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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. To throw a boomerang. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. Toronto. wide and 2 ft. with the hollow side away from you. It is held in this curve until dry. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. Fig. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. away.Fig. --Contributed by J. E. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. A piece of plank 12 in. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. grasp it and hold the same as a club. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. apart. as shown in Fig. 2 -. long will make six boomerangs. Noble. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . 1. The pieces are then dressed round. until it is bound as shown in Fig. 2. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. 2. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. 1. Ontario. distant. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. as shown in Fig. 1.

6 in. blocks . These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. If the snow is of the right consistency. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. A wall. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. thick. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. the block will drop out. First. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. high and 4 or 5 in. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. and with a movable bottom. dry snow will not pack easily. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. one inside of the circle and the other outside. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. however. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. forcing it down closely. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. it is not essential to the support of the walls. A very light. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. long. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. and it may be necessary to use a little water. but about 12 in. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. minus the top. or rather no bottom at all. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. which makes the building simpler and easier. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. made of 6-in.

If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. and the young architect can imitate them. The piece of wood. 2. 1. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. long and 1 in. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. A nail. 2. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. --Contributed by Geo. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. C. Fig. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. Union. 3 -. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. or an old safe dial will do. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. Fig. 3. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. D. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. There is no outward thrust. Ore. Fig. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. a. Goodbrod. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. which is about 1 ft. wide. 1. It also keeps them out. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. above the ground. which can be made of wood. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. is 6 or 8 in.

allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. one pair of special hinges. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. New York. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. If ordinary butts are used. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. --Contributed by R. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. S. as the weight always draws them back to place. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up.When taking hot dishes from the stove. Syracuse. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. Merrill. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. says the Sphinx. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. the box locked .

2. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. smooth surface. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. Alberta Norrell. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. If they do not. one for each corner. 1. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Place the piece in a vise. -Contributed by L. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Ga. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. Fig. Augusta.and the performer steps out in view. If the measuring has been done properly. allowing each coat time to dry. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. draw one-half of it. To make a design similar to the one shown. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. It remains to bend the flaps. 3. about 1-32 of an inch. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. on drawing paper. With the metal shears. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. as shown in Fig. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. as shown. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. proceed as follows: First. All . as shown in Fig. When the sieve is shaken.

while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. if rolled under the shoe sole. causing it to expand. After this has dried. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. is fitted tightly in the third hole. 25 German-silver wire. A piece of porcelain tube. from the back end. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. R. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. in diameter. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. H. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. Denver. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. 25 gauge German-silver wire. used for insulation. When the current is turned off. B. and in the positions shown in the sketch. The current. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No.the edges should be left smooth. should be in the line. A resistance. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. as shown at AA. in passing through the lamp. Galbreath. heats the strip of German-silver wire. In boring through rubber corks. which is about 6 in. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. If a touch of color is desired. To keep the metal from tarnishing. long. The common cork. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. --Contributed by R. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. of No. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. C. Colo. about 6 in.

Fig. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. as shown in Fig. Mo. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. . but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. 3. with thin strips of wood. Kansas City.bottom ring. Purchase two long book straps. leaving a space of 4 in. 2. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. --Contributed by David Brown. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. between them as shown in Fig. 1.

having a gong 2-1/2 in.. These are shown in Fig. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. A. N. 1. just the right weight for a woman to use. Doylestown. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. --Contributed by Katharine D. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig.. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. are mounted on the outside of the box. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. Morse. The folds are made over the string. and a pocket battery. 4. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. 3. as . in diameter. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. Fig. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. long.An ordinary electric bell. The string is then tied. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. and tack smoothly. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. 1. Fig. C. which is the right weight for family use. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. to form a handle. and one weighing 25 lb. Two strips of brass. Syracuse. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. 1. one weighing 15 lb. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. Y. --Contributed by James M. Fig. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. When the aeroplane tips. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. 36 in. Pa. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Kane. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. 2.

two 1/8 -in. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. and many fancy knick-knacks. bent as shown in Fig.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. machine screws. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. such as brackets. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. --Contributed by Louis J. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. long. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. in diameter. Frame Made of a Rod . yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. Day. The saw. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. N. 2. four washers and four square nuts. AA. Y. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. 2. 1. 3/32 or 1/4 in. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. if once used. Floral Park.

may be made of either brass. Detroit. using a swab and an old stiff brush. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. Watch Fob For coloring silver. The buckle is to be purchased. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. For etching. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. Rub off the highlights. or silver. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. as well as the depth of etching desired. be covered the same as the back.. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. of water in which dissolve. of course. of water. it has the correct strength. copper. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. Scranton. the most expensive. --Contributed by W. as well as brass and copper. Michigan. If it colors the metal red. though almost any color may be obtained. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Silver is the most desirable but. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. after breaking up. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. use them in place of the outside nuts. Apply two coats. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. treat it with color. allowing each time to dry. if copper or brass. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. Of the leathers. An Austrian Top [12] . With carbon paper trace these on the metal. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. 1 part nitric acid. green and browns are the most popular. 1 part sulphuric acid. Drying will cause this to change to purple. File these edges. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. A. therefore. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. In the design shown. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears.

is formed on one end. thick. 1-1/4 in. Parts of the Top To spin the top. 3/4 in. --Contributed by J. set the top in the 3/4 -in. starting at the bottom and winding upward. Michigan. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. wide and 3/4 in. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. When the shank is covered. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. long. 5-1/4 in. .F.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. Tholl. Ypsilanti. Bore a 3/4-in. hole. The handle is a piece of pine. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. allowing only 1-1/4 in. in diameter. A 1/16-in. hole in this end for the top. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. pass one end through the 1/16-in. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. A handle. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. long.

Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. . For black leathers. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Houghton. The baking surface.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. having no sides. --A. Northville. A. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. --Contributed by Miss L. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Augusta. Ga. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Mich. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Alberta Norrell. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. tarts or similar pastry.

When you desire to work by white light. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. then solder cover and socket together. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. Mo. Centralia. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. Stringing Wires [13] A. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. glass fruit jar. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. two turns will remove the jar. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. says Studio Light. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. the same as shown in the illustration. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . --Contributed by Irl Hicks. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar.

1-1/4 in. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. so it can be folded up. and not tip over. square by 62 in. 16 Horizontal bars. as shown in the cross-section sketch. Wis. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint.for loading and development. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. 1-1/4 in. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. 4 Braces. 4 Vertical pieces. Janesville. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. They are fastened. square by 12 in. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. .

C. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. The whole. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. Rosenthal. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. Phillipsburg. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. The front can be covered . after filling the pail with water.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. After rounding the ends of the studs. from scrap material. and a loop made in the end. O. New York. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. --Contributed by Dr. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. If the loop is tied at the proper place. H. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. -Contributed by Charles Stem. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. Cincinnati. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them.

Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. the color will be an undesirable. by all rules of the game. 1 FIG. sickly one. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. if you try to tone them afterward. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. thoroughly fix. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. The results will be poor. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. FIG.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. you are. Baltimore. Md. and. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. Develop them into strong prints. The . says a correspondent of Camera Craft. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. --Contributed by Gilbert A. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. either for contact printing or enlargements. In my own practice. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. By using the following method. principally mayonnaise dressing. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. Wehr. If the gate is raised slightly. the mouth of which rests against a. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones.

but. L. 2.... three times. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. Place the dry print. as it will appear clean much longer than the white. 1 and again as in Fig. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. With a little practice... Water .. without previous wetting.. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes... in this solution.. transfer it to a tray of water.. 16 oz... 20 gr. Cal.. --Contributed by T.. It will bleach slowly and evenly... when it starts to bleach.. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder... The blotting paper can ... Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.. When the desired reduction has taken place... Gray..bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. long to admit the angle support.. preferably the colored kind.. Iodide of potassium . This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.... wide and 4 in... San Francisco. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper.. etc... this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.. A good final washing completes the process. where it will continue to bleach..... 5 by 15 in......... An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. in size.." Cyanide of potassium ... The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. 2 oz.. to make it 5 by 5 in. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses..

Corners complete are shown in Fig.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Canada. the head of which is 2 in. --Contributed by L. Make a design similar to that shown. the shaft 1 in. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. wide below the . --Contributed by J. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. wide. 3.J. Monahan. 20 gauge. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. and a length of 5 in. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Wisconsin. Oshkosh. Wilson Aldred Toronto.

Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. after folding along the center line. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. then coloring. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. 1. Allow this to dry. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. then put on a second coat. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. The metal must be held firmly. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. 1 Fig. . large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. Do not put the hands in the solution. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. 4. Pierce a hole with a small drill. as shown in Fig. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. using carbon paper. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. then trace the other half in the usual way. 1 part nitric acid. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. After this has dried. Fig. 2. With the metal shears. using turpentine. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. being held perpendicular to the work. but use a swab on a stick. deep. Trace the design on the metal. which gives the outline of the design Fig. freehand. After the sawing.FIG. Apply with a small brush. using a small metal saw. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. Make one-half of the design. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. 3. With files. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. 1 part sulphuric acid. For coloring olive green.

Conn. then stain it a mahogany color. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. --Contributed by M. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. Ii is an ordinary staple. Syracuse. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. --Contributed by H. --Contributed by Katharine D. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. as shown. on a chopping board. it does the work rapidly. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. Carl Cramer. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. M. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. New York. . Burnett. Cal. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. thick.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. attach brass handles. When this is cold. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. East Hartford. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. Morse. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. After the stain has dried. Richmond. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades.

two stopcocks with 1/8 in. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. indicating the depth of the slots. 4. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. brass. L. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. machine screws. thick and 4 in. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. as shown at A. square. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. about 3/16 in.. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. as shown in Fig. saucers or pans. two enameled. or tin. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. H. holes. Florida. --Contributed by W. A. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. Kissimmee. 1. --Contributed by Mrs. Atwell. 1/4 in. 53 steel pens. and several 1/8-in. also locate the drill holes. not over 1/4 in. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. Cal. Jaquythe.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. Fig. some pieces of brass. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. one shaft. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. thick. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. WARNECKE Procure some brass. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. in width at the shank. Richmond. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. .

between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. with a 3/8-in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. and pins inserted. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. supply pipe. 5. with 1/8-in. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. machine screws. long by 3/4 in. lead should be run into the segments. hole is drilled to run off the water. a square shaft used. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. 1. can be procured. each about 1 in. into the hole. thick. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. using two nuts on each screw. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Bend as shown in Fig. 2. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. 7. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers.. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. hole. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. A 3/4-in. 6. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. If metal dishes. There should be a space of 1/16 in. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. These are connected to a 3/8-in. wide and bend as shown in Fig. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. as shown. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. 3. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. long and 5/16 in. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. brass and bolted to the casing. wide. If the shaft is square. as shown in Fig. about 1/32 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. Fig. thick. with the face of the disk. 2. as in Fig. in diameter and 1/32 in. machine screws and nuts. 3. The shaft hole may also be filed square. hole in the center. Fig. Fig. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in.

Smith. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. With a string or tape measure. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. long. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. make these seams come between the two back legs. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. 8-1/2 in. The four legs are each 3/4-in. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. screws. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. The lower part. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. Cooke. or more in diameter. using four to each leg. Canada. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Ill. three of which are in the basket. --Contributed by S. Be sure to have the cover. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. square and 30-1/2 in. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Hamilton. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. When assembling. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. to make the bottom. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. Stain the wood before putting in the . La Salle. --Contributed by F. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Now you will have the box in two pieces. V. from the bottom end of the legs. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. from the top of the box. Fasten with 3/4-in. deep over all. deep and 1-1/4 in. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. we will call the basket. high and 15 in. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box.

The folded part in the center is pasted together. Fig. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. Sew on to the covered cardboards. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. The side. If all the parts are well sandpapered. you can. -Contributed by Stanley H. Cover them with the cretonne. Packard. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. Baltimore. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. 2. Md. 1.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. sewing on the back side.2 Fig. and gather it at that point. When making the display. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Mass. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. wide. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer.lining. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Boston. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. wide and four strips 10 in. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. --also the lower edge when necessary. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket.

Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. saving all the solid part. It is not difficult to . When through using the pad. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Crockett. with slight modifications. Fig. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. --Contributed by H. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. L. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Mo. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. N. 3. It is cleanly. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. --Contributed by B. Y. Cross Timbers. and. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Gloversville. Orlando Taylor. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch.

Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. and secure it in place with glue or paste. S. or if desired. Bourne. are shown in the diagram. across the face. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. remove the contents. El Paso. After this is done. --Contributed by Edith E. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Texas. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. Both of these methods are wasteful. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Mass. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. it should be new and sharp. Lowell. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. -Contributed by C. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. and scrape out the rough parts. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. If a file is used. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. After stirring. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Lane.

A Postcard Rack [25]. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Those having houses . Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. Wheeler. Canton. As these were single-faced disk records. circled over the funnel and disappeared. Ill. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. Des Moines. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Oak Park. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. After several hours' drying. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. --Contributed by Marion P. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. The process works well and needs no watching. The insects came to the light. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Turl. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Oregon. --Contributed by Geo. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them.cooking utensil. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Iowa. F. Greenleaf. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Ill.

yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. Mass. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. boards are preferable.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. Lay the floor next. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. Worcester. but for cheapness 3/4 in. will do as well. and the second one for the developing bench. The single boards can then be fixed. Both sides can be put together in this way. 6 in. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. the bottom being 3/8 in. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Dobbins. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. Glenbrook. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. Only three pieces are required. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used.. --Contributed by Thomas E. plane and pocket knife. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. --Contributed by Wm. thick. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way.. not even with the boards themselves. Conn. Rosenberg. and both exactly alike. 6 in. one on each side of what will be the . and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. material. by 2 ft. the best material to use being matched boards. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. and as they are simple in design.

That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. In hinging the door. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. wide. and act as a trap for the light. is cut. and the top as at C in the same drawing. below which is fixed the sink. 2 in section..doorway.. 8. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. which is fixed on as shown . The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. The roof boards may next be put on. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. the closing side as at B. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. It is shown in detail in Fig. and in the middle an opening. so that the water will drain off into the sink. and to the outside board of the sides. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. 3 and 4. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. The developing bench is 18 in. 11. and should be zinc lined. of the top of the door for the same reason. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. 10). 6 and 9. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. etc. 7. as shown in Figs. 5. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. nailing them to each other at the ridge. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. 6. Fig. At the top of the doorway. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. 6. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. by screwing to the floor. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. so that it will fit inside the sink. hinged to it. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. brown wrapping paper. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves.. 9). but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. 9 by 11 in.

Details of the Dark Rook .

19. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. 16. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . as at M. as at I. 20. The house will be much strengthened if strips. Karl Hilbrich. which makes it possible to have white light. four coats at first is not too many. 14. Fig. Erie. though this is hardly advisable. 15. 17. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. 13. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. Pennsylvania. Fig. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. as in Fig. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. In use. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. For beating up an egg in a glass. but not the red glass and frame. 6. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. screwing them each way into the boards. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. or the room may be made with a flat roof. as shown in the sections. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. A circular piece about 2 in. --Contributed by W. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing.in Fig. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. as shown in Fig. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. after lining with brown paper. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. preferably maple or ash. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. The handle should be at least 12 in. 2. 16. these being shown in Fig. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. hole bored in the center for a handle. or red light as at K. and a tank stand on it. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. mixing flour and water. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. Fig. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. are fastened in the corners inside. if desired. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. and a 3/8-in. 18. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. 13. 1. Fig. it is better than anything on the market.

copper should be. Mo. --Contributed by Wm. --Contributed by L. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. -Contributed by E. for a handle. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. D. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Ark. New York. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. which. Smith. L. Kansas City. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Mitchell. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. long. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. Yonkers. To operate. as shown in the sketch. Schweiger. when put together properly is a puzzle. Eureka Springs. G. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. about 3/8 in. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons.

why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. for the moment. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. need them. which binds them together. 2. If the sill is inclined. as shown in Fig. . to make it set level. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. Having completed the bare box. 1. in order to thoroughly preserve it. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. as is usually the case.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. A number of 1/2-in. The corks in use are shown in Fig. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. especially for filling-in purposes. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. 3. 3. as well as improve its appearance. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. holes should be drilled in the bottom. the rustic work should be varnished. After the box is trimmed. The design shown in Fig. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. the box will require a greater height in front. as shown in Fig. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. Each cork is cut as in Fig. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided.

to hold the coil on the bottom plate. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. But I have solved the difficulty. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. drilled at right angles. 3. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. can't use poison. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. and observe results. life in the summer time is a vexation. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. Traps do no good. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. When the corn is gone cucumbers. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. as shown in Fig. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. it's easy. . share the same fate. Each long projection represents a leg. F. too dangerous. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. cabbages. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. 2. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop.. 4. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. 1. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. etc. being partly eaten into.

the coil does not heat sufficiently. About 9-1/2 ft. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. Iowa. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. long. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. -. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. and made up and kept in large bottles. The solution can be used over and over again. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. of No. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. . strips. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. by trial. cut in 1/2-in.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. If. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. cut some of it off and try again. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod.

If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. to cause the door to swing shut. C. Stir and mix thoroughly. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. coffee pot. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. In cleaning silver. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. forks. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Morse. Texas. as shown in the sketch. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. N. it falls to stop G. Kane. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. Do not wash them. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. of gasoline. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. D. Fig 2. and a strip. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. . When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. 1) removed. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Dallas. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Doylestown.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. --Contributed by Katharine D. hot-water pot. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Pa. Knives. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Syracuse. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. of whiting and 1/2 oz. is a good size--in this compound. but with unsatisfactory results. --Contributed by James M. Y.

La. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. of course. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. Fisher. --Contributed by Theodore L. negatives. Sprout. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. Waverly.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Ill. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. which is. Harrisburg. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Pa. . but unfixed. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. --Contributed by Oliver S. New Orleans. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. using the paper dry. later fixed and washed as usual. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] .

Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. In this uncertainty lies the charm. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. 1. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. The harmonograph. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. then . A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. a harmonograph is a good prescription. Fig. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. metal. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. To obviate this difficulty. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing.

exactly one-third. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. is about right for a 10-ft. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. one-fourth. in diameter. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. K. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. A weight. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. which can be regulated. A small table or platform. makes respectively 3. --Contributed by Wm.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges.. --Contributed by James T.. and unless the shorter pendulum is. to prevent any side motion. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. A length of 7 ft. with a nail set or punch. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. Chicago. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. as shown in Fig. one-fifth. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. such as a shoe buttoner. G. Rosemont. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. as shown in the lower part of Fig. what is most important. Gaffney. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. etc. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. 1-3/4 by 2 in. A small weight. is attached as shown at H.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. ceiling. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. Punch a hole. that is. 1. The length of the short pendulum H. in the center of the circle to be cut. Holes up to 3 in. R. or the lines will overlap and blur. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. J. A pedestal. Ingham. of about 30 or 40 lb. as long as the other. 1. Arizona. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. for instance. Another weight of about 10 lb. provides a means of support for the stylus. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross.

The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. a correspondent of . 3. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. Cruger. of course. one for the sender and one for the receiver. The capacity of the vise. dividing them into quarters. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. 2. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. and 4 as in Fig.J. Chicago. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. 4. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. Fig.H. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. 6. Fig. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. The two key cards are made alike.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal.J. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. -Contributed by W. Morey. 1. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. Cape May City. --Contributed by J. then 3 as in Fig. N. distributing them over the whole card. and proceed as before. 5. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. then put 2 at the top. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever.

6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. from the top and bottom. says Popular Electricity. 1/4 in. Wind the successive turns of . Augusta.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. sheet of well made asbestos paper. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. drill 15 holes. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. 30 gr. remove the prints. To assemble. long. Alberta Norrell. 22 gauge German-silver wire. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. After securing the tint desired. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. of ferricyanide of potash. 1/2 oz. wood-screws. Ga. deep. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. 6 gauge wires shown. If constructed of the former. the portion of the base under the coil. of the uprights. of water. citrate of iron and ammonia. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. After preparing the base and uprights. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. --Contributed by L. respectively. acetic acid and 4 oz. of 18-per-cent No. Cut through the center. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. Asbestos board is to be preferred. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end.

as they are usually thrown away when empty. Labels of some kind are needed. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. Ampere. rivets. etc. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size.. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. but these are not necessary. Ward. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. which.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. square. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . These may be procured from electrical supply houses. then fasten the upright in place. 14 gauge. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. screws. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. if one is not a smoker. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. cut and dressed 1/2 in. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. Small knobs may be added if desired. --Contributed by Frederick E. 16 gauge copper wire. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. Y. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. N. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head.

The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. If the soldering copper is an old one. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. especially if a large tub is used. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. galvanized iron. Copper. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. Richmond. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. brass. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. of water. G. tin. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. A. In soldering galvanized iron. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. a piece of solder.14 oz. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. --Contributed by A. Kenosha. the pure muriatic acid should be used. B. S. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. This is considerable annoyance. Eureka Springs. Ark. D. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. tinner's acid. being careful about the heat. The material can be of any wood. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. it must be ground or filed to a point.. lead. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. Larson. E and F. C. . then to the joint to be soldered. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. Heat it until hot (not red hot). or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. and rub the point of the copper on it. --Contributed by W. particularly so when the iron has once been used. as shown in the sketch. --C. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. Wis. California. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. The parts are put together with dowel pins. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. or has become corroded. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. zinc. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. and labeled "Poison. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. sandpaper or steel wool. and one made of poplar finished black. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. of glycerine to 16 oz. Jaquythe.

2. and drill out the threads. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. in diameter. with good results. which gives two bound volumes each year. N. This completes the die. The dimensions shown in Fig. Place the band. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. however. a ring may be made from any metal. C. Brass rings can be plated when finished.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. I bind my magazines at home evenings. This will leave a clear hole. Apart from this. The covers of the magazines are removed. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. Y. B. nut. Hankin. brass and silver. Six issues make a well proportioned book. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. Fig. 1. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. W. D. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. The disk will come out pan shaped. -Contributed by H. wide. round iron. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. such as copper. Troy. The punch A. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. in diameter. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. 7/8 in. thick and 1-1/4 in. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . Take a 3/4-in. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. Fig. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted.

and then to string No. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. through the notch on the left side of the string No. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. and place them against the strings in the frame. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. on all edges except the back. 5. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. 1/8 in. C. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Place the cardboard covers on the book. size 16 or larger. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. Start with the front of the book. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. as shown in Fig. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. 1. using . After the sewing is completed cut the strings.4. allowing about 2 in. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. If started with the January or the July issue. Coarse white thread. then back through the notch on the right side. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. is used for the sewing material. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. deep. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. is nailed across the top. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. 2. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. Five cuts. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. 1 in Fig. The covering should be cut out 1 in. threaded double. 2. The covering can be of cloth. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. . 2 before the work can be continued on the book. 1. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. which is fastened the same as the first. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. After drawing the thread tightly. and a third piece. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. 1. The sections are then prepared for sewing. of the ends extending on each side. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. The string No. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface.

College View. Cal. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. --Contributed by Clyde E. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. and mark around each one. Encanto. on which to hook the blade. Tinplate. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. Place the cover on the book in the right position. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. at opposite sides to each other. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. For the blade an old talking-machine . Nebr. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. round iron. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. and. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Divine.

--Contributed by Carson Birkhead. -Contributed by Willard J. as it is sometimes called. and file in the teeth. with a steel sleeve. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. in order to drill the holes in the ends. thick. hydraulic pipe. and a long thread plug. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. with 10 teeth to the inch. Ohio. or double extra heavy. by 1 in. by 4-1/2 in. Miss. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. and another piece (B) 6 in. fuse hole at D. thick. Then on the board put . Hays. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). as shown. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. long.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. A. E. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Moorhead. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. Make the blade 12 in.. C. Summitville. and 1/4 in. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. at the same end. bore. B. F.. On the upper side. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. and 1/4 in.

which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Boyd. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. and some No. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. of rubber-covered wire. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. using about 8 in. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. A lid may be added if desired. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. about 5 ft.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. --Contributed by Chas. high around this apparatus. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. If you are going to use a current of low tension. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . H. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Philadelphia. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Connect up as shown. the jars need not be very large. as from batteries. 4 jars. of wire to each coil.

making them clear those in the front runner. direct to wire across jars. 2 and 3. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. and four pieces 14 in. A variation of 1/16 in. See Fig. on No. An iron washer. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. thick. sheet brass 1 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. and for the rear runners: A. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. 5 on switch. by 5 in. To wire the apparatus. 2 in. 30 in. The illustration shows how to shape it. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. On the door of the auto front put the .. Their size also depends on the voltage. The sled completed should be 15 ft. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. then apply a coat of thin enamel. by 1-1/4 in. No. however. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. C. gives full current and full speed. long by 22 in. 7 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars.the way. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. wide and 2 in. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. Put arm of switch on point No. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. long. above the ground. 1. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. 3 and No.. with the cushion about 15 in. by 1 in. two for each jar. For the front runners these measurements are: A. by 2 in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in.. long. by 5 in. 15-1/2 in. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. beginning at the rear. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. 4) of 3/4-in. are important. B. For the brass trimmings use No. 34 in. The stock required for them is oak. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. as they are not substantial enough. thick. 2 is lower down than in No. wide. 11 in. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. Let stand for three days and apply another coat.. and bolt through. 4 in. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. long. In proportioning them the points A. At the front 24 or 26 in. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. & S. 27 B. 2. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. Equip block X with screw eyes. The current then will flow through the motor. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. by 1-1/4 in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. by 2 in. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. First sandpaper all the wood. B. long. 2. or source of current. 16-1/2 in. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution... C. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. 1 on switch. 4. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. 1 is connected to point No. two pieces 14 in. 1 and so on for No. two pieces 34 in. . Construct the auto front (Fig. as they "snatch" the ice. Use no nails. steel rod makes a good steering rod. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. apart. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. oak boards. 2. B and C. The top disk in jar No. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. The connection between point No. A 3/4-in. 3. wide by 3/4 in. is used to reduce friction. Z. by 6 in. wide and 3/4 in. and plane it on all edges. Use no screws on the running surface. Fig.. square by 14 ft. two pieces 30 in. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. 3 in.

cutting it out of sheet brass. lunch. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. Then get some upholstery buttons. may be stowed within. overshoes.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. If the expense is greater than one can afford. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. such as burlap. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. to the wheel. by 1/2 in. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. which is somewhat moist. Fasten a horn. a brake may be added to the sled. cheap material. by 30 in. long. etc. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. The best way is to get some strong. brass plated. fasten a cord through the loop. a number of boys may share in the ownership. If desired. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. to improve the appearance. parcels. such as used on automobiles. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. or with these for $25. If desired.

and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Ill. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. --Contributed by Stewart H. Leland. .tree and bring. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Lexington. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written.

thick. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. mild steel or iron. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. which. The straight-edge. from F to G. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. Fig. The first tooth may now be cut. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . 2. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. 3. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. The Model Engineer. when flat against it. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. With no other tools than a hacksaw. Fig. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. though more difficult. say 1 in. so that the center of the blade. FC. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. E. the cut will be central on the line. This guide should have a beveled edge. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. will be over the line FG. 1. by drawing diameters. outside diameter and 1/16 in. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. A small clearance space. made from 1/16-in. Draw a circle on paper. a compass. with twenty-four teeth. CD. London. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. 4). some files. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. First take the case of a small gearwheel. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. sheet metal. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. Fig. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. the same diameter as the wheel. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle.

