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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

distant. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. 1. Noble. as shown in Fig.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. E. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. apart. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. Fig. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. with the hollow side away from you. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. until it is bound as shown in Fig. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated.Fig. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. 1. 1. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. 2 -. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. The pieces are then dressed round. It is held in this curve until dry. long will make six boomerangs. grasp it and hold the same as a club. 2. Ontario. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. Toronto. To throw a boomerang. --Contributed by J. as shown in Fig. away. 2. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. wide and 2 ft. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. A piece of plank 12 in.

there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. forcing it down closely. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. high and 4 or 5 in. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. If the snow is of the right consistency. which makes the building simpler and easier. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. the block will drop out. blocks . Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. however. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. made of 6-in. or rather no bottom at all. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. First. it is not essential to the support of the walls. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. 6 in. A very light. but about 12 in. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. minus the top. long. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. and with a movable bottom. thick. A wall. one inside of the circle and the other outside. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. dry snow will not pack easily. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. and it may be necessary to use a little water. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed.

There is no outward thrust. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. 2. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. The piece of wood. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. or an old safe dial will do. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. A nail. a. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. 3 -. 3. Fig. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. It also keeps them out. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. above the ground. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. D. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. Union. 1. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. wide. C. Fig. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . is 6 or 8 in. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. and the young architect can imitate them. which can be made of wood. Fig. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. 2. --Contributed by Geo. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. long and 1 in.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. Goodbrod. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. 1. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. Ore. which is about 1 ft.

S. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. Merrill. If ordinary butts are used. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. says the Sphinx. one pair of special hinges. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. as the weight always draws them back to place. --Contributed by R. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. New York. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string.When taking hot dishes from the stove. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. Syracuse. the box locked . and the other back of the stove and out of the way. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person.

Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. 1. smooth surface. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. 3. If the measuring has been done properly. Place the piece in a vise. If they do not. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. Fig. about 1-32 of an inch. With the metal shears. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Augusta. draw one-half of it. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. as shown. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. Alberta Norrell. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. one for each corner. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. All . Make allowance for flaps on two sides. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. It remains to bend the flaps. allowing each coat time to dry. -Contributed by L. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. proceed as follows: First. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. When the sieve is shaken.and the performer steps out in view. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. 2. To make a design similar to the one shown. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. on drawing paper. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. Ga. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly.

Galbreath. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. of No. In boring through rubber corks. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. Denver. If a touch of color is desired.the edges should be left smooth. and in the positions shown in the sketch. 25 German-silver wire. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. heats the strip of German-silver wire. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. in diameter. The common cork. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. as shown at AA. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. in passing through the lamp. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. B. is fitted tightly in the third hole. R. about 6 in. long. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. A resistance. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. To keep the metal from tarnishing. After this has dried. 25 gauge German-silver wire. The current. causing it to expand. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. When the current is turned off. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. H. Colo. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. used for insulation. should be in the line. --Contributed by R. C. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. which is about 6 in. if rolled under the shoe sole. from the back end. A piece of porcelain tube. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. cover it with banana-oil lacquer.

Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. between them as shown in Fig. 2. Kansas City. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. with thin strips of wood. 1. . When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Fig. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. leaving a space of 4 in. --Contributed by David Brown. as shown in Fig. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal.bottom ring. Mo. Purchase two long book straps. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. 3.

Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. as . one weighing 15 lb. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. 3. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. which is the right weight for family use. C. When the aeroplane tips. 1. Pa. Y.. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. Fig. --Contributed by Katharine D. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. and a pocket battery. Doylestown. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. The string is then tied. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. 2.. long. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. 36 in. --Contributed by James M. Fig. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. 1.An ordinary electric bell. Morse. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. N. Two strips of brass. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. and tack smoothly. Fig. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. to form a handle. The folds are made over the string. having a gong 2-1/2 in. These are shown in Fig. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. A. and one weighing 25 lb. 4. 1. Syracuse. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. just the right weight for a woman to use. Kane. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. in diameter. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. are mounted on the outside of the box.

AA. four washers and four square nuts. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. such as brackets. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. long. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. machine screws. Y. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. Floral Park. N. The saw. 3/32 or 1/4 in. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. 2. bent as shown in Fig. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. Frame Made of a Rod .Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. --Contributed by Louis J. if once used. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. Day. two 1/8 -in. in diameter. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. 2. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. and many fancy knick-knacks. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. 1.

Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. 1 part nitric acid. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. treat it with color. Silver is the most desirable but. therefore.may be made of either brass. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid.. if copper or brass. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. after breaking up. as well as brass and copper. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. the most expensive. Detroit. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Drying will cause this to change to purple. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. Michigan. green and browns are the most popular. An Austrian Top [12] . after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. If it colors the metal red. For etching. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. A. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. copper. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. though almost any color may be obtained. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. Scranton. The buckle is to be purchased. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. --Contributed by W. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. of course. allowing each time to dry. it has the correct strength. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. of water. as well as the depth of etching desired. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. 1 part sulphuric acid. File these edges. of water in which dissolve. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. use them in place of the outside nuts. Of the leathers. Apply two coats. In the design shown. using a swab and an old stiff brush. or silver. Rub off the highlights. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. Watch Fob For coloring silver. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. be covered the same as the back.

