body. The lights. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. loosejointed effect. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. giving a limp. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. from which the gong has been removed. All . which can be run by three dry cells. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes.coffin. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. should be miniature electric lamps. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. If it is desired to place the box lower down. A. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. figures and lights. Its edges should nowhere be visible. light-colored garments.

The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. --Contributed by Geo. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Cal. If a gradual transformation is desired. after which it assumes its normal color. San Jose. Fry. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. W. fat spark. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. placed about a foot apart. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second.that is necessary is a two-point switch. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. square block. Two finishing nails were driven in. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. as shown in the sketch. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in.

the remaining space will be filled with air. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. In Fig. Cohen. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. or a solution of sal soda. New York. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. hydrogen gas is generated.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. F. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. and should be separated about 1/8 in. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. 1. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. The plates are separated 6 in. -Contributed by Dudley H. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. into the receiver G. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. with two tubes. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. A (see sketch). to make it airtight. In Fig. One of these plates is connected to metal top. as shown. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. B and C. soldered in the top. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. If a lighted match . which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. This is a wide-mouth bottle. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. by small pieces of wood. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver.

as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. N. long. N. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. copper pipe. is made by drilling a 1/8in. copper pipe. A. C C. long. 2 shows the end view. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. which forms the vaporizing coil. by means of the clips. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. Fig. as is shown in the illustration. P. either by passing a current of electricity around it. 1. A. of No. A. is then coiled around the brass tube. or by direct contact with another magnet. which is plugged up at both ends.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. from the bottom. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. 36 insulated wire. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. says the Model Engineer. A 1/64-in. Fig. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. A nipple. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. A piece of 1/8-in. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. 1-5/16 in. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. and the ends of the tube. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. B. The distance between the nipple. should be only 5/16 of an inch. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. then a suitable burner is necessary. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. One row is drilled to come directly on top. 1/2 in. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. in diameter and 6 in. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. A. London. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. If desired.

While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. about 8 or 10 in. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. 1. duck or linen. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. larger all around than the book. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. 1/4 in. Cut four pieces of cardboard. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . this makes a much nicer book. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. Fig. leaving the folded edge uncut. smoothly. should be cut to the diameter of the can. Turn the book over and paste the other side. longer and 1/4 in. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). but if the paper knife cannot be used. boards and all. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. smoothing and creasing as shown at A.lamp cord. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. at the front and back for fly leaves. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. taking care not to bend the iron. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. 3. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. trim both ends and the front edge. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. with a fine saw. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. fold and cut it 1 in. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Fig. cut to the size of the pages. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. A disk of thin sheet-iron. Take two strips of stout cloth. Fig. 2). Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards.

Parker. the joint will be gas tight. as shown. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. Toronto. B. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. deep. Another can. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. is fitted in it and soldered. A. is turned on it. Ont. A gas cock. and a little can. . On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. is soldered onto tank A. Va. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. E. In the bottom. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Joseph N. C. Another tank. 18 in. D. Noble. pasting them down (Fig. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. but its diameter is a little smaller. --Contributed by James E. without a head. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. is made the same depth as B. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. is perforated with a number of holes. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. of tank A is cut a hole. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. in diameter and 30 in. or rather the top now. This will cause some air to be enclosed. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. which will just slip inside the little can. Bedford City. 4). Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. H.

with an electric-bell magnet. D. A. The armature. tacks. If the pushbutton A is closed. The small guards. -Contributed by H. by 1/2 in. N. The diagonal struts. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. should be 3/8 in. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. B. Beverly. Fig. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. D..Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. basswood or white pine. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. and the four diagonal struts. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. E. making the width. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. and about 26 in. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. J. which moves to either right or left. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. and sewed double to give extra strength. 2. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. are shown in detail at H and J. The wiring diagram. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. C. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. S. when finished. square by 42 in. The longitudinal corner spines. to prevent splitting. long. Fig. exactly 12 in. 1. B. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. which may be either spruce. Bott. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. as shown at C. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. should be cut a little too long. should be 1/4 in. long. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. thus adjusting the . fastened in the bottom. B. The bridle knots. If the back armature. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. A A. shows how the connections are to be made. H is a square knot.

Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. for producing electricity direct from heat. and if a strong wind is blowing. can be made of a wooden .lengths of F and G. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. --Contributed by A. as shown. Kan. Clay Center. Stoddard. A bowline knot should be tied at J. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. and. to prevent slipping. that refuse to slide easily. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. Chicago. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. shift toward F. with gratifying results. thus shortening G and lengthening F. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. however. Closing either key will operate both sounders. Harbert. If the kite is used in a light wind. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. --Contributed by Edw. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. the batteries do not run down for a long time. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. D. E.

C. --Contributed by A. spark. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. A. with a pocket compass. C. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire.. B. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. E. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. or parallel with the compass needle. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. A. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. C. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. D. Chicago. 16 single-covered wire. The wood screw.frame. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . and the current may then be detected by means. placed on top. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. F. Then. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. and also holds the pieces of wood. A and B. Fasten a piece of wood. A. in position. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. to the cannon. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. When the cannon is loaded. 14 or No. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. which conducts the current into the cannon. by means of machine screws or. E. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. with a number of nails.

A hole for a 1/2 in. Fig. requiring a strong magnet. In Fig. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. H. . Chicago. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. press the button. To unlock the door. --Contributed by Henry Peck. Mich. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. where there is a staple. Marion. Fig. now at A' and S'. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. L. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. with the long arm at L'. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. Connect as shown in the illustration. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. Bend the strips BB (Fig. Big Rapids. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. but no weights or strings. Keil. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. A and S. to receive the screw in the center. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. square and 3/8 in. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. within the reach of the magnet.the current is shut off. 1. screw is bored in the block. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. Ohio. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. B. To lock the door. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. 1. To reverse. A and S. 1. when in position at A'. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. A. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. in this position the door is locked. --Contributed by Joseph B. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky.

The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. if enameled white on the concave side. West Somerville. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. about 18 in. pipe with 1-2-in. gas-pipe. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. When ready for use. and C is a dumbbell. and may be made at very slight expense. put in the handle. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. or for microscopic work. long. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. Thread the other end of the pipe. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. The standard and base. Rand. When the holes are finished and your lines set. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. --Contributed by C. hole. Mass. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. J. and if desired the handles may . A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. are enameled a jet black. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete.

be covered with leather. E. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. which shall project at least 2 in.. 1. with a cover. B. long and 8 in. Fig. high by 1 ft. Make a cylindrical core of wood. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. 1. across. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. across. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Mass. Fig. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. M. inside the pail. --Contributed by C. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. 8 in. A. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. North Easton. as shown at A in the sketch. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. D. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. Warren. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln .

of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. 2 in. Line the pail. C. thick. 3) with false top and bottom.. and 3/8 in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. say 1/4 in. cutting the hole a little smaller. hotel china. pipe. or make one yourself. passing wire nails through and clinching them. carefully centering it. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. Fig. about 1 in. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. strip of sheet iron. 2. and cut it 3-1/2 in. but will be cheaper in operation. wider than the kiln. After removing all the paper. E. and varnish. When lighted. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. pipe 2-ft. such . It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. W. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. Fit all the parts together snugly.mixture of clay. and 3/4 in. layer of the clay mixture. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. The 2 in. C. which is the hottest part. to hold the clay mixture. 1330°. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. the firing should be gradual. as dictated by fancy and expense. make two wood ends. as is shown in the sketch. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. thick. 1390°-1410°. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. C. long. pack this space-top. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. projecting from each end (Fig. hard porcelain. 1). A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning.. sand. 60%. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in.-G. L. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. If the cover of the pail has no rim. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. Cover with paper and shellac as before. but it will burn a great deal of gas. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. 1). 15%. full length of iron core. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. and on it set the paper wrapped core. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. the point of the blue flame. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. in diameter. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. This done. bottom and sides. of fine wire. Wind about 1/8 in. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. and your kiln is ready for business. and graphite. and with especial caution the first time. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. 25%. Set aside for a few days until well dried. if you have the materials. After finishing the core. in diameter. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. let this dry thoroughly. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. if there is to be any glazing done. It is placed inside the kiln. diameter. long over the lid hole as a chimney. Whatever burner is used. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in..

and discharges into the tube. the next black. 1. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. as in Fig. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. and divide it into two piles. 2. T. The funnel. Then take the black cards. Take the red cards. You can display either color called for. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. --Contributed by J. and plane off about 1/16 in. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. 8 in. about 1/16 in. B. red and black. Chicago. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. C. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. . as in Fig.53 in. square them up. and so on. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. around the coil.. A. leaving long terminals. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. every alternate card being the same color. Next restore all the cards to one pack. Washington. C. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. R. diameter. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. square them up and place in a vise. with a plane. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. procure a new deck. D. C. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. Then. 2. 2). as shown in the sketch herewith. all cards facing the same way. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. Of course. taking care to have the first card red. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. bind tightly with black silk.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. overlaps and rests on the body. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. length of . with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch.

A. to form a dovetail joint as shown. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. The bottom glass should be a good fit. It should be placed in an exposed location. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. B. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. The upright pieces. the same ends will come together again. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. 1 gill of litharge. of the frame. F. the first thing to decide on is the size. N. D. Let .. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. When the glass is put in the frame a space. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. about 20 in. To find the fall of snow. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. stove bolts. through the holes already drilled. stove bolts. as the difficulties increase with the size. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass.C. angle iron for the frame. E. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. so that when they are assembled. B. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. Drill all the horizontal pieces. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. thus making all the holes coincide. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. Fig. 1. and then the frame is ready to assemble. B. A. 1 gill of fine white sand. C. Long Branch. and this is inexpensive to build. so it is filled up with plaster of paris.J. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. E. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. The cement. All the horizontal pieces.

to the door knob. Fig. a centerpiece (A. B. Aquarium Finished If desired. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. if desired. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. and. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. D. A. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. on the door by means of a metal plate. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. Fasten the lever. having a swinging connection at C.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium.

D. will open the door about 1/2 in. Fig. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. Cut two pieces 30 in. Cut two of them 4 ft. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. Fig. 2 at GG. AA. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. 2 is an end view. Do not fasten these boards now. long. from the outside top of the frame. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. long. N. --Contributed by Orton E. and another. to form the main supports of the frame. C. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. long. to form the slanting part. Y. Fig. as at E. to keep the frame from spreading. 1 is the motor with one side removed.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass.. 3 shows one of the paddles. thus doing away with the spring. another. which is 15 in. E. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. B. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. Fig. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. They are shown in Fig. hoping it may solve the same question for them. A small piece of spring brass. 6 in. another. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. but mark their position on the frame. To make the frame. approximately 1 ft. PAUL S. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. Fig. 26 in. White. wide by 1 in. Two short boards 1 in. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. soldered to the end of the cylinder. wide . 1 . A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. screwed to the door frame. 1. I referred this question to my husband. 1. for the top. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. Buffalo. long. and Fig. showing the paddle-wheel in position. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. Fig. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. F. 2 ft. several lengths of scantling 3 in. according to the slant given C. with a water pressure of 70 lb.

Drill 1/8-in. hole to form the bearings. 2) with a 5/8-in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. thick (HH. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Make this hole conical. take down the crosspieces. to a full 1/2 in. 24 in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. 1. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. iron 3 by 4 in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. 4. long to the wheel about 8 in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Fig. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Now block the wheel. after which drill a 5/8 in. steel shaft 12 in. thick. Next secure a 5/8-in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. These are the paddles. in diameter. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. remove the cardboard. then drill a 3/16-in. holes. When it has cooled. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Fig. Fasten them in their proper position. and drill a 1/8-in. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. that is. 2) form a substantial base. Tack one side on. from one end by means of a key.along the edges under the zinc to form . 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. tapering from 3/16 in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Fig. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. hole through their sides centrally. hole from the tops to the 1-in. by 1-1/2 in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. and drill a 1-in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft.burlap will do -. hole through the exact center of the wheel. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. and a 1/4 -in. pipe. 2) and another 1 in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. iron. as shown in Fig. Take the side pieces. with the wheel and shaft in place. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. hole through them. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. (I. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. hole through its center. GG. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in.

and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. of course. Correct exposure depends. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. or what is called a process plate. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. sewing machine. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. place the outlet over a drain. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. drill press. on the lens. but as it would have cost several times as much. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. as shown in the sketch at B. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. . dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. light and the plate. ice-cream freezer. If the bearings are now oiled. If sheet-iron is used. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Darken the rest of the window. as this makes long exposure necessary. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry.a water-tight joint. but now I put them in the machine. The best plate to use is a very slow one. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. Do not stop down the lens. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. Drill a hole through the zinc. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. it would be more durable. Focus the camera carefully. and the subject may move. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. any window will do. and leave them for an hour or so. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. Raise the window shade half way. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. It is obvious that. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. shutting out all light from above and the sides. and as near to it as possible. says the Photographic Times. start the motor. remove any white curtains there may be.

hard rubber. 2. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. as a slight current will answer. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. full of water. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. With a piece of black paper. and without fog. and a base. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. which is made of iron and cork. D.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. or can be taken from an old magnet. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. with binding posts as shown. until the core slowly rises. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. the core is drawn down out of sight. an empty pill bottle may be used. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. or wood. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. The current required is very small. The glass tube may be a test tube. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. On completing . by twisting. The core C. a glass tube. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. A. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. or an empty developer tube. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. as shown in Fig. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. C. B. a core. without detail in the face. 2.

according to his control of the current. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. and are changed by reversing the rotation. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. 1 lb. and make a pinhole in the center. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. is Benham's color top. 1. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. finest graphite. whale oil. 1 pt. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. white lead. The colors appear different to different people. water and 3 oz. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. and one not easy to explain. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. This is a mysterious looking instrument.

nearly every time. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken.L. -Contributed by D. especially if the deck is a new one. C. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. As this device is easily upset. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . and asks an observer to withdraw a card. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. when the action ceases. In making hydrogen. fan-like. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. or three spot. B. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words.B. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B.. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. In prize games. Chicago. deuce. A. thus partly filling bottles A and C. before cutting. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure.

Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. 12 in. Make a 10-sided stick. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. S. that will fit loosely in the tube A. 1. J. long and 3 in. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. as shown in Fig. Fig.. 3). wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 9 in. --Contributed by C. --Contributed by F.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. (Fig. Dak. long. in length and 3 in. 2. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. . in diameter. Fig. Bently. Detroit. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Form a cone of heavy paper. Detail of Phonograph Horn . 10 in. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A.. S. Huron. W. Jr. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. 4. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw.

push back the bolt. E. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. Remove the form. and walk in. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. C. 6.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. on one side and the top. Cut out paper sections (Fig. but bends toward D. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. long. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. making it three-ply thick. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. bend it at right angles throughout its length. about the size of a leadpencil. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. will cause an increased movement of C. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . allowing 1 in. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. A piece of tin. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. Fortunately. with a pin driven in each end. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. --Contributed by Reader. Fig. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. it is equally easy to block that trick. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. Denver. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. A. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. A second piece of silk thread. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere.

enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with.strip. B. S S. are 7 ft. The feet. Minn. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. West St. Fremont Hilscher. S. or left to right. B. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire.. is connected each point to a battery. R. --Contributed by J. are made 2 by 4 in. put together as shown in the sketch. will last for several years. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . while the lower switch. long.. The 2 by 4-in. Jr. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. By this arrangement one. Paul. The reverse switch. Two wood-base switches. and rest on a brick placed under each end. S. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. A. 4 ft. long. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. posts. The upper switch. W. as shown.

3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. pulley wheel. The base is made of wood. which is made of tin. Fig. 1. The piston is made of a stove bolt. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. 3/8 in. and valve crank S. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. cut in half. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. which will be described later. H and K. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. Fig.every house. the size of the hole in the bearing B. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. the other parts being used for the bearing B. and in Fig. FF. and has two wood blocks. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. is an old bicycle pump. The hose E connects to the boiler. either an old sewing-machine wheel. and the crank bearing C. with two washers. and a cylindrical . Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. 2. The valve motion is shown in Figs. The steam chest D. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. 2 and 3. thick. E. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. or anything available. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. In Fig.

at that. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. or galvanized iron. G. This engine was built by W. of Cuba. and the desired result is obtained. This is wound with soft string. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. and saturated with thick oil. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. Fig. The boiler. to receive the connecting rod H. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. . as it is merely a trick of photography. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. using the positive wire as a pen. can be an old oil can. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. Schuh and A. W. Cal. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. powder can. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. The valve crank S.piece of hard wood. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. C. 1. 4. Fry. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. Wis. --Contributed by Geo. is cut out of tin. as shown in Fig. J. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. 3. and a very amusing trick. Fig. San Jose. G. First. Eustice.

in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. Fig. as shown at AA. Cut half circles out of each stave. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. 1 by covering up Figs. Fig. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. C. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. When turning. diameter. and place a bell on the four ends. as shown. B. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. They may be of any size. and Fig. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. B. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. and pass ropes around . A curious effect can be produced with Fig. Fig. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. 1 will be seen to rotate. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. The smaller wheel.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. to cross in the center.

W.G. Louis. long. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter.M. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. To make this lensless microscope. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. This in turn will act on the transmitter. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. A (a short spool. which allows the use of small sized ropes. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. such as clothes lines. which accounts for the sound. St. From a piece of thin . Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry.. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. but not on all. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. --Contributed by H. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. as shown in the illustration. produces a higher magnifying power). Mo. from the transmitter. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. procure a wooden spool.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B.

An innocent-looking drop of water. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. or 64 times. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. C. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. if the distance is reduced to one-half. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. A. bent as shown.) But an object 3/4-in. place a small object on the transparent disk. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. held at arm's length. e. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. the diameter will appear twice as large. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. The pivot.. B. E. 3. and look through the hole D. Fig.. C. can be made of brass and the armature. fastened to a wooden base. darting across the field in every direction. Viewed through this microscope. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. is made of iron. To use this microscope. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. and so on. H. D. as in all microscopes of any power. and at the center. which costs little or nothing to make. in which hay has been soaking for several days. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. B. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. (The area would appear 64 times as large. by means of brads. . which are pieces of hard wood. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. the object should be of a transparent nature. the diameter will appear three times as large. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. cut out a small disk. The spring. 2. D. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. The lever. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. if the distance is reduced to one-third. is fastened at each end by pins. 1. i. otherwise the image will be blurred. which may be moistened to make the object adhere.

long. nail soldered on A. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. Fig. brass. A switch. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. brass: B. The door. should be about 22 in. coils wound with No. Fig. HH. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. similar to the one used in the sounder. fastened near the end. long and 14-1/2 in. can be made panel as shown. The back. A. between the armature and the magnet. wood. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. 1. F. E.SOUNDER-A. wide. connection of D to nail. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. The binding posts. brass: E. and are connected to the contacts. wide. 26 wire: E. D. The base of the key. brass or iron soldered to nail. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. K. C. DD. thick. or taken from a small one-point switch. binding posts: H spring The stop. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. B. wide. D. K. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. is cut from a board about 36 in. D. 2. Cut the top. which are made to receive a pivot. 16 in. KEY-A. wood: F. B. 16 in. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. FF. wide and set in between sides AA. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. soft iron. in length and 16 in. long by 16 in. or a single piece. C. AA. wood: C. wide. Each side. wide and about 20 in. .

E. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. AA. Garfield.. as shown in the sketch. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. with 3/4-in. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. brads. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. In operation. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. When the electrical waves strike the needle. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. as shown. 13-1/2 in. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. cut in them. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. material. Ill. Make 12 cleats. long. 2 and made from 1/4-in. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire .

when used with a motor. A (see sketch). F. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. Pushing the wire. down into the water increases the surface in contact. A. and thus decreases the resistance. C. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. A. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. N. When the pipe is used. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . B. A fairly stiff spring. will give a greater speed. Brown. Ridgewood.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. The cord is also fastened to a lever. --Contributed by R. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. J. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. the magnet. filled with water. Fairport. --Contributed by John Koehler. through which a piece of wire is passed. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. E. and. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. N. pulls down the armature. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. Y. in order to increase the surface.

N. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. if desired. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. B. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. even those who read this description.for the secret contact. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. Gachville. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. --Contributed by Perry A. Borden. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. Of course. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force.

--Contributed by H. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. as shown in Fig. wide. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. deep and 3/4 in. Jr. The top board is made 28-in. Compton. Two drawers are fitted in this space. From a piece of brass a switch. Dobson. thick and 12-in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. as shown in Fig. wide. With about 9 ft. 2. ..whenever the bell rings. Mangold. E. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. East Orange. Washington. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. D. N. in a semicircle 2 in. records and 5-5/8 in. --Contributed by Dr. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. wide. records. apart. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. for 6-in. J. Connect switch to post B. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. long and full 12-in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. where the other end of wire is fastened. 1. long and 5 in. C. The three shelves are cut 25-in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. A. for 10in. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. wide. from the bottom. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. and on both sides of the middle shelf. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. wide. Cal. H. C.

the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. A. E. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. to which is fastened a cord. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. When the cord is passed over pulley C. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. closed. 1. as shown in Fig. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . B.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. as shown by the dotted lines. Va. Roanoke. which in operation is bent.

4 and 5 show all the parts needed. one in each end. they will bind. holes (HH.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. D. but a larger one could be built in proportion. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. 1 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. Cut two grooves. in diameter. Fig. E. Fig. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. through one of these holes. in diameter. 1. deep and 1/2 in. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. Figs. they will let the air through. In these grooves place wheels. Fig. Put the rubber tube. 3. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. which should be about 1/2 in. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. Now put all these parts together. thick (A. it too loose. long. Notice the break (S) in the track. Bore two 1/4 in. is compressed by wheels. 1 in. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. Figs. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. B. wide. In the sides (Fig. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. 3). If the wheels fit too tightly. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. thick. against which the rubber tubing. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. E. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. deep. as shown in the illustration. square and 7/8 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. in diameter. These wheels should be 3/4 in. 5) when they are placed. The crankpin should fit tightly. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. in diameter. apart. 4 shows the wheel-holder. Do not fasten the sides too . CC. to turn on pins of stout wire. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. wide. excepting the crank and tubing.

Then turn the crank from left to right. is all the expense necessary. from the bottom and 2 in. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. costing 10 cents. 1. tubing. Fig. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. though a small iron wheel is better. --Contributed by Dan H. the other wheel has reached the bottom. B. and mark for a hole. from each end. of material. a platform should be added. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. iron. stands 20 in. Fig. AA. and are 30 in. In the two cross bars 1 in. as it gives steadiness to the motion. The screen which is shown in Fig. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. 17-1/2 in. mark again. Fig. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. Fig. AA. from each end. from that mark the next hole. 2. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. If the motion of the wheels is regular. To use the pump. 1.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. long. Take the center of the bar. For ease in handling the pump. The three legs marked BBB. Cut six pieces. Idana. Two feet of 1/4-in. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. the pump will give a steady stream. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. from each end. 1. mark for hole and 3 in. as shown in Fig. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. A in Fig. because he can . beyond each of these two. 15 in. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. 1. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. 1. and 3-1/2 in. Hubbard. 2. The animal does not fear to enter the box. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Kan.

sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. add slowly. of the top. but if one casts his own zinc. Meyer. potassium bichromate. If the solution touches the zinc. dropping. 4 oz. 2). giving it a bright. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. stirring constantly. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. C. The mercury will adhere. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. 14 copper wire. or small electric motors. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. long having two thumb screws. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. When through using the battery. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. some of it should be poured out. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. When the bichromate has all dissolved. and touches the bait the lid is released and. . Philadelphia. Place the carbon in the jar. or. sulphuric acid. shuts him in. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. until it is within 3 in. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. rub the zinc well. there is too much liquid in the jar. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. It is useful for running induction coils. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. however. If the battery has been used before. The battery is now complete. The truncated. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. of water dissolve 4 oz. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw.see through it: when he enters. --Contributed by H. silvery appearance. To cause a flow of electricity. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. The battery is now ready for use. and the solution (Fig. acid 1 part). This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. 1) must be prepared. If it is wet.