With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. A bright. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. either the pencils for arc lamps. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. electric lamp. R. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. each in the center. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. B. some wire and some carbons. transmitter. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. hold in one hand. Focus the camera in the usual manner. 2. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. Make a hole in the other. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. and the other outlet wire. 1. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. as shown in Fig. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. If there is no faucet in the house. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. Then take one outlet wire. 1. ground it with a large piece of zinc. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. B. as shown in Fig. . or several pieces bound tightly together.Four Photos on One Plate of them. No shock will be perceptible. as shown in Fig.

Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. Ohio. D D are binding posts for electric wires. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. as indicated by E E. Emsworth. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. one at the receiver can hear what is said. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. Slattery. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. are also needed. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. But in this experiment. Wrenn. under the gable.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. 36 wire around it. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . For a base use a pine board 10 in. leaving about 10 in. Pa. at each end for terminals. and about that size. B. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. and again wind the wire around it. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. A is a wooden block. as shown. Dry batteries are most convenient. and will then burn the string C. They have screw ends. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. by 12 in. One like a loaf of bread. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. of course. a transmitter which induces no current is used. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. J. If desired. --Contributed by Geo. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. by 1 in. Several battery cells. Ashland. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. or more of the latter has been used. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Then set the whole core away to dry. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. serves admirably. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof.

B B. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. First make a support. and switch. Place 16-cp. in series with bindingpost. 1. Turn on switch. Ohio. From the other set of binding-posts. Connect these three to switch. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. At one side secure two receptacles. until the hand points to zero on the scale. The coil will commence to become warm. D. the terminal of the coil. Newark. in parallel. run a No. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. 2.wire. B B. F. and one single post switch. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. while C is open. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A.. as shown. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. Jr. 12 or No. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. Fig. as shown. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. Fig. for the . C. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. 14 wire. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. These should have hollow ends. E. The oven is now ready to be connected. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. D. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. C. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. connecting lamp receptacles. The apparatus is now ready for operation. and the lamps.

the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. 7. long. A wooden box. The box is 5-1/2 in. 1. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. is made of iron. 4 amperes. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. 1/2 in. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. This may be made of wood. from the lower end. After drilling. Fig. until the scale is full. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. This is slipped on the pivot. It is 1 in. 4. wind with plenty of No. high. drill a hole as shown at H. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. where A is the homemade ammeter. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. deep. If for 3-way. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. 5. although brass is better. 5. The pointer or hand. C.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. is then made and provided with a glass front. Dussault. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. a variable resistance. 3 amperes. Montreal. to prevent it turning on the axle. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. inside measurements. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. a battery. The core. is made of wire. wide and 1-3/4 in. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. 14. Mine is wound with two layers of No. 3. remove the valve.or 4-way valve or cock. 36 magnet wire instead of No.. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. 10 turns to each layer. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. Fig. but if for a 4way. thick. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. 1. E. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. Fig. 14 wire. D. --Contributed by J. etc. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. Fig. a standard ammeter. 2. At a point a little above the center.E. although copper or steel will do. as shown in the cut. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. long. long and make a loop. drill in only to the opening already through. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. D. and D. 4 in. B. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. To make one. 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. 6. drill through the entire case and valve. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it.

When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can.performing electrical experiments. D. provided with a rubber stopper. in thickness . and the other connects with the water rheostat. One wire runs to the switch. E. and the arc light. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. making two holes about 1/4 in. in diameter. To start the light. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. A. and a metal rod. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. as shown. By connecting the motor. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. This stopper should be pierced. which is used for reducing the current. high. F. B.

Fig. A. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. Fig. To insert the lead plate. as shown in B. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. long. As there shown. B. as shown in C. Turn on the current and press the button. Jones. Carthage. 2. N. 1. Y. Having finished the interrupter. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Fig. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. 2. Having fixed the lead plate in position. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Harold L. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. 1. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. 1. A piece of wood. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. If all adjustments are correct. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. where he is placed in an upright open . If the interrupter does not work at first. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Fig. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid.

Its edges should nowhere be visible. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. and can be bought at Japanese stores. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. from which the gong has been removed. the illusion will be spoiled. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. The lights. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. which can be run by three dry cells. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. giving a limp. should be miniature electric lamps. All . but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. light-colored garments. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. If it is desired to place the box lower down. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. high. until it is dark there. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. by 7 in. and must be thoroughly cleansed. as the entire interior. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. is constructed as shown in the drawings. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. L and M. A. If everything is not black. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. within the limits of an ordinary room. The model. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. especially the joints and background near A. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. especially L. They need to give a fairly strong light. dressed in brilliant. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. to aid the illusion. by 7-1/2 in. inside dimensions. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror.coffin. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. figures and lights. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. should be colored a dull black. with the exception of the glass. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. loosejointed effect. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. The skeleton is made of papier maché. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. The glass should be the clearest possible. A white shroud is thrown over his body. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. and wave his arms up and down.. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. could expect from a skeleton.

Cal. San Jose. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. placed about a foot apart. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. after which it assumes its normal color. W. square block. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green.that is necessary is a two-point switch. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. Two finishing nails were driven in. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. If a gradual transformation is desired. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. Fry. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. --Contributed by Geo. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . as shown in the sketch. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. fat spark. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy.

It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. 1. The plates are separated 6 in. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. One of these plates is connected to metal top. Cohen. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. A (see sketch). the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. F.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. by small pieces of wood. or a solution of sal soda. This is a wide-mouth bottle. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. the remaining space will be filled with air. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. with two tubes. In Fig. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. and should be separated about 1/8 in. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. In Fig. soldered in the top. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. -Contributed by Dudley H. New York. If a lighted match . which is filled with melted rosin or wax. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. into the receiver G. as shown. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. to make it airtight. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. hydrogen gas is generated. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. B and C. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas.

in diameter and 2-1/2 in. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. P. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. either by passing a current of electricity around it. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. from the bottom. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. copper pipe.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. A. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. B. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. The distance between the nipple. is made by drilling a 1/8in. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. which is plugged up at both ends. by means of the clips. A. A nipple. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. in diameter and 6 in. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. as is shown in the illustration. A. which forms the vaporizing coil. 1/2 in. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. long. N. Fig. A. is then coiled around the brass tube. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. and the ends of the tube. 1. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. A piece of 1/8-in. One row is drilled to come directly on top. or by direct contact with another magnet. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. London. copper pipe. If desired. Fig. C C. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. 2 shows the end view. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. 36 insulated wire. 1-5/16 in. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. should be only 5/16 of an inch. then a suitable burner is necessary. of No. says the Model Engineer. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. long. N. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. A 1/64-in.

smoothing and creasing as shown at A. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Take two strips of stout cloth. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. duck or linen. 1. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. 3. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. at the front and back for fly leaves. larger all around than the book. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards.lamp cord. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. should be cut to the diameter of the can. but if the paper knife cannot be used. 2). about 8 or 10 in. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). taking care not to bend the iron. 1/4 in. smoothly. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. with a fine saw. Fig. Fig. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. longer and 1/4 in. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. this makes a much nicer book. boards and all. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. leaving the folded edge uncut. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. cut to the size of the pages. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. A disk of thin sheet-iron. fold and cut it 1 in. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. trim both ends and the front edge. Turn the book over and paste the other side. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Fig. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Cut four pieces of cardboard. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it.

A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. A. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. E. is soldered onto tank A. Ont. Va. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. in diameter and 30 in. Toronto. Noble. . is perforated with a number of holes. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. Another tank. deep. is fitted in it and soldered. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. D. and a little can. which will just slip inside the little can. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. H. but its diameter is a little smaller. as shown. --Contributed by James E. C. This will cause some air to be enclosed.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. of tank A is cut a hole. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. --Contributed by Joseph N. 4). or rather the top now. without a head. is made the same depth as B. is turned on it. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. 18 in. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. as shown in the sketch. Bedford City. Parker. Another can. pasting them down (Fig. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. In the bottom. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. the joint will be gas tight. B. A gas cock.

Fig. long. -Contributed by H. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. long. The bridle knots. basswood or white pine. E. Fig. D. as shown at C. If the back armature. are shown in detail at H and J. exactly 12 in. should be cut a little too long. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. B. by 1/2 in. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. thus adjusting the . Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. square by 42 in. The armature. The diagonal struts. The small guards. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. and sewed double to give extra strength. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. H is a square knot. N. and about 26 in. B. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. If the pushbutton A is closed. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. with an electric-bell magnet. A A. The longitudinal corner spines. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. fastened in the bottom. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. 2.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. which may be either spruce. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. The wiring diagram. which moves to either right or left. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. A. tacks. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. and the four diagonal struts. S. to prevent splitting. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread.. Bott. D. when finished. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. B. should be 1/4 in. should be 3/8 in. C. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. 1. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. shows how the connections are to be made. Beverly. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. making the width. J.

and if a strong wind is blowing. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Chicago. --Contributed by Edw. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. to prevent slipping. A bowline knot should be tied at J. with gratifying results. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. can be made of a wooden . Harbert. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. Clay Center. D. for producing electricity direct from heat. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. however. E. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. that refuse to slide easily. as shown. the batteries do not run down for a long time. Kan. and. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G.lengths of F and G. Closing either key will operate both sounders. shift toward F. --Contributed by A. Stoddard. If the kite is used in a light wind. thus shortening G and lengthening F. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle.

. B. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. 14 or No. to the cannon. F. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. The wood screw. C. with a number of nails. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. E. which conducts the current into the cannon. A. Fasten a piece of wood. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. in position. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. When the cannon is loaded.frame. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. C. A and B. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. A. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. D. and also holds the pieces of wood. A. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. and the current may then be detected by means. with a pocket compass. by means of machine screws or. or parallel with the compass needle. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. 16 single-covered wire. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. C. placed on top. Chicago. spark. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. --Contributed by A. E. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . Then.

the current is shut off. A. . hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. Bend the strips BB (Fig. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. screw is bored in the block. H. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. Fig. square and 3/8 in. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. with the long arm at L'. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. A and S. now at A' and S'. 1. Big Rapids. In Fig. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. when in position at A'. 1. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. L. in this position the door is locked. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. Connect as shown in the illustration. requiring a strong magnet. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. A hole for a 1/2 in. to receive the screw in the center. Chicago. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. --Contributed by Joseph B. Fig. but no weights or strings. --Contributed by Henry Peck. Ohio. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. B. Mich. within the reach of the magnet. press the button. To lock the door. To unlock the door. where there is a staple. To reverse. A and S. Keil. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. 1. Marion. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense.

A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. J. West Somerville. and if desired the handles may . pipe with 1-2-in. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. about 18 in. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. or for microscopic work. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. --Contributed by C. Mass. gas-pipe. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. and C is a dumbbell. and may be made at very slight expense. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. put in the handle. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. Thread the other end of the pipe. if enameled white on the concave side. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. are enameled a jet black. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. long. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. When the holes are finished and your lines set. hole. The standard and base. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. When ready for use. Rand.

round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. --Contributed by C.. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. across. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. A. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Fig. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. 1. Fig. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1.be covered with leather. as shown at A in the sketch. Make a cylindrical core of wood. North Easton. which shall project at least 2 in. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. high by 1 ft. M. long and 8 in. inside the pail. B. across. Warren. E. Mass. 1. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. D. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. 8 in. with a cover. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln .

layer of the clay mixture. When lighted. 2 in. but it will burn a great deal of gas. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. This done. pipe. Fit all the parts together snugly. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. and 3/4 in. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. 60%. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. in diameter. full length of iron core. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. Whatever burner is used. which is the hottest part. but will be cheaper in operation. let this dry thoroughly. make two wood ends. say 1/4 in. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. wider than the kiln. It is placed inside the kiln. 25%. take out the plugs in the top and bottom.-G. thick. hotel china. as is shown in the sketch. diameter. 1330°. bottom and sides. Fig. Line the pail. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. The 2 in. of fine wire. and your kiln is ready for business. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. hard porcelain. L. or make one yourself. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. 1). and 3/8 in. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. about 1 in. 1). the firing should be gradual. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. passing wire nails through and clinching them. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. Wind about 1/8 in. the point of the blue flame. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. W. and varnish. thick. and cut it 3-1/2 in. 1390°-1410°. such . projecting from each end (Fig.. cutting the hole a little smaller. C. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. long over the lid hole as a chimney. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. to hold the clay mixture. as dictated by fancy and expense. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. 3) with false top and bottom. E. After finishing the core. and with especial caution the first time. After removing all the paper. pack this space-top. carefully centering it. 15%. C. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. Cover with paper and shellac as before. long. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. and graphite. in diameter. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. Set aside for a few days until well dried. pipe 2-ft. sand. strip of sheet iron. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about... The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in.mixture of clay. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. and on it set the paper wrapped core. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. 2. if there is to be any glazing done. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. if you have the materials. C. If the cover of the pail has no rim.

around the coil. square them up.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. and divide it into two piles. Next restore all the cards to one pack. Of course. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. You can display either color called for. red and black. as shown in the sketch herewith. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. Then take the black cards. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. procure a new deck. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. B. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. Then. C. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. diameter. and discharges into the tube. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. as in Fig. bind tightly with black silk. C. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. Washington. . about 1/16 in. overlaps and rests on the body. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. Take the red cards.53 in. as in Fig. square them up and place in a vise. leaving long terminals. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. 2). on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. the next black. The funnel. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. 8 in. all cards facing the same way. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. T. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. every alternate card being the same color. and plane off about 1/16 in. C. 2.. --Contributed by J. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. length of . a regulator must be had for the vibrator. Chicago. taking care to have the first card red. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. A. R. D. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. with a plane. and so on. 2. 1.

The upright pieces. 1.. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. D. E. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. B. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. stove bolts. Long Branch. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. thus making all the holes coincide. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. E. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. and then the frame is ready to assemble.C. When the glass is put in the frame a space. B. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. Fig. as the difficulties increase with the size. and this is inexpensive to build. to form a dovetail joint as shown. A. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. stove bolts. N. C. Drill all the horizontal pieces. All the horizontal pieces. The cement. angle iron for the frame. Let . A. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. F. the first thing to decide on is the size.J. 1 gill of litharge. The bottom glass should be a good fit. so that when they are assembled. It should be placed in an exposed location. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. through the holes already drilled. 1 gill of fine white sand. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. the same ends will come together again. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. B. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. of the frame. To find the fall of snow. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. about 20 in.

It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. A. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. on the door by means of a metal plate. and. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. to the door knob. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. if desired. Fasten the lever. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. a centerpiece (A. having a swinging connection at C. D. Fig. Aquarium Finished If desired. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. B. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom.

long. thus doing away with the spring. wide . showing the paddle-wheel in position.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. 1 . to form the main supports of the frame. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. White. for the top. PAUL S. screwed to the door frame. long. from the outside top of the frame. 1 is the motor with one side removed. F. AA.. I referred this question to my husband. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. 3 shows one of the paddles. Fig. Fig. Y. another. will open the door about 1/2 in. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. --Contributed by Orton E. as at E. approximately 1 ft. which is 15 in. C. They are shown in Fig. Fig. B. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. Cut two pieces 30 in. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. 6 in. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. hoping it may solve the same question for them. 2 at GG. 2 ft. Two short boards 1 in. several lengths of scantling 3 in. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. and Fig. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. 26 in. N. E. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. but mark their position on the frame. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. to form the slanting part. another. long. wide by 1 in. and another. with a water pressure of 70 lb. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. Buffalo. 1. 2 is an end view. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. Fig. long. to keep the frame from spreading. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. A small piece of spring brass. soldered to the end of the cylinder. To make the frame. Fig. 1. Cut two of them 4 ft. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. Do not fasten these boards now. according to the slant given C. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. Fig. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. D.

and a 1/4 -in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. after which drill a 5/8 in. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. thick. Tack one side on. then drill a 3/16-in. take down the crosspieces. and drill a 1-in. and drill a 1/8-in. thick (HH. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. hole through them. pipe. holes. tapering from 3/16 in. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. These are the paddles. iron 3 by 4 in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. Now block the wheel. hole through the exact center of the wheel. Next secure a 5/8-in. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. 1. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. by 1-1/2 in. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. Take the side pieces. Fig.along the edges under the zinc to form . This is best done by using a square taper reamer. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. 24 in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. (I. Fasten them in their proper position. remove the cardboard. 2) form a substantial base. hole to form the bearings. from one end by means of a key. Fig. 2) and another 1 in. hole through their sides centrally. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. 2) with a 5/8-in. Fig. with the wheel and shaft in place. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. Drill 1/8-in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. steel shaft 12 in. in diameter. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). long to the wheel about 8 in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in.burlap will do -. iron. GG. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. hole through its center. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. that is. When it has cooled. 4. to a full 1/2 in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. Make this hole conical. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned.

Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. Correct exposure depends. Darken the rest of the window. . Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. If the bearings are now oiled. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. It is obvious that. Focus the camera carefully. it would be more durable. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. but now I put them in the machine. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. as shown in the sketch at B. Do not stop down the lens. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. start the motor. ice-cream freezer. but as it would have cost several times as much. sewing machine. light and the plate. on the lens. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. and the subject may move. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. of course. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. Drill a hole through the zinc. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. remove any white curtains there may be. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. Raise the window shade half way. or what is called a process plate. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room.a water-tight joint. and as near to it as possible. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. and leave them for an hour or so. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. any window will do. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. place the outlet over a drain. drill press. The best plate to use is a very slow one. If sheet-iron is used. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. as this makes long exposure necessary. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. says the Photographic Times. shutting out all light from above and the sides.

On completing . or an empty developer tube. full of water. a glass tube. The current required is very small. a core. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. by twisting. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. hard rubber. C. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. B. 2. The core C. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. The glass tube may be a test tube. which is made of iron and cork. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. or can be taken from an old magnet. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. and a base. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. D. without detail in the face. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. and without fog. A. as shown in Fig. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. as a slight current will answer. the core is drawn down out of sight. or wood. With a piece of black paper. 2. with binding posts as shown. until the core slowly rises. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. an empty pill bottle may be used.

according to his control of the current. 1. The colors appear different to different people. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. This is a mysterious looking instrument. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. 1 lb. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. and make a pinhole in the center. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. and one not easy to explain. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. is Benham's color top. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. finest graphite. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. water and 3 oz. and are changed by reversing the rotation.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. 1 pt. white lead. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. whale oil. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk.

as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . especially if the deck is a new one. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. thus partly filling bottles A and C. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. nearly every time. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card.B. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. A. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. B. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. In making hydrogen.. deuce.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. before cutting. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. or three spot. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch.L. when the action ceases. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. C. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. In prize games. Chicago. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. fan-like. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. As this device is easily upset. -Contributed by D.

Bently. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. long. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. in diameter. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A.. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. --Contributed by C. Dak. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. 1. Fig. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. W. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Fig. --Contributed by F. S. 4. 10 in. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. S. 3). The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. J. 12 in. Jr. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Detail of Phonograph Horn .requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. . 2. 9 in. (Fig. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. Make a 10-sided stick. Huron. Form a cone of heavy paper. in length and 3 in. as shown in Fig. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. long and 3 in. Detroit..

but bends toward D. Fortunately. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. A piece of tin. Cut out paper sections (Fig. Denver. E. making it three-ply thick. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. --Contributed by Reader. A second piece of silk thread. on one side and the top. push back the bolt. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. long. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. with a pin driven in each end. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. Fig. A. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. will cause an increased movement of C. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. it is equally easy to block that trick. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. and walk in. 6. Remove the form. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. C. bend it at right angles throughout its length. about the size of a leadpencil. allowing 1 in. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock.

will last for several years. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . posts. long. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. put together as shown in the sketch. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. B. S. B. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. Minn. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. Paul. West St. long. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. By this arrangement one. and rest on a brick placed under each end. The 2 by 4-in. The reverse switch. Jr. are made 2 by 4 in. is connected each point to a battery. while the lower switch. The feet. or left to right.. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. A. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. R. --Contributed by J.. as shown. Fremont Hilscher.strip. 4 ft. The upper switch. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. Two wood-base switches. are 7 ft. S. S S. W.

and the crank bearing C. which will be described later. and in Fig. and has two wood blocks. The steam chest D. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. The base is made of wood. and valve crank S. or anything available. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. The hose E connects to the boiler. thick. Fig. cut in half. E. The piston is made of a stove bolt. 3/8 in. and a cylindrical . with two washers. pulley wheel. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. Fig. 2 and 3. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. is an old bicycle pump. either an old sewing-machine wheel. 2. 1. FF. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. H and K.every house. The valve motion is shown in Figs. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. the size of the hole in the bearing B. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. which is made of tin. In Fig. the other parts being used for the bearing B. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine.

piece of hard wood. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. of Cuba. is cut out of tin. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. or galvanized iron. San Jose. The valve crank S. Fig. C. powder can. Cal. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. G. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. First. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. Fry. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. and the desired result is obtained. G. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. This is wound with soft string. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. J. can be an old oil can. and saturated with thick oil. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. Eustice. The boiler. --Contributed by Geo. Schuh and A. 1. and a very amusing trick. at that. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. to receive the connecting rod H. 3. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. using the positive wire as a pen. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. as it is merely a trick of photography. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. 4. Wis. Fig. . W. as shown in Fig. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. This engine was built by W.

must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. Cut half circles out of each stave. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. 1 by covering up Figs. The smaller wheel. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. B. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. They may be of any size. diameter. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. and pass ropes around . Fig. as shown at AA. 1 will be seen to rotate. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. and place a bell on the four ends. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. B. and Fig. as shown. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. Fig. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. C. When turning. Fig. to cross in the center. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly.

. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. such as clothes lines. but not on all. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. W. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. produces a higher magnifying power). from the transmitter. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. Mo. which allows the use of small sized ropes. Louis. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. This in turn will act on the transmitter. From a piece of thin . having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. A (a short spool. as shown in the illustration. which accounts for the sound.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. --Contributed by H. procure a wooden spool. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. To make this lensless microscope. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E.G. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end.M. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. long. St.

These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. Viewed through this microscope. in which hay has been soaking for several days.. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. D. A. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. is fastened at each end by pins. D. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. The pivot. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. the object should be of a transparent nature. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. (The area would appear 64 times as large. e. held at arm's length. place a small object on the transparent disk. Fig. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. C. fastened to a wooden base. darting across the field in every direction. . To use this microscope. or 64 times. which are pieces of hard wood. is made of iron. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. 1. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. C. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. E. if the distance is reduced to one-third. if the distance is reduced to one-half. 3. the diameter will appear three times as large. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. by means of brads. i. bent as shown. can be made of brass and the armature.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. B. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. which costs little or nothing to make. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. The spring.. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. The lever. and so on. 2. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. and at the center. H. as in all microscopes of any power. and look through the hole D. An innocent-looking drop of water. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. cut out a small disk. B. otherwise the image will be blurred. reveals hundreds of little infusoria.) But an object 3/4-in. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. the diameter will appear twice as large. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed.

The binding posts. soft iron. 16 in. A switch. D. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. long. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. Cut the top. wood. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. HH. C. C. FF. binding posts: H spring The stop. coils wound with No. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. 26 wire: E. E. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. in length and 16 in. D. F. 2. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. connection of D to nail. AA. 16 in. between the armature and the magnet. wood: F. which are made to receive a pivot. The door. wide. fastened near the end. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in.SOUNDER-A. or taken from a small one-point switch. B. Fig. thick. is cut from a board about 36 in. wide. D. DD. A. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. Each side. . wide and about 20 in. brass or iron soldered to nail. Fig. 1. The back. long by 16 in. long and 14-1/2 in. and are connected to the contacts. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. The base of the key. K. K. similar to the one used in the sounder. or a single piece. nail soldered on A. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. wide. brass: E. brass: B. wide and set in between sides AA. can be made panel as shown. brass. wood: C. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. KEY-A. should be about 22 in. B. wide.

with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. brads. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. as shown. In operation. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. Garfield.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Carl Formhals.. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. 2 and made from 1/4-in. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . Ill. long. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. as shown in the sketch. with 3/4-in. E. 13-1/2 in. AA. cut in them. Make 12 cleats. When the electrical waves strike the needle. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. material.

which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. Brown. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. B. Ridgewood. Pushing the wire. down into the water increases the surface in contact. N. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. --Contributed by John Koehler. Fairport. F. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. N. and thus decreases the resistance. the magnet. when used with a motor. Y. pulls down the armature. through which a piece of wire is passed. A (see sketch). made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. J. E. A. A. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. filled with water. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. The cord is also fastened to a lever.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. will give a greater speed. and. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. A fairly stiff spring. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. --Contributed by R. in order to increase the surface. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. When the pipe is used. C. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump.

thus discharging the contents of the hopper. if desired. Gachville. --Contributed by Perry A.for the secret contact. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. Of course. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. B. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. even those who read this description. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Borden. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. N.

The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. Cal. wide. records and 5-5/8 in. East Orange. wide. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. From a piece of brass a switch. Two drawers are fitted in this space. thick and 12-in. wide. 1. J. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. from the bottom. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. Compton. in a semicircle 2 in. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. long and 5 in. Washington. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. --Contributed by Dr. for 6-in. 2. N. C. Dobson. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes.. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. The top board is made 28-in. for 10in. The three shelves are cut 25-in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. Nails for stops are placed at DD. as shown in Fig. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. E. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. wide. wide. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. Connect switch to post B. where the other end of wire is fastened. H. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. as shown in Fig. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Mangold. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. Jr. long and full 12-in. D. With about 9 ft. C. . wide bore holes about 1/4 in.whenever the bell rings. --Contributed by H. deep and 3/4 in. apart. A. records. and on both sides of the middle shelf.

to which is fastened a cord. as shown by the dotted lines. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . When the cord is passed over pulley C. as shown in Fig. B. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. E. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. 1.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. closed. which in operation is bent. Roanoke. Va. A.