3/4 in. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. wide and 3/4 in. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. Michigan. in diameter. A handle.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. Ypsilanti. long. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. 5-1/4 in. pass one end through the 1/16-in. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. long. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. starting at the bottom and winding upward. Parts of the Top To spin the top. hole. A 1/16-in. 1-1/4 in. allowing only 1-1/4 in. --Contributed by J. hole in this end for the top. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. set the top in the 3/4 -in. Tholl. Bore a 3/4-in. . When the shank is covered. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. is formed on one end.F. The handle is a piece of pine. thick.

--A. Northville. having no sides. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. tarts or similar pastry. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. A. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. --Contributed by Miss L. Ga. Augusta. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. For black leathers. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. The baking surface. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. . permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Houghton. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Mich. Alberta Norrell. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface.

A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. the same as shown in the illustration. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. Stringing Wires [13] A. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. glass fruit jar. says Studio Light. two turns will remove the jar. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. Centralia. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. then solder cover and socket together. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Mo. When you desire to work by white light. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar.

square by 62 in. 16 Horizontal bars.for loading and development. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. as shown in the cross-section sketch. and not tip over. Wis. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. . The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. 1-1/4 in. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. 4 Vertical pieces. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 4 Braces. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. They are fastened. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. square by 12 in. so it can be folded up. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. 1-1/4 in. Janesville.

O. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. If the loop is tied at the proper place. after filling the pail with water. New York. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. --Contributed by Dr. and a loop made in the end. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. from scrap material. The whole. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. The front can be covered . These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. -Contributed by Charles Stem. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. C. After rounding the ends of the studs. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. Cincinnati. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. Rosenthal. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. H. Phillipsburg. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath.

then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. if you try to tone them afterward. If the gate is raised slightly. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. sickly one. The results will be poor. 1 FIG. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. FIG. In my own practice. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. thoroughly fix. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. Wehr. by all rules of the game. either for contact printing or enlargements. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. The . you are. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. Baltimore. the color will be an undesirable. Md. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. By using the following method. Develop them into strong prints. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. and. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. --Contributed by Gilbert A. principally mayonnaise dressing. the mouth of which rests against a. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers.

. to make it 5 by 5 in. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder... in size.. but. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.. 1 and again as in Fig.. L...... San Francisco... The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.. when it starts to bleach. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. 5 by 15 in..... The blotting paper can .." Cyanide of potassium . 16 oz.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain....... wide and 4 in. Iodide of potassium ... etc.. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper... The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper.. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. With a little practice. without previous wetting.... Water . thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. where it will continue to bleach..... --Contributed by T.. It will bleach slowly and evenly.. as it will appear clean much longer than the white... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished... An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.... 20 gr.... three times. Cal... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. When the desired reduction has taken place. Place the dry print. Gray... transfer it to a tray of water. A good final washing completes the process. long to admit the angle support. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away........ 2 oz.. preferably the colored kind. in this solution. 2.

--Contributed by L. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Wisconsin.J. wide. the head of which is 2 in.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. --Contributed by J. 20 gauge. Make a design similar to that shown. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. 3. and a length of 5 in. having a width of 2-1/4 in. the shaft 1 in. Monahan. wide below the . Corners complete are shown in Fig. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Oshkosh. Canada.

after folding along the center line. With the metal shears.FIG. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. Fig. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. After the sawing. 1 part nitric acid. For coloring olive green. 1 Fig. With files. then put on a second coat. . then coloring. Do not put the hands in the solution. After this has dried. 4. deep. 2. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. Apply with a small brush. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. freehand. but use a swab on a stick. using carbon paper. which gives the outline of the design Fig. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. being held perpendicular to the work. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. using a small metal saw. 3. as shown in Fig. using turpentine. 1 part sulphuric acid. Trace the design on the metal. then trace the other half in the usual way. Pierce a hole with a small drill. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. The metal must be held firmly. 1. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. Make one-half of the design. Allow this to dry. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper.

Morse. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. --Contributed by M. Syracuse. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. When this is cold. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. Richmond. --Contributed by Katharine D. on a chopping board. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. then stain it a mahogany color.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Cal. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. attach brass handles. thick. . A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. Ii is an ordinary staple. --Contributed by H. M. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. as shown. East Hartford. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. Conn. it does the work rapidly. Burnett. New York. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. Carl Cramer. After the stain has dried.

The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. square. Jaquythe. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. 53 steel pens. thick and 4 in. one shaft. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. not over 1/4 in. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. or tin. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. brass. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. Kissimmee. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. in width at the shank. holes. --Contributed by W. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. Richmond. --Contributed by Mrs. saucers or pans. H. machine screws. two enameled. indicating the depth of the slots. Atwell. 4. thick. 1. Cal. as shown at A. A.. about 3/16 in. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. WARNECKE Procure some brass. and several 1/8-in. Florida. 1/4 in. . some pieces of brass. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. also locate the drill holes. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. as shown in Fig. L. Fig.

Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. can be procured. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. in diameter and 1/32 in. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. as shown. 5. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. A 3/4-in. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. as shown in Fig. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. hole is drilled to run off the water. with 1/8-in. Fig. and the ends filed round for the bearings. 3. machine screws and nuts. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. 7. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. machine screws. 3. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. supply pipe. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . into the hole. Bend as shown in Fig. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. a square shaft used. The shaft hole may also be filed square. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. 1. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. If the shaft is square. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. 2. There should be a space of 1/16 in. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. with a 3/8-in. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. If metal dishes. thick. hole in the center. using two nuts on each screw. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. wide and bend as shown in Fig. hole. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. each about 1 in. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. long and 5/16 in. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. long by 3/4 in. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. wide. These are connected to a 3/8-in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. The bearings are made of 1/4-in.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. as in Fig. with the face of the disk. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping.. Fig. Fig. lead should be run into the segments. 2. thick. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. about 1/32 in. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. brass and bolted to the casing. 6. and pins inserted. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely.

Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. from the bottom end of the legs. --Contributed by F. V. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. Now you will have the box in two pieces.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Ill. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. When assembling. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. With a string or tape measure. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. three of which are in the basket. deep and 1-1/4 in. we will call the basket. --Contributed by S. Stain the wood before putting in the . long. Fasten with 3/4-in. or more in diameter. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. using four to each leg. Cooke. high and 15 in. Be sure to have the cover. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. square and 30-1/2 in. 8-1/2 in. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. The four legs are each 3/4-in. Smith. The lower part. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. Canada. Hamilton. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. deep over all. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. make these seams come between the two back legs. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. to make the bottom. La Salle. from the top of the box. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. screws. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box.

Mass. 1. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. The side. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Boston.2 Fig. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. If all the parts are well sandpapered. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. When making the display. as shown in the sketch. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. wide and four strips 10 in. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. Packard. Cover them with the cretonne. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. The folded part in the center is pasted together. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper.lining. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. you can. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. 2. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. Sew on to the covered cardboards. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. sewing on the back side. Fig. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. and gather it at that point. Md. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. wide. --also the lower edge when necessary. Baltimore. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. -Contributed by Stanley H.

are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Fig. Gloversville. Mo. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Crockett. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. --Contributed by H. Cross Timbers. Y. --Contributed by B.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Orlando Taylor. saving all the solid part. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. N. L. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. When through using the pad. 3. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. with slight modifications. and. It is cleanly. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. It is not difficult to .

across the face. Lowell. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Bourne. S. and scrape out the rough parts. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. and secure it in place with glue or paste. After this is done. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. If a file is used. are shown in the diagram. After stirring. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Both of these methods are wasteful. remove the contents. --Contributed by Edith E. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. -Contributed by C. it should be new and sharp. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. or if desired. Mass. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Lane. El Paso. Texas. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding.

After several hours' drying. Canton. Ill. Oregon. --Contributed by Marion P. The process works well and needs no watching.cooking utensil. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Greenleaf. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. --Contributed by Geo. Turl. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. circled over the funnel and disappeared. The insects came to the light. Ill. Des Moines. Those having houses . F. Iowa. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. A Postcard Rack [25]. As these were single-faced disk records. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. Oak Park. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Wheeler. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel.

and both exactly alike. the height to the eaves being 6 ft.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. one on each side of what will be the . by 2 ft. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. thick.. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. --Contributed by Wm. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. Dobbins. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. Rosenberg. Conn. --Contributed by Thomas E. but for cheapness 3/4 in. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. the best material to use being matched boards. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. not even with the boards themselves. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. Lay the floor next. Mass. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. 6 in. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. will do as well. and as they are simple in design. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. The single boards can then be fixed. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Glenbrook. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. the bottom being 3/8 in. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. 6 in. boards are preferable. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. material. Both sides can be put together in this way.. plane and pocket knife. Worcester. and the second one for the developing bench. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. Only three pieces are required.

and in the middle an opening. 11. by screwing to the floor. and act as a trap for the light. 9). 3 and 4. 7. and should be zinc lined. 5. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. The roof boards may next be put on. the closing side as at B. 2 in section. At the top of the doorway.. is cut. hinged to it. as shown in Figs. of the top of the door for the same reason. which is fixed on as shown . Fig. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. nailing them to each other at the ridge. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. below which is fixed the sink. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. 8.. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. so that it will fit inside the sink. 6. 9 by 11 in. 6. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. brown wrapping paper. 6 and 9. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. etc. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. wide.. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces.doorway. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. and to the outside board of the sides. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. and the top as at C in the same drawing. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. The developing bench is 18 in. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. 10). so that the water will drain off into the sink. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. It is shown in detail in Fig. In hinging the door.