The price of the coil depends upon its size. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. however.Fig. Wis. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Madison.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace.. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. the battery circuit. pressing the pedal closes the door. i. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. which opens the door. while the coal door is being opened. with slight changes. the jump-spark coil . After putting in the coal. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. If. e. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house.

in a straight line from top to bottom. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece.described elsewhere in this book. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. in a partial vacuum. 7). along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. apart. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. and closer for longer distances. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. Now for the receiving apparatus. 7. 6. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. 5. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. This will make an excellent receiver. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. . incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. diameter. Fig. the full length of the coil. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. as shown in Fig. After winding. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit.7. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. made of No. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. 6. while a 12-in. W W. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. being a 1-in. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. Change the coil described. coil. This coil. 7. which is made of light copper wire. as shown in Fig. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. W W. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil.

after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). 90°. B the bed and C the tailstock. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. 90°. after all. being vertical. may be easily made at very little expense. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. but simply illustrates the above to show that. using an electric motor and countershaft. where A is the headstock. are analogous to the flow of induction. I run my lathe by power. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. The writer does not claim to be the originator. 1). above the ground. at any point to any metal which is grounded. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. These circles. A. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. which will be described later. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. Figs. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. . The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. and hence the aerial line. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. to the direction of the current. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. For an illustration. as it matches the color well. 1 to 4. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. but it could be run by foot power if desired. A large cone pulley would then be required. being at right angles. Run a wire from the other binding post. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil.6 stranded.The aerial line. only. No. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. in the air.

but not hot enough to burn it. The bolts B (Fig. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. 5. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. and runs in babbitt bearings. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. just touching the shaft. The bearing is then ready to be poured. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. To make these bearings. If the bearing has been properly made. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. and Fig. Fig.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. B. on the under side of the bed. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. Fig. one of which is shown in Fig. which pass through a piece of wood. After pouring. Heat the babbitt well. and it is well to have the shaft hot. thick. pitch and 1/8 in. A. 5. 4. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. tapered wooden pin. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. too. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. steel tubing about 1/8 in. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. Fig. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. 2 and 3. Fig. which are let into holes FIG. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. 4. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. 6 Headstock Details D. 6. The headstock. deep. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry.

To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. Ill. of the walk . The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. The tail stock (Fig. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. N. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. embedded in the wood. the alarm is easy to fix up. lock nut. If one has a wooden walk.J.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. Oak Park. they may be turned up after assembling.other machines. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. This prevents corrosion. and a 1/2-in. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. Take up about 5 ft. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. so I had to buy one. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. If not perfectly true. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. A. FIG. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. Newark. B.

to roughen the surface slightly. clean the articles thoroughly. S. before dipping them in the potash solution. save when a weight is on the trap. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. --Contributed by R. silver or other metal. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Fig. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. add potassium cyanide again. Jackson. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. Minneapolis. To avoid touching it. so that they will not touch. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. hang the articles on the wires. 2). When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Minn. to remove all traces of grease. water. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. (A. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. leaving a clear solution. Connect up an electric bell. of water. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. Finally. and the alarm is complete. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. Then make the solution . Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz.

this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. German silver. lead. as at F. and then treated as copper. The wooden block C. a circuit is completed. silver can be plated direct.5 to 4 volts. A 1/4 in. Repeat six times. To provide the keyhole. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. hole in its center. which is held by catch B. In rigging it to a sliding door. Can be made of a 2-in. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. as shown in Fig. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. The wooden catch. copper. if one does not possess a buffing machine. with water. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. piece of broomstick. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. Fig. square. saw a piece of wood. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. B should be of the same wood. Having finished washing the precipitate. Before silver plating. 18 wire. I. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. --Model Engineer. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. with water. and 4 volts for very small ones. shaking. Where Bunsen cells are used. with the pivot 2 in. which . thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. Fig. Then. and the larger part (F. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. Fig. 1 not only unlocks. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. long. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. This solution. 1). 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. when the point of the key touches the tin. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. a hand scratch brush is good. 3) directly over the hole. With an electric pressure of 3. of clothesline rope and some No. 3) strikes the bent wire L. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. of water. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. Take quick. from the lower end. thick by 3 in. 1). If accumulators are used. nickel and such metals. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. must be about 1 in. On brass. which is advised. use 2 volts for large articles. If more solution is required. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. Make a somewhat larger block (E. make a key and keyhole. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. pewter. light strokes. Screw the two blocks together. Fig. also. long. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. an old electric bell or buzzer. 10 in. zinc. 3. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. will serve for the key. 1. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. but opens the door.up to 2 qt. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. 1 in. When all this is set up. A (Fig. about 25 ft. such metals as iron.

One thing changes to another and back again. 2. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. Thus. East Orange. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. 1. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. enlarged.. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. spoons and jackknives. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. and a slit. the box should be painted black both inside and out. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. cut in one side. surrounding a perfectly black space. with the lights turned low. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. . He removes the bowl from the black box. H. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. One end is removed. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. Fig.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. New Jersey. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. 2. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. 0. The box must be altered first. he tosses it into the cave. so much the better. with a switch as in Fig. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. H. Next. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. and black art reigns supreme. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. and finally lined inside with black cloth. floor. should be cut a hole. which unlocks the door. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. the illumination in front must be arranged. and plenty of candles. --Contributed by E. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. Objects appear and disappear. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. to throw the light toward the audience. H. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. To prepare such a magic cave. Klipstein. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. a few simple tools. although a little more trouble. no painting inside is required. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. is the cut through which the rope runs. half way from open end to closed end. Receiving the bowl again. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. On either side of the box. Heavy metal objects. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. between the parlor and the room back of it. one-third of the length from the remaining end. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. sides and end. Fig. such as forks. in his shirt sleeves. 116 Prospect St. the requisites are a large soap box. or cave. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. The magician stands in front of this. shows catch B. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. and hands its contents round to the audience. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. Fig. top. 3. Fig. he points with one finger to the box. some black cloth. Next. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. some black paint. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). B. The interior must be a dead black. heighten the illusion. In front of you. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. 1.

covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. you must have an assistant. which are let down through the slit in the top. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. Consequently. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. the room where the cave is should be dark. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding.Finally. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. into the eyes of him who looks. his confederate behind inserts his hand. and if portieres are impossible. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. which can be made to dance either by strings. and several black drop curtains. as presented by Hermann. The illusion. one on each side of the box. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. of course. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. a screen must be used. The audience room should have only low lights. only he. if. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. But illusions suggest themselves. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. had a big stage. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. and pours them from the bag into a dish. of course. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. in which are oranges and apples. was identical with this. is on a table) so much the better. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. The exhibitor should be .

A represents a pine board 4 in.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. c3. and c2 to the zinc. their one end just slips under the strips b1. and c1 – electricity. and a common screw. 2. FIG. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. b3. by means of two wood screws. c4. terminal c3 will show +.. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . Then. is shown in the diagram. held down on disk F by two other terminals. 1. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. square. with three brass strips. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. terminal c3 will show . never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. c1. b3. f2. or b2. A. or binding posts. e1 and e2. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. c2. at L. when handle K is turned to one side. b1. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. and c4 + electricity. as shown in Fig. Fig. making contact with them. d. so arranged that. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. making contact with them as shown at y. held down on it by two terminals. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. respectively. b2. Finally.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. 1. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. b2. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. On the disk G are two brass strips. vice versa. held down by another disk F (Fig. respectively. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). respectively. 2. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. About the center piece H moves a disk. by 4 in. 2). if you turn handle K to the right.a boy who can talk.

a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. and C and C1 are binding posts. from four batteries. 1. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. and when on No. when on No. and then hold the receiver to your ear. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. from five batteries. -Contributed by A. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. Newark. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile.. When switch B is closed and A is on No. --Contributed by Eugene F. when A is on No. 5. when on No. you have the current of one battery. jump spark coil. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. Jr. Ohio. from three batteries. Tuttle. Joerin. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. 4. E. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. B is a onepoint switch. . thus making the message audible in the receiver. 3. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B.

Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. La. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. and supporting the small weight. and placed on the windowsill of the car. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. mark. of Burlington. per second for each second. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. When you do not have a graduate at hand. E. Handy Electric Alarm . Thus if the thread moves 1 in. per second.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. Redmond. A. which may be a button or other small object. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position.. mark. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. as shown in the sketch. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. B. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. New Orleans. Thus. so one can see the time. over the bent portion of the rule. is the device of H. rule. A. A. Wis. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. The device thus arranged. P. traveled by the thread. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel.

--Contributed by Gordon T. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. When the alarm goes off. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. Instead. Lane. C. for a wetting is the inevitable result. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. Crafton. Pa. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. Then if a mishap comes. B. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. wrapping the wire around the can several times. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. . which illuminates the face of the clock. --C. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. but may be closed at F any time desired.which has a piece of metal. soldered to the alarm winder. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. and with the same result. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. S. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can.

whence it is soon tracked into the house. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. The first thing to make is a molding bench. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. as the sand is sure to get on the floor.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. battery zincs. Macey. but it is a mistake to try to do this. 1. cannons. small machinery parts. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. and duplicates of all these. when it is being prepared. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. as shown in Fig. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. as shown. New York City. BE. C. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. 1 . A. ornaments of various kinds. Two cleats. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. which may.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . bearings. and many other interesting and useful articles. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. engines. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. With the easily made devices about to be described. binding posts. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. --Contributed by A. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. It is possible to make molds without a bench. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. models and miniature objects. L. If there is no foundry Fig. AA.

Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. is about the right mesh. H.How to Make a Mold [96] . If desired the sieve may be homemade. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. which should be nailed in. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. white metal. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. a little larger than the outside of the flask. by 6 in. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. and saw it in half longitudinally. The dowels. 1. is made of wood. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. Fig. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors." or upper half. It is made of wood and is in two halves. which can be either aluminum. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. as shown. G.near at hand. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. previous to sawing. and a sieve. An old teaspoon. will be required. 2 . the "cope. which can be made of a knitted stocking. and the lower pieces. F. try using sand from other sources. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. The rammer. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. say 12 in. If the box is not very strong. Fig. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. but this operation will be described more fully later on. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. high. The cloth bag. D. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. The flask. is shown more clearly in Fig. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. makes a very good sieve. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. A slight shake of the bag Fig. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. and the "drag. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use." or lower part. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. by 8 in. CC. is filled with coal dust. J. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. and this. DD. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. 1. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. CC. is nailed to each end of the cope. as shown. E. II . A wedge-shaped piece. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. A A. 2.

the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. turn the drag other side up. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. as shown at E. Place another cover board on top. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. as shown at D. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. The sand is then ready for molding. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. the surface of the sand at . or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. In finishing the ramming. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. It is then rammed again as before. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. where they can watch the molders at work. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. as it is much easier to learn by observation. and thus judge for himself. After ramming. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. or "drag. and scatter about 1/16 in. and by grasping with both hands. in order to remove the lumps. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. as shown at C. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. and then more sand is added until Fig. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. and if water is added. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. as described." in position. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. as shown. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. or "cope. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing.

deep. and then pour. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. This is done with a spoon. The "sprue. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. it shows that the sand is too wet.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. as shown at H. made out of steel rod. as shown at F. thus making a dirty casting. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. place the cope back on the drag. as shown at H. to give the air a chance to escape. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it.E should be covered with coal-dust. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. is next cut. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. in diameter. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. as shown in the sketch. after being poured. After drawing the pattern. . III. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. Place a brick or other flat. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. thus holding the crucible securely. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. wide and about 1/4 in. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. Fig. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. in order to prevent overheating. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. as shown at J." or pouring-hole. as shown at G.

as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. babbitt. but any reasonable number may be used. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. and. Referring to the figure. battery zincs. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. Morton. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. white metal and other scrap available. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. --Contributed by Harold S. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. Although the effect in the illustration . In my own case I used four batteries. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. Minneapolis.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. and the casting is then ready for finishing. is very desirable. 15% lead. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. although somewhat expensive. or from any adjacent pair of cells. the following device will be found most convenient. may be used in either direction. If a good furnace is available. used only for zinc. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder.

connected by cords to the rudder. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. may be made of hardwood. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. By replacing the oars with paddles. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. To make it take a sheet-iron band. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . B. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. A. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. Fig. backward. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. Chicago. Then replace the table. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. which will be sufficient to hold it. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. If desired. --Contributed by Draughtsman. shaft made. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. Then walk down among the audience. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. Make one of these pieces for each arm. The brass rings also appear distorted. Put a sharp needle point. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. outward. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. as shown at A. 3/4 in. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. The bearings. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. 2. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. B. as shown in the illustration. and the oarsman is obliged to travel.

This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. or the paint will come off. but when in motion. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. Snow. as shown in Fig. A. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. 1. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. W. If babbitt is used. 2. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. C. 2 and 3. being simply finely divided ice. The hubs. E. A block of ice. spoiling its appearance. 1. as shown in Fig. Fig. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. The covers. or under pressure. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. In the same way. D. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece.melted babbitt. 3. and a weight. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. 1. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. If galvanized iron is used. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. when it will again return to its original state. should be made of wood. It may seem strange that ice . because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure.

Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. by 1/2 in. Pa. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. Pressing either push button. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. but by placing it between books. Crafton. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. no matter how slow the motion may be. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax.should flow like water. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. as per sketch. by 1/4. by 5 in. which resembles ice in this respect. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. it will gradually change from the original shape A.. brass. but. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. or supporting it in some similar way. P. and assume the shape shown at B. square. by 2 in. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. thus giving a high resistance contact. The rate of flow is often very slow. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. whenever there is any connection made at all. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. B. sometimes only one or two feet a day. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. Lane. --Contributed by Gordon T. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. in. as shown on page 65.

alarm clock. G. wooden supports. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. cord. F. Pa. vertical lever. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. D. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. Indianapolis. The parts are: A. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. and five dry batteries. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. B. draft. H. furnace. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. Wilkinsburg. E. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. B. horizontal lever. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. A is the circuit breaker. Ward.thumb screws. K . --Contributed by A. about the size used for automobiles. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. and C.000 ft. The success depends upon a slow current. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. weight. as shown. as shown. the battery. G. J. draft chain. I. In the wiring diagram. C. the induction coil. pulleys.

-Contributed by Gordon Davis.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. The frame (Fig. where house plants are kept in the home. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . material framed together as shown in Fig. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. 3. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. Mich. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. Artistic Window Boxes The top. 2 are dressed to the right angle. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. Kalamazoo. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. such as used for a storm window. which will provide a fine place for the plants. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. as well as the bottom. will fit nicely in them.

--Contributed by Wm. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. Thus. is something that will interest the average American boy. can be connected up in series. since a battery is the most popular source of power. where they are glad to have them taken away. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. which sells for 25 cents. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. as indicated by Fig. 1 each complete with base. Grant. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. so as to increase the current. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. However. and the instrument will then be complete. However. and a suitable source of power. It must be remembered. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. for some time very satisfactorily. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. i. a cork and a needle. Canada. 1. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. N. in any system of lamps. and cost 27 cents FIG. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. one can regulate the batteries as required. S. The 1/2-cp... They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs.. A certain number of these. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. This is more economical than dry cells. after a rest. W. Halifax. e. in this connection. but maintain the voltage constant. multiples of series of three. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. this must be done with very great caution. and will give the . Push the needle into the cork. in diameter. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. 1 cp. as if drawn upon for its total output. by connecting them in series. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts.

Thus. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. . Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. where the water pressure is the greatest. However. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. So. 3. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. each. for display of show cases. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. according to the water pressure obtainable. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. to secure light by this method. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. and then lead No. These will give 3 cp. especially those of low internal resistance. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. and for Christmas trees. lamp. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. FIG. making. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. 18 B & S. if wound for 6 volts. we simply turn on the water. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. generates the power for the lights. which is the same as that of one battery.proper voltage. Fig. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. 11 series. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. as in Fig. Chicago. 2 shows the scheme. If wound for 10 volts. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. lamps. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. The dynamo can also be used as a motor.. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. although the first cost is greater. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. Thus. 1-cp. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. and diffused light in a room. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. lamps. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. In conclusion. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. and running the series in parallel.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. by the proper combination of these. double insulated wire wherever needed. or 22 lights. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo.

Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. and the sides. After I connected up my induction coil. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. Parker. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Ind. center points of switch. as shown in the sketch. a bait of meat. or a tempting bone. simply change the switch. Cal. BB. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. outside points of switch. AA. A. or from one pattern. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. bars of pole-changing switch. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. DD. B. we were not bothered with them. thus reversing the machine.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. --Contributed by Leonard E. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. field of motor. --Contributed by F. To reverse the motor. Plymouth. the letters indicate as follows: FF. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. Emig. brushes of motor. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. . and C. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. A indicates the ground. switch. B. CC. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. are cut just alike. Santa Clara. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery.

. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. merely push the button E. Minn. Cal. When the circuit is broken a weight. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. as it is the key to the lock. To unlock the door. San Jose. a hammer. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. attached to the end of the armature B. thus locking the door. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. 903 Vine St. a piece of string. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. The button can be hidden. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. which is in the door. W. -Contributed by Claude B. or would remain locked. A. Hutchinson. Fry. Melchior.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. The experiment works best . one cell being sufficient. If it is not. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. and a table or bench. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked.

Madison. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. Wis. Schmidt. -. in the ceiling and has a window weight. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. 2. the stick falls away. 4). releasing the weight.. Porto Rico. 1). A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. 18 Gorham St. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. --Contributed by Geo. 3. Tie the ends of the string together. . On another block of wood fasten two wires. 3. where it will remain suspended as shown. D.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head.Contributed by F. Ontario. the key turns. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Canada. P. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. I. as shown in Fig. Crawford Curry. Culebra. Brockville. C. run through a pulley. attached at the other end. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. When the alarm rings in the early morning. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. the current flows with the small arrows. which pulls the draft open. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. W. forming a loop. A.

N. and then to the receiver. Camden. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. running one direct to the receiver. made with his own hands. and the other to the battery. J. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. square and 1 in. First. Jr. Use a barrel to work on. Connect two wires to the transmitter. The cut shows the arrangement.. Farley. get two pieces of plate glass. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. thence to a switch. D. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. J. thick. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. or tree. S. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. or from a bed of flowers. which fasten to the horn. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. R.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. and . 6 in. and break the corners off to make them round. --Contributed by Wm. including the mouthpiece. The apparatus is not difficult to construct.

and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. 2. Have ready six large dishes. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum.. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. 1. the coarse grinding must be continued. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. Fig. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. twice the focal length away. with pitch. and label. and spread on the glass. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. set the speculum against the wall. L. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. also rotate the glass. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. or it will not polish evenly. Fasten. 2. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. wide around the convex glass or tool. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. of water. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. then 8 minutes. A. Use a binger to spread it on with. so the light . Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. In a dark room. then take 2 lb. and the under glass or tool convex. unless a longer focal length is wanted. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. while walking around the barrel. a round 4-in. as in Fig. When dry. Fig. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. and is ready for polishing.. in length. by the side of the lamp. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. and a large lamp. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. wetting it to the consistency of cream. using straight strokes 2 in. spaces. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. melt 1 lb. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. with 1/4-in. or less. When polishing the speculum.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. When done the glass should be semitransparent. wet till soft like paint. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. Then warm and press again with the speculum. flour emery and mix in 12 qt.

Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. if a hill in the center. long to the back of the speculum. Place the speculum S. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. that was set aside.. Then add solution B. longer strokes. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. When dry. Fig. touched with rouge. as in K. or hills. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole.100 gr. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. Silver nitrate ……………………………. cement a strip of board 8 in. with distilled water. Fig. Solution D: Sugar loaf . Then add 1 oz. deep. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. must be procured. in the bath and leave until the silver rises..……………. fill the dish with distilled water.. Nitric acid . 2. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. Fig. The polishing and testing done. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). When the focus is found. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. Now add enough of the solution A. 100 gr. 39 gr. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. then ammonia until bath is clear. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. from the lamp. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water …………………………….………………………………. and pour the rest into the empty dish... the speculum will show some dark rings. The knife should not be more than 6 in.. 840 gr.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. also how the rays R from a star . Place the speculum.. 25 gr. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. If not. Two glass or earthenware dishes. the speculum is ready to be silvered. 4 oz. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid.. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. 4 oz.……………………………. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. With pitch.. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside.. face down. 2.

Make the tube I of sheet iron.John E. long and cost me just $15. About 20. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. two glass prisms. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. deg. using strawboard and black paper. Mellish. stop down well after focusing. The flatter they are the less they will distort. Place over lens. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. is a satisfactory angle. My telescope is 64 in. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. which proves to be easy of execution. . Then I made the one described.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. slightly wider than the lens mount.. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. telescope can be made at home. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. with an outlay of only a few dollars. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. Thus an excellent 6-in. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. cover with paper and cloth. and proceed as for any picture. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount.

The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. Zimmerman. -Contributed by A. but will not preserve its hardening. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. and reflect through the negative. complete the arrangement. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. then add a little sulphate of potash. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. D. . through the lens of the camera and on the board. as shown in Fig. The paper is exposed. Ill. instead of the contrary. The rays of the clear. Do not stir it. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. Fig. A. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. unobstructed light strike the mirror. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. 2. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. 1. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. B. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. Boody. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. says the Master Painter. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. push the button D. add the plaster gradually to the water. To unlock. or powdered alum. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps.

3. as at A and B. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. Then blow through the spool. 2. use a string. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. so that it can rotate about these points. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Fasten on the switch lever. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. To reverse. 2. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. throw . thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. Fig. as shown in the sketch. but will remain suspended without any visible support. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. as in Fig. 1). also provide them with a handle.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe.

North Bend. Push one end of the tire into the hole. binding posts. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. although this is not necessary. . --Contributed by R.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. L. and E E. D. San Antonio. San Marcos. carbon sockets. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. as shown in the sketch. Take out. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. carbons. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. In the sketch. Thomas. B. Go McVicker. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Tex. and rub dry with linen cloth. wash in running water. the armature. rinse in alcohol. Levy. -Contributed by Morris L. C C. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Tex. Neb. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. --Contributed by Geo. A is the electricbell magnet.

By means of two or more layers of No. long or more. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Brooklyn. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. 36 magnet wire. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. wound evenly about this core. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. Bell. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. --Contributed by Joseph B. 14 or No. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. 16 magnet wire.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary.