D. Figs. The crankpin should fit tightly. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. wide. Cut two grooves. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. E. holes (HH. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. one in each end. 1 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. in diameter. against which the rubber tubing. These wheels should be 3/4 in. Fig. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. it too loose. to turn on pins of stout wire. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. 5) when they are placed. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. Bore two 1/4 in. 4 shows the wheel-holder. through one of these holes. wide. deep. Fig. In the sides (Fig. 3. Figs. CC. E. 3). Do not fasten the sides too . as shown in the illustration. Now put all these parts together. is compressed by wheels. in diameter. in diameter. they will let the air through. 1 in. Fig. Notice the break (S) in the track. If the wheels fit too tightly. B. long. in diameter. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. which should be about 1/2 in. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. apart. but a larger one could be built in proportion. In these grooves place wheels. excepting the crank and tubing. Put the rubber tube. square and 7/8 in. 1. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. thick (A. they will bind. deep and 1/2 in. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. thick.

creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. 2. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. Idana. To use the pump. 1. Then turn the crank from left to right. iron. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. from each end. though a small iron wheel is better. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. the pump will give a steady stream. and 3-1/2 in. B. a platform should be added. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. is all the expense necessary. If the motion of the wheels is regular. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. Two feet of 1/4-in. 1. 1. costing 10 cents. and mark for a hole. the other wheel has reached the bottom. 1. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. Fig. The screen which is shown in Fig. 2. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. The three legs marked BBB. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. Fig. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. tubing. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. as shown in Fig. Cut six pieces. A in Fig. 1. stands 20 in. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. from each end. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. mark for hole and 3 in. AA. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. beyond each of these two. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. Kan. long. from that mark the next hole. as it gives steadiness to the motion. 17-1/2 in. of material. --Contributed by Dan H.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. For ease in handling the pump. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. Fig. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. and are 30 in. Hubbard. from the bottom and 2 in. Fig. 15 in. Take the center of the bar. The animal does not fear to enter the box. from each end. In the two cross bars 1 in. because he can . The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. AA. mark again.

there is too much liquid in the jar. dropping. however. If the battery has been used before. shuts him in. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. stirring constantly. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig.see through it: when he enters. silvery appearance. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. When the bichromate has all dissolved. of water dissolve 4 oz. The mercury will adhere. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. The battery is now complete. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. potassium bichromate. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. giving it a bright. and touches the bait the lid is released and. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. or. 14 copper wire. If it is wet. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. . it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. add slowly. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. Meyer. Place the carbon in the jar. and the solution (Fig. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. some of it should be poured out. or small electric motors. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. C. Philadelphia. The battery is now ready for use. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. long having two thumb screws. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. --Contributed by H. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. If the solution touches the zinc. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. sulphuric acid. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. 4 oz. 2). The truncated. rub the zinc well. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. but if one casts his own zinc. When through using the battery. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. To cause a flow of electricity. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. until it is within 3 in. 1) must be prepared. It is useful for running induction coils. of the top. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. acid 1 part).

RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit.. the jump-spark coil . i. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. with slight changes. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. After putting in the coal. e. Madison. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. The price of the coil depends upon its size. pressing the pedal closes the door.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace.Fig. the battery circuit. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. Wis. while the coal door is being opened. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. If. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. however. which opens the door.

which is made of light copper wire. W W. . An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. and closer for longer distances. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. W W. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. After winding. Now for the receiving apparatus. Change the coil described. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. coil. as shown in Fig. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line.7. the full length of the coil. being a 1-in. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. in a partial vacuum. made of No. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". as shown in Fig. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. apart. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. 7. 7). carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. 5. This will make an excellent receiver. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. in a straight line from top to bottom.described elsewhere in this book. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. while a 12-in. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. This coil. 6. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. 6. 7. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. diameter. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. Fig. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions.

using an electric motor and countershaft. The writer does not claim to be the originator. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. to the direction of the current. are analogous to the flow of induction. I run my lathe by power. only. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). B the bed and C the tailstock. 90°. in the air. but it could be run by foot power if desired. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. being at right angles. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. Run a wire from the other binding post. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water.6 stranded. A large cone pulley would then be required. .The aerial line. and hence the aerial line. No. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. as it matches the color well. Figs. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. at any point to any metal which is grounded. after all. 1 to 4. 90°. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. which will be described later. being vertical. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. above the ground. 1). but simply illustrates the above to show that. may be easily made at very little expense. A. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. For an illustration. These circles. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. where A is the headstock.

If the bearing has been properly made. which pass through a piece of wood. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. just touching the shaft.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. Fig. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. To make these bearings. 5. 6 Headstock Details D. 2 and 3. 4. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. pitch and 1/8 in. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. Fig. on the under side of the bed. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. and runs in babbitt bearings. Heat the babbitt well. thick. and it is well to have the shaft hot. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. 5. A. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. one of which is shown in Fig. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. which are let into holes FIG. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. deep. Fig. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. tapered wooden pin. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. The bolts B (Fig. steel tubing about 1/8 in. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. After pouring. Fig. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. and Fig. The headstock. B. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. too. The bearing is then ready to be poured. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. but not hot enough to burn it. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. 4. 6.

but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. The tail stock (Fig. If not perfectly true. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. Ill. Oak Park. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. If one has a wooden walk. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. of the walk . so I had to buy one. Take up about 5 ft. Newark.other machines. they may be turned up after assembling. This prevents corrosion.J. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. the alarm is easy to fix up. B. lock nut. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. and a 1/2-in.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. A. embedded in the wood. FIG. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. N. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock.

Minn. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. S. To avoid touching it.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. before dipping them in the potash solution. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. 2). and the alarm is complete. Fig. Minneapolis. silver or other metal. Connect up an electric bell. to remove all traces of grease. so that they will not touch. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. of water. Jackson. to roughen the surface slightly. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. save when a weight is on the trap. Finally. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. hang the articles on the wires. add potassium cyanide again. clean the articles thoroughly. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. water. --Contributed by R. leaving a clear solution. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Then make the solution . about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. (A. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap.

from the lower end. about 25 ft. as shown in Fig. piece of broomstick. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. with water. if one does not possess a buffing machine. If accumulators are used. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. and then treated as copper. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. German silver. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. long. 18 wire. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. and the larger part (F. Fig. light strokes. an old electric bell or buzzer. In rigging it to a sliding door. also. 3) directly over the hole. copper. I. A (Fig. with the pivot 2 in. Having finished washing the precipitate. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. A 1/4 in. nickel and such metals. 1). and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. The wooden block C. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. Then. Where Bunsen cells are used. Fig. as at F. must be about 1 in. hole in its center. of clothesline rope and some No. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. but opens the door. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. such metals as iron. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. 1 not only unlocks. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. when the point of the key touches the tin. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. thick by 3 in. 10 in. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. Make a somewhat larger block (E. saw a piece of wood. On brass. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. Screw the two blocks together. The wooden catch. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. a hand scratch brush is good.up to 2 qt. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. With an electric pressure of 3. pewter. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. Fig. Take quick. 1. with water. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. silver can be plated direct. When all this is set up. Fig. will serve for the key. Repeat six times. --Model Engineer. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. To provide the keyhole. long. B should be of the same wood. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. which is advised. 3. of water. lead. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush.5 to 4 volts. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. Before silver plating. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. which . 3) strikes the bent wire L. Can be made of a 2-in. 1 in. a circuit is completed. 1). square. make a key and keyhole. zinc. use 2 volts for large articles. which is held by catch B. This solution. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. and 4 volts for very small ones. If more solution is required. shaking.

top. In front of you. and finally lined inside with black cloth. He removes the bowl from the black box. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. to throw the light toward the audience. Fig. . shows catch B. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. spoons and jackknives. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. 3. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. such as forks. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. with a switch as in Fig. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. 2. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. On either side of the box. one-third of the length from the remaining end. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. some black paint. between the parlor and the room back of it. B. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. and black art reigns supreme. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. a few simple tools. One end is removed. which unlocks the door. Next. 0. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. --Contributed by E. 1. Heavy metal objects. should be cut a hole. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. the illumination in front must be arranged. Thus. surrounding a perfectly black space. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. and hands its contents round to the audience. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. The interior must be a dead black. Next. The magician stands in front of this. half way from open end to closed end. Fig. so much the better. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. H. sides and end. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. Fig. East Orange. is the cut through which the rope runs. Klipstein. cut in one side. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. To prepare such a magic cave. enlarged. Objects appear and disappear. heighten the illusion. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. some black cloth. H. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. 2. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. H. Receiving the bowl again. and plenty of candles. with the lights turned low. he points with one finger to the box. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). The box must be altered first. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. 116 Prospect St.. the requisites are a large soap box. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. or cave. 1. in his shirt sleeves. One thing changes to another and back again. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. he tosses it into the cave. no painting inside is required. New Jersey. and a slit. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. the box should be painted black both inside and out. although a little more trouble. Fig. floor.

The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. The illusion. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. his confederate behind inserts his hand. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. which are let down through the slit in the top. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. The exhibitor should be . This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. of course. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. into the eyes of him who looks. if. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. which can be made to dance either by strings. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. and if portieres are impossible. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. a screen must be used. of course. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. you must have an assistant. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. But illusions suggest themselves. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. the room where the cave is should be dark. one on each side of the box. had a big stage. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. in which are oranges and apples. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. is on a table) so much the better. was identical with this. Consequently.Finally. only he. The audience room should have only low lights. as presented by Hermann. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. and several black drop curtains. and pours them from the bag into a dish. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. and the skeleton can change to a white cat.

c4. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. held down on disk F by two other terminals. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. making contact with them as shown at y. 2). b3. making contact with them. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. and c1 – electricity.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. square. at L. About the center piece H moves a disk. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. 1. A represents a pine board 4 in. b3. b2. respectively. 1. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . or b2. c1. d. so arranged that. Fig. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. respectively. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. held down by another disk F (Fig.a boy who can talk. Then. and c2 to the zinc.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. their one end just slips under the strips b1. by 4 in. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. as shown in Fig. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. and a common screw. On the disk G are two brass strips. terminal c3 will show . Finally. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. b2. terminal c3 will show +. vice versa. and c4 + electricity.. c3. is shown in the diagram. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. respectively. 2. or binding posts. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. FIG. by means of two wood screws. 2. c2. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. if you turn handle K to the right. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). with three brass strips. b1. when handle K is turned to one side. f2. e1 and e2. held down on it by two terminals. A. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former.

--Contributed by Eugene F. Jr. jump spark coil. 4. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. when on No. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. 3. from three batteries. . 2 you receive the current from two batteries. when A is on No. E. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. Tuttle. 5.. and C and C1 are binding posts. from four batteries. 1. you have the current of one battery. from five batteries.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. thus making the message audible in the receiver. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . and then hold the receiver to your ear. -Contributed by A. Ohio. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. B is a onepoint switch. Joerin. When switch B is closed and A is on No. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. Newark. and when on No. when on No. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade).

Wis. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. The device thus arranged. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. A. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. and supporting the small weight. over the bent portion of the rule. which may be a button or other small object. P. mark. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. Thus. Redmond. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. as shown in the sketch. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. Handy Electric Alarm . of Burlington. per second for each second. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. traveled by the thread. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft.. A. is the device of H. rule. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. E. B. so one can see the time. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. New Orleans. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. When you do not have a graduate at hand. La. A. and placed on the windowsill of the car. mark. per second. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand.

This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. When the alarm goes off. for a wetting is the inevitable result. Crafton. --C. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. B. Lane. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. C. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. S. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. soldered to the alarm winder.which has a piece of metal. but may be closed at F any time desired. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. and with the same result. Pa. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. Then if a mishap comes. wrapping the wire around the can several times. which illuminates the face of the clock. Instead. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. . --Contributed by Gordon T.

and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. and duplicates of all these. New York City. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. BE. whence it is soon tracked into the house. battery zincs.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. 1. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. The first thing to make is a molding bench. If there is no foundry Fig. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. It is possible to make molds without a bench. C. AA. engines. ornaments of various kinds. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. models and miniature objects. small machinery parts. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. cannons. and many other interesting and useful articles. bearings. With the easily made devices about to be described. as shown. L. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. when it is being prepared. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. binding posts. Macey. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. A. but it is a mistake to try to do this.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . Two cleats. 1 . This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. --Contributed by A. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. which may. as shown in Fig.

Fig. which can be either aluminum. and the lower pieces. G. by 8 in. try using sand from other sources. makes a very good sieve. 2 . For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel.near at hand. which should be nailed in. DD. is nailed to each end of the cope. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. 1. The rammer. and a sieve. If desired the sieve may be homemade. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. The flask." or upper half. II . and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. F. is made of wood. will be required. by 6 in. E. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. It is made of wood and is in two halves. is about the right mesh. previous to sawing. 1. D. CC. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. white metal. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. but this operation will be described more fully later on. A slight shake of the bag Fig.How to Make a Mold [96] . After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. is shown more clearly in Fig. 2. and saw it in half longitudinally. as shown. H. CC. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. A A. and this. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose." or lower part. a little larger than the outside of the flask. The cloth bag. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. A wedge-shaped piece.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. the "cope. high. The dowels. which can be made of a knitted stocking. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. and the "drag. as shown. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. is filled with coal dust. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. say 12 in. Fig. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. If the box is not very strong. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. An old teaspoon. J. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding.

the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. or "drag. and then more sand is added until Fig. It is then rammed again as before. as shown. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. turn the drag other side up. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. in order to remove the lumps. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. as shown at D. In finishing the ramming." in position. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. and scatter about 1/16 in. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. The sand is then ready for molding. and thus judge for himself. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. or "cope. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. where they can watch the molders at work. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. as shown at E. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. Place another cover board on top. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. as shown at C. and by grasping with both hands. as described. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. and if water is added. the surface of the sand at . as it is much easier to learn by observation. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. After ramming.

which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. as shown at H. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. Place a brick or other flat. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. to give the air a chance to escape. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. it shows that the sand is too wet. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. in diameter. deep. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. place the cope back on the drag. as shown at G. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. thus making a dirty casting. The "sprue. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. made out of steel rod. as shown at F. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. as shown in the sketch. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. and then pour. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold.E should be covered with coal-dust. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern." or pouring-hole. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. This is done with a spoon. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. III. in order to prevent overheating. is next cut. wide and about 1/4 in. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. after being poured. as shown at H. After drawing the pattern. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. as shown at J. Fig. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. thus holding the crucible securely. . It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged.

The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. Minneapolis. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. is very desirable. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. 15% lead. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. battery zincs. used only for zinc. Morton. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. --Contributed by Harold S. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. Although the effect in the illustration . although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. babbitt. If a good furnace is available. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. although somewhat expensive. may be used in either direction. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. but any reasonable number may be used. and. the following device will be found most convenient. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. In my own case I used four batteries.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. Referring to the figure. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. white metal and other scrap available. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. or from any adjacent pair of cells. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. and the casting is then ready for finishing.

split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. outward. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. Then walk down among the audience. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. may be made of hardwood. shaft made. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. as shown at A. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. Make one of these pieces for each arm. which will be sufficient to hold it. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. --Contributed by Draughtsman. Then replace the table.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. 2. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. connected by cords to the rudder. Chicago. B. The bearings. The brass rings also appear distorted. Fig. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. By replacing the oars with paddles. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. backward. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . To make it take a sheet-iron band. B. 3/4 in. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. Put a sharp needle point. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. If desired. as shown in the illustration. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. A.

This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. Fig. Snow. If babbitt is used. 1. In the same way. A block of ice. It may seem strange that ice . spoiling its appearance. A. or under pressure. when it will again return to its original state. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. C. 2.melted babbitt. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. E. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. being simply finely divided ice. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. 3. If galvanized iron is used. 1. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. as shown in Fig. but when in motion. and a weight. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. D. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. should be made of wood. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. or the paint will come off. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. 1. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. W. The covers. 2 and 3. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. as shown in Fig. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. The hubs.

Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. but by placing it between books. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. by 5 in. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. --Contributed by Gordon T. by 1/2 in. no matter how slow the motion may be. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. as shown on page 65. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. Pressing either push button. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. brass. Lane. Pa. The rate of flow is often very slow. by 2 in. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. or supporting it in some similar way. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. P. thus giving a high resistance contact. square. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. by 1/4. sometimes only one or two feet a day.should flow like water. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. Crafton. whenever there is any connection made at all. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. in.. which resembles ice in this respect. as per sketch. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. and assume the shape shown at B. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. but. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. it will gradually change from the original shape A. B. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line.

To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. I. wooden supports. J. D. In the wiring diagram.thumb screws. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. Ward. pulleys. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. vertical lever. alarm clock. horizontal lever. G. and C. cord. Indianapolis. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. B. --Contributed by A. G. B. the battery. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. as shown. Wilkinsburg. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. F. C. about the size used for automobiles. H. A is the circuit breaker.000 ft. Pa. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. draft. The parts are: A. and five dry batteries. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. E. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. The success depends upon a slow current. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. furnace. K . draft chain. as shown. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. weight. the induction coil.

the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. Kalamazoo. which will provide a fine place for the plants. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. Artistic Window Boxes The top. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. as well as the bottom. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. The frame (Fig. such as used for a storm window. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. where house plants are kept in the home. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. Mich. will fit nicely in them. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. 2 are dressed to the right angle. material framed together as shown in Fig. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . 3.

S. and cost 27 cents FIG. where they are glad to have them taken away. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. after a rest. as indicated by Fig. W. and will give the . They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. --Contributed by Wm. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. multiples of series of three. and a suitable source of power. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. can be connected up in series. A certain number of these. 1. Halifax. e. N. for some time very satisfactorily. Canada.. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. a cork and a needle. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. Thus. It must be remembered. in diameter. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. Push the needle into the cork. 1 each complete with base. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. is something that will interest the average American boy. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. The 1/2-cp. since a battery is the most popular source of power. 1 cp. but maintain the voltage constant. However. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. i. Grant. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. However. so as to increase the current.. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. by connecting them in series. and the instrument will then be complete.. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. one can regulate the batteries as required. This is more economical than dry cells. as if drawn upon for its total output. which sells for 25 cents. in this connection. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. this must be done with very great caution. in any system of lamps.

double insulated wire wherever needed. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. generates the power for the lights. lamps. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. If wound for 10 volts. lamp. Chicago. FIG. So. However. we simply turn on the water. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. making. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. Thus. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. 3. where the water pressure is the greatest. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. and for Christmas trees. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. 11 series. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. 2 shows the scheme.proper voltage. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. These will give 3 cp. especially those of low internal resistance. 18 B & S. according to the water pressure obtainable. as in Fig. if wound for 6 volts. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. . For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. lamps. for display of show cases. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. each. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. Thus. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. In conclusion. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. to secure light by this method. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. although the first cost is greater.. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. and running the series in parallel. by the proper combination of these. Fig. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. and diffused light in a room. which is the same as that of one battery. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. 1-cp. or 22 lights. and then lead No.

and the sides. A. brushes of motor. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. Ind. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. Emig. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. are cut just alike. BB. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. CC.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. the letters indicate as follows: FF. and C. A indicates the ground. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. switch. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. or a tempting bone. or from one pattern. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. Cal. center points of switch. thus reversing the machine. Santa Clara. as shown in the sketch. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. Parker. Plymouth. AA. To reverse the motor. a bait of meat. B. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. After I connected up my induction coil. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. we were not bothered with them. B. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. --Contributed by Leonard E. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. simply change the switch. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. field of motor. . --Contributed by F. DD. outside points of switch. bars of pole-changing switch.

-Contributed by Claude B. Cal. Minn. A. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. Melchior. merely push the button E. thus locking the door. To unlock the door. or would remain locked. The button can be hidden. The experiment works best . the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. as it is the key to the lock. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. Fry.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. which is in the door. Hutchinson. 903 Vine St. When the circuit is broken a weight. a hammer. a piece of string. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. and a table or bench. one cell being sufficient. W.. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. If it is not. San Jose. attached to the end of the armature B. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C.

the key turns. Crawford Curry.Contributed by F. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. which pulls the draft open. Culebra.. P. On another block of wood fasten two wires. 4). 1). --Contributed by Edward Whitney. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. 3. Brockville. where it will remain suspended as shown. 18 Gorham St. C. . as shown in Fig. Madison. Wis. A. releasing the weight. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Schmidt. D. 3. the stick falls away. in the ceiling and has a window weight. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. the current flows with the small arrows.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. attached at the other end. 2. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. --Contributed by Geo. -. Canada. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. run through a pulley. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. Porto Rico. When the alarm rings in the early morning. I. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. forming a loop. Tie the ends of the string together. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Ontario. W.

--Contributed by Wm. Camden. running one direct to the receiver. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. and the other to the battery. The cut shows the arrangement. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. 6 in.. square and 1 in. thence to a switch.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. and break the corners off to make them round. Farley. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. or tree. which fasten to the horn. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. get two pieces of plate glass. S. Jr. and . Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. made with his own hands. thick. Use a barrel to work on. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. and then to the receiver. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. J. First. N. or from a bed of flowers. Connect two wires to the transmitter. including the mouthpiece. D. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. J. R.

as in Fig. When done the glass should be semitransparent. spaces. When polishing the speculum. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. then take 2 lb. Fig. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. using straight strokes 2 in. of water. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. Have ready six large dishes. 2. Then warm and press again with the speculum. by the side of the lamp. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. melt 1 lb. and the under glass or tool convex. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. When dry. then 8 minutes. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. A. and is ready for polishing. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. Use a binger to spread it on with. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. Fasten.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. Fig. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. In a dark room. in length. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. L. unless a longer focal length is wanted. a round 4-in. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. with pitch. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. 1. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. and label. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. the coarse grinding must be continued.. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. also rotate the glass. 2. wetting it to the consistency of cream. while walking around the barrel. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in.. and a large lamp. wet till soft like paint. with 1/4-in. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. or it will not polish evenly. wide around the convex glass or tool. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. set the speculum against the wall. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. twice the focal length away. and spread on the glass. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. so the light . then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. or less.

25 gr. Fig. longer strokes.. When the focus is found. the speculum will show some dark rings. with distilled water. Place the speculum S.. as in K..……………………………….. If not. or hills. 100 gr. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. Two glass or earthenware dishes.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. the speculum is ready to be silvered. Fig. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film.100 gr. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. Then add 1 oz. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. Now add enough of the solution A. and pour the rest into the empty dish. cement a strip of board 8 in. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. 840 gr. touched with rouge. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in.. With pitch.. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use.……………………………. The polishing and testing done. that was set aside.. long to the back of the speculum. 4 oz. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. Solution D: Sugar loaf . and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade.……………. Fig. Nitric acid . Silver nitrate ……………………………. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp.. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. also how the rays R from a star . the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. from the lamp. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. When dry. 2. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). face down. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. must be procured. 4 oz.. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. 2. deep. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. 39 gr. in the bath and leave until the silver rises.. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. if a hill in the center. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. fill the dish with distilled water. then ammonia until bath is clear. The knife should not be more than 6 in. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. Place the speculum. Then add solution B. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. shorter strokes should be used in polishing.

two glass prisms. . then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. The flatter they are the less they will distort. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it.John E. deg. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. telescope can be made at home. Mellish. long and cost me just $15. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. stop down well after focusing. with an outlay of only a few dollars. and proceed as for any picture. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. Then I made the one described. which proves to be easy of execution. About 20. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. My telescope is 64 in. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black.. slightly wider than the lens mount. Place over lens. cover with paper and cloth. Thus an excellent 6-in. is a satisfactory angle. Make the tube I of sheet iron. using strawboard and black paper.

unobstructed light strike the mirror. The paper is exposed. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. A. Boody. but will not preserve its hardening. through the lens of the camera and on the board. 2. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. push the button D. Zimmerman. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. Fig. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. complete the arrangement. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. says the Master Painter. To unlock. B. instead of the contrary. Ill. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. then add a little sulphate of potash. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. Do not stir it. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. and reflect through the negative. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. D. . or powdered alum. 1. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. -Contributed by A. The rays of the clear. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. add the plaster gradually to the water. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. as shown in Fig.

To reverse. also provide them with a handle. Then blow through the spool. as in Fig. throw . as shown in the sketch. so that it can rotate about these points. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. but will remain suspended without any visible support. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. Connect the wires as shown in Fig.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. 2. 3. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. 1). and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. as at A and B. Fasten on the switch lever. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. 2. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. use a string. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. Fig.

Tex. Thomas. San Antonio. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. --Contributed by Geo. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. Push one end of the tire into the hole. D. wash in running water. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. B. Levy. rinse in alcohol. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Go McVicker. carbon sockets. and rub dry with linen cloth. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. In the sketch. -Contributed by Morris L. carbons. A is the electricbell magnet. L. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. and E E. C C. although this is not necessary. the armature. North Bend. San Marcos. as shown in the sketch. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Take out. Tex. Neb. binding posts. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. . --Contributed by R. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap.

long or more. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. 36 magnet wire. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. --Contributed by Joseph B. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. 14 or No. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. Bell. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. 16 magnet wire. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. Brooklyn. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. wound evenly about this core. By means of two or more layers of No.

a box like that shown in Fig. in diameter. but if it is not convenient to do this work. with room also for a small condenser. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. wide. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. A 7/8-in. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. long and 5 in. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. Beginning half an inch from one end. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. The primary is made of fine annealed No. long and 2-5/8 in. as the maker prefers. about 6 in. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. In shaping the condenser. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. 2 yd.which would be better to buy ready-made. No. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. This makes a condenser which may be folded. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. 4. then the strip of tin-foil. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. which is an important factor of the coil. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. 1. After the core wires are bundled. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. as shown in Fig. or 8 in. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. When cut and laid in one continuous length. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. which is desirable. and the results are often unsatisfactory. in length. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. at a time. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. The condenser is next wrapped . diameter. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. one piece of the paper is laid down. coil illustrates the general details of the work. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. making two layers. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. the entire core may be purchased readymade. and finally the fourth strip of paper. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. The following method of completing a 1-in. hole is bored in the center of one end.

in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. B. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. lines H. G. battery . Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. switch. wide. the letters indicate as follows: A. by 12 in. copper lever with 1-in. The alarm key will turn and drop down. F. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. shelf for clock. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. round so that the inside . V-shaped copper strip. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. which allows wiring at the back. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. E. D. to the door. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. ready for assembling. C. long to key. long and 12 in. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C.) The wiring diagram. and the other sheet. B. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. 4 in. one from bell. whole length. go.securely with bands of paper or tape. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. and one from battery. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. I. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour.. A. bell. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. spark. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. 3. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. open switch C. forms the other pole or terminal. Fig. which is insulated from the first. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. shows how the connections are made. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. flange turned on one side. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection.

and then rivet the seam. Line the furnace. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. and the battery is ready for use. says the Model Engineer. of blue stone. but add 5 or 6 oz. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. of zinc sulphate. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. from the bottom. If desired for use immediately. instead of close to it. Use a glass or metal shade. This is for blowing. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. . do not shortcircuit. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. London. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. Short-circuit for three hours. That is what they are for.diameter is 7 in. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. The circuit should also have a high resistance. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. 2 in. This makes it impractical for running fan motors.. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. but with the circuit.

9 of a volt. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. 1. while for others it will not revolve at all. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. and therein is the trick." which created much merriment. or think they can do the same let them try it. but the thing would not move at all. affects . Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. below the bottom of the zinc. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. Ohio. as in the other movement. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. At least it is amusing. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. grip the stick firmly in one hand. g. changes white phosphorus to yellow. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. square and about 9 in. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood.. herein I describe a much better trick. Enlarge the hole slightly. thus producing two different vibrations. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Outside of the scientific side involved. If too low. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and then. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. To operate the trick. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. 2. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. imparting to them a violet tinge. for others the opposite way. the second finger along the side. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. If any or your audience presume to dispute. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. long. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Try it and see. porcelain and paper. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. oxygen to ozone.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. This type of battery will give about 0. for some it will turn one way.

if possible. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. insects. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. however. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. a means for holding it vertical. chemicals. but this is less satisfactory. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. earth. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . a short-focus lens. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. To the front board is attached a box. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. says the Photographic Times. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. and one of them is photomicrography. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. but small flowers. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. but not essential. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. an old tripod screw. and.