Details of the Dark Rook .

and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. Fig. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. The handle should be at least 12 in. Karl Hilbrich. or the room may be made with a flat roof. after lining with brown paper. Fig. Fig. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. as at M. it is better than anything on the market. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. which makes it possible to have white light. The house will be much strengthened if strips. as shown in the sections. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. 16. 15. 18. as at I. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. mixing flour and water. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood.in Fig. 13. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. A circular piece about 2 in. 14. four coats at first is not too many. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. if desired. 17. though this is hardly advisable. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. as shown in Fig. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. and a 3/8-in. 19. as in Fig. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. these being shown in Fig. hole bored in the center for a handle. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. and a tank stand on it. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. --Contributed by W. Erie. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. 20. For beating up an egg in a glass. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. 2. Pennsylvania. preferably maple or ash. or red light as at K. 13. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. 16. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. screwing them each way into the boards. Fig. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. but not the red glass and frame. 1. are fastened in the corners inside. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. In use. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . 6.

Mo. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. L. which. D. as shown in the sketch. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. about 3/8 in. Yonkers. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Ark. -Contributed by E. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Smith. Schweiger. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. long. Kansas City.copper should be. for a handle. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. G. --Contributed by Wm. when put together properly is a puzzle. Eureka Springs. To operate. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . New York. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. --Contributed by L. Mitchell. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax.

for the moment. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. After the box is trimmed. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. the rustic work should be varnished. 3. need them. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. Having completed the bare box. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. The corks in use are shown in Fig. as is usually the case. the box will require a greater height in front. holes should be drilled in the bottom. 1. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. 3. as well as improve its appearance. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. Each cork is cut as in Fig. The design shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. If the sill is inclined. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. A number of 1/2-in. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. especially for filling-in purposes. . as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. in order to thoroughly preserve it. 2. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. which binds them together.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. to make it set level.

Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. Traps do no good. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. cabbages. as shown in Fig. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. 4. 1. . The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. etc. the squirrels come in droves from far and near.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. too dangerous. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. drilled at right angles. share the same fate. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. When the corn is gone cucumbers. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. Each long projection represents a leg. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple.. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. being partly eaten into. and observe results. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. 2. life in the summer time is a vexation. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. But I have solved the difficulty. it's easy. 3. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. F. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. can't use poison. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig.

26 gauge heating wire will be about right. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. strips. cut in 1/2-in. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. of No. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. the coil does not heat sufficiently. -. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. About 9-1/2 ft. and made up and kept in large bottles. by trial. The solution can be used over and over again. If.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. cut some of it off and try again. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. long. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. Iowa. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. . Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained.

Knives. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. is a good size--in this compound. C. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. Syracuse. N. Fig 2. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. --Contributed by James M. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. D. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Dallas. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. of whiting and 1/2 oz. coffee pot. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Kane. Texas. of oleic acid with 1 gal. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. as shown in the sketch. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Do not wash them. In cleaning silver. Y. but with unsatisfactory results. . --Contributed by Victor Labadie. to cause the door to swing shut. it falls to stop G. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Doylestown. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Pa. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. --Contributed by Katharine D. of gasoline. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Stir and mix thoroughly. forks. and a strip. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. 1) removed. hot-water pot. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. Morse. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out.

Ill. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Harrisburg. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. negatives. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . later fixed and washed as usual. Pa. --Contributed by Theodore L. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. using the paper dry. New Orleans. Sprout. . Fisher. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. which is. of course. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. but unfixed. La. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Waverly. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. --Contributed by Oliver S. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch.

The harmonograph. then . A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. In this uncertainty lies the charm. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. a harmonograph is a good prescription. To obviate this difficulty. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. 1. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. metal. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. Fig.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident.

large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. or the lines will overlap and blur. 1.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. as shown in the lower part of Fig. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. one-fifth. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. with a nail set or punch. etc.. A small weight. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. as shown in Fig. Punch a hole. is attached as shown at H. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. K. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. A weight. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. provides a means of support for the stylus. in diameter. of about 30 or 40 lb. A small table or platform. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. Gaffney. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . --Contributed by James T. exactly one-third. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. what is most important. Rosemont. ceiling. A length of 7 ft. such as a shoe buttoner. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. Ingham. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. to prevent any side motion. is about right for a 10-ft. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. The length of the short pendulum H. one-fourth.. in the center of the circle to be cut. Chicago. 1. which can be regulated. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. R. J. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. --Contributed by Wm. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. Holes up to 3 in. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. G. A pedestal. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. for instance. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. makes respectively 3. Arizona. 1-3/4 by 2 in. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. that is. Another weight of about 10 lb. and unless the shorter pendulum is. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. as long as the other.