The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. diameter. The following method of completing a 1-in. one piece of the paper is laid down. The condenser is next wrapped . long and 2-5/8 in. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. coil illustrates the general details of the work. making two layers. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. in length. as shown in Fig. which is desirable. 1. The primary is made of fine annealed No. the entire core may be purchased readymade. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. as the maker prefers. In shaping the condenser. but if it is not convenient to do this work. long and 5 in. in diameter. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. This makes a condenser which may be folded. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around.which would be better to buy ready-made. about 6 in. or 8 in. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. No. After the core wires are bundled. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. When cut and laid in one continuous length. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. and the results are often unsatisfactory. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. Beginning half an inch from one end. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. wide. which is an important factor of the coil. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. a box like that shown in Fig. hole is bored in the center of one end. then the strip of tin-foil. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. with room also for a small condenser. at a time. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. and finally the fourth strip of paper. A 7/8-in. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. 2 yd. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. 4.

forms the other pole or terminal. copper lever with 1-in. which allows wiring at the back. bell. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. to the door. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. the letters indicate as follows: A. go. by 12 in. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. F. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. battery . but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. 3. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. round so that the inside . then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. long to key. B. G. Fig. V-shaped copper strip. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. long and 12 in. wide. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. D. I. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. switch.. C. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. which is insulated from the first. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in.) The wiring diagram. and the other sheet. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. and one from battery. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. spark. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. 4 in. The alarm key will turn and drop down. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. open switch C. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. E. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. B. flange turned on one side. A. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. whole length. one from bell. lines H. ready for assembling. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back.securely with bands of paper or tape. shows how the connections are made. shelf for clock. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in.

diameter is 7 in. instead of close to it. Short-circuit for three hours.. London. If desired for use immediately. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. 2 in. This is for blowing. and then rivet the seam. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. but with the circuit. . and the battery is ready for use. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. do not shortcircuit. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. That is what they are for. from the bottom. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. of zinc sulphate. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. but add 5 or 6 oz. The circuit should also have a high resistance. says the Model Engineer. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. Use a glass or metal shade. of blue stone. Line the furnace.

for some it will turn one way. Outside of the scientific side involved. herein I describe a much better trick. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. To operate the trick. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. At least it is amusing. while for others it will not revolve at all. porcelain and paper. the thumb and second finger changing places: e.. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. below the bottom of the zinc. square and about 9 in. 2. grip the stick firmly in one hand. or think they can do the same let them try it. Enlarge the hole slightly. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. the second finger along the side. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. imparting to them a violet tinge. If any or your audience presume to dispute. This type of battery will give about 0. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass." which created much merriment. affects . Try it and see. long. changes white phosphorus to yellow. thus producing two different vibrations. and then. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. but the thing would not move at all. and therein is the trick. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. 1. oxygen to ozone. Ohio. as in the other movement. If too low. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches.9 of a volt. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. for others the opposite way. g.

earth. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. To the front board is attached a box. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. a means for holding it vertical. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. chemicals. and. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. however. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . an old tripod screw. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. insects. if possible. a short-focus lens. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. says the Photographic Times. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. but this is less satisfactory. but small flowers. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. but not essential. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. and one of them is photomicrography.

which is 15 ft. while it is not so with the quill. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. 5 in. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. in Cu. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft.--Contributed by George C. 268 17 lb. 8 ft.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. A line. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. Madison. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 7-1/2 in. or 3 ft. Mass. wide from which to cut a pattern. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 905 57 lb. 12 ft. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Boston. 381 24 lb. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. balloon. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 7-1/2 in. The following table will give the size. 65 4 lb. 113 7 lb. in diameter. 11 ft. or 31 ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. Cap. 697 44 lb. 179 11 lb. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 10 ft 523 33 lb. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 1. Ft Lifting Power. long and 3 ft. 7 ft. CD. Fig. 9 ft. 6 ft. AB. If the balloon is 10 ft. 5 ft. and a line. Divide one-quarter of the circle .

For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. 70 thread. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. 2. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. of beeswax and boil well together. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. 4. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. using a fine needle and No. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. Repeat this operation four times. and so on. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. of the very best heavy body. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. cutting all four quarters at the same time. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. on the curved line from B to C. This test will show if the bag is airtight. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. making a double seam as shown in Fig. keeping the marked part on the outside. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. 3. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. The amounts necessary for a 10- . until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. Procure 1 gal. The pattern is now cut. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. The cloth segments are sewed together. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard.

The benzine should be clean and free from oil. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. oil the spindle holes carefully. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. as shown in Fig. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. A. Water 1 oz. or a fan. it is not fit to use. Vegetable oils should never be used. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. 1 lb. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. About 15 lb.ft. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. B. balloon are 125 lb. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. above the level of the water in barrel A. to the bag. with 3/4in. A. of iron borings and 125 lb. this should be repeated frequently. The 3/4-in. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. After washing a part. 1 lb. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. A. using a fine brush. of sulphuric acid. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. of gas in one hour. . let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. should not enter into the water over 8 in. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. Fill the other barrel. All FIG. leaving the hand quite clean. . 5. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. capacity and connect them. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. The outlet. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. by fixing.. until no more dirt is seen. pipe extending down into the cooling tank.Green Iron ammonium citrate . B. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. a clean white rag. C. if it is good it will dry off. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. or dusting with a dry brush. but if any grease remains on the hand. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. 5 . Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. B. 150 gr. C. of water will make 4 cu. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. ft. which may sound rather absurd. ]. with water 2 in. with the iron borings. of iron. pipe. In the barrel. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. When the clock has dried.

toning first if desired. A longer exposure will be necessary. A cold. keeping the fingers out of the solution. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. to avoid blackened skin. Dry the plates in the dark. and a vigorous negative must be used. . 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. The negative pole. at the time of employment.Water 1 oz. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. The miniature 16 cp. Printing is done in the sun. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. fix in hypo. of any make.. dry atmosphere will give best results. Port Melbourne. This aerial collector can be made in . . Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. or carbon. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. Exposure. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. or battery. Bathe the plates 5 minutes.000 ft. The positive pole. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Dry in the dark. or zinc. and keep in the dark until used. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. 20 to 30 minutes. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. says the Moving Picture World. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1.

various ways. lead pipe. If the waves strike across the needle. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. and have the other connected with another aerial line. long. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. The storage cell. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. the resistance is less. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. and as less current will flow the short way. as described below. in diameter. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. This will complete the receiving station. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. making a ground with one wire. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. both positive and negative. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. will soon become dry and useless. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. 5 in. a positive and a negative. lay a needle. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. when left exposed to the air. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. forming a cup of the pipe. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. If the wave ceases. As the telephone offers a high resistance. holes . Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon.

B. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. This. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. except for about 1 in. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. and the other to the negative. or tube B. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. on each end. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. Two binding-posts should be attached. does not need to be watertight. says the Pathfinder. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . an oblong one and a triangular one. of course. D. one to the positive. or tube C. namely: a square hole. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. by soldering the joint. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. This support or block. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. a round one.as possible. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. The other plate is connected to the zinc. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. This box can be square. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. When mixing the acid and water.

is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. wide. as shown in Fig.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. in place on the wood. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. all around the edge. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. and match them together. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. thick cut two pieces alike. The third piece of brass. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. Ill. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. 3. wide. 1. Only galvanized nails should be used. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. Chicago. leaving about 1/16 in. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. 2. 2. C. long. is built 15 ft. as shown in Fig. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. A and B. This punt. about 20 in. 1. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. C. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. and has plenty of good seating capacity. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. were fitted by this one plug. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. back and under. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. deep and 4 ft. as it is not readily overturned. . From a piece of brass 1/16 in.

Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. In Fig. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. B. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . A piece of 1/4-in. thick and 3-1/2 in. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. is cut 1 in. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Wash. Tacoma. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. gas pipe. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. A. square (Fig 2).

says the Model Engineer. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. which can be developed in the usual manner." has no connection with the outside circuit. and to consume. it had to be borne in mind that. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. Wagner. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. or "rotor. with the exception of insulated wire. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . no special materials could be obtained. without auxiliary phase. lamp. H. no more current than a 16-cp. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning.--Contributed by Charles H. may be of interest to some of our readers. if possible. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. which the writer has made. In designing. The winding of the armature.

4. holes. Unfortunately. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. and filled with rivets. and all sparking is avoided. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. 5. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. wrought iron. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. 2. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. as shown in Fig. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good.the field-magnet. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. B. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. They are not particularly accurate as it is. to be filed out after they are placed together." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. were then drilled and 1/4-in. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. with the dotted line. about 2-1/2 lb. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. while the beginnings . and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. 3. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. or "stator. as shown in Fig. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. being used. The stator is wound full with No. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. bolts put in and tightened up. this little machine is not self-starting. After assembling a second time. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. Holes 5-32 in. thick. no steel being obtainable. 1. in diameter were drilled in the corners. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. C. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. also varnished before they were put in. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. A.

The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. One is by contact. 2. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. a regulating resistance is not needed. The image should . No starting resistance is needed. In making slides by contact. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it.. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. as before stated. and all wound in the same direction. E. and especially of colored ones. If too late for alcohol to be of use. and as each layer of wire was wound. and as the motor runs at constant speed. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. N. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. and the other by reduction in the camera. The lantern slide is a glass plate. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. film to film. McKinney. as a means of illustrating songs. as shown in Fig. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. and would not easily get out of order. The rotor is wound with No. having no commutator or brushes. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. it would be very simple to build. Newark. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. 1. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. if applied immediately. This type of motor has drawbacks. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. Jr. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. 3-Contributed by C. J.

When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. Fig. and then a plain glass. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. It is best. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. B. if possible. Select a room with one window. C. except that the binding is different. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. as shown in Fig. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. the formulas being found in each package of plates. These can be purchased from any photo material store. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. over the mat. a little extra work will be necessary. 3. to use a plain fixing bath. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. as shown in Fig. 1. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. 2. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. they are much used by travelers. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. If the exposure has been correct. Being unbreakable. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. and development should be over in three or four minutes. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. Draw lines with a pencil. about a minute. A. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative.appear in. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. 5. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . also. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. D. 4.

Vt. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. while the dot will be in front of the other. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. is to be used for the seat. Corinth. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. wide and 50 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . long. as shown in Fig. 2. 16 in. These longer pieces can be made square. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. from the center of this dot draw a star. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. 1. If the star is in front of the left eye. in diameter and 20 in. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. 1. Fig. Fig. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. holes bored in the end pieces. or other stout cloth. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. from the end piece of the chair. as shown at B. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. as shown at A. in diameter and 40 in. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. Hastings. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. long. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. long. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. from the ends. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. A piece of canvas. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. known as rods and cones.

as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. J. Auburn. O'Gara. in thickness and 10 in. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. as well as to operate other household machines.-Contributed by P. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. . It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. made from an ordinary sash cord. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. A belt. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. A disk 1 in. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. Cal. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. 2. per square inch. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. 1. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. They will be found to be exactly the same distance.

and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. to the top of the bench. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. leaving it shaped like a bench. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. 3/4 in. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. Cut out a piece from the block combination. divided by the number of threads to the inch. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. A simple. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. long. square for a support. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. and the construction is complete. screwing it through the nut. will be the thickness of the object. it serves a very useful purpose. fairly accurate. says the Scientific American. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. Bore a 1/4-in. . thick and 2-1/2 in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. Put the bolt in the hole. wide. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. The part of a rotation of the bolt. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. direction. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. then removing the object. with as fine a thread as possible. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. or inconvenient to measure.

This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Place a 3/4-in. Oal. beyond the end of the wood. material 12 ft. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. bolt in each hole. piece of wood 12 ft. The wheel should be open . --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. long is used for the center pole. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Bore a 3/4-in. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. globe that has been thrown away as useless. which show up fine at night. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Santa Maria. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. long. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair.

Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. made of the same material. which should be 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. at the bottom. A. pieces used for the spokes. The width should be about 5-1/4 in.-Contributed by A. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. C. C. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. The coil. from the top end. A cross bar.Side and Top View or have spokes. thick. H and J. long. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. from the ends. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. wide and 1/8 in. square and 3 or 4 in. and on its lower end a socket. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. Fort Worth. B. in diameter. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. L. P. is soldered. Tex. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. 1/2 in. long. thick is used for the armature. at the top and 4 in. long. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. thick. long. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. and the lower part 61/2 in. The spool . A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. O. The boards may be nailed or bolted. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. to be operated by the magnet coil. A piece of brass 2 in. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. of the ends with boards. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. Graham. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No.

F. and directly centering the holes H and J. C. 1. The armature. that holds the lower carbon. by soldering. and in numerous other like instances. one without either rubber or metal end. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. S. At the bottom end of the frame. This tie can be used on grain sacks. This is a very neat trick if performed right. A soft piece of iron. for insulating the brass ferrule. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it.E. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. Bradlev. 2. . Randolph. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. S. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. Mass. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. D and E.is about 2-1/2 in. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. long. --Contributed by Arthur D. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. 2 the hat hanging on it. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. When you slide the pencil along the casing. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post.000. which may be had by using German silver wire. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. R. is drilled. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S.000 for irrigation work. do it without any apparent effort. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. then with a firm.--A. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. A. or a water rheostat heretofore described.J. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. and place it against a door or window casing. B. which is also connected to the brass ferrule.

2. about 3/16 in. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. mixed with water to form a paste. in diameter. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. Fig. is constructed in the usual manner. B. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. The vibrator. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. is connected to a flash lamp battery. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. hole in the center. for the secondary. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. The core of the coil. The switch. A. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. D. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. and then 1. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. The coil ends are made from cardboard. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. 1. from the core and directly opposite. S. in diameter and 1/16 in. C. about 1/8 in. Experiment with Heat [134] . The vibrator B. Fig. with a 3/16-in. may be made from a 3/8-in. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. about 1 in. long. S. wide. long and 1 in. in diameter and 2 in.500 turns of No. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. leaving the projections as shown.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. About 70 turns of No. thick. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. 1. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. for adjustment. for the primary. in diameter. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. F. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support.

How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. long and when placed over the board. in an ordinary water glass. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. board. brass plate. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. 1. 16 in. which is cut with two holes. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. it laps down about 8 in. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. and the same distance inside of the new board. 1. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. as shown. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. 2 to fit the two holes. between the boards. The hasp. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. lighted. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. and then well clinched. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. Fig. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. The lock. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. which seemed to be insufficient. with which to operate the dial. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. was to be secured by only three brass screws. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. which is only 3/8-in. thick on the inside. as shown in the sketch. The three screws were then put in the hasp. wide. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. The tin is 4 in. The knob on the dial extends out too far.Place a small piece of paper. . While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water.

one in each division. any article placed therein will be reflected in. When the rear part is illuminated. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. black color. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. the glass. When making of wood. and the back left dark. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. or in the larger size mentioned. clear glass as shown. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. high for use in window displays. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. square and 8-1/2 in. not shiny. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. which completely divides the box into two parts. square and 10-1/2 in. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . but when the front part is illuminated. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. If the box is made large enough.

alternately. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. long and 1 ft. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. as shown at A in the sketch. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. into the other. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. a tank 2 ft.. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. as shown in the sketch. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. wide will be about the right size. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. and with the proper illumination one is changed. .Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. When using as a window display. above the top of the tank. When there is no electric current available. as it appears.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

Iron sulphate. and 6 ft. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. long. under sides together. hole. square and 40 in.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. high. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. Three windows are provided. wide. is the green vitriol. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. dried and mixed with linseed oil. however. 6 in. This precipitate is then washed. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. 2 ft. each. with a length of 13 in. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. This hole must be continued . bore from each end. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. gauge for depth. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. from the ground. 1 in. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. If a planing mill is near. lines gauged on each side of each. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. long. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. and a solution of iron sulphate added. square. Columbus. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. as shown. The 13-in. A small platform. hole bored the full length through the center. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. thick and 3 in. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. one for each side. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. wide. and a door in front. O. The pieces can then be taken out. two pieces 1-1/8 in. bit. but with a length of 12 in. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. is built on the front. and boring two holes with a 1-in. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. then use a red-hot iron to finish. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. using a 3/4-in. Shape the under sides first. radius. 5 ft. or ferrous sulphate. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in.

Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. When this is dry. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. A better way. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout.through the pieces forming the base. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. three or four may be attached as shown. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Saw the two blocks apart. The sketch shows one method of attaching. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. apply two coats of wax. Directions will be found on the filler cans. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. When the filler has hardened. thick and 3 in. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. square and drawing a diagonal on each. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. For art-glass the metal panels are . hole in each block. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. If the parts are to be riveted. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. if shade is purchased. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. Electric globes--two. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult.

METAL SHADE . as brass. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.Construction of Shade . Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.The Completed Lamp cut out. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. such as copper.

with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. the object and the background. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . as in ordinary devices. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. and Fig. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. 2 the front view of this stand. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The arms holding the glass. the other. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. as shown in the sketch. Figure 1 shows the side. one way and 1/2 in.

thick 5/8-in. in diameter for a base. long. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. wide and 6-5/16 in. An ordinary pocket compass. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. channel in the circumference of the ring. If the light becomes dim. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. about 1-1/4 in. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. and swinging freely. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Put the ring in place on the base. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. as shown in the cut. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. wide and 11 in. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . outside diameter. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. in diameter. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. thus forming a 1/4-in. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. Before mounting the ring on the base. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. pointing north and south. as it is very poisonous. uncork and recork again. Cut another circular piece 11 in. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. and an inside diameter of 9 in. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines.

375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. into these cylinders. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. above the half can. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. Place on top the so- . The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. and mirrors. 1 oz.088 . Corresponding mirrors. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. to which a wire has been soldered for connections.182 . and north of the Ohio river.865 1. are mounted on a base. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. from the second to the third. EE. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils.289 . For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in.500 . of the top. AA. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. CC. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in.600 .715 . in diameter and 8 in.420 . and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. B. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. The results given should be multiplied by 1. black oxide of copper.

When renewing. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. the wheel will revolve in one direction. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . Colo. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. which otherwise remains clear. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. alcohol.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. 31 gr. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. little crystals forming in the liquid. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. slender bottle. 62 gr. University Park. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. of pulverized campor. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. Put the solution in a long. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. then they will not rust fast. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. In Fig. says Metal Worker. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. always remove the oil with a siphon.

in diameter will serve very well for the box A. Solder in the side of the box . This is used in place of the spoon. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. --Contributed by C. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. Attach to the wires. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. will allow the magnet to point north and south. If zinc and copper are used. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. on the under side of the cork. about 1-1/4 in. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. If two of them are floating on the same solution. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. If zinc and carbon are used. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. A paper-fastener box. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. Lloyd Enos. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. floating on a solution.

G--No. 14 wire will do.in. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. thick. is made from a piece of No. C. D. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. A circular piece of cardboard. to it. A. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. brass tubing. C. B. The standard. Take a small piece of soft iron.Contributed by J. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. B. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. wide and 2-1/2 in. C. wide and 6 in. 1/2. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. 3 in. and on the other around the glass tube. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. hole. The spring should be about 1 in. Wind evenly about 2 oz. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft.1-in. 1-1/4 in. or made with a little black paint. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. H. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. of wire on each end extending from the coil. stained and varnished. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. long. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. one on each side of the board. glass tubing .in. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. of No. long. The base.not shorter than 18 in. can be made of oak. Thos. Bore holes for binding-posts. Put ends. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. piece of 1/4-in. F. 10 wire about 10 in. To this standard solder the supporting wire. . D. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. away. Use a board 1/2. and then solder on the cover. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. long that has about 1/4-in. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. Rhamstine. D. The bottom of the box. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. as shown in Fig. E. A. If the hose is not a tight fit. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. 1. E.

3. long.of the coil. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. long. in diameter. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. of mercury will be sufficient. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. as shown in Fig. four hinges. 3-in. canvas. of No. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. N. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. of 8-oz. E. pieces of wood as shown in Fig.--Contributed by Edward M. 3 in. Wis. About 1-1/2 lb. long are used for the legs. The iron plunger. . long. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. Milwaukee. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. Cuba. Y. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. Teasdale. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. 2. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. making a support as shown in Fig. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. about 1 in. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. two pieces 2 ft. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. long. long. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. When the glass becomes soft. D. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. 1.--Contributed by R. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. Smith. is drawn nearer to the coil. J. 5. from the right hand. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. two pieces 2-1/2 ft.

This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. This tube as described will be 8 in. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. 3. Take 1/2 in.. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. Break off the piece of glass. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. leaving 8 in. 4. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Measure 8 in. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. long. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. holding in the left hand. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. The tube now must be filled completely. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. Fig. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. of vacuum at the top. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. --Contributed by David A. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. 2. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. expelling all the air. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. small aperture in the long tube. Toronto. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. Can. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. thus leaving a. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. 5.. Keys. 6. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury.

as in Fig. 9 in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. 1. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. and the single projection 3/4 in. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. A crosspiece 3/4-in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. thick. 1 in. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. wide and 12 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. long. wood screws. 3 in. from the end of same. 1 in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. in diameter.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. 3 in. thick. FIG. long. as shown in Fig. wide and 5 ft. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. with each projection 3-in. as shown in Fig. 4 in. The large pulley is about 14 in. Fig. thick. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. 4. These are bent and nailed. 3. wide and 5 ft. wide and 3 in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. wide and 5 ft. thick. and 1/4 in. but yellow pine is the best. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. 5. This forms a slot. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. 6. joint be accurately put together. thick. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the .Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. 2. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in.6 -. Four blocks 1/4 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. long. material 2 in. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. 7. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. long. cut in the shape shown in Fig.

--Contributed by C. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. Kan. first removing the crank. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. R. . Water 1 oz. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Manhattan. by 1-in. above the runner level. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. leaving the greater part of the screw extending.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. says Photography. attach runners and use it on the ice. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Welsh. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr.

fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. of water. 1. from an ordinary clamp skate. also. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Mass. 2. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. Treasdale. as shown in Fig. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Leominster. 1 oz. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. --Contributed by Edward M. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. as shown in Fig.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. Newton. The print is washed. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. . The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. Printing is carried rather far. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. 3. and very much cheaper. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. --Contributed by Wallace C.

is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. --Contributed by H. Alexandria. Take two glass tubes. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. which represents the back side of the door. too. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. Fig. wide and 4 in. and bend them as shown in the sketch. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. 2. 1 ft. high for rabbits. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. fasten a 2-in. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. The swing door B. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. Then. and 3 ft. A. say. Va. Church. 1. and to the bottom. Fig. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. 1. about 10 in. as shown in the sketch. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. wide. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. long. Place a 10-in. causing the door to swing back and up. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. high. 1-1/2 ft. with about 1/8-in. The thread is broken off at the . hole. extending the width of the box. from one end. F. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. square piece.

Out two rectangular holes. 1. Jr. being 1/8 in. automobiles. from the edge on each side of these openings. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. high and 12 in. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate.by 7-in. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. in size. -Contributed by William M. D. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. Take two pieces of pasteboard. Cut an opening in the other piece. shorter at each end. but cut it 1/4 in. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. This opening. . B. and go in the holder in the same way. horses and dogs. 1 in. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. A and B. to be used as a driving pulley. long. in size.by 5-in. 10 in. says Camera Craft. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. 2. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. as shown in Fig. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. Paste a piece of strong black paper. C. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5.. wide. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through.proper place to make a small hole. Fig. black surfaced if possible. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. trolley cars. Fig. inside of the opening. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. long. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. 3. Chicago. wide. wide and 5 in. and exactly 5 by 7 in. plates. shorter. Crilly. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. camera and wish to use some 4. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. say 8 in.

The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. The needle will then point north and south. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. making a .. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam.in. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. into which the dog is harnessed. if it has previously been magnetized.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. A cell of this kind can easily be made. wide will be required. in diameter. long and 6 in. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in.

Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. one that will hold about 1 qt. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. . of rosin and 2 oz. zinc oxide. 1/4 lb. of the plate at one end. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. leaving about 1/2-in. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. fodder. A is a block of l-in. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. fuel and packing purposes. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. in which P is the pan. This makes the wire smooth. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. and a notch between the base and the pan. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. Do not paint any surface. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. of the top. says Electrician and Mechanic. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. Pack the paste in. F is a spool. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. under the spool in the paraffin. sal ammoniac. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. Place the pan on the stove. pull out the wire as needed. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. long which are copper plated. 1 lb. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. for a connection. in diameter and 6 in. Form a 1/2-in. beeswax melted together.watertight receptacle. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. short time. when the paraffin is melted. with narrow flanges. pine. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. B is a base of 1 in. The details of the construction are given in the diagram.in. filter. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. plaster of paris. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. 3/4 lb. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. File the rods to remove the copper plate. only the joints. of water. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. Secure three carbon rods 1/2.

the thumb and second finger changing places: e. from vexation. let them try it. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. square and about 9 in. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Ohio.. thus producing two different vibrations. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. At least it is amusing. Enlarge the hole slightly. Try it and see. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Toledo. and therein is the trick. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. but the thing would not move at all. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. and he finally. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. grip the stick firmly in one hand. by the Hindoos in India. g. as in the other movement. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top." which created much merriment. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. long. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. and one friend tells me that they were . Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. and then. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. or think they can do the same. while for others it will not revolve at all. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. for some it will turn one way. for others the opposite way. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. 2. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. If any of your audience presume to dispute.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right.

this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. A square stick with notches on edge is best. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. The experiments were as follows: 1. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. by means of a center punch. and I think the results may be of interest. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. If the pressure was upon an edge. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. 2. p. no rotation resulted. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. the rotation may be obtained. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. Thus a circular or . Speeds between 700 and 1. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. secondly. To operate. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. m. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. 7. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. 6. rotation was obtained. 5. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. 4. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. gave the best results. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. 3.100 r. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. and. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric.

or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. --Contributed by G. unwetted by the liquid. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. Washington. is driven violently away. Sloan. C. or greasy. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. it will be clockwise. the upper portion is. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. Lloyd. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. forming a handle for carrying. if the pressure is from the left. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. Minn. so far as can be seen from the photographs. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water.D.. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. and the resultant "basket splash. A wire is tied around the can. as shown. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use.. G.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. and the height of the fall about 6 in." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). a piece of wire and a candle. Ph. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. . Duluth. --Contributed by M. A. at first. D.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

the wheels can be turned at some machine shop." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. flange and a 1/4-in. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. axle. thick and 1 in.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. in diameter. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. 1. as shown. with a 1/16-in. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. about 2-5/8 in. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. long. Each wheel is 1/4 in. hole drilled in the center.

is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . which must be 110 volt alternating current. bent as shown. 3. Fuller. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. If the ends are to be soldered. The motor is now bolted. --Contributed by Maurice E. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. lamp in series with the coil. 6. of No. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. Fig. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. are shown in Fig. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. as shown in Fig. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. wide and 16 in. and the locomotive is ready for running. The parts. 3. Fig. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. This will save buying a track. each in its proper place.50. 4. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. 2. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. bottom side up. These ends are fastened together. is made from brass. San Antonio. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. holes 1 in. The current. long. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. 5. with cardboard 3 in. 1 from 1/4-in. put together complete.brass. A trolley. wood. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. or main part of the frame. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. The first piece. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. as shown in Fig. is made from a piece of clock spring. Texas. 3/4 in. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. 2. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line.

slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Cincinnati. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. The quarter will not go all the way down. 1. then continue to tighten much more. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. as shown in Fig. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. but do not heat the center. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. 3. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. and holes drilled in them. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. 2. Fig 1. as shown in Fig. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. and as this end . trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. the length of a paper clip. Fig. O. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose.

belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. or apparent security of the knot. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. 2 and 1 respectively. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. When the trick is to be performed. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. In the sketch. A pair of centers are fitted. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. When the cutter A. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. and adjusted . or should the lathe head be raised. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. has finished a cut for a tooth. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6.

In this manner gears 3 in. if four parts are to be alike. 1. lady's card case. blotter back. --Contributed by Samuel C. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. book mark. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). An ordinary machine will do. Fold over along these center lines. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. tea cosey. above the surface. or one-half of the design. (6. Y. trace the outline. Bunker. When connecting to batteries. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick .) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. dividing it into as many parts as desired. (5. about 1-1/2 in. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. if but two parts. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). With such objects as coin purses and card cases. and a nut pick. N. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. watch fob ready for fastenings. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. swing lathe. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. at the same time striking light. long. coin purse. Fig.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. (1. holding it in place with the left hand.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. 2. Brooklyn. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. draw center lines across the required space. twisted around itself and soldered. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig.) Make on paper the design wanted. Second row: -Two book marks. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. (2. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. The frame holding the mandrel. (3. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. such as brass or marble. lady's belt bag. note book. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. --Contributed by Howard S. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. (4. Bott. gentleman's card case or bill book. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins.) Place the paper design on the leather and.to run true. tea cosey. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin.

some heavy rubber hose.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle. Secure .

The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. The electrodes are made . Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. into which fit a small piece of tube. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. where it condenses.. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. C. B. and bore a hole through the center. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. Thrust a pin. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. D. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. Florida. from Key West. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. If the needle is not horizontal. and push it through a cork. A.C. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. a distance of 900 miles.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube.

and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. 1-1/4 in. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. thick. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. several strips 1/2 in. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. use 10-ft. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. 1. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. long. free from knots. Washington. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. 2 in. 1-1/2 in. If 20-ft. 2 arm sticks 1 in. thick. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. thick. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. slacken speed and settle. D. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. The operator can then land safely and . in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. Four long beams 3/4 in. thick. as shown in Fig. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. wide and 3 ft. wide and 4 ft long. long. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. wide and 20 ft. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. square and 8 ft long. take the glider to the top of a hill. long. wide and 4 ft. 12 uprights 1/2 in. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. 16 piano wire. or flying-machine. lumber cannot be procured. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. To make a glide. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. --Contributed by Edwin L. 3. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. as shown in Fig. which is tacked to the front edge. 3/4 in. 1/2. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. 2. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. C. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. All wiring is done with No. using a high resistance receiver. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. Powell. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. wide and 4 ft. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. Connect as shown in the illustration. 1. and also to keep it steady in its flight. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. 2. long. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. wide and 3 ft. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. both laterally and longitudinally. thick. 1. apart and extend 1 ft. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. as shown in Fig. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. lengths and splice them. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. long. by 3/4 in. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. long for the body of the operator.in. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown.

gently on his feet. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. Great care should be . Of course. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Glides are always made against the wind. but this must be found by experience.

One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. half man and half horse. M. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. Olson. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. as shown in Fig. When heated a little.exercised in making landings. which causes the dip in the line. Bellingham. --Contributed by L. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. 2. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. a creature of Greek mythology. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. 1. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player.

at the other. While at the drug store get 3 ft. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. square. a piece of brass or steel wire. about the size of stove pipe wire. long. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. 14 in.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. about the size of door screen wire. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. of small rubber tubing. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. making it 2-1/2 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. outside the box. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. in diameter. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. this will cost about 15 cents. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. long and about 3/8 in. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. will complete the material list. The light from the .

This is very simple when you know how.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. Dayton. 1. as shown in Fig. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. M. 2. as shown in Fig. O. --Photo by M. If done properly the card will flyaway. as shown in the sketch. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. Hunting.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. while others will fail time after time. . door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors.

revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. as described. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. hold the lump over the flame. place the other two. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. Cool in water and dry. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. If a certain color is to be more prominent.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. closing both hands quickly. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. When the desired shape has been obtained. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. as shown. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop." or the Chinese students' favorite game. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. This game is played by five persons. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. as before. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. then put it on the hatpin head.

and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. distribute electric charges . these sectors. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. passing through neutralizing brushes. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. or more in width.

3. and pins inserted and soldered. The plates are trued up. in diameter. GG. Fig. are made from solid. are made from 7/8-in. RR. in diameter.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. 1. as shown in Fig. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. in diameter. to which insulating handles . are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. long. material 7 in. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. These pins. Two pieces of 1-in. from about 1/4-in. turned wood pieces. EE. wide. The plates. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. in diameter. The drive wheels. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. the side pieces being 24 in. in diameter and 15 in. Fig. after they are mounted. Two solid glass rods. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. long and the standards 3 in. at the other. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. 1-1/2 in. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. D. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. long and the shank 4 in. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. free from wrinkles. and 4 in. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. and the outer end 11/2 in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. 1 in. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. in diameter. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. 2. C C. or teeth. The two pieces. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. in diameter. as shown in Fig. and of a uniform thickness. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. wide at one end. 3. 4. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. The collectors are made. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. long. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. The fork part is 6 in. and this should be done before cutting the circle. 3/4 in. brass tubing and the discharging rods.

Colorado City. one having a 2-in. which are bent as shown. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. wide and 22 ft. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Colo. and the work was done by themselves. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. KK. in diameter. --Contributed by C. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. 12 ft. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. Lloyd Enos. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall.. long. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. ball and the other one 3/4 in.are attached. D. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes.

yet such a thing can be done. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. The key will drop from the string. They can be used to keep pins and needles. deep. using a 1-in. string together. bit. pens . as at A. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. the boards are then put in a vise as shown.is a good one. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. and bore a hole 1/2 in. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork.

Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. sharp division between background and design. slim screw. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. 7.and pencils. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. Draw one-half the design free hand. they make attractive little pieces to have about. above the metal. When the stamping is completed. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in.. about 3/4-in. very rapid progress can be made. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. 4. 6. unless it would be the metal shears. The second oblong was 3/4 in.. 5. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. then the other side. 3. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. flat and round-nosed pliers. inside the second on all. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. Proceed as follows: 1. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. etc. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. Raise the ends. 23 gauge. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. and the third one 1/4 in. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. or cigar ashes. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. inside the first on all. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. above the work and striking it with the hammer. extra metal on each of the four sides. two spikes. file. using a nail filed to chisel edge. They are easily made. etc. 2. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. This is to make a clean. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. 8. Having determined the size of the tray. 9. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. Use . stamp the background promiscuously. Inside this oblong. also trace the decorative design.

A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. third fingers. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. and fourth fingers. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. first fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. second fingers. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. 9. 8. The eyes. 6. and the effect will be most pleasing. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. In the first numbering. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. 10. 7.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot.

which would be 70. 12. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. above 20 times 20. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. 600. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. renumber your fingers. 400.. At a glance you see four tens or 40.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. viz. or the product of 6 times 6. . if we wish. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. Still. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. but being simple it saves time and trouble. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44.. as high as you want to go. there are no fingers above. 11. or numbers above 10. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. which tens are added. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. or the product of 8 times 9.. 25 times 25. and the six lower fingers as six tens. which would be 16. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. Let us multiply 12 by 12. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. above 15 times 15 it is 200. or 60. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. etc. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. Put your thumbs together. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. first fingers. 2 times 2 equals 4. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. etc. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. the product of 12 times 12. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. Two times one are two. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. etc. In the second numbering. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. or 80. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. thumbs.

were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. the value which the upper fingers have. or from above or from below. at the will of the observer. however. about a vertical axis. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. whether the one described in second or third numbering. The inversion and reversion did not take place. the inversion takes place against his will. first finger 17. being 80). Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. etc. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. It takes place also. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. or what. And the lump sum to add. any two figures between 45 and 55. forties. 2. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. 3. Take For example 18 times 18. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. 21. 75 and 85. For figures ending in 6. 8. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. adding 400 instead of 100. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. as one might suppose. thirties. 7. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. the revolution seems to reverse. and so on. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. which is the half-way point between the two fives. in the case of a nearsighted person. beginning the thumbs with 16. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. not rotation. when he removes his spectacles.. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. further. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. twenties. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. Proceed as in the second lumbering. thumbs.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. first fingers 22. the value of the upper fingers being 20. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. . For example. lastly. the lump sum to add. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. and. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge.

sometimes the point towards him. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. and putting a cork on the point. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. when he knows which direction is right. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. as . The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. A flat slide valve was used. the other appearance asserts itself. tee. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. Looking at it in semidarkness. The ports were not easy to make.

long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. saw off a section of a broom handle. if continued too long without proper treatment. such as is shown in the illustration. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. While this engine does not give much power. The tools are simple and can be made easily. . The steam chest is round. in diameter.. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. Next take a block of wood. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. as in a vise. it is easily built. -Contributed by W. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. The eccentric is constructed of washers. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. pipe 10 in. deep. Ill. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. If nothing better is at hand. inexpensive. apart. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Springfield. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. Beating copper tends to harden it and. across and 1/2 in. across the head. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. secure a piece of No. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. pipe. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. bottom side up. H. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. Kutscher.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. about 2 in. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. Fasten the block solidly. and make in one end a hollow.

O. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. S. as it softens the metal. especially when the object is near to the observer. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat.will cause the metal to break. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. To produce color effects on copper. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. C. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. Camden. and. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. the other to the left. Vinegar. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. This process is called annealing. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. To overcome this hardness. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. Hay. --Contributed by W. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand.

As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. the one for the left eye being blue. not two mounted side by side. only the orange rays may pass through. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. diameter. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. in the proper choice of colors. it. however. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. It is just as though they were not there. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. In order to make them appear before the card. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. orange. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. . the left eye sees through a blue screen. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. The further apart the pictures are. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. from the stereograph. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. because. they must be a very trifle apart. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. the further from the card will the composite image appear. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. So with the stereograph. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. because of the rays coming from them. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. although they pass through the screen. and without any picture. as for instance red and green. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. would serve the same purpose. disappears fully. with the stereograph. and lies to the right on the picture. while both eyes together see a white background.stereoscope. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. But they seem black. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. that for the right. The red portions of the picture are not seen.

The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. wide and 1 in.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. Place a NO. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. This should only be bored about half way through the block. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. A No. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. in the shape of a crank. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. etc. Cal. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. thick. in diameter. wireless. or the middle of the bottle. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. 12 gauge wire. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. 1/4 in. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. San Francisco. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. long and a hole drilled in each end. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. The weight of the air in round . The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire.

The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. will calibrate itself. 34 ft. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in.numbers is 15 lb. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. a glass tube 1/8 in.6) 1 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. if you choose. square. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. The 4 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. wide and 4 in. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. pine 3 in. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. high. long. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. long. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. the contrary. In general. 30 in. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. high. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. . thick. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. long. or. or a column of mercury (density 13. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. internal diameter and about 34 in. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. and a slow fall. high. But if a standard barometer is not available. the instrument. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. inside diameter and 2 in.. a bottle 1 in. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. Only redistilled mercury should be used. Before fastening the scale. square. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. if accurately constructed. wide and 40 in. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. but before attempting to put in the mercury. When the tube is filled to within 1 in.

Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. long. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. Procure a metal can cover. 1. and place them as shown in Fig. Number the pieces 1. Mark out seven 1-in. thick. 3. a cover from a baking powder can will do. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. 2. 6 and 7. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. which is slipped quickly over the end. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. 5. the size of the outside of the bottle. wide and 10 in.

5 over No. Move 13-Move No. Move 7-Jump No. 2. Woolson. 7. 2 over No. 2's place. 2 . 2 over No. Move 15-Move No. 3 to the center. 7's place. 1. Move 14-Jump No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 1. l over No. 3. N. 6 in. in diameter. Move 8-Jump No. 6 into No. 5. 5 over No. Move 2-Jump No. Cape May Point. which is the very best material for the purpose. Move 10-Move No. 7 over No. each 10 ft. as shown in Fig. Move 5-Jump No. shaped like Fig. Move 3-Move No. 6 to No. Move 9-Jump No. 5's place.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 2's place. Move 6-Move No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 7 over No. Make 22 sections. procure unbleached tent duck. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 6 over No. This can be done on a checker board. using checkers for men. Move ll-Jump No. 5's place. To make such a tent. 1 to No. L. 3 into No.J. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 2. 6. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 3. 3 over No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. Move 4-Jump No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 3. 1 into No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns.-Contributed by W. long and 2 ft. Move 12-Jump No. 6. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces.

then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Punch holes in the brass in . round galvanized iron. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing.in. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. 5. long. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. In raising the tent. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised.. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. wide at the bottom. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. Emsworth. As shown in the sketch. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. added. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. wide at the bottom. wide by 12 in. fill with canvas edging. to a smooth board of soft wood. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. 5) stuck in the ground. 2. 2 in. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. Pa. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. 6-in. in diameter. high. 6. 9 by 12 in. Fig. 3 in. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. Use blocks. After transferring the design to the brass. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Have the tent pole 3 in. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. as in Fig. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Fig. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. --Contributed by G. diameter. will do. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. about 9 in. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Tress. These are ventilators. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. made in two sections. from the top.J. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. long and 4 in. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. leaving the rest for an opening.

fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. . I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. but before punching the holes. Chicago. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. When all the holes are punched. It will not. apart. bend into shape. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. around the outside of the pattern. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. The pattern is traced as before. cut out the brass on the outside lines. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief.the spaces around the outlined figures. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. When the edges are brought together by bending. Corr. excepting the 1/4-in.

partially filled with cream. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. pipe.however. better still. --Contributed by H. A 6-in. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. Mayger. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. allowing 2 ft. or center on which the frame swings.. Dunham. Que. If a wheel is selected. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. --Contributed by Geo. These pipes are . so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. or less. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. Badger. G. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. pipe is used for the hub. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. or. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Stevens. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. A cast-iron ring. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. between which is placed the fruit jar. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. Oregon. E.

The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe clamps. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. bent to the desired circle. Four braces made from 1/2-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. pipe. An extra wheel 18 in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in.

as shown in Fig. 3. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. while doing this. which was placed in an upright position. and the guide withdrawn. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. and dropped on the table. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. The performer. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. 1.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within.

in diameter on another piece of tin. in a half circle. and second. Louis. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. White. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Denver. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. St. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. first. Mo. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Harkins. D. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. it requires no expensive condensing lens. The box can be made of selected oak or . --Contributed by H. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. Colo. 1. 2. F. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. -Contributed by C.

Two or three holes about 1 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. The door covering this hole in the back. An open space 4 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. wide and 6-1/2 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. This will be 3/4 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. wide by 5 in. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. long. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. long and should be placed vertically. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. 5-1/2 in. but not tight. fit into the runners. and 2 in. focal length. high and must . AA. 3-1/2 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. wide. wide and 6-1/2 in. and. 1. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. as shown in Fig. long. If a camera lens is used. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box.mahogany. 2. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. represented by the dotted line in Fig. high and 11 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. from each end. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. from each end of the outside of the box. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. wide and 5 in.

--Contributed by Chas. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. and extending the whole height of the lantern. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. 1. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. April. calling this February. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. then the second knuckle will be March. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. calling that knuckle January. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. This process is rather a difficult one. West Toledo. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. and so on. as it requires an airtight case. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. the article may be propped up . C. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. Ohio.. June and November. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. Bradley. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. provided it is airtight. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece." etc. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig.

or suspended by a string. in. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. one of lead and one of aluminum. --Contributed by J. giving it an occasional stir. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. and set aside for half a day. 1. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. In each place two electrodes. In both Fig. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. fruit jars are required. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. Y. H. taking care to have all the edges closed. 1 and 2. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. and the lead 24 sq. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. in. N. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. Pour in a little turpentine. . Schenectady. running small motors and lighting small lamps.with small sticks. but waxed. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. Crawford. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. 2. The top of a table will do. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. the lid or cover closed. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt.

you remove the glass. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. O. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. After a few seconds' time. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. This trick is very simple. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. You have an understanding with some one in the company. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. as well as others. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. Cleveland. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. which you warm with your hands.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. He. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will .. he throws the other. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. as you have held it all the time. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug.

J. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. if any snags are encountered. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Colo. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. but by being careful at shores. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Crocker. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Victor. . wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. Pull the ends quickly. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. put it under the glass. in diameter in the center.take the handiest one. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. near a partition or curtain. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Be sure that this is the right one. but in making one. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. on a table. leaving a hole about 3/4 in.-Contributed by E. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table.

11 yd. from the bow and the large one.. drilled and fastened with screws. long. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 1 in. long. 3 in. 8 yd. from each end to 1 in. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft.. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. 3 and 4. 4 outwales. from the stern. is 14 ft. 1 mast. wide. 2 in. and fastened with screws. and is removed after the ribs are in place. wide unbleached muslin. 1 piece. wide and 12 ft. by 16 ft. by 16 ft. by 2 in. long. 2 gunwales. of 1-yd. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 1 in. for the bow. and. thick and 3/4 in. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. selected pine. 9 ft. at the ends. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. by 12 in. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. the smaller is placed 3 ft. long. wide 12-oz. and the other 12 in. for the stern piece. by 15 ft. wide and 12 ft. 7 ft. for center deck braces. screws and cleats.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. for cockpit frame. ducking. 8 in. by 2 in. The keelson. 14 rib bands. 1/8 in. 1 in. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. 3 in. 50 ft. by 10 ft. are as follows: 1 keelson. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. 1 in. Paint. square by 16 ft. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. by 8 in. one 6 in. of 1-1/2-yd. clear pine. of rope. as illustrated in the engraving. 2 and braced with an iron band. 1 piece. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. Fig. 1/4 in. Both ends are mortised. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. 1. apart.

The block is fastened to the keelson. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. gunwales and keelson. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. thick and 12 in. is a cube having sides 6 in. 1 in. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. Figs. 6 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. is cut to fit under the top boards. corner braces. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. and fastened to them with bolts. wide. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. thick. thick and 1/2 in. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. . A block of pine. Fig. 4 in. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. thick 1-1/2 in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. doubled. in diameter through the block. from the bow. A piece of oak. This block. long. a piece 1/4 in. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. 7 and 8. The deck is not so hard to do. long is well soaked in water. wide. They are 1 in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. 1/4 in. wide and 14 in. wide and 24 in. long. 5. A seam should be made along the center piece. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. A 6-in. 6 and 7. Fig. long. length of canvas is cut in the center. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. 1 in. The trimming is wood. also. 6. 9. 3-1/2 ft. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. screws. Braces. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. thick.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. These are put in 6 in. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. wide and 3 ft. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. apart. wood screws. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. Before making the deck. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. The 11-yd. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even.

The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. in diameter and 10 ft. 10 with a movable handle. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. each 1 in. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. The mast has two side and one front stay. .The rudder is made as shown in Fig. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. 12. are used for the boom and gaff. thick by 2 in. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. A strip 1 in. long. is 6 in. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. at the other. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. The house will accommodate 20 families. wide at one end and 12 in. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. Ill. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. long. The keel. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. Wilmette. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. The sail is a triangle. apart in the muslin. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. --Contributed by O. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. Tronnes. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. 11. E. Fig. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. wide.

it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. Cut the maple. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. 2-1/2 in. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. thick. Tronnes. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. with the ends and the other side rounding. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. Bevel both sides of the pieces. thick. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. long. and the other 18 in. about 5/16 in. Take this and fold it over . one 11-1/2 in. --Contributed by O. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. 1 yd. long. and 3 ft. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. Ill. as shown in Fig. long. 5. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. 2-1/2 in. flat headed screws. wide. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. 2. long and five 1/2-in. square. wide and 30 in. Fig. 4. wide and 2 ft. wide. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. flat on one side. 2 in. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. 1. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. 3. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. thick. flat-headed screws. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. Wilmette. five 1/2-in. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. E. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion.into two 14-in.