10 ft 523 33 lb. 8 ft. 113 7 lb. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 381 24 lb. Madison. in Cu.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. Fig. 11 ft. 7-1/2 in. 268 17 lb. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 179 11 lb. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. Mass. AB. The following table will give the size. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 7-1/2 in. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. while it is not so with the quill. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. Ft Lifting Power. which is 15 ft. If the balloon is 10 ft. in diameter. 6 ft. 697 44 lb. and a line. 905 57 lb. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. wide from which to cut a pattern. A line.--Contributed by George C. 12 ft. 9 ft. 5 in. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. long and 3 ft. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. or 3 ft. 7 ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. 1. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. balloon. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. or 31 ft. Boston. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 65 4 lb. Cap. CD. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. 5 ft.

The cloth segments are sewed together. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. making a double seam as shown in Fig. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. on the curved line from B to C. cutting all four quarters at the same time. Repeat this operation four times. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. 2. 3. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. 4. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. keeping the marked part on the outside. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. using a fine needle and No. and so on. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. This test will show if the bag is airtight. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. Procure 1 gal. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. of beeswax and boil well together. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. The amounts necessary for a 10- . This pattern is used to mark the cloth. of the very best heavy body. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. 70 thread. The pattern is now cut. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern.

1 lb. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. Fill the other barrel. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. of water will make 4 cu. The 3/4-in. All FIG. When the clock has dried. capacity and connect them.ft. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. with water 2 in. After washing a part. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. Water 1 oz. B. this should be repeated frequently. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. but if any grease remains on the hand. Vegetable oils should never be used. 150 gr. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. 5. A. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows.Green Iron ammonium citrate . should not enter into the water over 8 in. which may sound rather absurd. oil the spindle holes carefully. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. About 15 lb. 1 lb. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. it is not fit to use. of iron borings and 125 lb. of iron. of sulphuric acid. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. The outlet. above the level of the water in barrel A. balloon are 125 lb. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings.. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. C. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. . Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. as shown in Fig. B. ]. . How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. 5 . C. using a fine brush. In the barrel. of gas in one hour. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. A. A. B. by fixing. to the bag. a clean white rag. pipe. leaving the hand quite clean. with 3/4in. or dusting with a dry brush. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. or a fan. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. until no more dirt is seen. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. with the iron borings. ft. if it is good it will dry off.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A.

of any make. to avoid blackened skin.Water 1 oz. Printing is done in the sun. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. 20 to 30 minutes. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. fix in hypo. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. This aerial collector can be made in . Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. The positive pole. . but the 110-volt globes will not glow. and a vigorous negative must be used. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. toning first if desired. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. keeping the fingers out of the solution. Port Melbourne. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. A longer exposure will be necessary. The miniature 16 cp. or zinc. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. or battery. . at the time of employment. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. Dry the plates in the dark.000 ft. A cold. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. The negative pole. and keep in the dark until used. says the Moving Picture World. dry atmosphere will give best results.. Dry in the dark. Exposure. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. or carbon. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in.

a positive and a negative. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. and have the other connected with another aerial line. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. 5 in. If the waves strike across the needle. holes . To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. will soon become dry and useless. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. This will complete the receiving station. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. making a ground with one wire. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. both positive and negative. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. the resistance is less. The storage cell. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. as described below. long. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. If the wave ceases. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. when left exposed to the air. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. lay a needle. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. forming a cup of the pipe. As the telephone offers a high resistance.various ways. and as less current will flow the short way. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. lead pipe. in diameter.

The other plate is connected to the zinc. on each end. by soldering the joint. and the other to the negative. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. or tube C.as possible. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. except for about 1 in. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. This box can be square. Two binding-posts should be attached. of course. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. This support or block. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. an oblong one and a triangular one. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. When mixing the acid and water. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. This. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. says the Pathfinder. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. or tube B. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. D. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. B. namely: a square hole. one to the positive. a round one. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. does not need to be watertight.

Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. Ill. back and under. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. wide. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. about 20 in. as shown in Fig. as it is not readily overturned. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. is built 15 ft. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. 1. Chicago. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. leaving about 1/16 in. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. deep and 4 ft. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. all around the edge. 2. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. and match them together. This punt. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. 1. thick cut two pieces alike. 3. 2. and has plenty of good seating capacity. wide. A and B. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. as shown in Fig. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. were fitted by this one plug. C. . How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. in place on the wood. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. Only galvanized nails should be used. The third piece of brass. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. long. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. C.

A. In Fig.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. is cut 1 in. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Wash. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Tacoma. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. square (Fig 2). As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. A piece of 1/4-in. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. gas pipe. thick and 3-1/2 in. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. B.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light.

lamp. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. if possible. The winding of the armature. may be of interest to some of our readers. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. Wagner. no more current than a 16-cp. and to consume. it had to be borne in mind that. which can be developed in the usual manner. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. H. without auxiliary phase.--Contributed by Charles H. says the Model Engineer. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. or "rotor. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. In designing. with the exception of insulated wire. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. which the writer has made." has no connection with the outside circuit. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. no special materials could be obtained. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of .The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning.

this little machine is not self-starting. 1. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. being used. wrought iron. and all sparking is avoided. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. were then drilled and 1/4-in." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. 5. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in.the field-magnet. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. The stator is wound full with No. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. in diameter were drilled in the corners. 4. C. with the dotted line. They are not particularly accurate as it is. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. Unfortunately. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. or "stator. as shown in Fig. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. Holes 5-32 in. 3. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. A. about 2-1/2 lb. and filled with rivets. no steel being obtainable. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. After assembling a second time. to be filed out after they are placed together. thick. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. while the beginnings . and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. 2. holes. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. also varnished before they were put in. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. as shown in Fig. bolts put in and tightened up. B.

The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. The rotor is wound with No. Newark. exactly the same as a print is made on paper.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. as shown in Fig. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. as before stated. and as each layer of wire was wound. E. 3-Contributed by C. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in.. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. No starting resistance is needed. J. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. and would not easily get out of order. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. The image should . McKinney. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. 2. One is by contact. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. 1. In making slides by contact. and especially of colored ones. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. film to film. and as the motor runs at constant speed. N. having no commutator or brushes. Jr. The lantern slide is a glass plate. and the other by reduction in the camera. a regulating resistance is not needed. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. This type of motor has drawbacks. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. as a means of illustrating songs. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. if applied immediately. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. and all wound in the same direction. it would be very simple to build. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. If too late for alcohol to be of use.

Contrasty negatives make the best slides. a little extra work will be necessary. C. B. 3. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. as shown in Fig. about a minute. the formulas being found in each package of plates. and then a plain glass. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. 4. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. except that the binding is different. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. also. and development should be over in three or four minutes. 5. to use a plain fixing bath. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. It is best. D. over the mat. These can be purchased from any photo material store. A. Fig. 2. If the exposure has been correct. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. Draw lines with a pencil. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . as shown in Fig. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. if possible. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. Select a room with one window. they are much used by travelers. Being unbreakable. 1. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film.appear in. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera.

Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. from the ends. wide and 50 in. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. Corinth. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. 1. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. or other stout cloth. Fig. 2.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. If the star is in front of the left eye. in diameter and 40 in. while the dot will be in front of the other. known as rods and cones. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. in diameter and 20 in. holes bored in the end pieces. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. from the end piece of the chair. as shown at B. Vt. as shown at A. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. as shown in Fig. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. long. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. 16 in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. A piece of canvas. Fig. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . is to be used for the seat. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. These longer pieces can be made square. 1. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. long. Hastings. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. from the center of this dot draw a star. long. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye.

and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. Auburn. in thickness and 10 in. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. . was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. 1. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. as shown in Fig. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. A disk 1 in. 2.-Contributed by P. O'Gara. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. as well as to operate other household machines. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. A belt. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. as shown in Fig. made from an ordinary sash cord. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. J. per square inch. Cal.

The part of a rotation of the bolt. will be the thickness of the object. with as fine a thread as possible. then removing the object. A simple. fairly accurate. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. thick and 2-1/2 in. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. Cut out a piece from the block combination.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. says the Scientific American. divided by the number of threads to the inch. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. long. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. 3/4 in. Put the bolt in the hole. or inconvenient to measure. leaving it shaped like a bench. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. Bore a 1/4-in. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. direction. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. and the construction is complete. . Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. to the top of the bench. it serves a very useful purpose. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. square for a support. screwing it through the nut. wide. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch.

Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. material 12 ft. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. bolt in each hole. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. beyond the end of the wood. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. long. The wheel should be open . Oal. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Place a 3/4-in. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. which show up fine at night. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. Bore a 3/4-in. piece of wood 12 ft. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. long is used for the center pole. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. globe that has been thrown away as useless. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Santa Maria. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished.

wide and 1/8 in. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. at the top and 4 in. from the top end. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in.Side and Top View or have spokes. C.-Contributed by A. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. square and 3 or 4 in. L. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. long. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. to be operated by the magnet coil. H and J. B. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. which should be 1/4 in. thick is used for the armature. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. of the ends with boards. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. in diameter. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. wide and 1/8 in. Tex. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. long. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. O. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. 1/2 in. pieces used for the spokes. The spool . Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. is soldered. Fort Worth. P. at the bottom. A cross bar. A. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. C. long. Graham. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. long. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. The coil. and the lower part 61/2 in. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. made of the same material. and on its lower end a socket. from the ends. The boards may be nailed or bolted. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. A piece of brass 2 in. thick. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. thick.

making a hole just a little larger than the rod. S. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. which may be had by using German silver wire. is drilled.is about 2-1/2 in. The armature. When you slide the pencil along the casing. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. S. 2. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. Mass. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. and place it against a door or window casing. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. and directly centering the holes H and J. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. and in numerous other like instances.000 for irrigation work. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. by soldering. do it without any apparent effort. F. B. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil.E. At the bottom end of the frame. This tie can be used on grain sacks. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. Randolph. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. A. --Contributed by Arthur D. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw.J. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. for insulating the brass ferrule. Bradlev. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. D and E. R. C. that holds the lower carbon. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. long. This is a very neat trick if performed right. A soft piece of iron.--A. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. . one without either rubber or metal end. then with a firm. or a water rheostat heretofore described. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. 1. 2 the hat hanging on it.000.

After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. About 70 turns of No. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. The core of the coil. The coil ends are made from cardboard. for the secondary. 1. Fig.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. in diameter. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. mixed with water to form a paste. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. The vibrator. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. is constructed in the usual manner. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. long. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. Fig. with a 3/16-in. hole in the center. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. may be made from a 3/8-in. for adjustment. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. leaving the projections as shown. for the primary. The vibrator B. S. is connected to a flash lamp battery. about 1 in. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. long and 1 in. S. and then 1. wide. A. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight.500 turns of No. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. from the core and directly opposite. about 1/8 in. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. 2. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. in diameter. F. thick. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. Experiment with Heat [134] . cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. D. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. B. in diameter and 1/16 in. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. 1. The switch. in diameter and 2 in. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. C. about 3/16 in. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core.

in an ordinary water glass. 16 in. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. lighted.Place a small piece of paper. and then well clinched. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. board. The three screws were then put in the hasp. 1. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. it laps down about 8 in. was to be secured by only three brass screws. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. and the same distance inside of the new board. brass plate. 2 to fit the two holes. which seemed to be insufficient. as shown. as shown in the sketch. . one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. Fig. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. The tin is 4 in. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. 1. thick on the inside. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. between the boards. with which to operate the dial. wide. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. The hasp. The lock. The knob on the dial extends out too far. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. which is only 3/8-in. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. which is cut with two holes. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. long and when placed over the board. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover.

or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. When making of wood. When the rear part is illuminated. square and 10-1/2 in. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. not shiny. high for use in window displays.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. black color. or in the larger size mentioned. one in each division. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. clear glass as shown. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. but when the front part is illuminated. If the box is made large enough. and the back left dark. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. the glass. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. square and 8-1/2 in. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. which completely divides the box into two parts. any article placed therein will be reflected in.

wide will be about the right size. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. as shown at A in the sketch. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. as shown in the sketch. a tank 2 ft. . For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. alternately. When using as a window display. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. When there is no electric current available. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket.. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. into the other. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. and with the proper illumination one is changed. above the top of the tank. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. long and 1 ft. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. as it appears.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

however. Iron sulphate. Three windows are provided. 6 in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. and a solution of iron sulphate added. square. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. under sides together. This precipitate is then washed. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. dried and mixed with linseed oil. Columbus. long. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. is built on the front. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. is the green vitriol. If a planing mill is near. O. 5 ft. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. with a length of 13 in.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. 2 ft. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. square and 40 in. each. then use a red-hot iron to finish. and a door in front. but with a length of 12 in. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. lines gauged on each side of each. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. wide. wide. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. A small platform. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. radius. high. and 6 ft. The pieces can then be taken out. Shape the under sides first. or ferrous sulphate. long. 1 in. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. two pieces 1-1/8 in. using a 3/4-in. gauge for depth. This hole must be continued . This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. hole. from the ground. The 13-in. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. bit. one for each side. thick and 3 in. bore from each end. hole bored the full length through the center. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. as shown. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. and boring two holes with a 1-in.

A better way. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Electric globes--two. Saw the two blocks apart. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. if shade is purchased.through the pieces forming the base. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. The sketch shows one method of attaching. square and drawing a diagonal on each. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. apply two coats of wax. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. For art-glass the metal panels are . hole in each block. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. thick and 3 in. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Directions will be found on the filler cans. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. When this is dry. three or four may be attached as shown. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. When the filler has hardened. If the parts are to be riveted. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges.

Construction of Shade . as brass. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. such as copper. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. METAL SHADE .The Completed Lamp cut out.

Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. as in ordinary devices.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. 2 the front view of this stand. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. Figure 1 shows the side. the object and the background. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. as shown in the sketch. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. one way and 1/2 in. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The arms holding the glass. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. the other. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. and Fig.

Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. Cut another circular piece 11 in. about 1-1/4 in. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. wide and 6-5/16 in. and an inside diameter of 9 in. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. thus forming a 1/4-in. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. pointing north and south. An ordinary pocket compass. in diameter for a base. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. Before mounting the ring on the base. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. as shown in the cut. and swinging freely. uncork and recork again. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. wide and 11 in.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. outside diameter. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. as it is very poisonous. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Put the ring in place on the base. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. channel in the circumference of the ring. in diameter. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. as shown in the sketch. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. thick 5/8-in. If the light becomes dim. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. long. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle.

715 . are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. of the top. CC. into these cylinders. The results given should be multiplied by 1. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through.500 . high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. from the second to the third. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .088 . above the half can. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. B. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. in diameter and 8 in. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. Corresponding mirrors. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. and north of the Ohio river.289 .375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country.182 . and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg.420 .600 .865 1. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. and mirrors. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. EE. are mounted on a base. 1 oz. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. Place on top the so- . AA. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. black oxide of copper.

The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. always remove the oil with a siphon. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. 62 gr. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. In Fig. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. alcohol. When renewing. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. University Park. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. slender bottle. 31 gr. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. of pulverized campor. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. Colo. little crystals forming in the liquid. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. then they will not rust fast. Put the solution in a long. the wheel will revolve in one direction. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. which otherwise remains clear. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. says Metal Worker.

This is used in place of the spoon. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. will allow the magnet to point north and south. Solder in the side of the box . the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. on the under side of the cork. --Contributed by C. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. If two of them are floating on the same solution.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. about 1-1/4 in. Attach to the wires. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. floating on a solution. If zinc and copper are used. If zinc and carbon are used. Lloyd Enos. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. A paper-fastener box. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument.

in. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. D. 14 wire will do. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. Use a board 1/2. A. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. H.not shorter than 18 in. The bottom of the box. C. thick. of No. long. to it.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. 10 wire about 10 in. of wire on each end extending from the coil. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. Rhamstine. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . away. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. wide and 6 in. G--No. Bore holes for binding-posts. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. F. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. . 1/2. is made from a piece of No. A circular piece of cardboard. or made with a little black paint. Take a small piece of soft iron. D. and then solder on the cover. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire.in. can be made of oak. C. piece of 1/4-in. and on the other around the glass tube. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. wide and 2-1/2 in. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. Wind evenly about 2 oz. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. 1.1-in. E. A. E. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. one on each side of the board. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. brass tubing. Thos. To this standard solder the supporting wire. glass tubing . The standard. B. The base. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. B. D. stained and varnished. 1-1/4 in. Put ends. hole. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. If the hose is not a tight fit. long. as shown in Fig. long that has about 1/4-in.Contributed by J. C. The spring should be about 1 in. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. 3 in. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron.

long. four hinges. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. is drawn nearer to the coil. D. 2. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. about 1 in. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks.of the coil. making a support as shown in Fig. Cuba. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. Y. Teasdale. long. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. 5. of No. of mercury will be sufficient. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. Smith. 3-in. two pieces 2 ft. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. J. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. long. 3. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. long are used for the legs. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. Wis. 3 in. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. long.--Contributed by Edward M. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. as shown in Fig. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. E. canvas. The iron plunger. in diameter. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. from the right hand. long. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. About 1-1/2 lb. 1. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. . Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig.--Contributed by R. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. When the glass becomes soft. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. of 8-oz. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. Milwaukee. N. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale.

As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. 3. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. Fig. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. Toronto. Measure 8 in. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. 5. Keys. Take 1/2 in. The tube now must be filled completely. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. 4. Break off the piece of glass. --Contributed by David A. long.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. 2. Can. holding in the left hand. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. small aperture in the long tube. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. This tube as described will be 8 in. thus leaving a. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. leaving 8 in. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. 6. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] .. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury.. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. of vacuum at the top. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. expelling all the air.

6. This forms a slot. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this.6 -. FIG. with each projection 3-in. 1 in. as shown in Fig.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. 1. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. 9 in. thick. 4 in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. The large pulley is about 14 in. wood screws. 1 in. long. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. from the end of same. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . 3. thick. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Four blocks 1/4 in. 5. thick. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. and 1/4 in. wide and 3 in. but yellow pine is the best. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. Fig. wide and 5 ft. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. wide and 12 in. joint be accurately put together. 3 in. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. 2. 7. These are bent and nailed. long. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. in diameter. long. cut in the shape shown in Fig. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. 4. wide and 5 ft. material 2 in. thick. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. wide and 5 ft. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. long.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. thick. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. as in Fig. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. as shown in Fig. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. 3 in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. and the single projection 3/4 in.

Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. says Photography. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Welsh.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Kan. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by C. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. R. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Water 1 oz. attach runners and use it on the ice. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. first removing the crank. by 1-in. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. . Manhattan. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. above the runner level. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake.

Leominster. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. --Contributed by Edward M. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. from an ordinary clamp skate. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. 1. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. --Contributed by Wallace C. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. The print is washed. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. also. Treasdale. Printing is carried rather far. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Newton. 3. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. 1 oz. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. . 2. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. as shown in Fig. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. as shown in Fig. and very much cheaper. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. of water. Mass.

the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. and 3 ft. Take two glass tubes. The swing door B. 1-1/2 ft. and to the bottom. 1. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. 1. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. as shown in the sketch. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. hole. --Contributed by H. Alexandria. 2. causing the door to swing back and up. 1 ft. with about 1/8-in. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. Place a 10-in. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. about 10 in. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. extending the width of the box. square piece. Fig. high for rabbits. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. fasten a 2-in. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. wide. A. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. and bend them as shown in the sketch. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. too. wide and 4 in. which represents the back side of the door. Fig. Church. Then. The thread is broken off at the .How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. Va. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. from one end. long. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. high. F. say.

A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. but cut it 1/4 in. Crilly. shorter at each end. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. This opening.proper place to make a small hole. 10 in. from the edge on each side of these openings. in size. Paste a piece of strong black paper. Take two pieces of pasteboard. automobiles. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. wide and 5 in. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people.by 7-in. as shown in Fig.. B. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. in size. and go in the holder in the same way. high and 12 in. -Contributed by William M. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. long. say 8 in. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. A and B. horses and dogs. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. Out two rectangular holes. says Camera Craft. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders.by 5-in. 2. camera and wish to use some 4. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. Chicago. inside of the opening. Jr. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. 1. Fig. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. . trolley cars. and exactly 5 by 7 in. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. wide. black surfaced if possible. shorter. wide. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. being 1/8 in. C. 3. Fig. Cut an opening in the other piece. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. 1 in. to be used as a driving pulley. D. plates. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. long.

but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. The needle will then point north and south. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. in diameter. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. A cell of this kind can easily be made. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass.in. wide will be required." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in.. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. long and 6 in. into which the dog is harnessed. making a . Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. if it has previously been magnetized. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water.

and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. in diameter and 6 in. Pack the paste in. plaster of paris. one that will hold about 1 qt. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. pine. says Electrician and Mechanic. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. B is a base of 1 in. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. 1/4 lb. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. in which P is the pan. long which are copper plated. with narrow flanges. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. . closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. 3/4 lb. under the spool in the paraffin. This makes the wire smooth. of rosin and 2 oz. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. filter. and a notch between the base and the pan. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. Place the pan on the stove. leaving about 1/2-in. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. beeswax melted together. short time. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. of water. only the joints. pull out the wire as needed.in. zinc oxide. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. for a connection. F is a spool. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. File the rods to remove the copper plate. Form a 1/2-in. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. fuel and packing purposes. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. of the plate at one end. of the top. fodder. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in.watertight receptacle. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. when the paraffin is melted. A is a block of l-in. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. sal ammoniac. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. Do not paint any surface. 1 lb.

Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Enlarge the hole slightly. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. for others the opposite way. 2. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. as in the other movement. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. and then. grip the stick firmly in one hand. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Ohio." which created much merriment. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. but the thing would not move at all. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. square and about 9 in. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. or think they can do the same. and one friend tells me that they were . About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. let them try it. and therein is the trick. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and he finally. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. g.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. long. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. while for others it will not revolve at all. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. At least it is amusing. for some it will turn one way. Try it and see. from vexation. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. by the Hindoos in India. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. Toledo. thus producing two different vibrations. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. If any of your audience presume to dispute..

gave the best results. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. rotation was obtained. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. To operate. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. p. 7. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. 4. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. secondly. and. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. Speeds between 700 and 1. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. 3. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall.100 r. the rotation may be obtained. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. and I think the results may be of interest. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. 5. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. m. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. A square stick with notches on edge is best. by means of a center punch. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. Thus a circular or . at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. The experiments were as follows: 1. 6. no rotation resulted. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. If the pressure was upon an edge. 2. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe.

Minn. as shown. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. the liquid is forced away from the sphere." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. and the resultant "basket splash. Sloan. Duluth. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back.. A. . Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. is driven violently away. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). forming a handle for carrying. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. and the height of the fall about 6 in. Lloyd. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. it will be clockwise. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. --Contributed by M. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out..D. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. at first. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. or greasy. the upper portion is. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. Ph. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. D.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. C. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. G. Washington. --Contributed by G. so far as can be seen from the photographs. unwetted by the liquid. if the pressure is from the left. a piece of wire and a candle. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. A wire is tied around the can.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. 1. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . about 2-5/8 in. with a 1/16-in. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. long. hole drilled in the center. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Each wheel is 1/4 in. flange and a 1/4-in. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. as shown in Fig. as shown. in diameter. thick and 1 in. axle.

to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. 2. is made from a piece of clock spring. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. are shown in Fig. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. The current. 3. of No. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. or main part of the frame. 3. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. Texas. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. If the ends are to be soldered. and the locomotive is ready for running. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. long. is made from brass. put together complete.50. The motor is now bolted. each in its proper place. The first piece. as shown in Fig. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. 3/4 in. with cardboard 3 in. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. bottom side up. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. San Antonio. Fig. Fuller. 5. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. wide and 16 in. wood. --Contributed by Maurice E. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. These ends are fastened together. 4. as shown in Fig. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. 2. Fig. This will save buying a track. 6. The parts. lamp in series with the coil. holes 1 in. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. A trolley. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig.brass. bent as shown. which must be 110 volt alternating current. 1 from 1/4-in.

then continue to tighten much more. 2. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. but do not heat the center. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. as shown in Fig. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. The quarter will not go all the way down. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. When cold treat the other end in the same way. the length of a paper clip. as shown in Fig. and holes drilled in them. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. 3. Fig 1. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. O. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. 1. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Cincinnati. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. and as this end . Fig. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends.

One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. 2 and 1 respectively. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. has finished a cut for a tooth. In the sketch. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. When the trick is to be performed. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. or apparent security of the knot. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. and adjusted . Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. or should the lathe head be raised. When the cutter A. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. A pair of centers are fitted.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels.

When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. book mark. above the surface. and a nut pick. such as brass or marble. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. When connecting to batteries. The frame holding the mandrel. coin purse. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. --Contributed by Howard S. Fold over along these center lines. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. lady's card case. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. tea cosey. 2. Bott. (4. (5. dividing it into as many parts as desired. lady's belt bag. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown.to run true. if four parts are to be alike. Second row: -Two book marks. about 1-1/2 in.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. at the same time striking light. N. (2. Brooklyn. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. gentleman's card case or bill book. draw center lines across the required space. 1. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. An ordinary machine will do. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick .) Place the paper design on the leather and. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. watch fob ready for fastenings. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. if but two parts. note book. long. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet.) Make on paper the design wanted.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. (1. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. tea cosey. trace the outline. blotter back. swing lathe.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. twisted around itself and soldered. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. Bunker. (3. Fig. (6. or one-half of the design. In this manner gears 3 in. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. holding it in place with the left hand. Y. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. --Contributed by Samuel C.

some heavy rubber hose. Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle.

a distance of 900 miles. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. Florida. where it condenses. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. and push it through a cork. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. Thrust a pin. B. from Key West. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. C. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. into which fit a small piece of tube. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. and bore a hole through the center.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. D.. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle.C. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. The electrodes are made . If the needle is not horizontal. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. A. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass.

The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. 3. Powell. wide and 20 ft. The operator can then land safely and . the rudder sticks 3/4 in. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. 1. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. use 10-ft. Connect as shown in the illustration. 2. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. 1. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. apart and extend 1 ft. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. 12 uprights 1/2 in. long. C. D. To make a glide. 3/4 in. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. thick. lengths and splice them. square and 8 ft long. thick. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. as shown in Fig. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. thick. as shown in Fig. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. wide and 4 ft long. as shown in Fig. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. Four long beams 3/4 in. which is tacked to the front edge. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. by 3/4 in. long. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. All wiring is done with No. 2 arm sticks 1 in. 1. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. several strips 1/2 in. using a high resistance receiver. wide and 3 ft. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. --Contributed by Edwin L. 1-1/2 in. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. slacken speed and settle. long for the body of the operator. and also to keep it steady in its flight. wide and 3 ft. long. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. lumber cannot be procured. both laterally and longitudinally. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. If 20-ft. free from knots. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. thick. 1/2. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. long. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. thick. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. long. take the glider to the top of a hill. Washington. or flying-machine. 1-1/4 in. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks.in. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. 2. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. 16 piano wire. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. wide and 4 ft. 2 in. wide and 4 ft. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable.

Great care should be . gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. but this must be found by experience. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly.gently on his feet. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Glides are always made against the wind. Of course.

half man and half horse. a creature of Greek mythology. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. --Contributed by L. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. 2. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. Olson. When heated a little. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place.exercised in making landings. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. as shown in Fig. Bellingham. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. M. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. 1. which causes the dip in the line.