Morey. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. and 4 as in Fig.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. 5. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. distributing them over the whole card. 4. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. then 3 as in Fig. 3. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. 2. and proceed as before. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. Chicago. dividing them into quarters. --Contributed by J. The two key cards are made alike. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. 1. a correspondent of .J. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. 6. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side.H.J. Cruger. Cape May City. The capacity of the vise. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. Fig. then put 2 at the top. -Contributed by W. one for the sender and one for the receiver. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. N. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. Fig. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. of course.

wood-screws. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. Alberta Norrell. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. Ga. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. Augusta. of 18-per-cent No. Wind the successive turns of . sheet of well made asbestos paper. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. says Popular Electricity. deep. remove the prints. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. To assemble. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. 6 gauge wires shown. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. 22 gauge German-silver wire. from the top and bottom. Cut through the center. of ferricyanide of potash. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. 1/2 oz. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. long. 30 gr. If constructed of the former. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. respectively. of the uprights. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. --Contributed by L. the portion of the base under the coil. After preparing the base and uprights.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. citrate of iron and ammonia. After securing the tint desired. acetic acid and 4 oz. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. drill 15 holes. Asbestos board is to be preferred. 1/4 in. of water. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes.

Small knobs may be added if desired. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. Ward. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. N. screws. rivets. but these are not necessary. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. 16 gauge copper wire. cut and dressed 1/2 in. 14 gauge. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. square. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage.. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. Labels of some kind are needed. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. --Contributed by Frederick E. if one is not a smoker. which. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . then fasten the upright in place. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. as they are usually thrown away when empty. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. Y. Ampere. etc. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head.

particularly so when the iron has once been used. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. The parts are put together with dowel pins. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. This is considerable annoyance. of glycerine to 16 oz. . --C. Richmond. If the soldering copper is an old one. Ark. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. tinner's acid. of water. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. sandpaper or steel wool. Larson. Copper. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. E and F.. a piece of solder. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. it must be ground or filed to a point. D. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. especially if a large tub is used. tin. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. as shown in the sketch. B. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. zinc. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. California. and one made of poplar finished black. Heat it until hot (not red hot). This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. the pure muriatic acid should be used. being careful about the heat. lead. Wis. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. Eureka Springs. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. Kenosha. A. The material can be of any wood.14 oz. C. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. galvanized iron. Jaquythe. or has become corroded. S. --Contributed by A. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. and rub the point of the copper on it. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. G. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. and labeled "Poison. --Contributed by W. then to the joint to be soldered. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. In soldering galvanized iron. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. brass.

in diameter. Fig. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. 1. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. brass and silver. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. The disk will come out pan shaped. Hankin. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Y. C. B. 7/8 in. Place the band. This will leave a clear hole. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. Troy. Apart from this. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. and drill out the threads. with good results. The dimensions shown in Fig. I bind my magazines at home evenings. The punch A. wide. -Contributed by H. a ring may be made from any metal. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. thick and 1-1/4 in. Brass rings can be plated when finished. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. Take a 3/4-in. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. round iron. nut. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. N. Fig. The covers of the magazines are removed. Six issues make a well proportioned book. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. such as copper. in diameter. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. This completes the die. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. however. 2. D. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . W. which gives two bound volumes each year.

longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. is used for the sewing material. on all edges except the back. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. which is fastened the same as the first. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. 1. and a third piece. Five cuts. is nailed across the top. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections.4. Coarse white thread. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. 1/8 in. size 16 or larger. deep. 1. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. The covering can be of cloth. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. of the ends extending on each side. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. and then to string No. then back through the notch on the right side. using . larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. C. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. 2. . If started with the January or the July issue. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. After drawing the thread tightly.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. threaded double. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. The covering should be cut out 1 in. and place them against the strings in the frame. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. through the notch on the left side of the string No. The sections are then prepared for sewing. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. 1 in Fig. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. The string No. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. as shown in Fig. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. 5. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. Start with the front of the book. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. 1. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. 2. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. Place the cardboard covers on the book. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. allowing about 2 in. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface.

and mark around each one. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. at opposite sides to each other. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Encanto. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Place the cover on the book in the right position. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. --Contributed by Clyde E. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. For the blade an old talking-machine . on which to hook the blade. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Cal. Nebr. College View. round iron. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. Divine. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Tinplate.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. and. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood.

--Contributed by Carson Birkhead.. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. long. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. C. as shown. as it is sometimes called. or double extra heavy. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Moorhead. and 1/4 in. by 4-1/2 in. by means of a U-bolt or large staple.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. and a long thread plug. with a steel sleeve. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). thick. Hays. Make the blade 12 in. and file in the teeth. F. fuse hole at D. A. bore. B. by 1 in.. at the same end. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. Then on the board put . Summitville. -Contributed by Willard J. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. hydraulic pipe. with 10 teeth to the inch. and 1/4 in. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. and another piece (B) 6 in. Miss. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Ohio. On the upper side. E. in order to drill the holes in the ends. thick.

Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Philadelphia. If you are going to use a current of low tension. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. of wire to each coil. about 5 ft. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. H. A lid may be added if desired. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Boyd. as from batteries. 4 jars. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. Connect up as shown. using about 8 in. of rubber-covered wire. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. --Contributed by Chas. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. high around this apparatus. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. and some No.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. the jars need not be very large.