An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. Glue a three cornered piece. B. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. The bag is then turned inside out. wide and 2-1/2 in. wide . wide and 2-3/4 in. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. is set. soaked with water and blown up. wide and 4-1/2 in. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. long. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. thick and 3 in. square. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. of each end unwound for connections. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. long. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. 1. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. as well as the edges around the opening. 3 in.once. --Contributed by W. long. and take care that the pieces are all square. 3-1/4 in. St. forming an eye for a screw. 5 from 1/16-in. Mo. Figs. the mechanical parts can be put together. 6-1/2 in. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. C. wide and 6-3/4 in. wide and 5 in. long. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. wide and 3 ft. After the glue. C. long. then centered. About 1/2 in. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. 1-1/4 in. thick. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. D. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. The sides are 3-1/4 in. pieces 2-5/8 in. If carefully and neatly made. The front. Fig. the top and bottom. and the four outside edges. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. Bliss. Wind three layers of about No. wide and 6-1/2 in. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. are rounded. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. but can be governed by circumstances. Another piece. about 3/8 in. Cut another piece of board. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. thick. long. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. and make a turn in each end of the wires. A. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. square. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. long. A. 2 and 3. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. long. F. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. E. Louis. When the glue is set. 3/8 in. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. this square box is well sandpapered. Make a double stitch all around the edge.

R. G. C. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . board. wide and 2-1/2 in. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. L. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. F. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. wide and 9 in. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. the part carrying the pointer moves away. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. Richmond Hill. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. The stronger the current. from one end. Yorkshire. long. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. Austwick Hall. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. 4. from the spindle. The base is a board 5 in. bored in the back. 1/4 in. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. hole is fastened to the pointer. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. 5-1/2 in. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. 4. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. Place the tin. 1/16 in. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. and fasten in place. These wires should be about 1 in. The end of the polar axis B. and the farther apart they will be forced. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. When the current flows through the coil. A pointer 12 in. showing a greater defection of the pointer. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. Fig. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. I. R. that has the end turned with a shoulder. 4 is not movable. in diameter.A. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. The resistance is now adjusted to show . The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. Another strip of tin. long. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. --Contributed by George Heimroth. the same size as the first. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. W. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. 5. Chapman. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. long. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. A brass tube having a 1/4-in.and 2-5/8 in. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. so it will just clear the tin.S. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. Fig. Like poles repel each other. thick. and as the part Fig.

To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. M. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. shows mean siderial. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. The following formula will show how this may be found. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. 30 min. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. 10 min. 10 min.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. and vice . Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. thus: 9 hr. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. 1881. at 9 hr. A. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. say Venus at the date of observation. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary.

if one of these cannot be had. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Hall. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. New Haven. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. . Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. and then verify its correctness by measurement. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. --Contributed by Robert W. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid.f. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. owing to the low internal resistance. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc.m.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Conn. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. or.

as shown in the accompanying picture.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . Then. Wet paper will answer. Fig. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. 3/8 in. especially for cooking fish. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. of alum and 4 oz. thick. fresh grass. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. 1. put the fish among the ashes. leaves or bark. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. 1-3/4 in. and heap the glowing coals on top. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. When the follower is screwed down. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. arsenic to every 20 lb. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. inside diameter and about 5 in. cover up with the same. long. The boring bar. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants.

fastened with a pin. and threaded on both ends. about 1/2 in. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . pipe were fitted to these holes so that. when they were turned in. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. pipe. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. pipe. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. thick.

the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. the float is too high. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. Fig. wide. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. A 1-in. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. This plate also supports the rocker arms. Clermont. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. a jump spark would be much better. Iowa. Fig. as the one illustrated herewith. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. but never one which required so little material. long. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. bent in the shape of a U. and which gave such satisfactory results. square iron. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. 30 in. Fig. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. thick and 3 in. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts.valve stems. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. The rough frame. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. 4. then it should be ground to a fit. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. was then finished on an emery wheel. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. 5. 2. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. labor and time. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. If the valve keeps dripping. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. however. It . 3.

completes the merry-go-round. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. If it is to be used for adults. strong clear material only should be employed. butting against short stakes. --Contributed by C. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. Use a heavy washer at the head. rope is not too heavy. square and 5 ft. 12 ft. set 3 ft. long is the pivot. The illustration largely explains itself.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. and a little junk. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. The crosspiece is 2 in. square and 2 ft. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. As there is no bracing. It looks like a toy. The seats are regular swing boards. for the "motive power" to grasp. W. in the ground with 8 ft. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached." little and big. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. long. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. with no trees or buildings in the way. and. in fact. timber. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. in diameter and 15 in. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. square. being held in position by spikes as shown. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. This makes an easy adjustment. extending above. strengthened by a piece 4 in. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. A 3/4 -in. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. from all over the neighborhood. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. long. hole bored in the post. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. so it must be strong enough. no matter what your age or size may be." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. Nieman. A malleable iron bolt. long. from the center. 3/4 in.

Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste.2 emery. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. Having placed the backbone in position. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. 1. The bow is now bent.the fingers. long. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. then it is securely fastened. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. and sent to earth. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. a wreck. 1/4 by 3/32 in. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. and 18 in. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. 4. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. one for the backbone and one for the bow. These ends are placed about 14 in. To wind the string upon the reel. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. Both have large reels full of . After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. The backbone is flat. square. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. as shown in Fig. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. light and strong. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. if nothing better is at hand. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. A reel is next made. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. 2. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. away.

Bunker. Moody. he pays out a large amount of string. the balance. Y. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. N. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. common packing thread. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. Brooklyn. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. often several hundred yards of it. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. The handle end is held down with a staple. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Mass. Newburyport. C. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. If the second kite is close enough. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration.string. or glass-covered string. First. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. --Contributed' by Harry S.-Contributed by S. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite.

If the table is round. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. make the pad as shown in the illustration. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. length of 2-in. Vt. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. then a dust protector. Hastings. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. square (Fig. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Corinth. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. then draw the string up tight. must be attached to a 3-ft. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . lengths (Fig. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. --Contributed by Earl R. each the size of half the table top. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. such as mill men use. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use.

but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather.. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. 17-1/2 in. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. trace the design carefully on the leather. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. 6-1/4 in. Wharton. E. Moisten the . 16-1/4 in. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. . The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. Calif. which spoils the leather effect. 2-1/4 in. G to H. Oakland. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless.9-1/4 in..-Contributed by H. from E to F. Use a smooth. from C to D.. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. hard pencil. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. and E to G.

make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. with the rounded sides of the tools. get something with which to make a lining. Now cut narrow thongs. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. Trace the openings for the handles. H-B. and corresponding lines on the other side. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. also lines A-G. and E-G. if not more than 1 in. is taken off at a time. about 1/8 in. wide. To complete the bag. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. I made this motor . A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. place both together and with a leather punch. and lace through the holes.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. apart. Cut it the same size as the bag. G-J. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather.

2-1/4 in. --Contributed by J. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. each being a half circle. 2. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. of No. Calif. in length. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. as shown in Fig. 1. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones.M. . The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. iron. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. long. Pasadena. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. 1. 24 gauge magnet wire. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. D. B. Shannon. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained.

The widest part of each gore is 16 in. 1. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. high. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. are the best kind to make. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. and the gores cut from these. near the center. from the bottom end. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. pasted in alternately. balloon should be about 8 ft. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. The gores for a 6-ft. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the .

Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. E. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. The boat soon attains considerable speed. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. Staunton. These are to hold the wick ball. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. leaving a long wake behind. somewhat larger in size. --Contributed by R. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. leaving the solution on over night. The steam. saturating it thoroughly. If the gores have been put together right. so it will hang as shown in Fig. lap on the edges. as shown in Fig. A. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. Fig. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. 4. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. after which the paint will adhere permanently. 5. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. 2. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. 3. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. coming through the small pipe A. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. B. After washing. as shown in Fig. In starting the balloon on its flight. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. In removing grease from wood. As the boat is driven forward by this force. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in.widest point. using about 1/2-in. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. in diameter. 1.

Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The blocks are about 6 in. if you have several copies of the photograph. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. apart on these lines. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. 1. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. wide by 6 in. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. long and each provided with a handle. in bowling form. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. Second. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. There are three ways of doing this: First. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. as is shown in Fig. Third. long. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. high and 8 in. In using either of the two methods described. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print.

Fig. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. 2. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. thick. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Albany. Y. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Hellwig. --Contributed by John A. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Rinse the plate in cold water.Fig. N. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. being careful not to dent the metal. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured.

and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. In Fig. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. 2 the front view. Corner irons. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. are screwed to the circular piece. wide and 8 in. thick. wide and of any desired height. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. Va. is fastened to a common camera tripod. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. These corner irons are also screwed to. 6 in. Richmond. A circular piece of wood. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. A. in diameter. B. Paine. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. 1 Fig. A. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. S. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. With this device. and Fig. CC. 5 in. and. --Contributed by R. with a set screw.upon any particular object. long for the base. and not produce the right sound. Break off the frame. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. which is 4 in. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. through which passes the set screw S.

-Contributed by John Sidelmier. -1. Ill. I made a wheel 26 in. Kidder. . R. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. S. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. D. pine boards. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. La Salle. Lake Preston. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. thus producing sound waves. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. This will make a very compact electric horn. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. in diameter of some 1-in. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. This horn. as only the can is visible.

Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. --Contributed by C. 1. Kane. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Fig. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. thick and 12 in. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. O. B. The frame is made of a heavy card. If there is a large collection of coins. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. 1. the same thickness as the coins. Doylestown. square. --Contributed by James R. If the collection consists of only a few coins. 2.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Purdy. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Ghent. A.

A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides.J.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. for after the slides have been shown a few times. Toronto. thick. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. Cal. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Wis. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. of developer. Canada. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. into which to place the screws . plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. A lead pencil.E. Noble. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. --Contributed by J. melted and applied with a brush. It will hold 4 oz. One Cloud. --Contributed by R. though not absolutely necessary. The material required is a sheet of No. several large nails. plus a 3/8-in. Milwaukee. and then glued together as indicated. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. they become uninteresting. cut and grooved. --Contributed by August T. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. Smith. If desired. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Neyer. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. A rivet punch is desirable. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. a hammer or mallet. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. border all around.

Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. There are several ways of working up the design. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. draw one part. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Take the nail. never upon the metal directly. screws placed about 1 in. and file it to a chisel edge. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. both outline and decoration. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. like the one shown. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. using 1/2-in. Remove the screws. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board.

The pedal. of 11-in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. Do not bend it over or flatten it. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. long. l-1/8 in. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. in the other. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. Provide four lengths for the legs. being ball bearing. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. 2. About 1/2 yd. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. up from the lower end. using a 1/2in. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. 1. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. 3/4 in. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. for the lower rails. 3. square. . long. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. and two lengths. for the top. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. two lengths. as shown in Fig.wall. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. square and 181/2 in. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. square and 11 in. each 1 in. long. Rivet the band to the holder. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture.

--Contributed by John Shahan. New York City. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. Ala. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. having quite a length of threads. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. Attalla. Quackenbush. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. F. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. --Contributed by W. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] .

Ironwood. and 3/8 in. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Luther. using class. in depth. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. stitched on both edges for appearance. the end of the other piece is folded over. --Contributed by C. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . Two pieces of felt.. long. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. making a lap of about 1 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Assemble as shown in the sketch. Purchase a 1/2-in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. from one end. Mich. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. college or lodge colors. long. The desired emblem. wide and 8-1/4 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. and two holes in the other. each 1-1/4 in. something that is carbonated. D. one about 1 in. initial. and the other 2-3/4 in. from the end. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. long.

This method allows a wide range of designs. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. or a pasteboard box. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. Punch two holes A. A piece of lead. from the center and opposite each other. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . in diameter and 2 in. 1. as shown in the sketch. about 2 in. which can be procured from a plumber. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. 1/4 in. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. Ind. if desired by the operator. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. and the cork will be driven out. Schatz. Indianapolis. as shown at B. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. 2. in the cover and the bottom. --Contributed by John H. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. or more in height. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. Fig.

1.Rolling Can Toy lead. . non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. 4. O. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. as shown in Fig. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. putting in the design. are turned up as in Fig. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. Fig. 5. allowing the two ends to be free. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. 3. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. The pieces of tin between the holes A. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. and the ends of the bands looped over them. metal. When the can is rolled away from you. A piece of thick glass. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. it winds up the rubber band. on both top and bottom. Columbus. or marble will serve.

and. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. or more thick on each side. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. mark over the design. wide and 20 in. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. New York City. The edges should be about 1/8 in. long and bored a 1/2-in. Next place the leather on the glass. After this has been done. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. thicker than the pinion. thick. face up. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. 3 in. hole through it. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. 1 in.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. If it is desired to "line" the inside. I secured a board 3/4 in. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. from each end. deep in its face. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. A pencil may be used the first time over.

and fit it in place for the side vise. 4 guides. 1 piece for clamp. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. in diameter. 1 top board. 2 end rails. 2 by 2 by 18 in. --Contributed by A. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. Cut the 2-in. 1 screw block. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 3 by 3 by 36. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. N. 2. 1 piece. Y.in the board into the bench top. 3 by 3 by 20 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. countersinking the heads of the vise end. thick top board. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 1 back board. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 1 piece for clamp. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. New York. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 1 top board. lag screws as shown. 2 crosspieces. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. Now fit up the two clamps. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. pieces for the vise slides. Syracuse. 1. Rice. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. Fig. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Make the lower frame first. 3 by 3 by 6 in. M. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 2 side rails. Brooklyn. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in.

The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view.screws. 1 claw hammer. The amateur workman. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. Only the long run.. 1 marking gauge. The bench is now complete. 2 screwdrivers. 1 2-ft. They can be purchased at a hardware store. in diameter. 1 rip saw. 1 wood scraper. 1 brace and set of bits. as well as the pattern maker. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. rule. 24 in. 1 compass saw. 1 monkey wrench.. 1 nail set.. 24 in. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 3 and 6 in. . a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 pair dividers. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 set chisels. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 set gimlets. 1 pocket level. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 pair pliers. 1 cross cut saw. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 1 bench plane or jointer. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 countersink. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used.

2 and 00 sandpaper.1 6-in. Fig. 2.1. No. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. 3. Doylestown. Fig. will sink into the handle as shown at D. try square. Kane. Fig. 1 oilstone. ---Contributed by James M. The calf skin. but will not make . after constant use. will be easier to work. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. Fig. Pa. becomes like A. the projecting point A. being softer. 1. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. 1.

a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. will do just as well. If calf skin is to be used. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. lay the design on the face. . Turn the leather. White. when dry. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. cover it completely with water enamel and. which steam. secure a piece of modeling calf. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. New York City. Two pieces will be required of this size. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. The form can be made of a stick of wood. After the outlines are traced. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. -Contributed by Julia A. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. Having prepared the two sides. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. water or heat will not affect. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. the same method of treatment is used. such as copper or brass. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. First draw the design on paper.as rigid a case as the cow skin. and the length 6-5/8 in. but a V-shaped nut pick. then prepare the leather. If cow hide is preferred.

This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Richmond. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. Maine. as shown in the sketch. A. --Contributed by W. . Cal. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. New York City. C. --Contributed by Chas. Portland. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. --Contributed by Chester L. and an adjustable friction-held loop. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Cobb.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Herrman. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Jaquythe.

--Contributed by Geo. B. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. an inverted stewpan. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. A thick piece of tin. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. Wright. This was very difficult. Cambridge. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Middletown. for instance. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Mass. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Conn. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. . --Contributed by Wm. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. was marked out as shown.. Roberts.

The next morning there was no trace of oil. pulverized and applied. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. A beautifully bound book. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. F. Herbert. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. Indianapolis. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. L. face down. and quite new. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. so some bones were quickly calcined. Ind. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. but only an odor which soon vanished. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. on a clear piece of glass. and the grease will disappear. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. as shown. apply powdered calcined magnesia. --Contributed by C. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. If any traces of the grease are left. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. well calcined and powdered. used as part of furniture. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. . Chicago. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. When dry. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. If the article is highly polished. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. Illinois. Bone. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. which has been tried out several times with success. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle.. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. --Contributed by Paul Keller. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. There was no quicklime to be had. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. such as chair seats. but not running over. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. of boiling water.

long. set and thumbscrews. says Scientific American..Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. high and are bolted to a block of wood. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement.. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. soft steel with the opening 6 in. 2 in. New York. thick. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. deep and 5 in. 6 in. The pieces marked S are single. wide and 12 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. A. Tarrytown. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. If properly adjusted. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by Geo. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. Howe. the pieces .

If the letters are all cut the same height. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. The seat is a board. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. no doubt. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. Their size depends on the plate used. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. for sending to friends. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. they will look remarkably uniform. A sharp knife. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. E. albums and the like. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. says Camera Craft. to the underside of which is a block. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming.

The puzzle is to get . What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. photographing them down to the desired size. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. In cutting out an 0. So arranged. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. for example. So made. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. mount them on short pieces of corks. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. using care to get it in the right position. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. pasting the prints on some thin card. after. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. and.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background.

squeezes along past the center of the tube. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. He smells the bait. with the longest end outside. snow or anything to hide it. Old-Time Magic . when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. N. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. hung on pivots. of its top.J. so they will lie horizontal. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. Bayley. Cape May Point.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. says the American Thresherman.-Contributed by I. G. A hole 6 or 7 in. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . long that will just fit are set in. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves.

--Contributed by L. Parker. then expose again. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Pawtucket. Y. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. E. Press the hands together. then spread the string. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Idaho. Rhode Island. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before.faced up. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Brooklyn. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Pocatello. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. or rub the hands a little before doing so. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. --Contributed by L. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. --Contributed by Charles Graham. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Szerlip. N.

Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty.Genuine antique swords and armor.. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. wide and 2 in. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. they will look very much like the genuine article. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. whether he requires a single sword only. if any. When the whole is quite dry. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. The pieces. 1 Fig. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. says the English Mechanic. full size. dark red. wipe the blade . The handle is next made. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. and if carefully made. in width. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. or a complete suit of armor. near the point end. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. Glue the other side of the blade. in building up his work from the illustrations. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. or green oil paint. long. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. 2 Fig. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. The blade should be about 27 in. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. end of the blade. 3 Fig. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. thick. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. 4 on the blade.. using a straightedge and a pencil. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. When the glue is thoroughly dry. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. narrower. 1. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set.

The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. follow the directions as for Fig. the other is flat or halfround. Fig. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. in the widest part at the lower end. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. in diameter. allowing for a good hold with both hands. 1. not for use only in cases of tableaux. 2. about 1-1/2 in. 2. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. The length of the handle. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. 1/8 in..with light strokes up and down several times. shows only two sides. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. 1.. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. 3. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. the illustration. 1. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. the other two are identical. 3. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. the length of the blade 28 in. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. long. Both edges of the blade are sharp. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. In the finished piece. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. should be about 9 in. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. In making this scimitar. preferably of contrasting colors. 1. of course. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. take two pieces of wood. thick and 5 in. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. This sword is about 68 in. the other is flat or half-round. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. and 3 in. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. In making. 4. square and of any length desired. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. as it is . If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration.

The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. --Contributed by John Blake. Syracuse. square. Both can be made easily. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. long. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Mass. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. and if so. 2 in. piping and jackets by hard water. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. as shown in the sketch. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. each about 1 ft. as there was some at hand. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. and. A cold . The thinness of the plank. Morse. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. or an insecure fastening. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Y.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. Doctors probed for the button without success. --Contributed by Katharine D. It is made of a plank. On each edge of the board. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. at the lower end. in an attempt to remove it. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. N. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. A piece of mild steel. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. Franklin. about 3/8 in. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. however. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. as can the pitch bed or block. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring.

5 lb. 5 lb. plaster of Paris. To remedy this. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. When the desired form has been obtained. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. secure a piece of brass of about No. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over.. using a small metal saw. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. design down. Trim up the edges and file them . When this has been done. 18 gauge. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. tallow. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. on the pitch. To put it in another way.. a file to reduce the ends to shape. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened.

Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. it may be well to know what horsepower means. living together in what seems like one receptacle. and hang a bird swing. This in turn divided by 33. 2). That is lifting 33. in one minute or 550 lb.000 lb. in diameter (Fig. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. . This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. 1 ft. A. Cutter. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. per minute. The smaller is placed within the larger. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Before giving the description. or 550 ft.000 ft.smooth. Fig. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. but not to stop it. 1 ft. one 18 in. to keep it from floating. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Clean the metal thoroughly. lb. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. --Contributed by Harold H. in one second. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. over the smaller vessel. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. make an unusual show window attraction. lb.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. in diameter (Fig. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. 3. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. 1) and the other 12 in. and still revolve.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. per second. space between the vessels with water. in the center. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. or fraction of a horsepower. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. using powdered pumice with lye. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. 30 ft. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Fill the 3-in.

How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . by L. The effect is surprising. Diameter 12 in.3 Fig.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Y. Mass. --Contributed. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. --Contributed by J.18 in. Campbell. N. or on a pedestal. F. 1 Fig. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Brooklyn. Diameter Fig. 2 Fig. Somerville. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Szerlip. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two.

This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. and cut out the shape with the shears. Rivet the cup to the base. away from the edge. after which it is ready for use. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. and the clay . A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. the same as removing writing from a slate. then by drawing a straightedge over it. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. which may be of wood or tin. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. as a rule. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. Do not be content merely to bend them over. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. keeping the center high. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. with the pliers. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. Polish both of these pieces. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. and then. often render it useless after a few months service. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. which. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. This compound is impervious to water. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad.copper of No. unsatisfactory. to keep the metal from tarnishing. with other defects. is. using any of the common metal polishes. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. In riveting.

then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. Grand Rapids. -Contributed by Thos. as shown in Fig. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. 1. . The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. Houghton. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. DeLoof. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. It is made of a glass tube. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. long. --Contributed by A. the device will work for an indefinite time. in diameter and 5 in. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. The siphon is made of glass tubes. Mich. Scotland. Northville. Mich. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. --Contributed by John T. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. 2. 3/4 in. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. A. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank.can be pressed back and leveled. Dunlop. Shettleston.

The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. As the handle is to . thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in.FIG. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. in width and 2 in. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. long. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles.1 FIG. London. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. stilettos and battle-axes. 1. put up as ornaments. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. This sword is 4 ft.

The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. A German poniard is shown in Fig. very broad. The lower half of the handle is of wood. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. A German stiletto. The crossbar and blade are steel. This sword is about 4 ft. The handle is of wood. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. 9. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. Both handle and axe are of steel. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. The ball is made as described in Fig. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. This weapon is about 1 ft. glue and put it in place. long. with wire or string' bound handle. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. This axe is made similar to the one . Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. then glued on the blade as shown. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. small rope and round-headed nails. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. studded with brass or steel nails. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. is shown in Fig. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. firmly glued on. 20 spike. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. This weapon is also about 1 ft. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. which is about 2-1/2 ft. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. the same as used on the end of the handle. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. 8. 4. When the whole is quite dry. These must be cut from pieces of wood. narrower. 6. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint.represent copper. In Fig. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. the axe is of steel. In Fig. When dry. 7. string. sometimes called cuirass breakers. In Fig. The sword shown in Fig. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. with both edges of the blade sharp. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. the upper part iron or steel. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. 3 is shown a claymore. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. When the glue is thoroughly dry. long with a dark handle of wood. paint it a dark brown or black. This stiletto has a wood handle. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. one about 1/2 in. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. 5. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. in width. Cut two strips of tinfoil. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. 11 were used. with both edges sharp. sharp edges on both sides. in length. wood with a keyhole saw. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. in length. Three large.

will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. so the contents cannot be seen. 2. Davis. such as braided fishline. Chicago. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil.described in Fig. will pull where other belts slip. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. --Contributed by E. Old-Time Magic . use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. W. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. 10. high.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. the ends are tied and cut off. . together as shown in Fig. This will make a very good flexible belt. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. When wrapped all the way around.

Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. four glass tumblers. with the circle centrally located. apparently. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. or using small wedges of wood. Before the performance. causing the flowers to grow. about one-third the way down from the top. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. held in the right hand. --Contributed by A. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. The dotted lines in Fig. Oakland. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. filled with water. These wires are put in the jar. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. N. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. There will be no change in color.J. 1 and put together as in Fig. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Bridgeton. some of the liquid. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Macdonald. S. an acid. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Calif. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. in a few seconds' time. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. 2. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat.

which are numbered for convenience in working. If the size wanted is No. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. Jaquythe. and kept ready for use at any time. Cal. 2 for height. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. A. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. practical and costs nothing. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. 4 for width and No. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. This outlines the desired opening. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. not only because of the fact just mentioned. unless some special device is used. When many slides are to be masked. Richmond. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. --Contributed by W. says a correspondent of Photo Era. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. and equally worthy of individual treatment. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] .

These colors fade away in the course of a long time. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. the paper is folded along the center line. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. or. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. and the extreme length 7 in. may be changed. This done. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. and do not inhale the fumes. a little less acid than water. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. but they can be easily revived. the margin and the entire back of the metal. The decoration. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. paint the design. possibly. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. not the water into the acid. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. which is dangerous. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. The one shown is merely suggestive. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. 16 gauge. With a stick. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. too. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. Secure a sheet of No. using the carbon paper. about half and half. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. is about right for the No. When etched to the desired depth. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. or a pair of old tongs. Draw a design. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn.

Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. Fig. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. about 8 in. 3/8 in. 5. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. through it. Fig. 2. The connections are simple: I. as shown in Fig. the bell will ring. When the button S is pressed. long. repeat as many times as is necessary. thick. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. A. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. about 3 ft. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. 1. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. Fig. as shown in the illustration. about 2-1/2 in. 24 parts water. 3. 4. or more wide. 2. 5. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. Paint the table any color desired. it will touch post F. to the table. so that when it is pressed down. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. and about 2-1/2 ft. Fig. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. as in Fig. 2. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. Fig. C and D. wide and of the same length as the table. attached to a post at each end. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. in diameter and 1/4 in. It may be either nailed or screwed down. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. . high. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. long and 1 ft. Nail a board. about 1 in.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. Cut out a piece of tin. as at H. with the wires underneath. and bore two holes. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. 0 indicates the batteries. wide. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Then get two posts. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. J is another wire attached in the same way. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table.

says the English Mechanic. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces.. thick. This weapon is about 22 in. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The imitation articles are made of wood. After the glue is dry. A wood peg about 2 in. These rings can be carved out. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. handle and all. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. 2. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. is to appear as steel. the wood peg inserted in one of them. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. The circle is marked out with a compass. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. but they are somewhat difficult to make. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. long serves as the dowel. long. such as . The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. The entire weapon. 1.Imitation Arms and Armor . The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in.

A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. covered with red velvet. as before mentioned. leaves. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. 2. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. studded with large brass or steel nails. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. is shown in Fig. used at the end of the fifteenth century. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. The spikes are cut out of wood.ornamental scrolls. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. . or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. the hammer and spike. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. with a sharp carving tool. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. as shown. Its length is about 3 ft. This weapon is about 22 in. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. flowers. also. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. The axe is shown in steel. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. 3. All of these axes are about the same length. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. as described in Fig. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. etc. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. 6. The handle is of steel imitation. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The entire handle should be made of one piece. 5. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. If such a tool is not at hand. long. or the amateur cannot use it well. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The upper half of the handle is steel. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. 8. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. The lower half of the handle is wood. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The handle is of wood.

Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 1. Each person plays until three outs have been made. then the other plays. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. calls for a home run. Fig.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. . 5. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. 6. and so on for nine innings. 4). 3. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. The knife falling on its side (Fig. the knife resting on its back. as in Fig. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. 2. 7) calls for one out. a three-base hit. Chicago. as shown in Fig.

Somerville. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. as shown in Fig. while the committee is tying him up. 1.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. Old-Time Magic . He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. F. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. Mass.-Contributed by J. If it is spotted at all. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. as shown in Fig.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. with the rope laced in the cloth. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. This he does. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. It may be found that the negative is not colored. Campbell. hypo to 1 pt. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. 3. one of them burning . When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. of the rope and holds it. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. of water for an hour or two. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. 2.

Lebanon. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. thus causing it to light. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. of plumbago. thick. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush.. Brown. invisible to them (the audience). the other without a light.Contributed by Andrew G. bolt. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. 3/4 in. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. 4 oz. Ky. of turpentine. of sugar.brightly. and. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. B. shades the light for a few seconds. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. The magician walks over to the burning candle. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. --Contributed by L. etc. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. 4 oz. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. . Evans. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. Ky. He then walks over to the other candle. --Contributed by C. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. Louisville. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. New York City. showing that there is nothing between them. of water and 1 oz. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. Thome. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. Drill Gauge screw. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. with which he is going to light the other candle.

but is not so good. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. thick. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. long. 5 in. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. which will give a strong. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. H. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. about 5 in. N. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. Pulteney. Its current strength is about one volt. or blotting paper. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. diameter. Do not add water to the acid. steady current. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Denniston. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. --Contributed by C. In making up the solution. into a tube of several thicknesses. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. Y. for the material. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. To make the porous cell. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts.

station. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. steel. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces.) may be obtained. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. One hole was bored as well as possible. a positive adjustment was provided. The . steel. To insure this. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. long with a bearing at each end. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. steel. As to thickness. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. but somewhat lighter. After much experimentation with bearings. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. the other holding them apart. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. Finally. while the other end is attached by two screws. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. carrying the hour circle at one end. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. one drawing them together. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other.

Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. turn the pointer to the star. The pole is 1 deg. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. 45 min. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. in each direction from two points 180 deg. Point it approximately to the north star. save the one in the pipe. To locate a known star on the map. All set screws. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. To find a star in the heavens. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . Instead. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. The aperture should be 1/4 in. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method." Only a rough setting is necessary. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. excepting those on the declination axis. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. Set the declination circle to its reading." When this is done. are tightened.. is provided with this adjustment. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. and 15 min. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. When properly set it will describe a great circle. All these adjustments. need not be changed. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. Cassiopiae. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. once carefully made. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. The pointer is directed to Alpha. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end.. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. Each shaft. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. It is. and if it is not again directed to the same point. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. Declination is read directly. If the result is more than 24 hours. apart. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. subtract 24. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps.

benzole.. long. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. is the real cannon ball. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. The dance will begin. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. 3 or 4 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Plain City. La. In reality the first ball. the others . which is the one examined. then add 1 2-3 dr. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. taking care not to add too much. a great effect will be produced. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. cannon balls. as shown in the sketch. Strosnider. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. If this will be too transparent. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. New Orleans. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. Ohio. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. -Contributed by Ray E. of ether. add a little more benzole. The ball is found to be the genuine article. is folded several times. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian.

Return the card to the pack. San Francisco. without taking up any great amount of space. Wis. taps. Somerville. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. In boxes having a sliding cover. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. F. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. etc. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. Fig. Milwaukee.. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. 2. Cal. Mass. as shown in the illustration. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. small brooches. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. 1). --Contributed by J. Campbell.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it.

I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Connecticut. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. as shown in the illustration. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. slides and extra brushes. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. This box has done good service. prints. from the bottom of the box. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. Beller. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. thus giving ample store room for colors. round pieces 2-1/4 in. Hartford. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. .

West Lynn. O. When the ends are turned under. tacking the gauze well at the corners. Darke. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. FIG. -Contributed by C. holes in the bottom of one.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. about threefourths full. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. with well packed horse manure. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. . and pour water on it until it is well soaked. costing 5 cents. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. or placed against a wall. 1). The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. Mass. Fill the upper tub. 2). as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. will answer the purpose. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water.

from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. M. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. they should be knocked out. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. when they are raised from the pan. cutting the cane between the holes. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. Chicago. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. If the following directions are carried out. oil or other fluid. If plugs are found in any of the holes. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. and each bundle contains . The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. --Contributed by L. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. Eifel. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. if this is not available. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge.

Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. after having been pulled tight. In addition to the cane. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. No plugs . as shown in Fig. 1. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. as it must be removed again. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. put about 3 or 4 in. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. a square pointed wedge. it should be held by a plug. and. then across and down. held there by inserting another plug. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole.

the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. 5.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. is the horizontal dial. Michigan. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. This will make three layers. 4. for 2°. called the gnomon. All added to the lesser or 40°. 3. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. as shown in Fig. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. 42° is 4. 3. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. lat.075 in.2 in. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC.075 in. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or .3 in. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. -Contributed by E. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. If you have a table of natural functions. From table No. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. or the style. 1 lat. it is 4. Detroit. Patrick. but the most common. 1. in this case) times the . At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. When cool. and for lat. 5 in. trim off the surplus rosin. It consists of a flat circular table. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed.5 in. as the height of the line BC for lat. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. W. the height of the line BC. as shown in Fig. is the base (5 in. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. and the one we shall describe in this article. The style or gnomon. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. Even with this lubrication. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. as for example. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. During the weaving. we have 4. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. the next smallest. using the same holes as for the first layer.42 in. 1. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. Their difference is . R. There are several different designs of sundials. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. --Contributed by M. 41°-30'. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. 1. 41 °-30'. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer.2+. 40°. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. D.15 in. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. and for 1° it would be . After completing the second layer. No weaving has been done up to this time. stretch the third one. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used.= 4. as it always equals the latitude of the place. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. If handled with a little care. Fig.15+. the height of which is taken from table No. Fig.

07 4.42 45 .66 latitude.23 6. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. and perpendicular to the base or style.82 5.16 1.50 26° 2.30 2.59 2.12 52° 6. 2.30 1.tangent of the degree of latitude. an inch or two. or if of stone.76 1.37 54° 6.93 2.94 1.41 38° 3. gives the 6 o'clock points.68 5-30 6-30 5.66 1.37 5. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. Draw the line AD. Chords in inches for a 10 in.06 2. Table NO.55 4. with a radius of 5 in.96 32° 3.40 1.66 48° 5.81 4.83 27° 2.57 3.27 2.55 46° 5.16 40 .44 44° 4.93 6. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .97 5 7 4.55 5. if of metal.32 6. For latitudes not given. To layout the hour circle.88 36° 3.87 1.55 30° 2.89 50° 5. 1.82 2. .79 4.14 5. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.11 3. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.18 28° 2.63 56° 7.33 .39 . Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. and for this size dial (10 in.38 . A line EF drawn through the points A and C. Draw two semi-circles.19 1. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.57 1. Fig. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.46 . or more.28 .42 . using the points A and C as centers.46 3.56 .64 4 8 3.99 2.91 58° 8.29 4-30 7-30 3.85 35 . interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. 2 for given latitudes. circle Sundial.49 30 . Its thickness.40 34° 3. 2.85 1. and intersecting the semicircles.26 4.10 6.20 60° 8. long. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.00 40° 4.03 3. according to the size of the dial. base.02 1.33 42° 4.42 1.82 3. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.49 3.87 4. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.77 2. which will represent the base in length and thickness.

Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.63 1.72 5.77 3. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.50 . then the watch is slower.from Sundial lime.53 1.12 5. 3.93 6. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. and the . The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. An ordinary compass.19 2. adding to each piece interest and value. The + means that the clock is faster.57 1. after allowing for the declination.08 1. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. As they are the genuine reproductions. will enable one to set the dial.46 5. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.49 3.71 2.06 2. 900 Chicago.add those marked + subtract those Marked . reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. Sun time to local mean time. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3..50 55 . Iowa.10 4. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.49 5. it will be faster. 25.30 2.24 5. and for the difference between standard and local time.14 1. June 15.68 3. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. --Contributed by J. says the English Mechanic.60 4. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.87 6. 3. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. Each weapon is cut from wood.89 3. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.46 4. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. each article can be labelled with the name. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. Mitchell.01 1. 2 and Dec. This correction can be added to the values in table No.54 60 .means that the dial is faster than the sun.98 4. April 16. if west.79 6. E.82 3. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.34 5. Sept. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.37 2. Sioux City.21 2.52 Table No. London.

If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. 3. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. the length of which is about 5 ft. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. . with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. When putting on the tinfoil. Partisan. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. 1.

. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. sharp on the outer edges. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. long with a round staff or handle. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side.. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. This weapon is about 6 ft. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The spear is steel. The edges are sharp. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. long with a round wooden handle. which are a part of the axe. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. long. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. 5. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. in diameter.which is square. is shown in Fig. 6 ft. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. the holes being about 1/4 in. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. about 4 in. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. It is about 6 ft. The length of this bar is about 5 in. 7. long. press it well into the carved depressions. used about the seventeenth century. 8. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The extreme length is 9 ft. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. A gisarm or glaive. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas.

One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. the most durable being bamboo. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. used for spacing and binding the whole together. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. B. are less durable and will quickly show wear. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. They can be made of various materials. or in holes punched in a leather strap. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. 2 and 3. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. are put in place. H. Loudonville. the cross cords. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. as shown in Fig. 1. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. The twisted cross cords should . Workman. In Figs.-Contributed by R. 5. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. Cut all the cords the same length. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. apart. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. 4. Ohio. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. Substances such as straw. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. This is important to secure neatness. and if placed from 6 to 12 in.

Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . A slit was cut in the bottom. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. La. Lockport. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. wide. as shown at B.be of such material. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. New York. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. This was turned over the top of the other can. The first design shown is for using bamboo. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. -Contributed by Geo. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. of the bottom. below the top to within 1/4 in. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. for a length extending from a point 2 in. Four V-shaped notches were cut. bamboo or rolled paper. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. 3 in. To remedy this. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. in which was placed a piece of glass. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. Harrer. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. shaped as shown at C. M. New Orleans.

Y. --Contributed by W. Maywood. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. about 1/16 in. Ill. the brass is loosened from the block. do not throw away the gloves. Sanford. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. Cal. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . Pasadena. After this is finished. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. is shown in the accompanying sketch. It would be well to polish the brass at first. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. N. Schaffner. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. and two along the side for attaching the staff. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail.tape from sticking to the carpet. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. giving the appearance of hammered brass. H. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. wide. turned over but not fastened. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. Newburgh. This should be done gradually. Shay. This plank. --Contributed by Joseph H. --Contributed by Chas.

Unlike most clocks. bent as shown. -Contributed by W. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. A.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Marshall. Jaquythe. Ill. in diameter. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Oak Park. Cal. K. Richmond. --E. the pendulum swings . Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water.

and the other two 2-5/8 in. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. only have the opposite side up. high.. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. to the first one with screws or glue. 7-1/2 in. is an electromagnet. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. high and 1/4 in. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. long and at each side of this. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. the center one being 2-3/4 in. such as this one. In using this method. 3/4 in. Metzech. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. thick. A. 5/16 in. --Contributed by V. Two uprights. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. 6 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. high. high. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. about 12 in. The construction is very simple. Chicago. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. Now place the board to be joined. . in diameter. C. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. away. by 1-5/16 in. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. bearing on the latter. says the Scientific American. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. B. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. about 6 in. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. bar. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. on the board B. Fasten another board. are secured in the base bar. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Secure a board. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. wide that is perfectly flat. wide.

Fig. or more. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. square. square inside. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. long.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. Vanderslice. 2. . attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. Phoenixville. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. The trigger. 4. is fastened in the hole A. whose dimensions are given in Fig. from one end. Pa. 3. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. 1. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. plates should be made 8 in. wide and 5 in. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. 1. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. wide and 1 in. as shown at A. Fig. by driving a pin through the wood. 1. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Elmer A.

2 parts of whiting. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. one-half the length of the side pieces. which allows 1/4 in. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. rubbing varnish and turpentine. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. Fostoria. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. square.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. Ohio. 5 parts of black filler. as shown in the illustration. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. -Contributed by J. by weight. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. if only two bands are put in the . Simonis.A. 3 parts of stiff keg lead.

DeLoof. which may be either of ground or plain glass. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. 1. In constructing helmets. Grand Rapids. and the picture can be drawn as described. says the English Mechanic. It must be kept moist and well . preferably copper. If a plain glass is used. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. A mirror. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. deep. Dartmouth. as shown in Fig. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. wide and about 1 ft. G. is set at an angle of 45 deg. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. Shaw. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. Michigan. London. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. in the opposite end of the box. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. 8 in. --Contributed by Thos. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. place tracing paper on its surface. A piece of metal. II. A double convex lens. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. and it may be made as a model or full sized. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. keeps the strong light out when sketching. long. In use. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. -Contributed by Abner B. Mass. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and.lower strings. No. is necessary.

as in bas-relief. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. Scraps of thin. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. 1. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. on which to place the clay. 3. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. The clay. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. brown. This being done. joined closely together. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. and continue until the clay is completely covered. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. or some thin glue. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion.kneaded. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. will be necessary. as shown in Fig. a few clay-modeling tools. shown in Fig. with a keyhole saw. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. the clay model oiled. After the clay model is finished. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. and over the crest on top. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. and left over night to soak. 2. and the deft use of the fingers. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. take. All being ready. 1.

with the exception of the vizor. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. 5. will make it look neat. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. or. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. In Fig. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . The band is decorated with brass studs. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. --Contributed by Paul Keller. Indiana. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. one for each side. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. Indianapolis. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. and so on. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. In Fig. 9. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. a few lines running down. should be modeled and made in one piece. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. which should be no difficult matter. square in shape. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. and the ear guards in two pieces. the skullcap. the piecing could not be detected. This contrivance should be made of wood. owing to the clay being oiled.as possible. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. 1. The center of the ear guards are perforated. as seen in the other part of the sketch. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. When perfectly dry. They are all covered with tinfoil. as shown: in the design. The whole helmet. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. then another coating of glue. 7. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. When dry. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. When the helmet is off the model. Before taking it off the model. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. a crest on top. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife.

The mineral wool. thick. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. Fig. is then packed down inside the collar. Fig. and two large 3in. high. about 1 lb. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. The reverse side of the base. Fig. JJ. Fig. 1. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. thick sheet asbestos. 4 lb. 22 gauge resistance wire. for connections. 3 in. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. above the collar. If asbestos is used. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. AA. which can be bought from a local druggist. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. 1. as shown in Fig. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. E and F. This will make an open space between the plates. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. each 4-1/2 in. 1. If a neat appearance is desired. as it stands a higher temperature. FF. 1. one fuse block. of No. the fuse block. or. Fig. until it is within 1 in. when they are placed in opposite positions. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. 2. as shown in Fig. long. two ordinary binding posts. about 80 ft. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . to project through the holes D and A of the plate. about 1/4 in. 1. 4. of fire clay. is shown in Fig. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. 1 in. Fig. GG. if this cannot be obtained. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. also the switch B and the fuse block C. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. screws. 4. one oblong piece of wood. Fig. This will allow the plate. The holes B and C are about 3 in. of the top. Fig. German-silver wire is better. the holes leading to the switch. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. in diameter and 9 in. should extend about 1/4 in. AA. 1. The two holes. Fig. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. 3. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. 2. Fig. 12 in. Fig. 2. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. 4. 4. if the measurements are correct. one small switch. of mineral wool. as shown in Fig. to receive screws for holding it to the base. one glass tube. 4. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. AA. A round collar of galvanized iron. and. long. 4. long. are allowed to project about 1 in. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. and C. 4.same size. with slits cut for the wires. wide and 15 in. Fig. Fig. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. The plate. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar.

Cut a 1/2-in. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. deep. above the rim. St. When this is done. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. allowing a space between each turn. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. When the tile is in place. It should not be left heated in this condition. A. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. II. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. and pressed into it. Catherines. when heated. 4. Fig. apart. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. This point marks the proper length to cut it. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. more wire should be added. Jaquythe. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. It should not be set on end. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. Richmond. then. This completes the stove. causing a short circuit. If this is the case. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. A file can be used to remove any rough places. will slip and come in contact with each other. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. Can. Cover over about 1 in. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. H. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. using care not to get it too wet. KK. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. The clay. 2. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. As these connections cannot be soldered. If it is not thoroughly dry. --Contributed by R. so that the circuit will not become broken. --Contributed by W. Next. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. While the clay is damp. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. when cool. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. Cnonyn. Fig. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. steam will form when the current is applied. as the turns of the wires. it leaves a gate for the metal. Cal.

Thorne. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. Louisville. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. Then clip a little off the ." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. square material in any size.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. constructed of 3/4-in. but 12 by 24 in. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. Ky. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. says the Photographic Times. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. is large enough. the pie will be damaged. --Contributed by Andrew G. the air can enter from both top and bottom. and the frame set near a window. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. and the prints will dry rapidly. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. as shown.

Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. 14 in. -Contributed by S. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. at GG. The upright B. The board can be raised to place . The driving arm D. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft.Paper Funnel point. Two supports. high. long. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. in diameter. allowing each end to project for connections. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. The connections are made as shown in Fig. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. As the shaft revolves. Fig. 2-1/2 in. 1. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. Fig. wide. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. thick and 3 in. which gives the shaft a half turn. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. high. An offset is bent in the center. Figs. each 1 in. open out. 22 gauge magnet wire. Le Mars. which are fastened to the base. long. 1/2 in. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. thick. in diameter and about 4 in. Fig. W. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. Iowa. causing a break in the current. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. wide and 7 in. The connecting rod E. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. slip on two cardboard washers. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. 1 and 3. 4 in. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. long. for the crank. 1. each 1/2 in. Herron. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. long. A 1/8-in. thick and 3 in. as shown. 1. 3. 2. 1. wide and 3 in. thereby saving time and washing. 1/2 in. high. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig.

The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. bottom side up. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. One or more pots may be used. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. making a framework suitable for a roost. in height. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. --Contributed by William F. Dorchester. In designing the roost. as shown in the sketch. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. on a board. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. . Mass. Stecher. 3 in. Place the pot.

The design must be considered first and when one is selected. etc. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. paraffin and paint or varnish. Wind the .. and give it time to dry. ordinary glue. odd corners. will produce the pattern desired. preferably.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. as shown in Fig. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. without any corresponding benefit. 1. in diameter. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. 1. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. if it is other than straight lines. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. The bottom part of the sketch. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. that it is heated. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. adopt the method described. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. shelves.. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. Fig. F. grills and gratings for doors. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. windows. when combined. The materials required are rope or. F. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails.

2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Lockport. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . cut and glue them together. Harrer. six designs are shown. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. N. 2. -Contributed by Geo.Fig. M. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Y. Fig.

etc. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular.. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. London. but no farther. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. which was used in front of a horse's head.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. As the . etc. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. says the English Mechanic. will be retained by the cotton. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. and the sides do not cover the jaws. 1. This piece of horse armor. when it will be observed that any organic matter. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. chips of iron rust. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. Pour the water in until the filter is filled...