These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. at the other. making it 2-1/2 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. long and about 3/8 in. The light from the . Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. outside the box. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. square. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. a piece of brass or steel wire. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. will complete the material list. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. about the size of stove pipe wire.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. this will cost about 15 cents. long. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. of small rubber tubing. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. in diameter. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. about the size of door screen wire. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. While at the drug store get 3 ft. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. 14 in.

1. --Photo by M. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. If done properly the card will flyaway. as shown in Fig. . as shown in the sketch. Hunting.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. 2.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. This is very simple when you know how. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. Dayton. O. M. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. while others will fail time after time. as shown in Fig. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic.

closing both hands quickly. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. This game is played by five persons. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. hold the lump over the flame." or the Chinese students' favorite game. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. place the other two. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . If a certain color is to be more prominent. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. Cool in water and dry. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. When the desired shape has been obtained. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. as described. as before. then put it on the hatpin head. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. as shown.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin.

After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. these sectors. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. distribute electric charges . Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. passing through neutralizing brushes. or more in width.

or teeth. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. 3/4 in. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. EE. The plates are trued up.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. free from wrinkles. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. 1-1/2 in. RR. wide. and this should be done before cutting the circle. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. The plates. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. 2. long and the shank 4 in. are made from 7/8-in. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. in diameter. Fig. long. 4. as shown in Fig. in diameter. C C. The two pieces. long and the standards 3 in. at the other. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. in diameter. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. 1 in. material 7 in. and 4 in. Two pieces of 1-in. as shown in Fig. long. and the outer end 11/2 in. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. The fork part is 6 in. 3. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. 3. from about 1/4-in. to which insulating handles . and of a uniform thickness. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. These pins. in diameter. turned wood pieces. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. Fig. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. in diameter. wide at one end. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. The drive wheels. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. 1. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. in diameter and 15 in. Two solid glass rods. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. in diameter. The collectors are made. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. brass tubing and the discharging rods. GG. after they are mounted. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. the side pieces being 24 in. are made from solid. D. and pins inserted and soldered.

A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. Colorado City. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. one having a 2-in. 12 ft. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. and the work was done by themselves. long. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. Colo. D. wide and 22 ft.. Lloyd Enos. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. --Contributed by C. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. in diameter. ball and the other one 3/4 in. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes.are attached. KK. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. which are bent as shown.

The key will drop from the string. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. bit. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. as at A. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. using a 1-in. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. They can be used to keep pins and needles. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. and bore a hole 1/2 in. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. yet such a thing can be done.is a good one. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. string together. deep. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. pens . Start the bit with the screw point in the fold.

File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. 3. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. 4. The second oblong was 3/4 in. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. Inside this oblong. file. Proceed as follows: 1. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in.. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. 6. 2. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. Having determined the size of the tray.. inside the second on all. then the other side.and pencils. they make attractive little pieces to have about. 8. using a nail filed to chisel edge. 7. and the third one 1/4 in. etc. also trace the decorative design. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. 5. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. flat and round-nosed pliers. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. 23 gauge. stamp the background promiscuously. Use . above the metal. Draw one-half the design free hand. slim screw. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. about 3/4-in. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. When the stamping is completed. sharp division between background and design. Raise the ends. unless it would be the metal shears. above the work and striking it with the hammer. This is to make a clean. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. inside the first on all. very rapid progress can be made. etc. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. two spikes. 9. extra metal on each of the four sides. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. They are easily made. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. or cigar ashes. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil.

Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. 7. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. third fingers. and fourth fingers. In the first numbering. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are .the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. The eyes. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. second fingers. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. 8. 10. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. first fingers. 9. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. and the effect will be most pleasing. 6.

Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. 12. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. thumbs. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. In the second numbering. above 15 times 15 it is 200. Put your thumbs together. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. the product of 12 times 12. 2 times 2 equals 4. renumber your fingers. or 80. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. viz. etc. if we wish. 25 times 25. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. and the six lower fingers as six tens. Still. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. Two times one are two. but being simple it saves time and trouble. 11. as high as you want to go. above 20 times 20. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. etc. Let us multiply 12 by 12. which would be 16. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. etc... or 60. At a glance you see four tens or 40.. there are no fingers above. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. . or numbers above 10. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. or the product of 8 times 9. 400. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. which tens are added. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. which would be 70. or the product of 6 times 6. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. first fingers. 600. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. below the thumbs are four units on each hand.

twenties. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. at the will of the observer. the value which the upper fingers have. It takes place also. forties. first fingers 22. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. adding 400 instead of 100. and so on. or from above or from below. however. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. . the revolution seems to reverse. thumbs. or what. 75 and 85. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. For figures ending in 6. whether the one described in second or third numbering. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. any two figures between 45 and 55. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. 21. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. the value of the upper fingers being 20. thirties. For example. as one might suppose. in the case of a nearsighted person. And the lump sum to add. the inversion takes place against his will. 3. being 80). such as an used for lighting gas-burners. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. beginning the thumbs with 16. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. Take For example 18 times 18. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. and. Proceed as in the second lumbering. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. the lump sum to add. lastly. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent.. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. first finger 17. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. The inversion and reversion did not take place. 8. 7. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. which is the half-way point between the two fives. about a vertical axis. 2. etc. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. not rotation. when he removes his spectacles. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. further. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens.

the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. as . the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. Looking at it in semidarkness. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. the other appearance asserts itself. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. when he knows which direction is right. and putting a cork on the point. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. sometimes the point towards him. tee. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. The ports were not easy to make. A flat slide valve was used.

round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. about 2 in. saw off a section of a broom handle. it is easily built. Next take a block of wood.. pipe. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. if continued too long without proper treatment. While this engine does not give much power. H. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. . If nothing better is at hand. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. The eccentric is constructed of washers. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. deep. across the head. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. apart. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. The tools are simple and can be made easily. Ill. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. The steam chest is round. as in a vise. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. pipe 10 in. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. such as is shown in the illustration.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. in diameter. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. Fasten the block solidly. across and 1/2 in. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. secure a piece of No. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. Kutscher. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. bottom side up. inexpensive. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. and make in one end a hollow. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. Springfield. Beating copper tends to harden it and. -Contributed by W.

and. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. the other to the left. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. O. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. as it softens the metal. To produce color effects on copper. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot.will cause the metal to break. S. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. To overcome this hardness. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. especially when the object is near to the observer. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. This process is called annealing. --Contributed by W. Vinegar. C. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. Hay. Camden. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the .

diameter. because of the rays coming from them. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. The red portions of the picture are not seen. It is just as though they were not there. as for instance red and green. But they seem black.stereoscope. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. it. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. the further from the card will the composite image appear. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. So with the stereograph. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. the one for the left eye being blue. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. while both eyes together see a white background. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. would serve the same purpose. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. The further apart the pictures are. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. only the orange rays may pass through. disappears fully. from the stereograph. and without any picture. although they pass through the screen. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. they must be a very trifle apart. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. however. In order to make them appear before the card. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. because. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. that for the right. and lies to the right on the picture. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. not two mounted side by side. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. the left eye sees through a blue screen. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. with the stereograph. . Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. orange. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. in the proper choice of colors." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture.

A No. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. long and a hole drilled in each end. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. Cal. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. This should only be bored about half way through the block. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. in the shape of a crank. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. etc. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. The weight of the air in round . wide and 1 in. 1/4 in. or the middle of the bottle. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. San Francisco. Place a NO. 12 gauge wire. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. in diameter.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. thick. wireless.

In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. high. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. . or. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. long.6) 1 in. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. if you choose. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. 30 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. Only redistilled mercury should be used. and a slow fall. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. inside diameter and 2 in. But if a standard barometer is not available. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. long. a bottle 1 in. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost.. high. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. but before attempting to put in the mercury. the contrary. square. In general. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. if accurately constructed. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. long. will calibrate itself. high. internal diameter and about 34 in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. thick. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. or a column of mercury (density 13. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. a glass tube 1/8 in. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. The 4 in. 34 ft. the instrument. pine 3 in. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. square. Before fastening the scale. wide and 40 in.numbers is 15 lb. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. wide and 4 in.

This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . Mark out seven 1-in. 6 and 7. 2.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. long. and place them as shown in Fig. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Procure a metal can cover. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. thick. 3. 1. the size of the outside of the bottle. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. Number the pieces 1. a cover from a baking powder can will do. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. which is slipped quickly over the end. 5. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. wide and 10 in.

procure unbleached tent duck. 2. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 6 to No. 1. 6. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. l over No. 3. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. N. 5's place. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 6 over No. Move ll-Jump No. 5's place. 1 into No. 5. which is the very best material for the purpose. This can be done on a checker board. 2 over No.J. Move 4-Jump No. 1. Move 2-Jump No. 5 over No. using checkers for men. each 10 ft. 2's place. in diameter. 3. Move 14-Jump No. 3 over No. Move 7-Jump No. Move 12-Jump No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years.-Contributed by W. To make such a tent. Move 15-Move No. 6 in. Cape May Point. Move 13-Move No. 6. Move 5-Jump No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 7. as shown in Fig. Move 3-Move No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. long and 2 ft. Move 10-Move No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 3 to the center. 2 over No. L. 2's place. shaped like Fig. Move 8-Jump No. 5 over No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 2 . Make 22 sections. 6 into No. Move 6-Move No. Move 9-Jump No. 3 into No. 2. 1 to No. 3. 7's place. Woolson. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 7 over No. 7 over No.

2 in.. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. Punch holes in the brass in . 2. Emsworth. These are ventilators. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent.in. to a smooth board of soft wood. wide at the bottom. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. added. After transferring the design to the brass. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Tress. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. --Contributed by G. long and 4 in. 9 by 12 in. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. 5) stuck in the ground. 5. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. 6. long. Have the tent pole 3 in. 3 in. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. round galvanized iron. as in Fig. In raising the tent. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. Pa. fill with canvas edging. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. As shown in the sketch. wide by 12 in. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. Use blocks.J. high. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. diameter. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. wide at the bottom. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. leaving the rest for an opening. made in two sections. 6-in. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. from the top. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. Nail a thin sheet of brass. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. will do. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. about 9 in. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. in diameter. Fig. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Fig.

It will not. cut out the brass on the outside lines. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. bend into shape. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. When all the holes are punched. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. excepting the 1/4-in. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. around the outside of the pattern. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. Corr. When the edges are brought together by bending. . fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores.the spaces around the outlined figures. but before punching the holes. The pattern is traced as before. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. Chicago. apart.

The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. pipe. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. Mayger. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. pipe is used for the hub.. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making.however. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. --Contributed by Geo. E. Stevens. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. Que. A 6-in. A cast-iron ring. or. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. These pipes are . Oregon. or center on which the frame swings. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. --Contributed by H. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. or less. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. allowing 2 ft. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. Dunham. better still. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. G. If a wheel is selected. Badger. partially filled with cream. between which is placed the fruit jar.

The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. pipe clamps.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. An extra wheel 18 in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. pipe. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. Four braces made from 1/2-in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. bent to the desired circle. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe.

He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. 1. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. and the guide withdrawn. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. while doing this. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. and dropped on the table. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. 3. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The performer. as shown in Fig. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. which was placed in an upright position. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can.

The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. first. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. F. White. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. in a half circle. in diameter on another piece of tin. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. Mo. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. St. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. The box can be made of selected oak or . Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. 1. 2. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. Colo. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Harkins. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. -Contributed by C. and second. it requires no expensive condensing lens. --Contributed by H. D. Denver. Louis.

The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. wide and 5 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. but not tight. An open space 4 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. wide. 2. 5-1/2 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. 1. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. from each end of the outside of the box. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. long. The door covering this hole in the back. high and must . The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. long. represented by the dotted line in Fig. fit into the runners. focal length. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. Two or three holes about 1 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip.mahogany. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. high and 11 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. AA. as shown in Fig. wide and 6-1/2 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. 3-1/2 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. This will be 3/4 in. from each end. wide by 5 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. If a camera lens is used. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. long and should be placed vertically. and 2 in. and. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. wide and 6-1/2 in.

--Contributed by Chas. April.." etc. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. This process is rather a difficult one.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. calling this February. C. calling that knuckle January. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. Ohio. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. the article may be propped up . Bradley. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. and extending the whole height of the lantern. and so on. provided it is airtight. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. then the second knuckle will be March. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. June and November. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. West Toledo. as it requires an airtight case. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. 1.

The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. giving it an occasional stir. 1 and 2. N. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. In both Fig. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. in. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes.with small sticks. Pour in a little turpentine. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. Schenectady. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. and the lead 24 sq. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. and set aside for half a day. Y. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. running small motors and lighting small lamps. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. but waxed. 1. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by J. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. The top of a table will do. In each place two electrodes. in. taking care to have all the edges closed. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. H. the lid or cover closed. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. or suspended by a string. one of lead and one of aluminum. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. . Crawford. fruit jars are required. 2. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt.

. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. After a few seconds' time. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. as you have held it all the time. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. This trick is very simple. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. You have an understanding with some one in the company. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. as well as others. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. you remove the glass. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will .A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. which you warm with your hands. he throws the other. O. He. Cleveland. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up.

Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. in diameter in the center. Crocker.take the handiest one. J. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Pull the ends quickly. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. put it under the glass. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. on a table. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Victor. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Be sure that this is the right one. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe.-Contributed by E. but in making one. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Colo. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. if any snags are encountered. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. but by being careful at shores. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. near a partition or curtain. . allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. so it will appear to be a part of the table top.

by 2 in. square by 16 ft. for cockpit frame. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. at the ends. is 14 ft. 3 in. from the stern. wide 12-oz. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. by 8 in. 2 gunwales. long. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. by 2 in. for the stern piece. 14 rib bands. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. of rope. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. 1. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. for the bow. The keelson. 8 yd. 1/8 in. by 10 ft. 1 piece. as illustrated in the engraving. long. apart. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. by 15 ft. 8 in. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. and. from the bow and the large one. wide and 12 ft. 11 yd. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 3 in. 4 outwales. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft.. 1 in. clear pine. drilled and fastened with screws. for center deck braces. one 6 in. 7 ft.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. Fig. of 1-yd. long. ducking. 3 and 4. 1 in. Paint. 2 and braced with an iron band. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. of 1-1/2-yd. Two forms are made as shown in Figs.. thick and 3/4 in. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. and fastened with screws. by 16 ft. 9 ft. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. 1 piece. wide and 12 ft. 1 in. 2 in. 1 mast. 1/4 in. 50 ft. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. are as follows: 1 keelson. the smaller is placed 3 ft. 1 in. wide unbleached muslin. and the other 12 in. Both ends are mortised. from each end to 1 in. selected pine. by 12 in. wide. and is removed after the ribs are in place. screws and cleats. long. by 16 ft.

doubled. Braces. 9. A seam should be made along the center piece. Figs. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. wide and 14 in. length of canvas is cut in the center. This block. These are put in 6 in. and fastened to them with bolts. in diameter through the block. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. corner braces. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. thick and 1/2 in. The 11-yd. wood screws. is cut to fit under the top boards. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. a piece 1/4 in.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. also. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. A piece of oak. 6 and 7. wide. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. 5. 7 and 8. thick 1-1/2 in. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. The deck is not so hard to do. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. 6 in. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. long is well soaked in water. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. Fig. 4 in. long. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. is a cube having sides 6 in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. The block is fastened to the keelson. 1/4 in. thick. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. Before making the deck. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. apart. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. 3-1/2 ft. 1 in. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. wide and 3 ft. thick. 1 in. gunwales and keelson. 6. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. wide and 24 in. The trimming is wood. thick and 12 in. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. from the bow. . Fig. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. long. wide. A block of pine. A 6-in. long. They are 1 in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. screws.

With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. wide. The house will accommodate 20 families. are used for the boom and gaff. at the other. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. is 6 in. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. apart in the muslin. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The mast has two side and one front stay. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. . The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. in diameter and 10 ft. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. 10 with a movable handle. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. Wilmette. Fig. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. The sail is a triangle. The keel. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. --Contributed by O. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. long. long. E. each 1 in. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. 12. thick by 2 in.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. A strip 1 in. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. Tronnes. Ill. 11. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. wide at one end and 12 in. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope.

1 yd. Ill. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. 5. 2-1/2 in. wide and 2 ft. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. wide and 30 in. long and five 1/2-in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. as shown in Fig. and 3 ft. thick. square. Bevel both sides of the pieces. long. 3. 1. flat headed screws. Cut the maple. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. Tronnes. wide. five 1/2-in.into two 14-in. E. 2. long. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. flat-headed screws. thick. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. Wilmette. and the other 18 in. about 5/16 in. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. one 11-1/2 in. with the ends and the other side rounding. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. long. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. --Contributed by O. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. flat on one side. 2-1/2 in. wide. Take this and fold it over . 4. thick. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. Fig. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. 2 in. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy.

to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. long. A. Make a double stitch all around the edge. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. The bag is then turned inside out. E. soaked with water and blown up. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. then centered. square. 1. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. wide and 5 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. long. the top and bottom. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. Another piece. thick and 3 in. Wind three layers of about No. C. Bliss. Cut another piece of board. 2 and 3. as well as the edges around the opening. are rounded. long. 3-1/4 in. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. The front. wide and 4-1/2 in. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. long. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. and make a turn in each end of the wires. wide and 6-1/2 in. pieces 2-5/8 in. about 3/8 in. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. Fig. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. and take care that the pieces are all square. wide and 3 ft. of each end unwound for connections. long. 1-1/4 in. and the four outside edges. is set. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. B. About 1/2 in. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. C. but can be governed by circumstances. D. long. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. After the glue. --Contributed by W. Figs. The sides are 3-1/4 in. St. long. wide and 6-3/4 in. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. 3/8 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. wide . 3 in. If carefully and neatly made. thick. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. wide and 2-3/4 in. 5 from 1/16-in. thick. the mechanical parts can be put together. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. Mo. When the glue is set. this square box is well sandpapered. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. 6-1/2 in.once. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. Glue a three cornered piece. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. forming an eye for a screw. A. square. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. F. long. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. Louis.

long. board. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. Another strip of tin. and fasten in place. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . 1/16 in. 1/4 in. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. I. Fig.A. Richmond Hill. hole is fastened to the pointer. The resistance is now adjusted to show . 4 is not movable. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. Yorkshire. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. These wires should be about 1 in. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. The base is a board 5 in. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. long. G. 4. showing a greater defection of the pointer. wide and 2-1/2 in. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. F. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. A pointer 12 in. from the spindle. The end of the polar axis B. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. that has the end turned with a shoulder. bored in the back. and as the part Fig. so it will just clear the tin.and 2-5/8 in. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. from one end. When the current flows through the coil. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. in diameter. wide and 9 in. and the farther apart they will be forced. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis.S. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. 5-1/2 in. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. L. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. Austwick Hall. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. Fig.R. 5. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. the same size as the first. Like poles repel each other. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. Chapman. thick. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. --Contributed by George Heimroth. long. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. R. The stronger the current. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. W. Place the tin. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. 4. the part carrying the pointer moves away. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. C.

30 min. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. A. 10 min. shows mean siderial. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. M. 1881. thus: 9 hr. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. say Venus at the date of observation.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. and vice . Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. 10 min. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. at 9 hr. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. The following formula will show how this may be found.

m. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Hall. . This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. --Contributed by Robert W. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. or. and then verify its correctness by measurement. owing to the low internal resistance. if one of these cannot be had. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Conn. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon.f. New Haven.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e.

was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. leaves or bark. arsenic to every 20 lb.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. as shown in the accompanying picture. fresh grass. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. Fig. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. Wet paper will answer. thick. When the follower is screwed down. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. inside diameter and about 5 in. put the fish among the ashes. of alum and 4 oz. and heap the glowing coals on top. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. cover up with the same. 1-3/4 in. Then. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. 1. especially for cooking fish. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. The boring bar. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. 3/8 in. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. long. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering.

The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. thick. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. pipe. and threaded on both ends. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. about 1/2 in. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. pipe. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. fastened with a pin. when they were turned in. Two pieces of 3/4 -in.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew.

as the one illustrated herewith. 5. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal.valve stems. 2. bent in the shape of a U. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. If the valve keeps dripping. square iron. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. A 1-in. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. then it should be ground to a fit. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. thick and 3 in. 30 in. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. and which gave such satisfactory results. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. was then finished on an emery wheel. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. a jump spark would be much better. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. labor and time. Fig. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. Clermont. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. 4. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. Fig. long. This plate also supports the rocker arms. It . however. the float is too high. Fig. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. 3. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. Iowa. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. but never one which required so little material. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. wide. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. The rough frame.

timber. 3/4 in. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. long. 12 ft. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . It looks like a toy. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. set 3 ft. strengthened by a piece 4 in." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. butting against short stakes. If it is to be used for adults. with no trees or buildings in the way. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. long. no matter what your age or size may be. in fact. and a little junk. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. long. being held in position by spikes as shown. Nieman. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. Use a heavy washer at the head. The seats are regular swing boards. The illustration largely explains itself. and long enough to keep firmly in the post." little and big. As there is no bracing. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. square. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. in the ground with 8 ft. A 3/4 -in. and. for the "motive power" to grasp. W. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. so it must be strong enough. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. square and 2 ft. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. from the center. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. This makes an easy adjustment. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. from all over the neighborhood. long is the pivot. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. The crosspiece is 2 in. strong clear material only should be employed. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. rope is not too heavy. square and 5 ft. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. --Contributed by C. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. extending above. hole bored in the post. in diameter and 15 in. completes the merry-go-round. A malleable iron bolt.was erected in our back yard one afternoon.

A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. and sent to earth. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters.2 emery. long. These ends are placed about 14 in. 1. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. 1/4 by 3/32 in. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. A reel is next made. Having placed the backbone in position. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries.the fingers. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. To wind the string upon the reel. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. and 18 in. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. 2. 4. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. as shown in Fig. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. light and strong. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. Both have large reels full of . This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. The backbone is flat. square. one for the backbone and one for the bow. away. if nothing better is at hand. a wreck. The bow is now bent. then it is securely fastened. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well.

then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Bunker. The handle end is held down with a staple. Mass. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. the balance. common packing thread. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. N. or glass-covered string. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. Y. --Contributed' by Harry S. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. Newburyport. If the second kite is close enough. Moody. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. he pays out a large amount of string. Brooklyn. often several hundred yards of it. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. C.string. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it.-Contributed by S. First.

Hastings. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Corinth. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. must be attached to a 3-ft. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. each the size of half the table top. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. --Contributed by Earl R. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. then a dust protector.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. If the table is round. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. then draw the string up tight. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Vt. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. lengths (Fig. square (Fig. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. cutting the circular piece into quarters. such as mill men use. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. length of 2-in.

trace the design carefully on the leather. 17-1/2 in. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad.. E. G to H. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. 16-1/4 in. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Moisten the . Oakland. from C to D. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. and E to G. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. 6-1/4 in. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. Wharton.-Contributed by H. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. which spoils the leather effect. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working.. Calif. 2-1/4 in. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. .Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring.9-1/4 in. from E to F. If leaves are wanted in extending the table.. hard pencil. Use a smooth.

place both together and with a leather punch. about 1/8 in.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. and E-G. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. apart. Cut it the same size as the bag. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. wide. with the rounded sides of the tools. get something with which to make a lining. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. and lace through the holes. I made this motor . make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. To complete the bag. H-B. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Now cut narrow thongs. and corresponding lines on the other side. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. G-J. if not more than 1 in. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. Trace the openings for the handles. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. is taken off at a time. also lines A-G.

1. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. B. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. D.M. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. Calif. iron. as shown in Fig. 2-1/4 in. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. . 2. in length. of No. 24 gauge magnet wire. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. Shannon. --Contributed by J. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. long. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. each being a half circle. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. 1. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. Pasadena.

near the center. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. balloon should be about 8 ft. pasted in alternately. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. The gores for a 6-ft. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. and the gores cut from these. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. are the best kind to make. from the bottom end. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. high. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. 1. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far.

common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. E. If the gores have been put together right. lap on the edges. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. as shown in Fig. using about 1/2-in. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. These are to hold the wick ball. Fig. 1. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. coming through the small pipe A. As the boat is driven forward by this force. as shown in Fig. 4. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. --Contributed by R. somewhat larger in size. after which the paint will adhere permanently. In starting the balloon on its flight. leaving a long wake behind. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. 5. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. B. A. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. The boat soon attains considerable speed. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. The steam. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. 3. in diameter. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. saturating it thoroughly. After washing. Staunton. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. so it will hang as shown in Fig.widest point. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. In removing grease from wood. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. 2. leaving the solution on over night.

Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. wide by 6 in. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. as is shown in Fig. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. Second. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The blocks are about 6 in. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. apart on these lines. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. 1. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. in bowling form. Third. high and 8 in. long. In using either of the two methods described. There are three ways of doing this: First. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. long and each provided with a handle. if you have several copies of the photograph.

Y. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Albany. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Hellwig. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. N. 2. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. Fig.Fig. being careful not to dent the metal. --Contributed by John A. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Rinse the plate in cold water. thick.

How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. through which passes the set screw S. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. which is 4 in. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. In Fig. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. in diameter. Va. 1 Fig. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. --Contributed by R. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. Paine. A. with a set screw. thick.upon any particular object. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. With this device. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. and not produce the right sound. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. long for the base. 5 in. 2 the front view. B. A circular piece of wood. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. Break off the frame. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . wide and 8 in. and. Corner irons. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. These corner irons are also screwed to. wide and of any desired height. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. S. Richmond. are screwed to the circular piece. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. is fastened to a common camera tripod. A. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. CC. and Fig. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. 6 in.

thus producing sound waves. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. pine boards. This horn.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. I made a wheel 26 in. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. La Salle. Kidder. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. This will make a very compact electric horn. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. as only the can is visible. D. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. S. Ill. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. . R. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. in diameter of some 1-in. Lake Preston. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. -1.

B. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. If there is a large collection of coins. Kane. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. 1. Feet may be added to the base if desired. square. Purdy. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Doylestown. Fig. 1. thick and 12 in. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. The frame is made of a heavy card. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. 2. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. O. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. If the collection consists of only a few coins. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. the same thickness as the coins. --Contributed by C. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. A. --Contributed by James R. Ghent. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack.

A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. Canada. for after the slides have been shown a few times. and then glued together as indicated. The material required is a sheet of No. If desired. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. Wis. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Noble.J. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. Cal. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. --Contributed by August T. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. they become uninteresting. One Cloud. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. It will hold 4 oz. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. cut and grooved. a hammer or mallet. Toronto. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. of developer. though not absolutely necessary. border all around. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid.E. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. plus a 3/8-in. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. Neyer. Milwaukee. thick. A rivet punch is desirable. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. --Contributed by R. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. melted and applied with a brush. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. Smith. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. several large nails. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. --Contributed by J. A lead pencil. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. into which to place the screws .

never upon the metal directly. Remove the screws. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. screws placed about 1 in. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. and file it to a chisel edge. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. using 1/2-in. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. both outline and decoration. draw one part. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. like the one shown. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. Take the nail. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. There are several ways of working up the design. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth.