7 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes.. The stock required for them is oak. as they "snatch" the ice.. 2. square by 14 ft. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. At the front 24 or 26 in. To wire the apparatus. and bolt through. wide and 2 in. wide and 3/4 in. For the brass trimmings use No. 15-1/2 in. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. 4 in. two pieces 30 in. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. Equip block X with screw eyes. long by 22 in. 3. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. An iron washer. A variation of 1/16 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. wide. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. 1 and so on for No. Fig. B. In proportioning them the points A. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. two for each jar. 4) of 3/4-in. 2 in. by 2 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. by 6 in. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. For the steel runners use 3/8 in.. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. long. 2 is lower down than in No. by 5 in. 11 in. 2. beginning at the rear. are important.the way. 2 and 3. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. or source of current. Construct the auto front (Fig. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. long. 3 in. oak boards. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. is used to reduce friction. 1 on switch. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. Use no screws on the running surface. The sled completed should be 15 ft. 16-1/2 in. Put arm of switch on point No. two pieces 34 in. First sandpaper all the wood. and four pieces 14 in. by 1-1/4 in.. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. 2. Use no nails. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. 27 B. by 1-1/4 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. 30 in. long. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. Their size also depends on the voltage. On the door of the auto front put the . 3 and No. by 5 in. 1 is connected to point No. & S. The connection between point No. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. 4. wide by 3/4 in. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. long. The illustration shows how to shape it. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. gives full current and full speed. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. sheet brass 1 in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. and plane it on all edges. . No. See Fig. with the cushion about 15 in.. 1. steel rod makes a good steering rod. apart. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. making them clear those in the front runner. however. The current then will flow through the motor. B and C. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. two pieces 14 in. Z. by 1 in. by 2 in. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. as they are not substantial enough. 5 on switch.. thick. C. A 3/4-in. direct to wire across jars. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance.. 34 in. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. B. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. on No. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. and for the rear runners: A. The top disk in jar No. above the ground. thick. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. C.

to improve the appearance. If desired. lunch. a number of boys may share in the ownership. cutting it out of sheet brass. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. brass plated. such as burlap. Fasten a horn. which is somewhat moist. may be stowed within. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. such as used on automobiles. long. to the wheel. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. by 1/2 in. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. etc. The best way is to get some strong. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. a brake may be added to the sled. or with these for $25. by 30 in. overshoes.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. Then get some upholstery buttons. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. If desired. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . fasten a cord through the loop. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. cheap material. parcels. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. If the expense is greater than one can afford. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in.

tree and bring. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. Leland. Lexington. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Ill. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. --Contributed by Stewart H. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. .

but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. which. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. 1. Fig. the cut will be central on the line. made from 1/16-in. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. E. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. The first tooth may now be cut. mild steel or iron. some files. will be over the line FG. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. when flat against it. Fig. a compass. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. say 1 in. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. the same diameter as the wheel. outside diameter and 1/16 in. though more difficult. Draw a circle on paper. First take the case of a small gearwheel. 2. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. The straight-edge. With no other tools than a hacksaw. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. CD. thick. A small clearance space. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. 4). so that the center of the blade. with twenty-four teeth. sheet metal. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. from F to G. by drawing diameters. London. 3. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. Fig. The Model Engineer. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. FC. This guide should have a beveled edge. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in.

as shown in Fig. each in the center. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. hold in one hand. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. transmitter. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. B. A bright. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. Make a hole in the other. as shown in Fig. 1. B. electric lamp. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way.Four Photos on One Plate of them. and the other outlet wire. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. some wire and some carbons. No shock will be perceptible. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. 1. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. 2. R. either the pencils for arc lamps. ground it with a large piece of zinc. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. Focus the camera in the usual manner. or several pieces bound tightly together. . Then take one outlet wire. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. If there is no faucet in the house. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. as shown in Fig.

or more of the latter has been used. Ashland. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. under the gable. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Pa. Emsworth. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. 36 wire around it. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. leaving about 10 in. by 12 in. B. of course. and again wind the wire around it. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. They have screw ends. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. at each end for terminals. as indicated by E E. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. Dry batteries are most convenient. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. one at the receiver can hear what is said. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. Slattery. as shown. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. Wrenn. But in this experiment. by 1 in. serves admirably. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. A is a wooden block. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. If desired. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. a transmitter which induces no current is used. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. Ohio. are also needed. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. For a base use a pine board 10 in. J. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. One like a loaf of bread. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. and will then burn the string C. and about that size. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. --Contributed by Geo. Several battery cells. Then set the whole core away to dry. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. D D are binding posts for electric wires. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A.