The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. In Fig. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. and will require less clay. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. This will make the model light and easy to move around. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. except the thumb and fingers. 8. with the exception of the thumb shield. the rougher the better. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. which is separate. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. This being done. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. This triangularshaped support. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. as the surface will hold the clay. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. 2. and therefore it is not described. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. The armor is now removed from the model. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. but the back is not necessary. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. 2. An arrangement is shown in Fig. and the clay model oiled. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. 6 and 7. as shown in the sketch. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. 4. All being ready. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. the same as in Fig. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. which can be made in any size.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. but for . This can be made in one piece. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. then another coat of glue. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on.

A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. each about 1/4 in. If it does not hold a charge. fastened to the rod. are glued to it. Fasten a polished brass ball to. A piece of board. . --Contributed by Ralph L. La Rue.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. are better shown in Fig. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. The two pieces of foil. and the instrument is ready for use. but 3-1/2 in. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Redondo Beach. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. will be about right. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. in depth. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. cut into the shape shown in Fig. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. 2. Goshen. 1/2 in. the top of the rod. Y. 9. When locating the place for the screw eyes. --Contributed by John G. N. the foils will not move. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. two in each jaw. running down the plate. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. the two pieces of foil will draw together. two for the jaws and one a wedge. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. wide and 1/2 in. long. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. Buxton. Calif. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper.

A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. pine board. When a fish is hooked. At a point 6 in. from the smaller end. about 15 in. is made of a 1/4-in. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. as indicated in the . enameled or otherwise decorated. M. Bryan. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. --Contributed by Mrs. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. long. as this will cut under the water without splashing. The can may be bronzed. Corsicana. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. 2-1/2 in. A. as shown in the illustration. hole bored through it. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. Texas. silvered. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength.

such as basswood or pine was used.Match Holder accompanying sketch. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. using a piece of carbon paper. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. using powdered pumice and lye. as shown. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. will do as well as the more expensive woods. 22 is plenty heavy enough. and trace upon it the design and outline. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. Having completed the drawing. Polish the metal. Any kind of wood will do. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. thick. punch the holes. A good size is 5 in. or even pine. take a piece of thin wood. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. Basswood or butternut. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. When it has dried over night. wide by 6 in. 3/8 or 1/4 in. then with a nail. long over all. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. put a coat or two of wax and polish . Next prepare the metal holder. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. If soft wood.

1/2 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. long. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. --Contributed by W. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. Richmond. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. thick. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. Instead of the usual two short ropes. Jaquythe. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. each 1 in. The metal holder may next be fastened in place.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. A. of pure olive oil. Two wire nails. . If one has some insight in carving. the whole being finished in linseed oil. is used for the base of this instrument. If carving is contemplated. are used for the cores of the magnets. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. Cal. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. can be made on the same standards. long. 2 in. It is useful for photographers. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. wide and 5 in.

Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. cut in the shape of the letter T. A piece of tin. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. when the key is pushed down. except that for the legs. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. . Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. about No. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. 1. leaving about 1/4 in. 25 gauge. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. London. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. --Contributed by W. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. as shown by the dotted lines. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. 3. A rubber band. at A.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. as shown in Fig. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. the paper covering put on. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. cloth or baize to represent the legs. in the shape shown in the sketch. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. All of the parts for the armor have been described. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. says the English Mechanic. then covered with red. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. H. acts as a spring to keep the key open. similar to that used in electric bells. About 1 in. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. Lynas.

but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. 3 in. or ordinary plaster laths will do. says Camera Craft.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. Fig. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. one to another . Cut them to a length or 40 in. hole in the center. apart. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. and eight small holes. drill six 1/4-in. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. can be made in a few minutes' time. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. make the same series of eight small holes and. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. for the sake of lightness. at each end. apart. 1 in. in the other end. holes. Take the piece shown in Fig. 2. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. These can be purchased at a stationery store. The two pieces are bolted together. So set up. not too tight. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. completes the equipment. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. In one end of the piece. 1 and drill a 1/4in. A 1/4-in. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. Silver paper will do very well. Instead of using brass headed nails. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. flat headed carriage bolt. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. By moving the position of the bolt from. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. long. about 1 in.. Secure two strips of wood.

A is the first string and B is the second. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. 2. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. D over A and C. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. 1. 4. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other.of the larger holes in the strip. and lay it over the one to the right. lay Cover B and the one under D. in Fig. long. and the one beneath C. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. C over D and B. 2. as in portraiture and the like. doubled and run through the web of A. but instead of reversing . Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. 2. Fig. In this sketch. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. then B over C and the end stuck under A. of the ends remain unwoven. the one marked A. for instance. A round fob is made in a similar way. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. Then take B and lay it over A. as shown in Fig. taking the same start as for the square fob. Start with one end. Then draw all four ends up snugly.

Monroeville. long. A loop. is left out at the center before starting on one side. Other designs can be made in the same manner. over the one to its right. the design of which is shown herewith. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. is to be made of leather. 5. as at A in Fig. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. Rupp. The round fob is shown in Fig. especially if silk strings are used. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. as B. --Contributed by John P. 1-1/2 in. Ohio. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. always lap one string. as in making the square fob. 3. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob.

and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. Houghton. Any smooth piece of steel. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. -Contributed by A. such as a nut pick. A. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. pressing it against the wood. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. using the reverse side. filling them with wax. beeswax or paraffin. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. door facing or door panel. Mich. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. When the supply of wax is exhausted. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. it can be easily renewed. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Northville. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. .

Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. it is best to leave a plain white margin. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. remaining above the surface of the board. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. thick. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. The tacks should be about 1 in. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. --Contributed by O. E and F. New York. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Ill. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. Enough plaster should. leaving about 1/4 in. N. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. D. apart and driven in only part way. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. and after wetting. says Photographic Times. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Petersburg. but any kind that will not stick may be used. Select the print you wish to mount. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. Thompson. Fold together on lines C. long. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. place it face down in the dish. if blueprints are used. and about 12 in. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. those on matte paper will work best. Y. although tin ones can be used with good success. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. . This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. J.

Lower into the test tube a wire.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. will be rendered perfectly white.. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. violets. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. as shown in the right of the sketch. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. without mixing the solutions. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. filling the same about onehalf full. roses. One of the . lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. bell flowers. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. etc. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. as shown at the left in the sketch. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble.

Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. should be soldered to the box.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. in diameter and 1 in. The sound box. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. South Dakota. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. and at the larger end. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. made of heavy tin. Shabino. When soldering these parts together. A rod that will fit the brass tube. --Contributed by L. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. Millstown. The tin horn can be easily made. as shown. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. Fig. as shown in the sketch. thick.. to keep the core from coming off in turning. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. or delicate tints of the egg. 1. 3. turned a little tapering. 1-7/8 in. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. about 1/8s in. not too tightly. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. long and made of wood. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . L. but which will not wobble loose. is about 2-1/2 in. 2. shading. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. The first point should be ground blunt. The diaphragm. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. long.

dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. put a board on top. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Chicago. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . and weighted it with a heavy stone. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. Ill. says the Iowa Homestead. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. Gold.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Victor. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. Colo. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. E. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Jr. mice in the bottom. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. wondering what it was.Contributed by E. and.

Pereira. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. N. Y. Ottawa. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. . Can. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Buffalo. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. --Contributed by Lyndwode.

which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. through which several holes have been punched. by means of a flatheaded tack. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. as shown. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. --Contributed by Thos. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. Mich. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. as it can be made quickly in any size. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Put a small nail 2 in. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Grand Rapids. longer than the length of the can. cut round. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. This cart has no axle. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Richmond.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. A. Cal. Jaquythe. and at one end of the stick fasten. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. --Contributed by W. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. a piece of tin. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. above the end of the dasher. De Loof.

Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. Doylestown. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. 1. 2 in. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. Pa. of course. thick. 1/4 in. long. La. 2. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. board. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. screwed it on the inside of a store box. 2. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. The candles. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. Notches 1/8 in. 1 ft. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. New Orleans. as shown. wide and 3 ft. --Contributed by James M. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The baseboard and top are separable. Kane. wide. were below the level of the bullseye.1. apart. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. A wedge-shaped piece of . 2. wide and 1/8 in. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. wide and as long as the box. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. I reversed a door gong. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. 1-1/2 in. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. deep and 3 in. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. Fig. cut in the center of the rounding edge.

Mass. Ia. by cutting away the ends. scissors. Wood. After completing the handle. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. Needles. 3. Cover the block with rubber. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in.Book Back Holders metal. West Union. When not in use. 1. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. when placed as in Fig. --Contributed by G. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. take two pieces of hard wood. This device is very convenient for invalids. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. The block can also be used as a paperweight. stone or wood. will. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. as shown in Fig. wide into each side of the casing.. the shelf could not be put on the window. the blade is put back into the groove . After the glue has dried. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. can be picked up without any trouble. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. dressing one surface of each piece. wide rubber bands or felt. A. to prevent its scratching the desk top. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. the reason being that if both were solid. etc. For the handle. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. Worcester. it can be removed without marring the casing. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding.

Erie. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. --Contributed by H. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. long. is shown in the accompanying sketch. S. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Mass. -Contributed by W. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. as shown in Fig. Malden. as shown in Fig. Pa. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. 1 in. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. A. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Each one is made of a hardwood block. square and 4 in. Hutchins. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Ohio. Jacobs. A notch is cut in one side. Cleveland.and sharpened to a cutting edge. 1. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. thus carrying the car up the incline. 2. . The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. If desired. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches.

6 by 9-1/2 in. The letters can be put on afterward. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. This will insure having all parts alike.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions.. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. . will be needed. N. and an awl and hammer. One sheet of metal. Cape May Point. Prepare a design for the front. If one such as is shown is to be used. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing.J. a board on which to work it.

Fasten the metal to the board. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. The music will not sound natural. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. 3/4 part. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. 1/4 part. says Master Painter. So impressive are the results. On the back. as shown. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. varnish. 1 part. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. Remove the metal. placed on a table. but weird and distant. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. . If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. turpentine. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. flat brush. in the waste metal." In all appearance. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. which is desirable. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. only the marginal line is to be pierced. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. paste the paper design right on the metal. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. if desired. One coat will do. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. mandolin or guitar. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. a violin. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. 2 parts white vitriol. applied by means of a brush. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. If any polishing is required. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. or. The stick may be placed by the side of. behind or through the center of a table leg. to right angles. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. that can be worked in your own parlor.

long and measuring 26 in. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. . London. The longest piece. With proper tools this is easy. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. round-head machine screws. across the top. is bent square so as to form two uprights. without them. thick by 1/2 in. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. each 28 in. apart. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. are shaped as shown in Fig. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. each 6 in. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. long and spread about 8 in. says Work. 2. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. Two pairs of feet. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. and is easy to construct. square bar iron. wide. it might be difficult. 3. long. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size.

The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. A. as shown in Fig. in the grooves of the borders. After the joints are soldered. Fig. lead. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. C. D. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. and the base border. Place the corner piece of glass. better still. 6. After the glass is cut. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. on it as shown. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The glass. 5. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. B. 4. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. While the piece of lead D. the latter being tapped to . cut a long piece of lead. using rosin as a flux. 7. 5. Fig. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. The brads are then removed. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. The design is formed in the lead. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. or. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. special flux purchased for this purpose. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. is held by the brads.

J. 8. long. Bore a 3/4-in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. This . square and of the length given in the drawing. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. holes through their centers. thick and drill 3/4-in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. rounded at the top as shown. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. plates. long. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. then drill a 3/4-in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground.the base of the clip. --Contributed by W. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. Two styles of hand holds are shown. bolt. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. N. plank about 12 ft. one on each side and central with the hole. H. A and B. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. Camden. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. Make three washers 3-in. wood screws in each washer. Dreier. rocker bolt. Fasten the plates to the block B. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. and round the corners of one end for a ring. Jr. bolt. and two wood blocks. Secure a post. then flatten its end on the under side. Bore a 5/8-in. long. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. The center pin is 3/4-in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. not less than 4 in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. in diameter and about 9 in. in diameter and 1/4 in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. as shown in Fig. This ring can be made of 1-in..

bit. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. long and 1 piece. 1/2 in. long. 7 in. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. 4 pieces. 4 in. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. long. from one edge. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. 3/4 by 3 in. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. 50 ft. square by 5 ft. in diameter and 7 in. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. boards along the side of each from end to end. long. horse and rings. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. by 3 ft. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. by 2 ft. hickory. long. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. chestnut or ash. maple. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 2-1/2 in. 3 in. straight-grained hickory. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. bolts and rope. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. 1 by 7 in. To substitute small. long. can make a first class gymnasium. 4 in. 9 in. 1-1/4in. square by 9-1/2 ft. 4 filler pieces. because it will not stand the weather. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . the money outlay will be almost nothing. shanks. New Orleans. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. and some one can swing an axe. Draw a line on the four 7-in. long. of 1/4-in. by 6-1/2 ft. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. 1. screws. La. 2 by 4 in. 4 pieces. 16 screws. If trees are convenient.will make an excellent cover for a pot. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. The four 7-in.

Bore a 9/16-in. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. deep and remove all loose dirt. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. so the 1/2-in. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. 2. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft..bored. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. 8 in. boards coincide. from the end. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. apart. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post.. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. apart. at each end. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. piece of wood. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. each 3 ft. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place.

Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. about 100 ft. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. . which at once gathered. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. W. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. And all he used was a black thread. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. disappearing only to reappear again. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. apart. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. was at its height. in an endless belt. If the tumbler is rotated. but most deceptive at dusk. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip.. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. and materially heightened the illusion. not even the tumbler. just visible against the dark evening sky. the effect is very striking. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. When the interest of the crowd. He stretched the thread between two buildings. not much to look at in daytime. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. and then passes in a curve across the base. it is taken to the edge of the foot. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. it follows the edge for about 1 in. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points." which skimmed along the distant horizon. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. passing through a screweye at either end. and ascends the stem.

long. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 2 side braces. Bevel the ends of . These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 2 base pieces. 2 in. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 8 in. 4 bolts. square and 6 ft. 2 by 4 in. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 2 by 4 in. large spikes. long. long. 4 in. beginning at a point 9 in. A wire about No. 2 by 3 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. To make the apparatus. New Orleans. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. by 7 ft. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 4 in. long. long. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. so the point will be on top. from either side of the center. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. La. preferably cedar. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. long. 4 knee braces. by 3 ft. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. long. 2 cross braces. 8 bolts. 1. 8 in. wide and 1 in. deep. 7 in. The cork will come out easily. square and 51/2 ft. Chisel out two notches 4 in. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. Fig. by 10 ft. and turned in a spiral D. 8 in.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. long. 6 in. 2 by 4 in. long and 1 doz. 4 wood screws. by 2 ft.

The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. A large sized ladle. equipped with a strainer. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts.the knee braces. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. as shown in the diagram. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. --Contributed by W. These will allow the ladle to be turned. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr.. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. and countersinking the heads. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. additional long. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. The wood so treated will last for years. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. of 7 ft. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. which face each other. using four of the 7-in bolts. leave it undressed. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. so the bolts in both will not meet. jellies. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. ( To be Continued. save the bars. screws. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. . After the trenches are dug. If using mill-cut lumber. A. etc. Richmond. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. leaving the strainer always in position. but even unpainted they are very durable. Jaquythe. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. Two endpieces must be made. Cal. except the bars. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. before burying the lower part of the end pieces.

An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. . A. thus holding the pail as shown. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. partly a barrier for jumps. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. or various cutting compounds of oil. In order to accomplish this experiment. Oil. drill press or planer. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. it is necessary to place a stick. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. milling machine. which seems impossible. of sufficient 1ength.

in the ground. long. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. in diameter--the larger the better. 1 cross brace.. Procure from a saw mill. bolts. The material required is as follows: Two posts. by 3 ft. long. 4 in. 4 in. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. bolt. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. apart. piece of 2 by 4-in. long.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. apart in a central position on the horse. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. These are placed 18 in. long. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces.. 2 bases. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. 2 by 4 in. projections and splinters. stud cut rounding on one edge. To construct. ten 1/2-in. The round part of this log must be planed. 4-1/2 in. square by 5-1/2 ft. is a good length. square by 5 ft. 7 in. 2 by 4 in. bolts. but 5 ft. 4 in. and free from knots. long. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. by 3 ft. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. 2 adjusting pieces. 3 in. two 1/2-in. long. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. Hand holds must be provided next. bolts. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. long. to fasten the knee braces at the top. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. These are well nailed in place. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. 1 in. 4 knee braces. from each end. 2 by 4 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . wood yard or from the woods. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. long. beginning 1-1/2 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. by 3 ft.

This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. etc. it is caused by some obstruction. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Such a hand sled can be made in a . One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. pipe and fittings. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. Cal. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. such as a dent. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. but nevertheless. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in.horse top. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. Jaquythe. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. snow. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. A. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. water. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. it is caused by an overloaded shell. no one is responsible but himself. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. over and around. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle.--Contributed by W. then bending to the shape desired. Also. Richmond. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder.

Boston. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Joerin. Ontario. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. Mass. These. 1/4 or 3/16 in. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. in width and 1/32 in. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. when complete. W. Toronto. are all the tools necessary. 1. --Contributed by James E. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. 2. Noble. France. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. --Contributed by J. --Contributed by Arthur E. which. will give the length. then run a string over each part. is much better than a wood sled. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. The end elevation. Vener. . This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. thick. when straightened out. Paris. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. at E and F.

The method shown in Figs. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. It is best to use soft water. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. AA and BB. 4. nor that which is partly oxidized. . The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. 3. are nailed. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs.

Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. 4. 2. . The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. or unequal widths as in Fig. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. Broad lines can be made. or various rulings may be made. 1). The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 3. as shown in Fig. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. as shown in Fig. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. The materials used are: backbone. class ice-yacht.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. 8 and 9. 2. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. Percy Ashley in Rudder.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

pipe. pins to keep them from turning. out from the collar. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. long. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. a tee and a forging. Both the lower . 1-Details of Lathe sort. bent and drilled as shown. but if it is made much longer. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it.Fig. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The headstock is made of two tees. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. a larger size of pipe should be used. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. It can be made longer or shorter. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. 1. about 30 in. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. A good and substantial homemade lathe.

It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. a straight line should be scratched Fig. 2. a corresponding line made on this. 1. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. 2. 2. and will answer for a great variety of work. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. --Contributed by W. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. Boissevain. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. Laporte. It is about 1 in. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. Cal. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. UpDeGraff. but also their insulating properties. W. M. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. as shown in Fig. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. To do this. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. . else taper turning will result. as shown in Fig. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. Musgrove. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. Indiana. or a key can be used as well. Fruitvale. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. 3/4 or 1 in. Man. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. --Contributed by W. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. --Contributed by M. thick as desired. Held. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical.

Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. To obviate this. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. Cline. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. J. Ft. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. The handle is of pine about 18 in. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. In use. --Contributed by E. Ark. long. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. Smith. as shown.

This prevents the drill from wobbling. La. on starting the lathe. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. Colo. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. New Orleans. centering is just one operation too many.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. and when once in true up to its size. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. take . it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. which should be backed out of contact. White. Denver. face off the end of the piece. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. --Contributed by Walter W. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. if this method is followed: First. the drill does not need the tool. After being entered.

as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. a bout 1/2 in. a long piece of glass tubing. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. and can be varied to suit the performer. It can be used in a great number of tricks. and this given to someone to hold. After the wand is removed. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. after being shown empty. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. The handkerchief rod. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. says the Sphinx.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. as shown in D. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. all the better. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. the cap is placed over the paper tube. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. shown at C. is put into the paper tube A. by applying caustic soda or . In doing this. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. vanishing wand. The glass tube B. shorter t h a n the wand. unknown to the spectators.

and glue it to the neck at F. long. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. thick. This dimension and those for the frets . With care and patience. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. square and 1-7/8 in. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. As the cement softens. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. The brace at D is 1 in. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. 1. Glue strips of soft wood. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. preferably hard maple. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. 1 Neck. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. by 14 by 17 in. as shown by K. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. 1 Bottom. can be made by the home mechanic. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. 3/16. Glue the neck to the box. 2 Sides. across the front and back to strengthen them. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned.potash around the edges of the letters. Cut a piece of hard wood. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. cut to any shape desired. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. 1 End. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. The sides. 1/4 in. End. with the back side rounding. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in.

This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. E. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. wide and 11-1/2 ft. and beveled . A board 1 in. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. 3/16 in. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. Carbondale. 1) on which to stretch the paper. Norwalk. in diameter. When it is completed you will have a canoe. Six holes.Pa. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. H. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. or backbone.should be made accurately. but it is not. Frary. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. thick and about 1 ft. Stoddard. --Contributed by Chas. -Contributed by J. toward each end. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. O. long is used for a keel. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store.

3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. when made of green elm. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. Green wood is preferable. 4. but twigs of some other trees. with long stout screws. b. in thickness and should be cut. in such cases. such as hazel or birch. Fig. These are better. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. as they are apt to do.) in notches. 1 and 2. 1. and are not fastened.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. Fig. Fig. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. or other place. slender switches of osier willow. 2). Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. buy some split cane or rattan. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. two strips of wood (b. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. Any tough. 2. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. The ribs. thick. Shape these as shown by A. Fig. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. b. b. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. will answer nearly as well. Osiers probably make the best ribs. two twigs may be used to make one rib. some tight strips of ash. probably. and. by means of a string or wire. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. and so. Fig. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. twigs 5 or 6 ft. . C. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. In drying. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. apart. Fig. C. such as is used for making chairbottoms. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. Fig. procure at a carriage factory. are next put in. The cross-boards (B. which are easily made of long. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. long. wide by 26 in. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. but before doing this. as before described. Fig. and notched at the end to receive them (B. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. 3). 3. or similar material. as shown in Fig. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. the loose strips of ash (b. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. For the gunwales (a. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. 4). 13 in. 3/8 in. thick. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. 2). and the smaller ends to the gunwales. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. B.. as shown in Fig. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. a. Fig. 3). and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. long are required. 3.

it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. but with less turpentine. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. The paper is then trimmed. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. When the paper is dry. wide. tacking it to the bottom-board. of very strong wrapping-paper. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. and very tough. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. Fig. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. It should be drawn tight along the edges. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. and steady in the water. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. It should be smooth on the surface. and as soon as that has soaked in. If not. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. if it has been properly constructed of good material.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. preferably iron. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. after wetting it. and light oars. B. apply a second coat of the same varnish. Being made in long rolls. If the paper be 1 yd. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. 5). Then take some of the split rattan and. and held in place by means of small clamps. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. but neither stiff nor very thick. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. You may put in . cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. however. When thoroughly dry.

For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. Fig. 5). 1. 2. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. they will support very heavy weights. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. Fig. Fig. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. 1 and the end in . Drive the lower nail first. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. We procured a box and made a frame. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. and if driven as shown in the cut. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. and make a movable seat (A. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. to fit it easily. 5. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. fore and aft. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house.

is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. 3. 4. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. A good way to handle this work. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. This way has its drawbacks. Close the other end with the same operation.Fig. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. Pittsburg. this makes the tube airtight. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. 5. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. This is an easy . Pa. and the result is. being softer where the flame has been applied. and the glass.

Work from the center along concentric rings outward. file. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. also trace the decorative design. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. then reverse. above the metal. -Contributed by A. or six arms. 23 gauge. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. three. very rapid progress can be made. fourth. with a piece of carbon paper. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. metal shears. Sixth. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. Seventh. second. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. above the work and striking it with the hammer. rivet punch. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. thin screw. fifth. After the bulb is formed. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. extra metal all around. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. four. flat and round-nosed pliers. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. Oswald. Give the metal a circular motion. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating.way to make a thermometer tube. The candle holders may have two. third.