The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. l-1/8 in. 1. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. Rivet the band to the holder. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. of 11-in. 3. Do not bend it over or flatten it. 2. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. Provide four lengths for the legs. each 1 in. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. in the other. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. up from the lower end. long.wall. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. 3/4 in. About 1/2 yd. square and 181/2 in. and two lengths. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. long. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. for the lower rails. The pedal. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. . square. for the top. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. being ball bearing. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. long. using a 1/2in. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. as shown in Fig. square and 11 in. two lengths.

having quite a length of threads. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. F. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. Attalla. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. Quackenbush.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. --Contributed by John Shahan. --Contributed by W. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. New York City. Ala. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut.

of sal-soda in one pailful of water. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. long. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Ironwood. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. making a lap of about 1 in. long. stitched on both edges for appearance. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. and the other 2-3/4 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. and two holes in the other. Purchase a 1/2-in. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. long. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. D. using class. each 1-1/4 in. the end of the other piece is folded over. something that is carbonated. Two pieces of felt. from one end. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in.. in depth. and 3/8 in. from the end. The desired emblem. college or lodge colors. wide and 8-1/4 in. one about 1 in. Mich. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Luther.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. --Contributed by C. initial. Assemble as shown in the sketch.

Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. Ind.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. 2. Punch two holes A. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. from the center and opposite each other. about 2 in. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . or more in height. Indianapolis. in the cover and the bottom. This method allows a wide range of designs. and the cork will be driven out. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. or a pasteboard box. --Contributed by John H. in diameter and 2 in. Schatz. as shown at B. 1/4 in. if desired by the operator. as shown in the sketch. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. Fig. which can be procured from a plumber. A piece of lead. 1.

--Contributed by Mack Wilson. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. 3. it winds up the rubber band. 4. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. 1. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. and the ends of the bands looped over them. or marble will serve. When the can is rolled away from you. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. metal. Columbus. 5. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it.Rolling Can Toy lead. are turned up as in Fig. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. . There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. The pieces of tin between the holes A. putting in the design. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. as shown in Fig. allowing the two ends to be free. on both top and bottom. O. Fig. A piece of thick glass. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. These tools can be bought for this special purpose.

or more thick on each side. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. and. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . If it is desired to "line" the inside. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. face up. thick. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. After this has been done. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. from each end. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. A pencil may be used the first time over. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. The edges should be about 1/8 in. New York City. mark over the design. 1 in. wide and 20 in. thicker than the pinion.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. Next place the leather on the glass. 3 in. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. long and bored a 1/2-in. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. I secured a board 3/4 in. deep in its face. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. hole through it. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer.

Brooklyn. 2. 3 by 3 by 36. Now fit up the two clamps. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. Rice. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. N. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 2 side rails. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 2 end rails. in diameter. and fit it in place for the side vise. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 1 top board. lag screws as shown. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. much of the hard labor will be saved. 1 back board. Syracuse. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . Make the lower frame first. pieces for the vise slides. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. Cut the 2-in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. New York. 1 by 12 by 77 in. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. --Contributed by A. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Y. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 1 top board. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. thick top board. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 4 guides. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. M. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 2 crosspieces. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 1 piece. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 1. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. countersinking the heads of the vise end. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. Fig. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in.in the board into the bench top. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 1 screw block. 1 piece for clamp. 1 piece for clamp. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 3 by 3 by 20 in.

2 screwdrivers. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 claw hammer. . Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 nail set. 1 cross cut saw. If each tool is kept in a certain place.. rule. 1 set chisels. 1 2-ft. 1 compass saw. 1 marking gauge.. 1 pair dividers. as well as the pattern maker. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 monkey wrench. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 countersink. Only the long run. 1 wood scraper. it can be easily found when wanted. 24 in.screws. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 3 and 6 in. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 1 brace and set of bits. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 set gimlets.. in diameter. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 pair pliers. 1 rip saw. 24 in. They can be purchased at a hardware store. The bench is now complete. The amateur workman. 1 pocket level.

Doylestown. becomes like A.1 6-in. 1. ---Contributed by James M. Fig. 2 and 00 sandpaper. will sink into the handle as shown at D. Pa. will be easier to work. but will not make . and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. Fig. Fig. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. 2. Fig. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. No. The calf skin. 1. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. the projecting point A. 3. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife.1. after constant use. 1 oilstone. being softer. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. Kane. try square.

This will make a perfectly impervious covering. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. First draw the design on paper. -Contributed by Julia A. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. Turn the leather. which steam. but a V-shaped nut pick. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. and the length 6-5/8 in. . the same method of treatment is used. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. cover it completely with water enamel and. then prepare the leather. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. will do just as well. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. such as copper or brass. when dry. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. secure a piece of modeling calf. After the outlines are traced. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. If cow hide is preferred.as rigid a case as the cow skin. The form can be made of a stick of wood. New York City. White. If calf skin is to be used. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. lay the design on the face. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. water or heat will not affect. Having prepared the two sides. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. Two pieces will be required of this size.

Cal. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Richmond. --Contributed by Chas. Portland. . This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. --Contributed by Chester L. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. --Contributed by W. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Cobb. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. as shown in the sketch. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Jaquythe.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. A. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. New York City. Herrman. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. C. Maine. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work.

6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. for instance. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. was marked out as shown. Middletown. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg.. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. --Contributed by Geo. Conn. B. A thick piece of tin. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. Mass. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. Wright. This was very difficult. . or anyone that can shape tin and solder.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. an inverted stewpan. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. Cambridge. --Contributed by Wm. Roberts.

Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. If the article is highly polished. Chicago. but only an odor which soon vanished. A beautifully bound book. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. --Contributed by C. There was no quicklime to be had. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. as shown. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. . Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. L.. Indianapolis. Illinois. so some bones were quickly calcined. but not running over. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. well calcined and powdered. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. Ind. and quite new. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. When dry. If any traces of the grease are left. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. The next morning there was no trace of oil. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. pulverized and applied. on a clear piece of glass. which has been tried out several times with success. of boiling water. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. used as part of furniture. such as chair seats. Bone. --Contributed by Paul Keller. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. apply powdered calcined magnesia. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. Herbert. and the grease will disappear. F. face down.

true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. Howe. deep and 5 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make. wide and 12 in. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in.. 2 in. --Contributed by Geo. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. It is constructed of a good quality of pine.. says Scientific American. 6 in. The pieces marked S are single. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. set and thumbscrews. A. New York. soft steel with the opening 6 in. long. the pieces . Tarrytown. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. high and are bolted to a block of wood. If properly adjusted. thick.

a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. they will look remarkably uniform. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. E. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. The seat is a board. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. no doubt. says Camera Craft. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . with a short bolt through each pair as shown. for sending to friends. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. A sharp knife. If the letters are all cut the same height. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. albums and the like. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. Their size depends on the plate used. to the underside of which is a block. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work.

If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. In cutting out an 0. photographing them down to the desired size. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. So arranged. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. The puzzle is to get . and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. So made. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. for example. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. after. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. pasting the prints on some thin card. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. using care to get it in the right position. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. mount them on short pieces of corks. and. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year.

Old-Time Magic . the tube righting itself at once for another catch.J. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. G. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. He smells the bait.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. hung on pivots. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. says the American Thresherman. squeezes along past the center of the tube. snow or anything to hide it. so they will lie horizontal. Cape May Point. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. Bayley.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. long that will just fit are set in. A hole 6 or 7 in. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week.-Contributed by I. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. N. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. of its top. with the longest end outside. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row.

then spread the string. --Contributed by L. N. --Contributed by Charles Graham. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Press the hands together. Y. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Rhode Island. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Pocatello. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole.faced up. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. then expose again. E. Parker. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Brooklyn. --Contributed by L. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Pawtucket. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Idaho. Szerlip.

then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot.Genuine antique swords and armor. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. 3 Fig. end of the blade. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. wipe the blade . The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. they will look very much like the genuine article. or a complete suit of armor. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. When the glue is thoroughly dry. thick. wide and 2 in. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. if any. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. When the whole is quite dry. and if carefully made. near the point end. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. in width. long. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. in building up his work from the illustrations. 1 Fig. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make.. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. dark red. The pieces. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. full size. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw.. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. The blade should be about 27 in. Glue the other side of the blade. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. 1. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. or green oil paint. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. narrower. 2 Fig. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. using a straightedge and a pencil. The handle is next made. whether he requires a single sword only. 4 on the blade. says the English Mechanic.

A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. 1/8 in. In making this scimitar. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. Fig. the illustration. The length of the handle. 1. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. the other is flat or half-round. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. follow the directions as for Fig. about 1-1/2 in. should be about 9 in. 4. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration.. This sword is about 68 in. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. In the finished piece. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. allowing for a good hold with both hands.with light strokes up and down several times. the other two are identical. thick and 5 in. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. take two pieces of wood. square and of any length desired. 1. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. as it is . shows only two sides. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. In making. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. 1.. and 3 in. in the widest part at the lower end. 2. 3. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. not for use only in cases of tableaux. of course. long. the other is flat or halfround. 2. 1. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. preferably of contrasting colors. 3. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. in diameter. the length of the blade 28 in. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. Both edges of the blade are sharp.

can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. as can the pitch bed or block.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. N. or an insecure fastening. square. The thinness of the plank. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. --Contributed by John Blake. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. long. A piece of mild steel. however. and. as there was some at hand. Doctors probed for the button without success. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. at the lower end. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. --Contributed by Katharine D. in an attempt to remove it. about 3/8 in. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. Syracuse. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Franklin. and if so. Both can be made easily. Y. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. Mass. On each edge of the board. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. 2 in. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. as shown in the sketch. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. A cold . It is made of a plank. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. Morse. each about 1 ft. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. piping and jackets by hard water. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel.

and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. a file to reduce the ends to shape. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. 5 lb. When this has been done. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. Trim up the edges and file them . Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. tallow. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. When the desired form has been obtained. secure a piece of brass of about No. To put it in another way. using a small metal saw. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. design down.. plaster of Paris. 18 gauge. To remedy this. 5 lb. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. on the pitch.. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees.

Fill the 3-in. make an unusual show window attraction. lb. in the center. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. in diameter (Fig. but not to stop it.smooth. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. in diameter (Fig. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. in one minute or 550 lb. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. 30 ft. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. 2). space between the vessels with water. to keep it from floating. Fig. . one 18 in. and still revolve. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. per second. it may be well to know what horsepower means. over the smaller vessel. and hang a bird swing. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. 1 ft. in one second. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. A. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. per minute. Before giving the description. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. That is lifting 33. Clean the metal thoroughly. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. --Contributed by Harold H. 1) and the other 12 in.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. 1 ft.000 lb. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. or 550 ft. or fraction of a horsepower.000 ft. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. using powdered pumice with lye. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. lb. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. The smaller is placed within the larger. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. This in turn divided by 33. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Cutter. 3. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do.

Diameter Fig. Szerlip. Brooklyn. or on a pedestal. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. F. 2 Fig. The effect is surprising. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. --Contributed. Campbell. Somerville.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet.3 Fig. N.18 in. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. 1 Fig. Mass. Y. --Contributed by J. by L. Diameter 12 in.

for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. Rivet the cup to the base. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. keeping the center high. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. which may be of wood or tin. using any of the common metal polishes. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. and then. Polish both of these pieces. after which it is ready for use. often render it useless after a few months service. which. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. with other defects. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. is. In riveting. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon.copper of No. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. This compound is impervious to water. unsatisfactory. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. the same as removing writing from a slate. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. and the clay . Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. to keep the metal from tarnishing. away from the edge. with the pliers. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. Do not be content merely to bend them over. then by drawing a straightedge over it. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. as a rule. and cut out the shape with the shears.

The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. 1. A. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. . The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. DeLoof. in diameter and 5 in. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. as shown in Fig. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Shettleston. --Contributed by John T. Mich. Northville. Grand Rapids. It is made of a glass tube. --Contributed by A. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. the device will work for an indefinite time. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Houghton. Dunlop. 2. long. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. 3/4 in. Scotland. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank.can be pressed back and leveled. The siphon is made of glass tubes. Mich. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. -Contributed by Thos.

The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. put up as ornaments. This sword is 4 ft.1 FIG. As the handle is to . long with the crossguard and blade of steel. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. long. in width and 2 in. 1.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords.FIG. London. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. stilettos and battle-axes. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic.

sometimes called cuirass breakers. sharp edges on both sides. then glued on the blade as shown. 11 were used. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. This stiletto has a wood handle. studded with brass or steel nails. with both edges of the blade sharp. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. glue and put it in place. 5. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. This axe is made similar to the one . in length. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. The handle is of wood. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. with both edges sharp. When the whole is quite dry. is shown in Fig. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. with wire or string' bound handle. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. in length. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. A German stiletto. The ball is made as described in Fig. the upper part iron or steel. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. 7. narrower. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece.represent copper. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. 8. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. paint it a dark brown or black. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. in width. one about 1/2 in. long with a dark handle of wood. 20 spike. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. This sword is about 4 ft. Three large. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. 3 is shown a claymore. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. which is about 2-1/2 ft. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. the axe is of steel. string. The lower half of the handle is of wood. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. Both handle and axe are of steel. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. Cut two strips of tinfoil. firmly glued on. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. wood with a keyhole saw. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. When dry. 6. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. very broad. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. The crossbar and blade are steel. This weapon is also about 1 ft. 4. The sword shown in Fig. small rope and round-headed nails. In Fig. In Fig. In Fig. the same as used on the end of the handle. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. long. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. A German poniard is shown in Fig. This weapon is about 1 ft. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. These must be cut from pieces of wood. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. 9.

10. . Old-Time Magic . This will make a very good flexible belt. high. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. --Contributed by E. such as braided fishline. and as the tension members are all protected from wear.described in Fig. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. Chicago. 2. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. will pull where other belts slip. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. together as shown in Fig. Davis.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. W. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. the ends are tied and cut off. so the contents cannot be seen. When wrapped all the way around.

the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . To make the flowers grow in an instant. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. with the circle centrally located. These wires are put in the jar. N. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. Before the performance. Macdonald. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. Oakland. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Bridgeton. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. --Contributed by A. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. As zinc is much lighter than iron. an acid. some of the liquid. There will be no change in color. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. about one-third the way down from the top. apparently. The dotted lines in Fig. Calif. in a few seconds' time. causing the flowers to grow. S. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. or using small wedges of wood. filled with water.J. 1 and put together as in Fig. four glass tumblers. 2. held in the right hand.

Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. 2 for height. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. practical and costs nothing. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. unless some special device is used. Jaquythe. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. A. This outlines the desired opening. If the size wanted is No. --Contributed by W. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. not only because of the fact just mentioned. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. which are numbered for convenience in working. When many slides are to be masked. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. 4 for width and No. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. and equally worthy of individual treatment. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. says a correspondent of Photo Era. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. and kept ready for use at any time. Richmond. Cal.

Secure a sheet of No. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. or. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. which is dangerous. is about right for the No. not the water into the acid. possibly. but they can be easily revived. paint the design. Draw a design. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . With a stick. the paper is folded along the center line. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. using the carbon paper. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. too. This done. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. When etched to the desired depth. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. the margin and the entire back of the metal. The one shown is merely suggestive. about half and half. and do not inhale the fumes. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. a little less acid than water. may be changed. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. The decoration. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. or a pair of old tongs. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. and the extreme length 7 in. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. 16 gauge. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in.

as shown in Fig. repeat as many times as is necessary. When the button S is pressed. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. wide and of the same length as the table. The connections are simple: I. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. the bell will ring. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. Fig. Nail a board. and bore two holes. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. long and 1 ft. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. thick. Fig. Then get two posts. to the table. about 3 ft. with the wires underneath. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. or more wide. wide. 3/8 in. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. It may be either nailed or screwed down. 5. as in Fig. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. 5. it will touch post F. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. 2. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. and about 2-1/2 ft. Fig. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. so that when it is pressed down. . through it. J is another wire attached in the same way. 0 indicates the batteries. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. Fig. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. 24 parts water. about 8 in.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. A. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. Fig. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. as at H. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. about 1 in. 1. 2. 4. 3. high. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. long. as shown in the illustration. attached to a post at each end. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. 2. Paint the table any color desired. Cut out a piece of tin. C and D. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. about 2-1/2 in. in diameter and 1/4 in. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. and to keep the metal from tarnishing.

says the English Mechanic. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. such as . The circle is marked out with a compass. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. thick. The imitation articles are made of wood. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den.Imitation Arms and Armor . the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. This weapon is about 22 in. long. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. but they are somewhat difficult to make. the wood peg inserted in one of them. 1. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together.. The entire weapon. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. is to appear as steel. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. long serves as the dowel. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. After the glue is dry. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. 2. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. handle and all. These rings can be carved out. A wood peg about 2 in. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks.

Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. 6. The lower half of the handle is wood. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. The axe is shown in steel. If such a tool is not at hand. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. The upper half of the handle is steel. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. flowers. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. with a sharp carving tool. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. 5. All of these axes are about the same length. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. 8. This weapon is about 22 in. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. the hammer and spike. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. also. is shown in Fig.ornamental scrolls. The entire handle should be made of one piece. or the amateur cannot use it well. 3. as shown. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. . Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. etc. used at the end of the fifteenth century. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. studded with large brass or steel nails. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. leaves. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. Its length is about 3 ft. The handle is of wood. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. long. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. covered with red velvet. as described in Fig. 2. The handle is of steel imitation. as before mentioned. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. The spikes are cut out of wood. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up.

Fig. The knife falling on its side (Fig. calls for a home run. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. Chicago. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. 2. 1. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. as shown in Fig. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. 7) calls for one out. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. 4). a three-base hit. the knife resting on its back. . 5. Each person plays until three outs have been made. then the other plays. and so on for nine innings. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. 3. as in Fig. 6. A foul ball is indicated by Fig.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board.

as shown in Fig. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen.-Contributed by J. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. 3. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. 1. Somerville. Old-Time Magic . which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. of water for an hour or two. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. This he does. hypo to 1 pt. with the rope laced in the cloth. while the committee is tying him up. Campbell. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. If it is spotted at all. one of them burning . It may be found that the negative is not colored. as shown in Fig. 2. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. F. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. Mass.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. of the rope and holds it. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in.

A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. showing that there is nothing between them. thus causing it to light. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. B. 4 oz. Ky. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. invisible to them (the audience). When you want to drill a hole for a pipe.. of water and 1 oz. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. of plumbago. Drill Gauge screw. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. Louisville. New York City. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. Lebanon. shades the light for a few seconds. 3/4 in. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. thick. Evans. of sugar. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. Thome. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. the other without a light. --Contributed by L. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. He then walks over to the other candle.Contributed by Andrew G. The magician walks over to the burning candle. 4 oz. Brown. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. and. bolt. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. --Contributed by C. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. with which he is going to light the other candle. . Ky.brightly. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. etc. of turpentine.

To make the porous cell. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. Its current strength is about one volt. diameter. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. Denniston.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. H. 5 in. Y. long. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. Pulteney. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. In making up the solution. steady current. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. into a tube of several thicknesses. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. for the material. thick. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. about 5 in. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. but is not so good. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Do not add water to the acid. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. --Contributed by C. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. N. or blotting paper. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. which will give a strong. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc.

A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. The . so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. the other holding them apart. a positive adjustment was provided. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. To insure this. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. Finally. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. steel. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. After much experimentation with bearings. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. carrying the hour circle at one end.station. while the other end is attached by two screws. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. steel. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. One hole was bored as well as possible. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described.) may be obtained. one drawing them together. steel. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. long with a bearing at each end. As to thickness. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. but somewhat lighter. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in.

The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. The pointer is directed to Alpha. Instead. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . turn the pointer to the star. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. Set the declination circle to its reading." Only a rough setting is necessary. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. and 15 min. All set screws. is provided with this adjustment. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. are tightened." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. Cassiopiae. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. If the result is more than 24 hours. and if it is not again directed to the same point. The pole is 1 deg. need not be changed. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. It is. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. Declination is read directly. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. 45 min. Point it approximately to the north star. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. The aperture should be 1/4 in. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate.. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. excepting those on the declination axis. All these adjustments. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. To find a star in the heavens. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar." When this is done. To locate a known star on the map. When properly set it will describe a great circle. subtract 24. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. save the one in the pipe. apart. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. once carefully made. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars.. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. Each shaft. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar.

Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. of ether.. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. La. benzole. which is the one examined. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. long. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. 3 or 4 in. cannon balls. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. The dance will begin. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. New Orleans. is folded several times. In reality the first ball. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. a great effect will be produced. add a little more benzole. The ball is found to be the genuine article. the others . and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. then add 1 2-3 dr. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. Ohio. -Contributed by Ray E. as shown in the sketch. If this will be too transparent. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. is the real cannon ball. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. Strosnider. Plain City. taking care not to add too much. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes.

The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. 1).. as shown in the illustration. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. without taking up any great amount of space. Return the card to the pack. taps. F. Milwaukee. Campbell. Somerville. Wis. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. Cal. 2. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. etc.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. Mass. small brooches. In boxes having a sliding cover. --Contributed by J. San Francisco. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. Fig. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag.

thus giving ample store room for colors. prints. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. round pieces 2-1/4 in. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. This box has done good service. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. Beller. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. Connecticut. . The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. slides and extra brushes. from the bottom of the box. Hartford. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. as shown in the illustration.

When the ends are turned under. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. West Lynn. tacking the gauze well at the corners. will answer the purpose. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. -Contributed by C. . and especially are the end pieces objectionable. O. 1). about threefourths full. costing 5 cents. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. Mass. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. Fill the upper tub. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. holes in the bottom of one.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. Darke. 2). or placed against a wall. FIG. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. with well packed horse manure.

After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. if this is not available. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. when they are raised from the pan. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. oil or other fluid. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. If the following directions are carried out. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. cutting the cane between the holes. --Contributed by L. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. and each bundle contains . but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. Eifel. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. Chicago. If plugs are found in any of the holes. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. M. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. they should be knocked out.

First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. it should be held by a plug. 1. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. No plugs . and. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. as it must be removed again. then across and down. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. a square pointed wedge.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. held there by inserting another plug. In addition to the cane. as shown in Fig. after having been pulled tight. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. put about 3 or 4 in.

is the base (5 in. 3. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. Start at one corner and weave diagonally.15 in.= 4. as it always equals the latitude of the place. 42° is 4. --Contributed by M.3 in. and the one we shall describe in this article. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. as shown in Fig. it is 4. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. for 2°. Patrick. 1. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. 4. and for 1° it would be . and for lat. 40°. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. the height of which is taken from table No. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. the height of the line BC. 1. as shown in Fig. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. Fig. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. Detroit. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. There are several different designs of sundials. -Contributed by E. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. R. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. D. 41°-30'. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. 1. From table No. Michigan. in this case) times the . but the most common. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. called the gnomon. Fig. the next smallest. Their difference is .should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. we have 4.15+.075 in. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. 5 in.5 in. If handled with a little care. 1 lat. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. as for example.2+. 5. using the same holes as for the first layer. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. 41 °-30'. trim off the surplus rosin. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed.075 in. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through.42 in. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. stretch the third one. Even with this lubrication. During the weaving. The style or gnomon. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. All added to the lesser or 40°. is the horizontal dial. 3. If you have a table of natural functions. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. This will make three layers. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. When cool. After completing the second layer. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. W. lat. as the height of the line BC for lat. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. or the style. No weaving has been done up to this time.2 in. It consists of a flat circular table.

for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.66 1. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. or more.55 5.82 3.63 56° 7.82 2.12 52° 6. which will represent the base in length and thickness.59 2. For latitudes not given.55 46° 5.46 .85 35 .44 44° 4. according to the size of the dial.50 26° 2. Table NO.33 42° 4.18 28° 2. with a radius of 5 in.14 5. and intersecting the semicircles.57 1. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.66 48° 5.16 1.66 latitude.19 1. long. Draw the line AD. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.96 32° 3. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. 2. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.93 6.tangent of the degree of latitude. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.30 2.83 27° 2.42 45 . and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.49 3.82 5.91 58° 8.07 4. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .10 6.56 .38 .76 1. an inch or two. To layout the hour circle. 1.93 2.42 . Fig.87 1.00 40° 4.37 54° 6.39 .77 2. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. circle Sundial.57 3.20 60° 8. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.40 34° 3.42 1.68 5-30 6-30 5.02 1. Its thickness.99 2. 2.79 4. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.97 5 7 4.40 1. gives the 6 o'clock points. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. and for this size dial (10 in. 2 for given latitudes. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.64 4 8 3. Draw two semi-circles.27 2. if of metal.30 1. using the points A and C as centers. or if of stone.55 4.23 6.88 36° 3.94 1.37 5. and perpendicular to the base or style.29 4-30 7-30 3.28 .33 .89 50° 5.26 4.41 38° 3.06 2.81 4.16 40 .32 6. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. .85 1. base. Chords in inches for a 10 in.46 3.03 3.11 3.55 30° 2.49 30 .87 4.

An ordinary compass.82 3.37 2. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. Sept. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.21 2. June 15. April 16.49 3.01 1.from Sundial lime. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.50 . 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.98 4. Each weapon is cut from wood. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. 900 Chicago. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. says the English Mechanic.77 3.49 5.means that the dial is faster than the sun. London. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.54 60 .60 4. after allowing for the declination.57 1.add those marked + subtract those Marked . Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.79 6. if west. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. Mitchell.71 2. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. then the watch is slower.72 5. The + means that the clock is faster. Sun time to local mean time. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. and the .19 2.50 55 . As they are the genuine reproductions. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. 2 and Dec.87 6. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.. 3.46 5.06 2.68 3. --Contributed by J.89 3. E. each article can be labelled with the name.63 1. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.12 5.52 Table No. and for the difference between standard and local time.10 4. This correction can be added to the values in table No.34 5. 3.24 5. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . adding to each piece interest and value. Sioux City. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.46 4.53 1. Iowa. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.14 1.30 2. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.93 6. it will be faster. will enable one to set the dial. 25. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.08 1.

The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. 1. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. Partisan.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. When putting on the tinfoil. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon.. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. the length of which is about 5 ft. 3. . The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry.

is shown in Fig. A gisarm or glaive. 6 ft. The spear is steel. which are a part of the axe. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil.. The length of this bar is about 5 in. It is about 6 ft. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. This weapon is about 6 ft. used about the seventeenth century. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The extreme length is 9 ft. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long with a round staff or handle. 7. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. long. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. about 4 in. long. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. the holes being about 1/4 in. 5. long with a round wooden handle. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The edges are sharp. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. . press it well into the carved depressions. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. sharp on the outer edges. 8. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear.which is square. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. in diameter. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color.

and if placed from 6 to 12 in. Workman. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. or in holes punched in a leather strap. used for spacing and binding the whole together. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. This is important to secure neatness. 1. apart. the cross cords. 5. Substances such as straw. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. the most durable being bamboo. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. They can be made of various materials. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. Ohio. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. 2 and 3. as shown in Fig. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. Cut all the cords the same length. The twisted cross cords should . Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. In Figs. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement.-Contributed by R. 4. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. H. are put in place. B. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. Loudonville. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. are less durable and will quickly show wear. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord.