How To Make a Hectograph [326] . It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. and holder. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. Having pierced the bracket. Small copper rivets are used. Metal polish of any kind will do. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. drip cup. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing.

When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. A saw. alcohol 2 parts. and brace and bit were the tools used. Heat 6-1/2 oz. of glycerine to about 200 deg. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. the stick at the bottom of the sail. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. and it will be ready for future use. thus it was utilized. I steer with the front wheel. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. The boom. N. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. Shiloh. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. except they had wheels instead of runners. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. Twenty cents was all I spent. J. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. and add the gelatine. The gaff. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. hammer. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. all the rest I found. using a steel pen. and water 24 parts. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. they were like an ice boat with a sail. winding the ends where they came together with wire. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. Mother let me have a sheet. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. smooth it down and then remove as before. and other things as they were needed. glycerine 4 parts. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. F. if it has not absorbed too much ink. is a broomstick. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. on a water bath. sugar 1 part. Soak 1 oz. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. and in a week . I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. deep. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. when it will be ready for use. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. Fifty.

A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. a projecting lens .

circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. but if such a box is not found. A table. 1. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. 8 in. wide. Fig. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. The board is centered both ways. at a distance of 24 ft. long. and. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light.. 3. wire brads. focus enlarging a 3-in. or glue. 1/2 to 3/4 in. G. high. A and B. about 2 ft. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. above the center. at a point 1 in. thick. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. well seasoned pine. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. slide to about 6 ft. and a projecting lens 2 in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. as desired. are . or a lens of 12-in. This ring is made up from two rings. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. If a small saw is used. wide and 15 in. describe a 9-in. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. and the lens slide. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. and 14 in. H. and the work carefully done. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. The slide support. provided the material is of metal. E. DD.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig.

A sheet . A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. JJ. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. To reach the water. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. Small strips of tin. E. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. the strips II serving as guides. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. and when the right position is found for each. should the glass happen to upset. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. B. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. the water at once extinguishes the flame. Minn. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. Paul. P.-Contributed by G. of safe. but not long enough. St. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick.constructed to slip easily on the table. The arrangement is quite safe as. light burning oil. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. placed on the water. apply two coats of shellac varnish.

I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 2. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . Fig. --Contributed by J. 3. Crawford. N.. by 12 ft. I ordered a canvas bag. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. 4. 9 in.H. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. 1. 3 in. Schenectady. from a tent company. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. form a piece of wire in the same shape. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. Fig.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. then the corners on one end are doubled over. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. Y. to cover the mattresses. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 12 ft. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 3. If one of these clips is not at hand.

1/2 in. Fold two strips of light cardboard. insulating them from the case with cardboard. 3/4 in. to the coil of small wire for volts. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. and insert two binding-posts. long and 3/16 in. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. holes in the edge. in the center coil. To calibrate the instrument. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. 2. open on the edges. A Film Washing Trough [331] . The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. --Contributed by Walter W. 1/2 in. drill two 3/16 in. D. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. Denver. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Edward M. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. through which the indicator works. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. 2. first mark the binding-post A. 1. 2. so as to form two oblong boxes. A rubber band. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. Warren. Teasdale. Fig. Fasten the wire with gummed label. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. 3/4 in. 1. as shown in Fig. V. long.each edge. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Fig. White. to keep it from unwinding. thick. Do not use too strong a rubber. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. 3 to swing freely on the tack. An arc is cut in the paper. Pa. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. wide. Attach a piece of steel rod. C. Colo. apart. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. for amperes and the other post.

A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. --Contributed by M. Hunting. Cut a 1/4-in. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. M. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. with the large hole up. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Place this can on one end of the trough.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. O. Wood Burning [331] . The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. as shown. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Dayton. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width.

Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. then into this bottle place. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. mouth downward. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle.

but not very thick. provided the bottle is wide. If the cork is adjusted properly. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. wide and 4 in. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. N. Auburn. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. Ala. 3/4 in. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. thick. 2. long. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. Upper Troy. --Contributed by Fred W. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. many puzzling effects may be obtained. as shown in the sketch. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. 1. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. If the small bottle used is opaque. Whitehouse. This will make a very pretty ornament. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. --Contributed by John Shahan. Place the small bottle in as before.Y. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system .

How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. Fig. pulley. Fig. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. even in a light breeze. Fig. wide.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. Milter. The wire L was put . A staple. line. B. by the method shown in Fig. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. to the shaft. or ordinary telephone transmitters. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. which was 6 in. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. On a 1000-ft. 1. 1. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. 1. such as blades and pulleys. high without the upper half. in diameter and 1 in. 1. G. thick. 1. If a transmitter is used. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. 2 ft. I. 4. which extended to the ground. Both bearings were made in this manner. pulley F. --Contributed by D. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. long. 1 in. The 21/2-in. sugar pine on account of its softness. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. Its smaller parts. The shaft C. as shown in Fig. 2. were constructed of 1-in. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. 3. which was nailed to the face plate. was keyed to shaft C. W. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. iron rod. The bearing blocks were 3 in. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. thick and 3 in. K. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. Fig. was 1/4in. thick. Fig. which gave considerable power for its size.

Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. strips. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. hole was bored for it. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. There a 1/4-in. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. long. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. long and 1/2 in. This completes the receiver or sounder. 5. 6. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. G. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. To lessen the friction here. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. in diameter. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. To make the key. when the windmill needed oiling. Fig. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. long and bend it as shown at A. The power was put to various uses. The smaller one. in the center of the board P. long and bend it as . Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. Fig. so that the 1/4-in. and was cut the shape shown. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. 1. 2. cut out another piece of tin (X. Fig. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. top down also. was 2 ft. wide and 1 in. 1. long. If you have no bell. Fig. 25 ft. This fan was made of 1/4-in. 6. R. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. Fig. apart in the tower. square to the board P at the top of the tower. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. 0. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. long and 3 in. H. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. through the latter. providing one has a few old materials on hand. The bed plate D. Two washers were placed on shaft C. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. Fig. The other lid. Fig. washers were placed under pulley F. pine 18 by 12 in. 1) 4 in. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. as. with all parts in place. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. hole for the shaft G was in the center. for instance. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. with brass headed furniture tacks. was tacked. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. 3 in. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. 1. 1. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. This board was 12 in. a 1/2-in. across the thin edge of a board. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley.

Before tacking it to the board. as shown at Water. Going back to Fig. By adjusting the coils. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. as indicated. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. 1. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. leaving the other wire as it is. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. McConnell. using cleats to hold the board frame. fitted with paddles as at M. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . after the manner of bicycle wheels. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough.shown. causing a buzzing sound. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. and. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Now. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. at the front. although it can be made with but two. 2. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Thus a center drive is made. The rear barrels are. -Contributed by John R. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. like many another device boys make. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. When tired of this instrument.

The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. which will give any amount of pleasure. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. To propel it. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. The speed is slow at first. as shown in Fig. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. copper piping and brass tubing for base. 1. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. there will not be much friction. 3. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. can be built. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. There is no danger. feet on the pedals. If the journals thus made are well oiled. or even a little houseboat. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same.

On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. 2. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Place one brass ring in cylinder. 2. C. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. 2. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. 1. Fig. 1. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig.of pleasure for a little work. If magnifying glass cannot be had. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. or it may be put to other uses if desired. Fig. A. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. Shape small blocks of boxwood. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. 1. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. Then melt out the rosin or lead. Fig. Turn a small circle of wood. and so creating a false circuit. D. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. B. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. then the glass disc and then the other ring. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. If it is desired to make the light very complete. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. Fig. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder.

it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. Brinkerhoff. --Contributed by C. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. Ogden. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. wire from batteries to switch. T. if too small. --Contributed by Geo. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. and pulled tight. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. I. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . thick. S. after two turns have been made on the key. 3/8 in. To get the cylinder into its carriage. To operate this. near the bed. or 1/4in. by having the switch on the baseboard. copper tubing. D. contact post. J. Pa. 5-1/4 by 10 in. while lying in bed. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. H. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. some glue will secure them. such as is used for cycle valves. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. key of alarm clock. shelf. Throw lever off from the right to center. wire from light to switch. bell. brass strip. wide and 1/16 in. after setting alarm. F. brass rod. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. C. Chatland. When alarm goes off. 4-1/2 in. The parts indicated are as follows: A. B. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. In placing clock on shelf. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. G. 4 in. Utah.india rubber tubing. set alarm key as shown in diagram. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. which stops bell ringing. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. To throw on light throw levers to the left.. long. C. wire from bell to switch. E. bracket. Swissvale. switch. X. dry batteries. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. long.

about 3-1/2 in. Make the spindle as in Fig. 1. All that is required is a tin covering. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. wide. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. for instance. from one end. 3. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. A flannel bag. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. gives the heater a more finished appearance. as . as at B. long. 4 in. Lanesboro. being careful not to get the sand in it. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. 2. --Contributed by Chas. Pull out the nail and stick. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. will do the heating. letting it extend 3/4 in. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. A small lamp of about 5 cp. 1/4 in. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. in diameter. Having finished this. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. making it as true and smooth as possible. Fig. Make a shoulder. which can be made of an old can. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. as at A. a bed warmer. in diameter. This is to form the fuse hole. 2. place stick and all in a pail of sand. as at A. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. S.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. as in Fig. 1. Chapman. Minn. beyond the end of the spindle. Fig. about 6 in. Fig. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand.

well as making it more pleasant to the touch. A piece of tin. this is to keep the edges from splitting. good straight-grained pine will do. long. --Contributed by Arthur E. 11/2 in. ash. 5/8 in. The material must be 1-1/2 in. 3/8 in. wide and 3 ft. long. thick. or hickory. will be sufficient to make the trigger. long. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. 1. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. deep. spring and arrows. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. wide and 3/8 in. wide and 6 ft. A piece of oak. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. Joerin. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. 1 in. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. but if this wood cannot be procured. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. thick. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. The illustration shows how this is done. 6 in. thick.

To throw the arrow. which is 1/4 in. Wilmette. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. and one for the trigger 12 in. as shown in Fig. Fig. The bow is not fastened in the stock. from the end of the stock. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. 6. it lifts the spring up. 2. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. A spring. wide at each end. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. in diameter. or through the necessity of. To shoot the crossbow. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. Trownes. 7. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. When the trigger is pulled. 8. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. better still. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. place the arrow in the groove. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by O. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. thick. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. 9. E. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. from the opposite end. Such a temporary safe light may be . on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. The stick for the bow. 3. Fig. Ill. 4. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. The trigger. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. Fig. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. having the latter swing quite freely. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room.

making lighting and trimming convenient. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. C. from the ground. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. is used as a door. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. the bark lean-to is a . a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. respectively. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. By chopping the trunk almost through. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. make the frame of the wigwam. apart. Remove one end. says Photo Era. The cut should be about 5 ft. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. it is the easiest camp to make. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. from the ground. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. and replace as shown at B. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. or only as a camp on a short excursion. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. Remove the bottom of the box. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. The hinged cover E. Moreover. This lamp is safe. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. and nail it in position as shown at A. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. since the flame of the candle is above A. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another.

cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. For a foot in the middle of the stick. long and 1-1/2 in. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. long. . spruce. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. 6 ft. 3 ft. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. wide. a 2-in. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. make the best kind of a camp bed. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. piled 2 or 3 ft. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. and cedar. Sheets of bark. makes a good pair of tongs. selecting a site for a camp. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. For a permanent camp. will dry flat. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. and split the tops with an ax. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. and when the camp is pitched. long and 2 or 3 ft. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. Tongs are very useful in camp. are a convenient size for camp construction. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. thick. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. deep and covered with blankets. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. nails are necessary to hold it in place. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. In the early summer. wide and 6 ft. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. Where bark is used. A piece of elm or hickory.

and affording accommodation for several persons. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. or even a rough lock for the camp larder.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. . hinges.

Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. B. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Pa. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place.. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. --Contributed by James M. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. about 4 in. B. Doylestown. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. I drove a small cork. Kane. to another . wide. and provide a cover or door. deep and 4 in. the interior can. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Fig. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. 1. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. changing the water both morning and night. A.

Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. 3. Fig. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. fused into one side. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. if necessary. a liquid. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. for instance. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. which project inside and outside of the tube. 2. E. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. The diagram. to pass through an increasing resistance. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. 4 and 5). The current is thus compelled. C. 2. until. limit. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. This makes . With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. for instance. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. such as ether.glass tube.

but merely discolored. two holes. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. After cleaning them with the solution. A. thick. 3-3/8 in. assemble and rivet them solidly. thicker. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. 3. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. or even 1/16 in. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. 1. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. Fig. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. thick. Fig. clamp the template. Alpena. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. when several pieces are placed together. they will make a frame 3/4 in. If the thickness is sufficient. which will make it uniform in size. Then the field can be finished to these marks. as shown in Fig. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. Before removing the field from the lathe. hole is . to allow for finishing. 3-3/8 in. by turning the lathe with the hand. mark off a space. therefore. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. between centers. or pattern. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. When the frame is finished so far. in diameter. on a lathe. A 5/8in. which may be of any thickness so that. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. is composed of wrought sheet iron. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. as shown in the left-hand sketch. bent at right angles as shown. 4-1/2 in. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. screws. larger than the dimensions given. and for the outside of the frame. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. in diameter. cannot be used so often. tap. brass. 2. Michigan. brass or iron. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. These holes are for the bearing studs. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. The bearing studs are now made. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. set at 1/8 in. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. making it 1/16 in. drill the four rivet holes. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. After the template is marked out.

and drilled to receive the armature shaft. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . When the bearings are located. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. soldered into place. or otherwise finished. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. 4. Fig. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. into which a piece of 5/8-in. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. file them out to make the proper adjustment.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. brass rod is inserted. The shaft of the armature. and build up the solder well. solder them to the supports. is turned up from machine steel.

1/8 in. The pins are made of brass. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. 7. as shown m Fig. inside diameter. 3/4 in. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. as shown in Fig. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. deep and 7/16 in. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. 8.. After they . and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. Rivet them together. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. thick. washers. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. Procure 12 strips of mica. 6. 6. and held with a setscrew. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. When annealed. wide. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. hole and tap it for a pin. as shown in Fig. thick and 1/4 in. Armature-Ring Core. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. 3. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. thick are cut like the pattern. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. wide. When this is accomplished. sheet fiber. or segments. thick. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. After the pieces are cut out. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. Find the centers of each segment at one end. 3. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. to allow for finishing to size. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. threaded. thick. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. 9. 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. holes through them for rivets. Make the core 3/4 in. then drill a 1/8-in. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. being formed for the ends. 1-1/8 in. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. The sides are also faced off and finished. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. as shown in Fig. 5. by 1-1/2 in. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. and then they are soaked in warm water. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. as shown in Fig. brass rod. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils.

yet it shows a series of . The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. being required. the two ends of the wire. and wind on four layers. The winding is started at A. Run one end of the field wire. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. shown at A. about 100 ft. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. The two ends are joined at B. After one coil. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. by bending the end around one of the projections. 5. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. 6 in. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. of the wire. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. and bring the end of the wire out at B. 8 in. In starting to wind. wide and 1 in. Fig. 1. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. of the end to protrude. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. until the 12 slots are filled. sheet fiber. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. 1. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire.have dried. they are glued to the core insulation. This winding is for a series motor. are soldered together. which will take 50 ft. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. To connect the wires. The source of current is connected to the terminals. The field is wound with No. of No. When the glue is set. after the motor is on the stand. shown at B. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. long. or side. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. sheet fiber. Fig. thick. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. All connections should be securely soldered.

In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. one from each of the eight contacts. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. Nine wires run from the timer. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. still more simply. or. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. as in the case of a spiral. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. and one. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. A 1/2-in. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. which serves as the ground wire. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. is fastened to the metallic body.

perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. 6 in. of the dial. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. long. It should be . two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. Without this attachment. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button.The Wind Vane. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. thus giving 16 different directions. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. board. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. Covering these is a thin. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. 45 deg. circle.

The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. To work these outlines. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. though a special knife. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. called a chip carving knife. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. if not too high. -Contributed by James L. Cut 3-in. will be enough for the two sides. thus making a universal joint. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. will answer the purpose just as well. high. To make it. Fill the box with any handy ballast. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Place the leather on some level. Blackmer. also a piece of new carpet. 14 by 18 in.about 6 ft. will be sufficient. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. is most satisfactory. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. and about 6 in. Y." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. N. according to who is going to use it. or. . How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. long to give the best results. however. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. Before tacking the fourth side. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. Buffalo. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. and securely nail on the top of the box. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. making it heavy or light.

Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. An ordinary sewing-machine . being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. A good leather paste will be required. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Paste the silk plush to the inner side.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown.

and put the solution in thin glass bottles. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. away from it. and fasten the feathers inside of it. as in cases of a sprained ankle. temporary lameness. rather than the smooth side. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. a needle and some feathers. Syracuse. Morse. and tie them together securely at the bottom. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. B. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. If a fire breaks out. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. --Contributed by Katharine D. or a hip that has been wrenched. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. square and tying a piece of . can be thrown away when no longer needed. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. of water. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. N. Y. of common salt and 10 lb. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb.will do if a good stout needle is used. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use.

B. letting it go at arm's length. One end is removed entirely. The strings should be about 15 in. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. wound on the head end. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. N. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. Y.J. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. deep. This not only keeps the rats out. wide and 1/16 in. Hellwig. 1/8 in. commonly called tintype tin. Ashland. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. E. is cut on the wood. Paterson. N. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. The body of the receiver. The diaphragm C. G. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. the corners being wired. Albany. The end is filed to an edge. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. . 22 gauge copper magnet wire. thus helping the rats to enter. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. --Contributed by John A. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. long. etc. --Contributed by J. which is the essential part of the instrument.. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. and tacked it to the boards. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. board all around the bottom on the inside. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. and the receiver is ready for use. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. as shown. and a coil of wire. laying poisoned meat and meal. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. F. The coil is 1 in. but not sharp. high. A. setting traps. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. made up of four layers of No. Wis. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail.string to each corner. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. long. Gordon Dempsey. A small wooden or fiber end. There is a 1-in. cut to the length of the spool.

The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. To clean small articles. a piece of small wire. better still. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. begin with the smallest scrolls. wide. and bend each strip in shape. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. Take a piece of string or. gold. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. A single line will be sufficient. to . but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. The vase is to have three supports.

sharp pencil. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Fold the leather on the line EF. . as shown in the sketch. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. 4-1/4 in. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. About 1 in. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. After taking off the pattern. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1.. Work down the outside line of the design. wide when stitching up the purse. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. from the lines EF on the piece. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. from E to F. through which to slip the fly AGH. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool.. 6-3/8 in. 3-1/2 in. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. thus raising it. using a duller point of the tool. and does not require coloring. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water.which the supports are fastened with rivets. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Press or model down the leather all around the design. Trace also the line around the purse. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. from C to D. 3-1/4 in.

with the open side down. Then nail the wheel down firmly. around the wheel. It is neat and efficient. with a compass saw. 3. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. 1/2 in. 2. Cut off six pieces 12 in. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. Make the lug 1/4 in. thick. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. It can be made without the use of a lathe. with the largest side down. b. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. and the projections B. the "open" side. being cast in wooden molds.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. When it is finished. Fit this to the two . all the way around. This also should be slightly beveled. leaving the lug a. following the dotted lines. deep. First. then nail it. long. Now take another piece of wood. by 12 ft. then place the square piece out of which Fig. as shown in Fig. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. square. and cut out a wheel. with pins or small nails. and tack the other piece slightly. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. and. deep. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and which will be very interesting. as well as useful. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. and a model for speed and power. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. 1. 1 was cut.

Now take another of the 12-in. and clean all the shavings out of it. bolts. and lay it away to dry. and boring a 3/8-in.pieces just finished. as shown by the . one of which should have a 3/8-in. and bore six 1/4-in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. 1. slightly beveled. 4. hole 1/4 in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. deep. square pieces of wood. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. square pieces of wood.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. holes through it. After it is finished. Now put mold No. in the center of it. hole entirely through at the same place. hole bored through its center. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. then bolt it together. place it between two of the 12-in. Take the mold apart.

If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. long. as shown in illustration. This is for a shaft. and two 1/4-in. After it is fitted in. and drill it entirely through. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. and pouring metal in to fill it up.1. the other right-handed.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig.2. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. 1. d. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. wide and 16 in. Fig. 6. Pour metal into mold No. This is mold No. so that it will turn easily. and bore three 1/4-in. 6. instead of the right-handed piece. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. and the exhaust hole in projection b. This is the same as Fig. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. Now take mold No. B. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. Using the Brace . Put this together in mold No. and pour babbitt metal into it. over the defective part. and the other in the base. drill in it. b.1. true it up with a square. holes. one in the projections.black dots in Fig. and run in babbitt metal again. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. A piece of mild steel 5 in. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. Let it stand for half an hour. take an ordinary brace. and lay it away to dry. place it under the drill. place the entire machine in a vise. as shown by the black dots in Fig. from the one end. Now cut out one of the 12-in. This will cast a paddle-wheel. where the casting did not fill out. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. one in the lug. in diameter must now be obtained. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. Then bolt the castings together. fasten a 3/8-in. Commencing 1-1/2 in. and connect to the boiler. 5.2. screw down. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. and 3/8-in. see that the bolts are all tight. 4. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. only the one is left-handed. until it is full. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. holes at d. and drill them in the same manner. put the top of the brace through this hole. long. lay it on a level place.

will do good service. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. and. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. turn the wheel to the shape desired. with a boss and a set screw. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. one 6 ft.. At each end of the 6ft. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Plan of Ice Boat . piece and at right angles to it. Then take a knife or a chisel. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. and with three small screw holes around the edge. and the other 8 ft. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. while it is running at full speed. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. long. and if instructions have been carefully followed. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft.

The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. bolt the 8-ft. 3. To the under side of the 8-ft. piece and at right angles to it. at the top. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. Over the middle of the 6-ft. plank. as the runners were fastened. at the end. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. and about 8 in. 8 a reef point knot. long and 2-1/2 in. in diameter in the center. long. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. Make your runners as long as possible. where they often did considerable damage. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. in the top before the skate is put on. 2 by 3 in. boards to make the platform. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. distant. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. which may come in handy in heavy winds. in front of the rudder block. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. This fits in the square hole. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. The spar should be 9 ft. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. tapering to 1-1/2 in.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. Fig. in diameter at the base. Run the seam on a machine. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. The tiller. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. Fig. long. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. projecting as in Fig. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. leaving 1 ft. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . plank nail 8-in. so much the better will be your boat. 1. at the butt and 1 in. 1. in diameter. should be of hardwood.

that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. and the alarm bell will ring. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. allowing the springs to contact at C. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. The . P. Pa. bent into a hook at each end. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. The arrangement proved quite too effective. P. Mechanicsburg. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. Adams. Comstock. block of wood nailed to A.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. --Contributed by J. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. so that they come in contact at C. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. B. Phoenix. --Contributed by John D. and place it behind a stove. small piece of wood. S S. to block B. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. Its parts are as follows: A. wide. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. R. Ariz. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell.

The stump makes the best support. A passenger rides in each seat and the motorman takes his station at the middle. and make it into a clock to hang on the wall. 6 in. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. The center pole should be 10 ft. Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flanges or washers having a slight concave to their face. 1. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. including the . and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. high. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. Novelty Clock f