A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. Four V-shaped notches were cut. M. bamboo or rolled paper. Harrer. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. of the bottom. Lockport. as shown at B. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. The first design shown is for using bamboo. New Orleans. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. New York. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. A slit was cut in the bottom. To remedy this. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. This was turned over the top of the other can. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. in which was placed a piece of glass. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. La. shaped as shown at C. below the top to within 1/4 in. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. wide. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle.be of such material. for a length extending from a point 2 in. 3 in. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. -Contributed by Geo.

but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. Newburgh. It would be well to polish the brass at first. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. do not throw away the gloves. N. H. --Contributed by Joseph H. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. Pasadena. the brass is loosened from the block. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. After this is finished. This should be done gradually. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Sanford. giving the appearance of hammered brass. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. Shay. Cal. Ill. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. about 1/16 in. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. turned over but not fastened. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . This plank. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat.tape from sticking to the carpet. Y. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by Chas. Maywood. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. wide. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. and two along the side for attaching the staff. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. Schaffner.

Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Richmond. in diameter.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Oak Park. --E. Unlike most clocks. -Contributed by W. A. bent as shown. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Jaquythe. the pendulum swings . Marshall. Ill. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. K. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Cal.

first-class joints can be made without much trouble. B. Chicago. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. are secured in the base bar. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Now place the board to be joined. is an electromagnet. to the first one with screws or glue. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. 3/4 in. and the other two 2-5/8 in. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. 7-1/2 in. Two uprights. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. about 6 in. bar. about 12 in. C. The construction is very simple. in diameter. long and at each side of this.. the center one being 2-3/4 in. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. thick. on the board B. bearing on the latter. by 1-5/16 in. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. A. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. away. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. Secure a board. wide that is perfectly flat. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. 6 in. high. 5/16 in. such as this one. only have the opposite side up. wide. --Contributed by V. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. Fasten another board. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. In using this method. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. Metzech. high. high and 1/4 in. says the Scientific American. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. . The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. high. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod.

from one end. . A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. 1. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. whose dimensions are given in Fig. or more. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. by driving a pin through the wood. Pa. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. Vanderslice. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. plates should be made 8 in. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. Phoenixville. The trigger. 4. is fastened in the hole A. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. Fig. wide and 5 in. as shown at A. square inside. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. 3. Fig. long. --Contributed by Elmer A. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. 1. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. square. 1. wide and 1 in. 2.

which allows 1/4 in. as shown in the illustration. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. 2 parts of whiting. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. Simonis. rubbing varnish and turpentine. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take.A. 5 parts of black filler. if only two bands are put in the . The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Fostoria. square. by weight. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. one-half the length of the side pieces. Ohio. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. -Contributed by J.

A mirror. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. in the opposite end of the box. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. It must be kept moist and well . There is no limit to the size of the helmet. --Contributed by Thos. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. Shaw. is necessary. Mass. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. A piece of metal. Grand Rapids. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. If a plain glass is used. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. London. -Contributed by Abner B. place tracing paper on its surface. deep. Dartmouth. Michigan. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. is set at an angle of 45 deg. 1. which may be either of ground or plain glass.lower strings. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. wide and about 1 ft. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. and it may be made as a model or full sized. says the English Mechanic. and the picture can be drawn as described. long. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. A double convex lens. 8 in. DeLoof. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. as shown in Fig. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. keeps the strong light out when sketching. No. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. G. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. II. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. In constructing helmets. preferably copper. In use. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and.

up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. 3. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. on which to place the clay. and the deft use of the fingers. as in bas-relief. will be necessary. brown. and left over night to soak. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. and over the crest on top. take. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. or some thin glue. joined closely together. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. All being ready. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. 1. with a keyhole saw. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. 1. 2. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. After the clay model is finished. as shown in Fig. a few clay-modeling tools. and continue until the clay is completely covered. Scraps of thin. shown in Fig. the clay model oiled. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. The clay. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. This being done. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling.kneaded.

This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. The whole helmet. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. owing to the clay being oiled. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. In Fig. This contrivance should be made of wood. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. They are all covered with tinfoil. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . 9. Before taking it off the model. Indianapolis. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. When the helmet is off the model. should be modeled and made in one piece. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. one for each side. then another coating of glue. the skullcap. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. In Fig. with the exception of the vizor. Indiana. and so on. the piecing could not be detected. a crest on top. The band is decorated with brass studs. When dry. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. as seen in the other part of the sketch. 5. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. and the ear guards in two pieces. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. square in shape. or. a few lines running down. will make it look neat. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. as shown: in the design. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. The center of the ear guards are perforated. --Contributed by Paul Keller. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. When perfectly dry. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. 1. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration.as possible. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. which should be no difficult matter. 7.

should extend about 1/4 in. 22 gauge resistance wire. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. which can be bought from a local druggist. 1 in. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. or. Fig. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. if the measurements are correct. until it is within 1 in. Fig. The mineral wool. high. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. thick sheet asbestos. 1. 4. of the top. are allowed to project about 1 in. 2. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. screws. 4. Fig. Fig. long. Fig. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. long. AA. A round collar of galvanized iron. The plate.same size. 1. and C. for connections. as shown in Fig. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. Fig. as shown in Fig. This will allow the plate. the fuse block. as shown in Fig. about 80 ft. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. one glass tube. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. 1. Fig. also the switch B and the fuse block C. The reverse side of the base. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. thick. one oblong piece of wood. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. one fuse block. is shown in Fig. JJ. 2. E and F. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. 4 lb. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. 4. above the collar. 3. about 1/4 in. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. If asbestos is used. 4. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. one small switch. of No. as it stands a higher temperature. Fig. and two large 3in. FF. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. 3 in. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. If a neat appearance is desired. 2. if this cannot be obtained. AA. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. 1. Fig. The holes B and C are about 3 in. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. Fig. when they are placed in opposite positions. wide and 15 in. 1. is then packed down inside the collar. 4. This will make an open space between the plates. the holes leading to the switch. and. to receive screws for holding it to the base. Fig. each 4-1/2 in. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. 12 in. long. Fig. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. AA. of mineral wool. German-silver wire is better. The two holes. 4. in diameter and 9 in. about 1 lb. 4. two ordinary binding posts. Fig. of fire clay. with slits cut for the wires. 1. GG. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F.

When this is done. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. A file can be used to remove any rough places. Fig. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. and pressed into it. 2. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. --Contributed by W. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. H. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. 4. While the clay is damp. causing a short circuit. Cnonyn. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. more wire should be added. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. Cover over about 1 in. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. KK. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. --Contributed by R. If it is not thoroughly dry. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. Cal. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. As these connections cannot be soldered. when heated. II. above the rim. steam will form when the current is applied. deep. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. It should not be set on end. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. when cool. Can. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. allowing a space between each turn. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. When the tile is in place. A. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . The clay. It should not be left heated in this condition. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. St. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. Cut a 1/2-in. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. Jaquythe. If this is the case. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. Fig. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. using care not to get it too wet. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. This completes the stove. Catherines. will slip and come in contact with each other. as the turns of the wires. Richmond. it leaves a gate for the metal. so that the circuit will not become broken. then. apart. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. Next. This point marks the proper length to cut it. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside.

Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. and the prints will dry rapidly. Thorne. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Louisville. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. says the Photographic Times. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. Ky. constructed of 3/4-in." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. and the frame set near a window. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Then clip a little off the . the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. the pie will be damaged. --Contributed by Andrew G. as shown. square material in any size. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. is large enough. but 12 by 24 in.

wide and 3 in. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. long. A 1/8-in. at GG. As the shaft revolves. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. Fig. in diameter. which gives the shaft a half turn. thick. The driving arm D. as shown. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. The connecting rod E. 1. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. causing a break in the current. -Contributed by S. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. 22 gauge magnet wire. thereby saving time and washing. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. 2. The upright B. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. W. which are fastened to the base. thick and 3 in. each 1 in. 1 and 3. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. 2-1/2 in. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. high. Figs. wide and 7 in. 14 in. Herron. in diameter and about 4 in. wide. 1/2 in. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. Two supports. for the crank. each 1/2 in. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. allowing each end to project for connections. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. open out. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. slip on two cardboard washers. thick and 3 in. Le Mars. 1/2 in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. high. The board can be raised to place . Fig. 4 in. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. 3. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. 1. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. 1. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle.Paper Funnel point. high. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. An offset is bent in the center. Iowa. The connections are made as shown in Fig. long. Fig. long. long. 1.

. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. Place the pot. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. In designing the roost. 3 in. as shown in the sketch. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. Dorchester. --Contributed by William F. on a board. in height. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. One or more pots may be used. making a framework suitable for a roost. Mass. bottom side up. Stecher.

when combined. F. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. etc. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Fig.. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. windows. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. shelves. adopt the method described. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. 1. odd corners.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. as shown in Fig. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time.. that it is heated. paraffin and paint or varnish. grills and gratings for doors. preferably. F. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. without any corresponding benefit. in diameter. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. Wind the . ordinary glue. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. and give it time to dry. The materials required are rope or. The bottom part of the sketch. 1. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. will produce the pattern desired. if it is other than straight lines. If the meter is warmed 10 deg.

N. -Contributed by Geo. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . cut and glue them together. M. six designs are shown. Y. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. 2.Fig. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Fig. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Harrer. Lockport.

Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. will be retained by the cotton. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. This piece of horse armor. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. 1. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. etc.. but no farther. says the English Mechanic. etc. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. Pour the water in until the filter is filled.. As the . The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. which was used in front of a horse's head. when it will be observed that any organic matter.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. chips of iron rust. London. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. and the sides do not cover the jaws. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made..

which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. except the thumb and fingers. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. 2. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. which can be made in any size. 4. but the back is not necessary. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. 2. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. which is separate. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. The armor is now removed from the model. This will make the model light and easy to move around. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. the same as in Fig. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. 8. as the surface will hold the clay. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. and will require less clay. and therefore it is not described. with the exception of the thumb shield. In Fig. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. This can be made in one piece. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. 6 and 7. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. the rougher the better. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. This being done. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. An arrangement is shown in Fig. but for . is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. and the clay model oiled. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. This triangularshaped support. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. as shown in the sketch. All being ready. then another coat of glue. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes.

in depth. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. Buxton. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. but 3-1/2 in. cut into the shape shown in Fig. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. . Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. wide and 1/2 in. each about 1/4 in. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. 1/2 in. A piece of board. Fasten a polished brass ball to. fastened to the rod. If it does not hold a charge. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. are glued to it. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. are better shown in Fig. 2. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. Goshen. the top of the rod. --Contributed by Ralph L. When locating the place for the screw eyes. Y. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. two for the jaws and one a wedge. and the instrument is ready for use. two in each jaw. --Contributed by John G. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. the two pieces of foil will draw together. Redondo Beach. The two pieces of foil. long. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. Calif. the foils will not move. running down the plate. La Rue. 9. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. will be about right.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. N.

At a point 6 in.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. silvered. long. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. about 15 in. hole bored through it. A. Texas. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. as shown in the illustration. The can may be bronzed. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. enameled or otherwise decorated. M. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. is made of a 1/4-in. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. When a fish is hooked. Corsicana. pine board. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. --Contributed by Mrs. 2-1/2 in. from the smaller end. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. as this will cut under the water without splashing. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. Bryan. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. as indicated in the . the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in.

When it has dried over night. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. Any kind of wood will do. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. long over all. Next prepare the metal holder. wide by 6 in. A good size is 5 in. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place.Match Holder accompanying sketch. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. punch the holes. and trace upon it the design and outline. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. using a piece of carbon paper. or even pine. such as basswood or pine was used. then with a nail. put a coat or two of wax and polish . 22 is plenty heavy enough. thick. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. using powdered pumice and lye. Basswood or butternut. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. Having completed the drawing. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. as shown. Polish the metal. If soft wood. 3/8 or 1/4 in." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. take a piece of thin wood. will do as well as the more expensive woods. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown.

thick. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. long. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. Two wire nails. Jaquythe.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. . is used for the base of this instrument. If one has some insight in carving. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. the whole being finished in linseed oil. long. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. Cal. Instead of the usual two short ropes. wide and 5 in. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. --Contributed by W. 1/2 in. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. 2 in. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. Richmond. A. It is useful for photographers. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. each 1 in. are used for the cores of the magnets. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. can be made on the same standards. of pure olive oil. If carving is contemplated.

All of the parts for the armor have been described. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. when the key is pushed down.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. A piece of tin. at A. 3. except that for the legs. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. . About 1 in. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. the paper covering put on. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. acts as a spring to keep the key open. similar to that used in electric bells. 1. says the English Mechanic. cloth or baize to represent the legs. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. Lynas. as shown in Fig. cut in the shape of the letter T. H. leaving about 1/4 in. London. --Contributed by W. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. about No. as shown by the dotted lines. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. in the shape shown in the sketch. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. 25 gauge. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. A rubber band. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. then covered with red.

for the sake of lightness. The two pieces are bolted together. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. drill six 1/4-in. Secure two strips of wood. long. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. 2. apart. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. In one end of the piece. 1 in. or ordinary plaster laths will do. at each end. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. one to another . 3 in. make the same series of eight small holes and. So set up. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. holes. apart. can be made in a few minutes' time. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. says Camera Craft.. not too tight. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. about 1 in. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. Fig. flat headed carriage bolt. Instead of using brass headed nails. By moving the position of the bolt from. Cut them to a length or 40 in. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. completes the equipment. and eight small holes. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. A 1/4-in. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. in the other end. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. Take the piece shown in Fig. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. 1 and drill a 1/4in. hole in the center. These can be purchased at a stationery store. Silver paper will do very well.

of the ends remain unwoven.of the larger holes in the strip. 4. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. A is the first string and B is the second. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. Then draw all four ends up snugly. Fig. 2. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. long. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. and the one beneath C. for instance. the one marked A. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. Start with one end. 2. 1. then B over C and the end stuck under A. as in portraiture and the like. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. 2. but instead of reversing . leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. doubled and run through the web of A. lay Cover B and the one under D. and lay it over the one to the right. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. as shown in Fig. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. In this sketch. A round fob is made in a similar way. C over D and B. in Fig. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. D over A and C. Then take B and lay it over A. taking the same start as for the square fob.

A loop. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. 5. 1-1/2 in. as at A in Fig. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. 3. always lap one string. --Contributed by John P. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. over the one to its right.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. as B. is left out at the center before starting on one side. long. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. Other designs can be made in the same manner. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. Ohio. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. the design of which is shown herewith. is to be made of leather. The round fob is shown in Fig. especially if silk strings are used. Monroeville. as in making the square fob. Rupp. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them.

Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. door facing or door panel. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. beeswax or paraffin. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. using the reverse side. When the supply of wax is exhausted. filling them with wax. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. Any smooth piece of steel. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. Houghton. . A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. A. -Contributed by A. such as a nut pick. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. Northville. it can be easily renewed. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. pressing it against the wood. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. Mich. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat.

apart and driven in only part way. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. J. D. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. but any kind that will not stick may be used. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. and about 12 in. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. leaving about 1/4 in.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. New York. Ill. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. thick. those on matte paper will work best. if blueprints are used. Y. . says Photographic Times. Select the print you wish to mount. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. although tin ones can be used with good success. N. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. The tacks should be about 1 in. Enough plaster should. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. --Contributed by O. remaining above the surface of the board. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. it is best to leave a plain white margin. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. long. Fold together on lines C. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. place it face down in the dish. and after wetting. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. E and F. Petersburg. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Thompson. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted.

. without mixing the solutions. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. One of the . at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. as shown in the right of the sketch. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. etc. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. violets. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. will be rendered perfectly white. Lower into the test tube a wire. bell flowers. roses. filling the same about onehalf full.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. as shown at the left in the sketch.

3. should be soldered to the box. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The sound box. to keep the core from coming off in turning. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. about 1/8s in. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. A rod that will fit the brass tube. or delicate tints of the egg. The diaphragm. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. not too tightly. Shabino. turned a little tapering. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. 1-7/8 in. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. Fig. shading. 2. --Contributed by L. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. 1. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. is about 2-1/2 in. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. in diameter and 1 in. L. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. When soldering these parts together. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. long and made of wood.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown.. but which will not wobble loose. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. The first point should be ground blunt. and at the larger end. thick. made of heavy tin. as shown. long. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. South Dakota. Millstown. as shown in the sketch. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. The tin horn can be easily made.

and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Colo. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. E. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Jr. Victor. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Chicago. and weighted it with a heavy stone. says the Iowa Homestead. mice in the bottom. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] .--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. and. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. put a board on top. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. is to take a knife with two blades at one end.Contributed by E. Ill. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. Gold. wondering what it was. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy.

To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Pereira. Buffalo. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. Ottawa. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. . with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. N. Y.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Can. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. --Contributed by Lyndwode. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers.

as shown. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. cut round. and at one end of the stick fasten. a piece of tin. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. Grand Rapids. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Mich. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. Richmond. --Contributed by W. This cart has no axle. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Put a small nail 2 in. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. longer than the length of the can. A. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . above the end of the dasher. Cal. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. by means of a flatheaded tack.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. through which several holes have been punched. De Loof. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. Jaquythe. as it can be made quickly in any size. --Contributed by Thos.

2 in. 1. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye.1. Doylestown. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. 1/4 in. --Contributed by James M. 1-1/2 in. The baseboard and top are separable. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. as shown. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. 2. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. wide and 1/8 in. thick. screwed it on the inside of a store box. 2. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. were below the level of the bullseye. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. 1 ft. Pa. The candles. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. Notches 1/8 in. A wedge-shaped piece of . The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. deep and 3 in. 2. wide and as long as the box. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. apart.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. long. board. Fig. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of course. Kane. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. wide and 3 ft. wide. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. I reversed a door gong. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. New Orleans. La. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. cut in the center of the rounding edge.

will. Ia. 3. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. wide rubber bands or felt. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. When not in use. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. as shown in Fig. For the handle. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. the blade is put back into the groove . etc. This device is very convenient for invalids. wide into each side of the casing. scissors. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. Mass.Book Back Holders metal. West Union. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. A. when placed as in Fig. Cover the block with rubber. the shelf could not be put on the window. The block can also be used as a paperweight. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. the reason being that if both were solid. 1. Worcester. Wood. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge.. stone or wood. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. take two pieces of hard wood. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. to prevent its scratching the desk top. Needles. dressing one surface of each piece. After the glue has dried. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. After completing the handle. by cutting away the ends. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. can be picked up without any trouble. --Contributed by G. it can be removed without marring the casing.

a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Erie. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. --Contributed by Maud McKee. --Contributed by H. Malden. as shown in Fig. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles.and sharpened to a cutting edge. 1. Jacobs. A. Mass. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Each one is made of a hardwood block. thus carrying the car up the incline. A notch is cut in one side. as shown in Fig. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Cleveland. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. 2. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Hutchins. Pa. long. -Contributed by W. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. If desired. square and 4 in. Ohio. S. . The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. 1 in.

J. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. will be needed. Cape May Point. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. N.. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. If one such as is shown is to be used. Prepare a design for the front. . Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. One sheet of metal. The letters can be put on afterward. This will insure having all parts alike. 6 by 9-1/2 in.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. and an awl and hammer. a board on which to work it.

using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. but weird and distant. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. 3/4 part. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. 2 parts white vitriol." In all appearance. mandolin or guitar. turpentine. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. as shown. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. flat brush. On the back. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. or. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. applied by means of a brush. placed on a table. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. 1 part. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. in the waste metal. Remove the metal. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. only the marginal line is to be pierced. says Master Painter. 1/4 part. that can be worked in your own parlor. The stick may be placed by the side of. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. behind or through the center of a table leg. varnish. If any polishing is required. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. . Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. which is desirable. to right angles. The music will not sound natural. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. So impressive are the results. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. paste the paper design right on the metal. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. a violin.Fasten the metal to the board. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. One coat will do. if desired. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced.

across the top. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. London. With proper tools this is easy. without them. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. 2. long. square bar iron. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. 3. long and measuring 26 in. and is easy to construct. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. Two pairs of feet. The longest piece.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. thick by 1/2 in. says Work. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. are shaped as shown in Fig. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. wide. each 28 in. apart. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. it might be difficult. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. . long and spread about 8 in. is bent square so as to form two uprights. each 6 in. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. round-head machine screws.

Fig. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. C. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. the latter being tapped to . The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. After the joints are soldered. the piece E can be fitted and soldered.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. 5. The design is formed in the lead. better still. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. 7. as shown in Fig. in the grooves of the borders. cut a long piece of lead. or. After the glass is cut. special flux purchased for this purpose. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. 4. D. While the piece of lead D. using rosin as a flux. 6. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. A. lead. Fig. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. and the base border. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. B. Place the corner piece of glass. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. is held by the brads. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. The brads are then removed. on it as shown. 5. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The glass. of which a cross section is shown in Fig.

square and of the length given in the drawing. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. 8. The center pin is 3/4-in. Camden. bolt. Bore a 5/8-in. J. thick and drill 3/4-in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. rounded at the top as shown. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Dreier. then drill a 3/4-in. --Contributed by W. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. long. one on each side and central with the hole. N. rocker bolt. Make three washers 3-in. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. in diameter and about 9 in. holes through their centers. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. long. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. Fasten the plates to the block B. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. plates. Jr. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. This . in diameter and 1/4 in.. H. wood screws in each washer. plank about 12 ft. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. Secure a post. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. long. A and B. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Two styles of hand holds are shown. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. Bore a 3/4-in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. bolt. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in.the base of the clip. and round the corners of one end for a ring. and two wood blocks. then flatten its end on the under side. This ring can be made of 1-in. not less than 4 in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends.

An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. 3 in. 50 ft. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. 4 in. hickory. La. 4 pieces. shanks. 1. square by 5 ft. New Orleans. 4 in. 9 in. 2-1/2 in. 7 in. straight-grained hickory. 16 screws. The four 7-in. can make a first class gymnasium. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. 1-1/4in. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. because it will not stand the weather. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. 3/4 by 3 in. 4 filler pieces. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. long. Draw a line on the four 7-in. by 3 ft. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 4 pieces. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. and some one can swing an axe. To substitute small. square by 9-1/2 ft.will make an excellent cover for a pot. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. of 1/4-in. from one edge. in diameter and 7 in. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. by 6-1/2 ft. maple. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. 1/2 in. 1 by 7 in. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. long and 1 piece. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. boards along the side of each from end to end. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. long. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. long. screws. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. long. the money outlay will be almost nothing. chestnut or ash. horse and rings. 2 by 4 in. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. If trees are convenient. by 2 ft. bolts and rope. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. long. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. long. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. apart for a distance of 3 ft. bit.

Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. deep and remove all loose dirt. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. boards coincide. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. 8 in. Bore a 9/16-in. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig.. apart. so the 1/2-in. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. piece of wood.. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. each 3 ft. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. at each end. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. from the end. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes.bored. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. 2. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. apart. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut.

in an endless belt. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. and then passes in a curve across the base. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. passing through a screweye at either end. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. but most deceptive at dusk. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. When the interest of the crowd. was at its height. If the tumbler is rotated. apart. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. it is taken to the edge of the foot. not much to look at in daytime. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. about 100 ft. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. He stretched the thread between two buildings. which at once gathered. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. not even the tumbler. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. the effect is very striking. W.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. and ascends the stem. and materially heightened the illusion.. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. it follows the edge for about 1 in. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous." which skimmed along the distant horizon. disappearing only to reappear again. just visible against the dark evening sky. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. . And all he used was a black thread.

so the point will be on top. The cork will come out easily. New Orleans. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. Fig. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 2 by 3 in. 2 by 4 in. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. by 3 ft. 2 side braces. long. 4 in. beginning at a point 9 in. wide and 1 in. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. A wire about No. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 2 by 4 in. 8 in. 4 in. 2 base pieces. long. deep. 4 bolts. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 6 in. large spikes. preferably cedar. Chisel out two notches 4 in. long and 1 doz. 2 in. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 7 in. long. 8 in. long. La. 2 by 4 in.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. 8 in. long. long. 8 bolts. square and 51/2 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. from either side of the center. To make the apparatus. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 2 cross braces. square and 6 ft. 1. and turned in a spiral D. by 7 ft. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 4 knee braces. Bevel the ends of . by 2 ft. by 10 ft. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. long. 4 wood screws. long.

The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. Jaquythe. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. ( To be Continued. equipped with a strainer. Cal. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. additional long. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. leave it undressed. . After the trenches are dug. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. and countersinking the heads. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. The wood so treated will last for years.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. of 7 ft. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. but even unpainted they are very durable. except the bars.the knee braces. If using mill-cut lumber. --Contributed by W. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. as shown in the diagram. so the bolts in both will not meet. A.. jellies. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. which face each other. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. A large sized ladle. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. Two endpieces must be made. etc. using four of the 7-in bolts. These will allow the ladle to be turned. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. leaving the strainer always in position. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. screws. Richmond. save the bars.

of sufficient 1ength. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. thus holding the pail as shown.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. . it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. milling machine. A. drill press or planer. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. partly a barrier for jumps. or various cutting compounds of oil. it is necessary to place a stick. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. Oil. In order to accomplish this experiment. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. which seems impossible. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table.

but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. but 5 ft. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 2 adjusting pieces. by 3 ft. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. stud cut rounding on one edge. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. by 3 ft. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. 7 in. bolts. long.. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. long. 2 bases. 4 in. long. 2 by 4 in. The round part of this log must be planed. to fasten the knee braces at the top. 4 knee braces. long. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. long. from each end. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. apart in a central position on the horse. long. in the ground. 1 cross brace. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. 4 in. two 1/2-in. 2 by 4 in. Hand holds must be provided next. in diameter--the larger the better. square by 5 ft. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. 4 in. bolts. These are well nailed in place. 1 in. Procure from a saw mill. long. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. projections and splinters. apart. bolt. wood yard or from the woods. and free from knots. square by 5-1/2 ft. These are placed 18 in. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. is a good length. long.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. The material required is as follows: Two posts. piece of 2 by 4-in. 4-1/2 in. ten 1/2-in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in.. 3 in. To construct. 2 by 4 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. bolts. beginning 1-1/2 in. by 3 ft.

Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. pipe and fittings.--Contributed by W. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. but nevertheless.horse top. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. then bending to the shape desired. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. no one is responsible but himself. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. Richmond. Also. Cal. A. it is caused by some obstruction. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. water. such as a dent. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. over and around. snow. Such a hand sled can be made in a . Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. it is caused by an overloaded shell. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Jaquythe. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. etc. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping.

Boston. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. then run a string over each part. Paris. These. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. at E and F. Vener. The end elevation. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. France. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. when complete. 1/4 or 3/16 in. 2. are all the tools necessary.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. when straightened out. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Ontario. Toronto. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. W. 1. thick. in width and 1/32 in. Noble. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. will give the length. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. . The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. --Contributed by Arthur E. is much better than a wood sled. Joerin. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. --Contributed by J. which. --Contributed by James E. Mass.

The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. 4. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. and the latter will take on a bright luster. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. 3. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. . The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. It is best to use soft water.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. AA and BB. nor that which is partly oxidized. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. are nailed. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The method shown in Figs. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat.

two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. Percy Ashley in Rudder. The materials used are: backbone. as shown in Fig. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. or various rulings may be made. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. or unequal widths as in Fig. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. 3. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. as shown in Fig. 8 and 9.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. 2. Broad lines can be made. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. 2. class ice-yacht. . 4. 1).

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. It can be made longer or shorter. a larger size of pipe should be used. 1. pipe. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron.Fig. Both the lower . pins to keep them from turning. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. out from the collar. but if it is made much longer. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. long. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. a tee and a forging. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. bent and drilled as shown. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The point should extend about 11/2 in. A good and substantial homemade lathe. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. 1-Details of Lathe sort. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The headstock is made of two tees. about 30 in. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass.

W. a corresponding line made on this. a straight line should be scratched Fig. and will answer for a great variety of work. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. else taper turning will result. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. Boissevain.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Held. 3/4 or 1 in. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. Fruitvale. --Contributed by W. Indiana. as shown in Fig. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. --Contributed by M. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. Man. --Contributed by W. 2. or a key can be used as well. 1. UpDeGraff. Cal. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. Musgrove. To do this. thick as desired. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. M. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. . Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. 2. 2. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. but also their insulating properties. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. Laporte. as shown in Fig. It is about 1 in.

I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . Smith. J. long. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. --Contributed by E. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. The handle is of pine about 18 in. In use. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. Cline.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. Ark. as shown. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. Ft. To obviate this.

After being entered. White. if this method is followed: First.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. take . This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. La. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. This prevents the drill from wobbling. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. and when once in true up to its size. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. face off the end of the piece. on starting the lathe. centering is just one operation too many. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. Colo. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. --Contributed by Walter W. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. Denver. the drill does not need the tool. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. New Orleans. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. which should be backed out of contact. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill.

This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. vanishing wand. and this given to someone to hold. all the better. a long piece of glass tubing. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. The glass tube B. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. After the wand is removed. shown at C. by applying caustic soda or . shorter t h a n the wand. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. The handkerchief rod. In doing this. unknown to the spectators.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. after being shown empty. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. a bout 1/2 in. and can be varied to suit the performer. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. as shown in D. the cap is placed over the paper tube. It can be used in a great number of tricks. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. says the Sphinx. is put into the paper tube A. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping.

3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. 1/4 in. Glue the neck to the box. Glue strips of soft wood. can be made by the home mechanic. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. With care and patience. cut to any shape desired. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in.potash around the edges of the letters. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. The brace at D is 1 in. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. and glue it to the neck at F. As the cement softens. across the front and back to strengthen them. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. preferably hard maple. with the back side rounding. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. Cut a piece of hard wood. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. by 14 by 17 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. 1 Bottom. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. This dimension and those for the frets . The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. 3/16. 1 End. 1 Neck. thick. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 1. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. End. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. long. The sides. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. as shown by K. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. square and 1-7/8 in. 2 Sides. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in.

Stoddard. --Contributed by Chas. E. 1) on which to stretch the paper. -Contributed by J. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. wide and 11-1/2 ft. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. 3/16 in. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. Six holes. O. A board 1 in.should be made accurately. and beveled .Pa. but it is not. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. Norwalk. toward each end. thick and about 1 ft. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. long is used for a keel. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. H. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. in diameter. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Frary. When it is completed you will have a canoe. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. Carbondale. or backbone.

For the ribs near the middle of the boat. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. 2. 13 in. 3. b. probably. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. Shape these as shown by A. thick. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. in such cases. The ribs. and so. by means of a string or wire. or similar material. For the gunwales (a. with long stout screws. 3). as shown in Fig. Any tough. Fig.. Fig. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. Green wood is preferable. slender switches of osier willow. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. and are not fastened. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. 1 and 2. a. 1. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. Fig. 2). as they are apt to do. 3). are next put in. Fig. as before described. wide by 26 in. Osiers probably make the best ribs. as shown in Fig. 4). and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. or other place. which are easily made of long. Fig. but twigs of some other trees. some tight strips of ash. apart. and. two twigs may be used to make one rib. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. b. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. two strips of wood (b. and notched at the end to receive them (B. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. 2). For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. Fig. In drying. C. 3/8 in. These are better. . 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. 3. twigs 5 or 6 ft. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. B. 4. long are required. such as is used for making chairbottoms. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. when made of green elm. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. long. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. the loose strips of ash (b. but before doing this. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. in thickness and should be cut. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. Fig. Fig. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. will answer nearly as well. buy some split cane or rattan. Fig. such as hazel or birch.) in notches. C. thick. The cross-boards (B. b. procure at a carriage factory. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh.

and as soon as that has soaked in. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. Fig. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. If not. Then take some of the split rattan and.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. Being made in long rolls. You may put in . tacking it to the bottom-board. and steady in the water. but with less turpentine. and light oars. if it has been properly constructed of good material. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. wide. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. B. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. preferably iron. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. When thoroughly dry. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. 5). If the paper be 1 yd. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. It should be smooth on the surface. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. and very tough. The paper is then trimmed. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. and held in place by means of small clamps. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. however. It should be drawn tight along the edges. but neither stiff nor very thick. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. When the paper is dry. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. of very strong wrapping-paper. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. after wetting it. apply a second coat of the same varnish.

and if driven as shown in the cut. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. Fig. 1. Fig. and make a movable seat (A. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. 5. 2.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. 1 and the end in . fore and aft. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. they will support very heavy weights. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. Drive the lower nail first. to fit it easily. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. Fig. We procured a box and made a frame. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. 5).Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time.

The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. and the glass. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. Pa. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. this makes the tube airtight. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. 4. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. This is an easy . 3. A good way to handle this work. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. being softer where the flame has been applied. This way has its drawbacks. Close the other end with the same operation. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat.Fig. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. 5. and the result is. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. Pittsburg. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing.

By holding the nail about 1/4 in. third. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. thin screw. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. 23 gauge. flat and round-nosed pliers. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. very rapid progress can be made. metal shears. also trace the decorative design. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . three. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. above the metal. four. Sixth. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. -Contributed by A. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. or six arms. Oswald. then reverse. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. file. fifth. The candle holders may have two. After the bulb is formed. rivet punch. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. above the work and striking it with the hammer. second. fourth. Give the metal a circular motion. with a piece of carbon paper. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block.way to make a thermometer tube. Seventh. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. extra metal all around. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall.

It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. and holder. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Having pierced the bracket. Small copper rivets are used. drip cup. Metal polish of any kind will do. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration.

smooth it down and then remove as before. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. alcohol 2 parts. Heat 6-1/2 oz. glycerine 4 parts. using a steel pen. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. Fifty. N. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. and water 24 parts. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. Twenty cents was all I spent. and it will be ready for future use. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. I steer with the front wheel. when it will be ready for use. and in a week . and other things as they were needed. all the rest I found. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. if it has not absorbed too much ink. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. sugar 1 part.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. and brace and bit were the tools used. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. they were like an ice boat with a sail. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. F. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. is a broomstick. The gaff. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. winding the ends where they came together with wire. Soak 1 oz. of glycerine to about 200 deg. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. hammer. The boom. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. and add the gelatine. thus it was utilized. deep. A saw. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. except they had wheels instead of runners. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. Mother let me have a sheet. J. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. on a water bath. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. Shiloh. the stick at the bottom of the sail.

Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. a projecting lens .

and 14 in. 3. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. A table. or glue. wire brads. This ring is made up from two rings. and a projecting lens 2 in. slide to about 6 ft. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. above the center. H. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. high. Fig. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. are . as desired. DD. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. E. The slide support. G. 1/2 to 3/4 in. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. 1. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. wide. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. wide and 15 in. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. at a distance of 24 ft. focus enlarging a 3-in. and the work carefully done. about 2 ft. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. and. long. or a lens of 12-in. If a small saw is used. 8 in. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. describe a 9-in. and the lens slide. at a point 1 in.. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. thick. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. The board is centered both ways. well seasoned pine. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. provided the material is of metal. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. A and B. but if such a box is not found. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons.

should the glass happen to upset. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. A sheet . and when the right position is found for each.constructed to slip easily on the table. The arrangement is quite safe as. P. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. Minn. To reach the water. E. JJ. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. B. placed on the water. light burning oil.-Contributed by G. St. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. the water at once extinguishes the flame. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. the strips II serving as guides. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. of safe. but not long enough. Paul. Small strips of tin. apply two coats of shellac varnish.

3 in. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. Crawford. to cover the mattresses. 9 in. Schenectady. N.. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. Y. then the corners on one end are doubled over. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along .Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. 4. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. form a piece of wire in the same shape. If one of these clips is not at hand. 3. 3. from a tent company. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. 12 ft. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. 1. I ordered a canvas bag. Fig. --Contributed by J. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one.H. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 2. Fig. by 12 ft. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig.

3/4 in. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter.each edge. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. holes in the edge. Fold two strips of light cardboard. Warren. first mark the binding-post A. Fig. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. Colo. Attach a piece of steel rod. to keep it from unwinding. D. wide. 2. 1/2 in. open on the edges. V. apart. and insert two binding-posts. --Contributed by Walter W. Teasdale. Do not use too strong a rubber. 3 to swing freely on the tack. Pa. Denver. A rubber band. To calibrate the instrument. as shown in Fig. long and 3/16 in. 2. to the coil of small wire for volts. thick. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Fig. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. insulating them from the case with cardboard. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. drill two 3/16 in. A Film Washing Trough [331] . A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. 1/2 in. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. long. 1. 3/4 in. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. White. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. Fasten the wire with gummed label. 1. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. An arc is cut in the paper. 2. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. through which the indicator works. --Contributed by Edward M. so as to form two oblong boxes. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. in the center coil. for amperes and the other post. C. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale.

Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Wood Burning [331] . apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Cut a 1/4-in. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Hunting. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Dayton. --Contributed by M. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. O. as shown. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. with the large hole up. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Place this can on one end of the trough. M.

then into this bottle place. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. mouth downward. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle.

If the cork is adjusted properly. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. 2. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. thick. Ala. Upper Troy. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. Place the small bottle in as before. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by John Shahan. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. N. This will make a very pretty ornament. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. Auburn. 1. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . 3/4 in.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. wide and 4 in. long. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig.Y. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. If the small bottle used is opaque. --Contributed by Fred W. but not very thick. provided the bottle is wide. many puzzling effects may be obtained. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. Whitehouse.

W. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. A staple. long. 1. thick. 2 ft.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. thick and 3 in. sugar pine on account of its softness. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. The shaft C. was keyed to shaft C. The 21/2-in. I. was 1/4in. were constructed of 1-in. wide. 2. high without the upper half. such as blades and pulleys. Both bearings were made in this manner. line. 4. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. 3. Fig. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. 1. Milter. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. 1. G. 1. pulley. Fig. which extended to the ground. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. Fig. Fig. 1. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. which was 6 in. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. which was nailed to the face plate. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. If a transmitter is used. On a 1000-ft. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. as shown in Fig. to the shaft. in diameter and 1 in. or ordinary telephone transmitters. K. The wire L was put . Fig. The bearing blocks were 3 in. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. --Contributed by D. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. pulley F. B. by the method shown in Fig. iron rod. even in a light breeze. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. thick. 1 in. Its smaller parts. which gave considerable power for its size.

H. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. Fig. 1. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. long and 1/2 in. cut out another piece of tin (X. long and bend it as shown at A. Fig. This completes the receiver or sounder. Fig. long and 3 in. 0. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. Fig. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. apart in the tower. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. across the thin edge of a board. R. with all parts in place. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. There a 1/4-in. square to the board P at the top of the tower. The power was put to various uses. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. G. and was cut the shape shown. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. was tacked. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. Fig. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. 6. pine 18 by 12 in. This board was 12 in. 1. 1. in diameter. long. Fig. 5. for instance. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. wide and 1 in. 1. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. 6. Two washers were placed on shaft C. top down also. 2. To lessen the friction here. 3 in. long and bend it as . after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. in the center of the board P. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. was 2 ft. when the windmill needed oiling.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. so that the 1/4-in. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. If you have no bell. long. hole for the shaft G was in the center. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. The other lid. strips. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. To make the key. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. with brass headed furniture tacks. hole was bored for it. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. Fig. The smaller one. through the latter. a 1/2-in. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. washers were placed under pulley F. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. This fan was made of 1/4-in. 25 ft. 1) 4 in. as. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. The bed plate D. providing one has a few old materials on hand. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft.

1. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. Going back to Fig. using cleats to hold the board frame. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . although it can be made with but two. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. When tired of this instrument. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. By adjusting the coils. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it.shown. Before tacking it to the board. as shown at Water. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. -Contributed by John R. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. as indicated. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. at the front. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. leaving the other wire as it is. McConnell. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. like many another device boys make. and. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Thus a center drive is made. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. The rear barrels are. Now. 2. fitted with paddles as at M. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. causing a buzzing sound.

A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. If the journals thus made are well oiled. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. or even a little houseboat. 1. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. copper piping and brass tubing for base. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. The speed is slow at first. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. there will not be much friction. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. which will give any amount of pleasure. as shown in Fig. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. There is no danger. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. 3. feet on the pedals. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. can be built. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. To propel it. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street.

A. B. 1. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. Place one brass ring in cylinder.of pleasure for a little work. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. Then melt out the rosin or lead. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. Shape small blocks of boxwood. 1. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. 2. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. If magnifying glass cannot be had. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. Fig. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. D. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Fig. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . If it is desired to make the light very complete. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. C. then the glass disc and then the other ring. 2. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. 1. Fig. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. or it may be put to other uses if desired. Turn a small circle of wood. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. Fig. and so creating a false circuit. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. 2. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained.

long. C. dry batteries. --Contributed by Geo. Pa. or 1/4in. while lying in bed. When alarm goes off. such as is used for cycle valves. H. 4-1/2 in. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. Brinkerhoff. X. Utah. which stops bell ringing. S. brass strip. C. E. I. thick..india rubber tubing. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. after two turns have been made on the key. Swissvale. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . To throw on light throw levers to the left. F. 4 in. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. switch. if too small. brass rod. bracket. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. shelf. wire from light to switch. To get the cylinder into its carriage. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. J. G. B. key of alarm clock. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. contact post. Chatland. long. In placing clock on shelf. 3/8 in. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . some glue will secure them. D. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. Throw lever off from the right to center. near the bed. set alarm key as shown in diagram. after setting alarm. copper tubing. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. wire from batteries to switch. T. 5-1/4 by 10 in. wide and 1/16 in. To operate this. wire from bell to switch. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. and pulled tight. --Contributed by C. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. bell. Ogden. The parts indicated are as follows: A. by having the switch on the baseboard. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes.

and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. making it as true and smooth as possible. 2. This is to form the fuse hole. from one end. beyond the end of the spindle. in diameter. S. Make a shoulder. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. 4 in. Having finished this. as at A. A small lamp of about 5 cp. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. wide. 2. as at A. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. which can be made of an old can. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. --Contributed by Chas. All that is required is a tin covering. will do the heating. gives the heater a more finished appearance. long. in diameter. about 6 in. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. Pull out the nail and stick. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. 3. Lanesboro. about 3-1/2 in. place stick and all in a pail of sand. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Fig. Make the spindle as in Fig. Minn. 1. as . as at B. Fig.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. Fig. 1/4 in. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. letting it extend 3/4 in. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. A flannel bag. for instance. being careful not to get the sand in it. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. as in Fig. Chapman. 1. a bed warmer.

Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. ash. deep. A piece of oak. 5/8 in. Joerin. wide and 3 ft. 1 in. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. thick. wide and 3/8 in. but if this wood cannot be procured. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. 3/8 in. 11/2 in. this is to keep the edges from splitting. 1. A piece of tin. thick. long. long. long. The material must be 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by Arthur E. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. good straight-grained pine will do.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. will be sufficient to make the trigger. 6 in. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. spring and arrows. thick. wide and 6 ft. The illustration shows how this is done. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. or hickory.

wide at each end. A spring.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. E. 7. When the trigger is pulled. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. Ill. as shown in Fig. To shoot the crossbow. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. thick. as shown in Fig. it lifts the spring up. The bow is not fastened in the stock. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. --Contributed by O. which is 1/4 in. 6. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. from the opposite end. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. To throw the arrow. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. having the latter swing quite freely. Trownes. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Fig. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. Wilmette. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. The stick for the bow. The trigger. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. 4. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. or through the necessity of. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. Such a temporary safe light may be . then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. Fig. in diameter. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. better still. Fig. and one for the trigger 12 in. 8. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. from the end of the stock. 3. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. place the arrow in the groove. 9. 2. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt.

for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. and replace as shown at B. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. respectively. This lamp is safe. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. The hinged cover E. C. since the flame of the candle is above A. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. is used as a door. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. from the ground. the bark lean-to is a . The cut should be about 5 ft. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. making lighting and trimming convenient. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Remove the bottom of the box. Remove one end. make the frame of the wigwam. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. Moreover. from the ground. and nail it in position as shown at A. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. it is the easiest camp to make. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. says Photo Era. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. By chopping the trunk almost through. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. or only as a camp on a short excursion. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. apart.

If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. and split the tops with an ax. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. . deep and covered with blankets. make the best kind of a camp bed. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. nails are necessary to hold it in place. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. For a foot in the middle of the stick. selecting a site for a camp. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. 3 ft. makes a good pair of tongs. thick. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. piled 2 or 3 ft. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. For a permanent camp. and when the camp is pitched. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. 6 ft. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. Tongs are very useful in camp. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. long. long and 1-1/2 in. are a convenient size for camp construction. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. A piece of elm or hickory. will dry flat. Where bark is used. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. long and 2 or 3 ft. spruce. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. wide and 6 ft. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. wide. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. and cedar. Sheets of bark. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. a 2-in. In the early summer.quickly constructed and serviceable camp.

hinges. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. . A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. and affording accommodation for several persons. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried.

At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. A. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. B. about 4 in. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. I drove a small cork. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Fig. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand.. Doylestown. Pa. to another . changing the water both morning and night.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. the interior can. and provide a cover or door. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Kane. deep and 4 in. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. --Contributed by James M. 1. wide. B. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner.

and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. limit. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. 3. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. Fig.glass tube. for instance. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. for instance. until. C. to pass through an increasing resistance. 2. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. fused into one side. The diagram. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. 4 and 5). This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. 2. which project inside and outside of the tube. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. such as ether. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. The current is thus compelled. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. a liquid. E. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. if necessary. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. This makes .

to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. 2. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. cannot be used so often. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. Fig. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. two holes. These holes are for the bearing studs. thick. If the thickness is sufficient. Fig. Before removing the field from the lathe. thick. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. brass or iron. Then the field can be finished to these marks. therefore. which may be of any thickness so that. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. 3-3/8 in. they will make a frame 3/4 in. After the template is marked out. hole is . by turning the lathe with the hand. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. screws. or pattern. is composed of wrought sheet iron. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. bent at right angles as shown. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. drill the four rivet holes. which will make it uniform in size. thicker.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. between centers. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. assemble and rivet them solidly. brass. 3. set at 1/8 in. larger than the dimensions given. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. Michigan. but merely discolored. mark off a space. or even 1/16 in. when several pieces are placed together. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. and for the outside of the frame. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. making it 1/16 in. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. to allow for finishing. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. as shown in the left-hand sketch. in diameter. in diameter. clamp the template. When the frame is finished so far. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. 1. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. Alpena. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. A 5/8in. as shown in Fig. on a lathe. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. After cleaning them with the solution. 4-1/2 in. 3-3/8 in. The bearing studs are now made. tap. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. A. which are fitted on the studs in the frame.

and drilled to receive the armature shaft.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. or otherwise finished. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. When the bearings are located. Fig. 4. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. solder them to the supports. The shaft of the armature. file them out to make the proper adjustment. soldered into place. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. brass rod is inserted. is turned up from machine steel. and build up the solder well. into which a piece of 5/8-in.

These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. as shown m Fig. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. Procure 12 strips of mica. hole and tap it for a pin. Find the centers of each segment at one end. 3.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. thick. holes through them for rivets. Rivet them together. The pins are made of brass. thick are cut like the pattern. After they . deep and 7/16 in. wide. sheet fiber. or segments. 9. 3. 1/8 in. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. 7. washers. 6. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. to allow for finishing to size. wide. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. then drill a 1/8-in. threaded. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. and then they are soaked in warm water. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. thick and 1/4 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. as shown in Fig. After the pieces are cut out. thick. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. as shown in Fig. When annealed. Armature-Ring Core. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. 1-1/8 in.. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. as shown in Fig. Make the core 3/4 in. The sides are also faced off and finished. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. brass rod. and held with a setscrew. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. When this is accomplished. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. 5. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. by 1-1/2 in. 8. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. being formed for the ends. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. thick. as shown in Fig. 6. inside diameter. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. 3/4 in.

then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. Fig. they are glued to the core insulation. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. until the 12 slots are filled. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. after the motor is on the stand. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. the two ends of the wire. sheet fiber. which will take 50 ft. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. are soldered together. 6 in. Fig. yet it shows a series of .have dried. shown at A. and wind on four layers. shown at B. 1. by bending the end around one of the projections. wide and 1 in. or side. 8 in. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. of No. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. Run one end of the field wire. This winding is for a series motor. To connect the wires. of the end to protrude. 1. After one coil. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. of the wire. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. about 100 ft. The source of current is connected to the terminals. sheet fiber. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. In starting to wind. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. When the glue is set. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. The winding is started at A. being required. The field is wound with No. long. The two ends are joined at B. and bring the end of the wire out at B. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. thick. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. All connections should be securely soldered. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. 5.

A 1/2-in. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. still more simply. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. as in the case of a spiral. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . which serves as the ground wire.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. Nine wires run from the timer. and one. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. is fastened to the metallic body. one from each of the eight contacts. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. or. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both.

These magnets are placed in a 10-in. long. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. thus giving 16 different directions. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. 45 deg. board. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. It should be . circle. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. Without this attachment. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. The pointer end of the needle is painted black.The Wind Vane. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. Covering these is a thin. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. of the dial. 6 in.

Blackmer. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. called a chip carving knife. if not too high. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. is most satisfactory. though a special knife. -Contributed by James L. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. will be enough for the two sides." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. making it heavy or light. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. Fill the box with any handy ballast. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. long to give the best results. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. Before tacking the fourth side. . one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. To work these outlines. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. according to who is going to use it. however. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. will be sufficient. N. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. and securely nail on the top of the box. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. thus making a universal joint. Y. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. 14 by 18 in.about 6 ft. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. and about 6 in. Cut 3-in. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. To make it. Buffalo. high. or. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. also a piece of new carpet. will answer the purpose just as well. Place the leather on some level.

An ordinary sewing-machine . Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. A good leather paste will be required. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown.

a needle and some feathers. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. temporary lameness. --Contributed by Katharine D. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. Morse. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. and fasten the feathers inside of it. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. N. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. as in cases of a sprained ankle. If a fire breaks out. away from it. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. or a hip that has been wrenched. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. of water. and tie them together securely at the bottom. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. B. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. can be thrown away when no longer needed. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. square and tying a piece of . covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Syracuse. Y. rather than the smooth side. of common salt and 10 lb.will do if a good stout needle is used.

laying poisoned meat and meal. Wis. --Contributed by John A. The end is filed to an edge. which is the essential part of the instrument. 1/8 in. This not only keeps the rats out. and a coil of wire. long. --Contributed by J. Hellwig. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. and the receiver is ready for use. etc. high. Albany. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. Paterson. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. B. and tacked it to the boards. E. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. cut to the length of the spool. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. is cut on the wood. The strings should be about 15 in. commonly called tintype tin. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. letting it go at arm's length.string to each corner.. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. . is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. A small wooden or fiber end. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. made up of four layers of No. A. One end is removed entirely. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. F. deep. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. thus helping the rats to enter. Y. There is a 1-in. board all around the bottom on the inside. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. setting traps. wound on the head end. wide and 1/16 in. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. N. Gordon Dempsey. The diaphragm C. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. The coil is 1 in. The body of the receiver. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. as shown. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. N. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. the corners being wired. but not sharp. Ashland. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown.J. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. long. G.

but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. The vase is to have three supports. begin with the smallest scrolls. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. Take a piece of string or. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. to . placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. A single line will be sufficient. To clean small articles. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. better still. wide. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. gold. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. a piece of small wire. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. and bend each strip in shape. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase.

Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Work down the outside line of the design. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. as shown in the sketch. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. wide when stitching up the purse. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. from the lines EF on the piece. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. . Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. 4-1/4 in. 6-3/8 in.which the supports are fastened with rivets. 3-1/4 in. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. through which to slip the fly AGH. from E to F.. Fold the leather on the line EF. Press or model down the leather all around the design. from C to D. About 1 in. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. and does not require coloring. using a duller point of the tool. sharp pencil. 3-1/2 in. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. thus raising it. After taking off the pattern. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened.. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. Trace also the line around the purse.

or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. around the wheel. 1. First. thick. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. Make the lug 1/4 in. Fit this to the two . then place the square piece out of which Fig.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. with the open side down. and cut out a wheel. with a compass saw. leaving the lug a. being cast in wooden molds. the "open" side. and cut it out as shown in Fig. 1/2 in. and tack the other piece slightly. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. and a model for speed and power. 2. then nail it. 3. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. Cut off six pieces 12 in. It is neat and efficient. with pins or small nails. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. b. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. and. with the largest side down. Then nail the wheel down firmly. all the way around. Now take another piece of wood.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. as well as useful. deep. When it is finished. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. This also should be slightly beveled. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. long. square. It can be made without the use of a lathe. and which will be very interesting. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. by 12 ft. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. following the dotted lines. deep. 1 was cut. and the projections B.

then bolt it together.pieces just finished. square pieces of wood. hole bored through its center. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. and boring a 3/8-in.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. and clean all the shavings out of it. hole entirely through at the same place. square pieces of wood. as shown by the black dots in Fig. place it between two of the 12-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. and lay it away to dry. and cut it out as shown in Fig. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. slightly beveled. and bore six 1/4-in. holes through it. in the center of it. Now take another of the 12-in. as shown by the . Take the mold apart. 1. deep. bolts. 4. After it is finished. Now put mold No. hole 1/4 in. one of which should have a 3/8-in.

b. and drill it entirely through. in diameter must now be obtained. and connect to the boiler. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. Now cut out one of the 12-in. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings.2. and pour babbitt metal into it. Fig. B. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. This is mold No. over the defective part. place the entire machine in a vise. long. from the one end. put the top of the brace through this hole. instead of the right-handed piece. and the other in the base. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. 4. Then bolt the castings together. see that the bolts are all tight.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Now take mold No. wide and 16 in. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. This is the same as Fig. until it is full. and bore three 1/4-in. only the one is left-handed. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in.1.black dots in Fig. and lay it away to dry. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. the other right-handed. 6. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. holes at d. 1. screw down. drill in it. and drill them in the same manner. holes. d. and the exhaust hole in projection b. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. 6. Commencing 1-1/2 in. where the casting did not fill out. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. A piece of mild steel 5 in. so that it will turn easily. This will cast a paddle-wheel.2.1. and run in babbitt metal again. After it is fitted in. which is intended to turn inside o