Place 16-cp. D.. Turn on switch. Fig. C. B B. until the hand points to zero on the scale. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. and one single post switch. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. Newark. and switch. 1. The coil will commence to become warm. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. Fig. E. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. At one side secure two receptacles. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. as shown. B B. Connect these three to switch. and the lamps. The apparatus is now ready for operation. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. 12 or No. 14 wire. From the other set of binding-posts. Jr. Ohio.wire. These should have hollow ends. C. for the . by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. run a No. 2. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. in parallel. F. the terminal of the coil. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. First make a support. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. The oven is now ready to be connected. D. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. while C is open. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. connecting lamp receptacles. as shown. in series with bindingpost.

a battery. D. long and make a loop. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . E. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. D. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. After drilling. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. To make one. drill through the entire case and valve. 3 amperes. until the scale is full. Montreal. If for 3-way. is made of wire.E. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. long.. This may be made of wood. drill in only to the opening already through.or 4-way valve or cock. to prevent it turning on the axle. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. drill a hole as shown at H. high. Fig. Fig.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. 6. wide and 1-3/4 in. a variable resistance. A wooden box. long. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. The pointer or hand. 14 wire. wide and 1/8 in. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. --Contributed by J. where A is the homemade ammeter. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. and D. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. 5. 1/4 in. The box is 5-1/2 in. 7. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. 10 turns to each layer. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. wind with plenty of No. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. It is 1 in. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. At a point a little above the center. is then made and provided with a glass front. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. although brass is better. 3. Fig. B. a standard ammeter. Mine is wound with two layers of No. 4 amperes. 1. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. as shown in the cut. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. 1/2 in. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. C. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. This is slipped on the pivot. although copper or steel will do. but if for a 4way. 1. deep. 4 in. remove the valve. etc. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. Dussault. from the lower end. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. The core. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. inside measurements. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. 5.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. thick. is made of iron. 2. 14. Fig. 4. 36 magnet wire instead of No. After assembling the core as shown in Fig.

which is used for reducing the current. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. F. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. provided with a rubber stopper. making two holes about 1/4 in. high. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. as shown. One wire runs to the switch. By connecting the motor. To start the light. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. This stopper should be pierced. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. E. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. and a metal rod. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. and the other connects with the water rheostat.performing electrical experiments. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. in thickness . it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. D. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. B. and the arc light. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. in diameter. A.

as shown in B.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. 2. 2. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. As there shown. N. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Having finished the interrupter. Fig. Turn on the current and press the button. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. --Contributed by Harold L. Fig. as shown in C. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. 1. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. long. If the interrupter does not work at first. To insert the lead plate. Fig. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. Y. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Carthage. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. 1. A piece of wood. 1. A. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Jones. Fig. where he is placed in an upright open . Having fixed the lead plate in position. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. B. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. If all adjustments are correct. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around.

until it is dark there. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. If it is desired to place the box lower down. within the limits of an ordinary room. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. A white shroud is thrown over his body. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. inside dimensions. loosejointed effect. Its edges should nowhere be visible. A. is constructed as shown in the drawings. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. the illusion will be spoiled. could expect from a skeleton. and wave his arms up and down. with the exception of the glass.coffin. All . If everything is not black. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. should be colored a dull black. They need to give a fairly strong light. figures and lights. The skeleton is made of papier maché. giving a limp. which can be run by three dry cells. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. dressed in brilliant. and can be bought at Japanese stores. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings.. from which the gong has been removed. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. The model. especially the joints and background near A. to aid the illusion. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. The lights. by 7 in. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. The glass should be the clearest possible. especially L. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. and must be thoroughly cleansed. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. as the entire interior. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. high. by 7-1/2 in. should be miniature electric lamps. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. L and M. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. light-colored garments.

To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. square block. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. --Contributed by Geo. W. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. If a gradual transformation is desired. after which it assumes its normal color. as shown in the sketch. Fry. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell.that is necessary is a two-point switch. placed about a foot apart. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. fat spark. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. San Jose. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. Cal. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. Two finishing nails were driven in.

which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. New York.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. If a lighted match . and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. the remaining space will be filled with air. The plates are separated 6 in. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. or a solution of sal soda. Cohen. to make it airtight. with two tubes. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. In Fig. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. into the receiver G. A (see sketch). the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. This is a wide-mouth bottle. by small pieces of wood. One of these plates is connected to metal top. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. as shown. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. hydrogen gas is generated. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. -Contributed by Dudley H. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. B and C. 1. In Fig. and should be separated about 1/8 in. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. soldered in the top. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. F. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D.

by means of the clips. should be only 5/16 of an inch. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. 2 shows the end view. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. which forms the vaporizing coil. London. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . is made by drilling a 1/8in. A. N. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. 1/2 in. A piece of 1/8-in. A. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. 1-5/16 in. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. If desired. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. in diameter and 6 in. long. P. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. A. from the bottom. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. The distance between the nipple.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. 1. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. copper pipe. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. A 1/64-in. B. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. 36 insulated wire. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. long. of No. as is shown in the illustration. Fig. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. or by direct contact with another magnet. copper pipe. which is plugged up at both ends. is then coiled around the brass tube. A. says the Model Engineer. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. Fig. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. A nipple. One row is drilled to come directly on top. and the ends of the tube. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. either by passing a current of electricity around it. C C. then a suitable burner is necessary. N. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. Three rows of holes 1/16 in.

trim both ends and the front edge. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. at the front and back for fly leaves.lamp cord. longer and 1/4 in. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. cut to the size of the pages. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). 3. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. Fig. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. Turn the book over and paste the other side. Fig. Cut four pieces of cardboard. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. fold and cut it 1 in. but if the paper knife cannot be used. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. taking care not to bend the iron. boards and all. 1/4 in. about 8 or 10 in. A disk of thin sheet-iron. 1. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. with a fine saw. larger all around than the book. leaving the folded edge uncut. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. Fig. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. duck or linen. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. should be cut to the diameter of the can. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. this makes a much nicer book. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. Take two strips of stout cloth. 2). smoothly. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out.

Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. or rather the top now. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. B. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. is turned on it. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Another can. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. Va. Noble. In the bottom. which will just slip inside the little can. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Another tank. 4). Bedford City. the joint will be gas tight. is made the same depth as B. as shown in the sketch. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Toronto. as shown. is soldered onto tank A. A gas cock. and a little can. Parker. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. without a head. C. of tank A is cut a hole. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. 18 in. This will cause some air to be enclosed. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. deep. H. is perforated with a number of holes. D. pasting them down (Fig. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. is fitted in it and soldered. A. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. --Contributed by James E. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. --Contributed by Joseph N. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. but its diameter is a little smaller. . Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. Ont. E. in diameter and 30 in. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B.

which may be either spruce. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. The small guards. D. If the back armature. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. Fig. should be cut a little too long. N. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. -Contributed by H. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. should be 3/8 in. basswood or white pine. A. Fig. The wiring diagram. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. making the width. by 1/2 in.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. should be 1/4 in. to prevent splitting. fastened in the bottom. square by 42 in. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. which moves to either right or left. B. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. long. B. 1. Beverly. and about 26 in. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. with an electric-bell magnet. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. S. B. long. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. and sewed double to give extra strength. The longitudinal corner spines. shows how the connections are to be made. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. and the four diagonal struts. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. H is a square knot. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. If the pushbutton A is closed. C. tacks. The diagonal struts. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. are shown in detail at H and J. when finished. The armature. 2. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. thus adjusting the . The bridle knots. D.. Bott. J. exactly 12 in. E. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. as shown at C. A A.

A bowline knot should be tied at J. for producing electricity direct from heat. shift toward F. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. as shown. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery.lengths of F and G. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. Kan. If the kite is used in a light wind. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. and. however. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. Harbert. thus shortening G and lengthening F. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. E. to prevent slipping. that refuse to slide easily. can be made of a wooden . Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. and if a strong wind is blowing. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Stoddard. with gratifying results. Closing either key will operate both sounders. --Contributed by Edw. Clay Center. --Contributed by A. the batteries do not run down for a long time. D. Chicago.

frame. A and B. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. spark. with a pocket compass. placed on top.. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. E. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. The wood screw. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. A. Then. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. When the cannon is loaded. which conducts the current into the cannon. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . to the cannon. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. F. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. or parallel with the compass needle. D. E. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. and also holds the pieces of wood. C. A. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. C. C. --Contributed by A. Fasten a piece of wood. by means of machine screws or. Chicago. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. B. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. 16 single-covered wire. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. with a number of nails. in position. A. and the current may then be detected by means. 14 or No.

Ohio. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. Mich. A hole for a 1/2 in. Fig. B. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. In Fig. H. to receive the screw in the center. where there is a staple. press the button. with the long arm at L'. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. To unlock the door. A and S. square and 3/8 in. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. Chicago. in this position the door is locked. A and S. --Contributed by Joseph B. To reverse. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. but no weights or strings. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. 1. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. screw is bored in the block. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. To lock the door. A. --Contributed by Henry Peck. requiring a strong magnet.the current is shut off. Bend the strips BB (Fig. L. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. within the reach of the magnet. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. 1. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. Fig. Marion. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Keil. Connect as shown in the illustration. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. 1. . D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. now at A' and S'. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. when in position at A'. Big Rapids. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook.

screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. are enameled a jet black. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. about 18 in. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. When ready for use. hole. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. Rand. J. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. and if desired the handles may . A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. West Somerville. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. long. or for microscopic work. When the holes are finished and your lines set.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. and C is a dumbbell. Mass. Thread the other end of the pipe. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. gas-pipe. --Contributed by C. if enameled white on the concave side. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. and may be made at very slight expense. put in the handle. pipe with 1-2-in. The standard and base.

be covered with leather. D. high by 1 ft. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . Make a cylindrical core of wood. E. across. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Fig. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. as shown at A in the sketch. 8 in. across. A. inside the pail. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. --Contributed by C. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. 1. Warren. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. B. long and 8 in. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. 1.. Fig. with a cover. Mass. North Easton. This peculiar property is also found in ice. M. which shall project at least 2 in. Get an iron pail about 1 ft.

passing wire nails through and clinching them. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. strip of sheet iron. the point of the blue flame. hotel china. It is placed inside the kiln. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. and 3/8 in. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. E. the firing should be gradual. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. After removing all the paper. Line the pail. The 2 in. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. cutting the hole a little smaller. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. as dictated by fancy and expense.. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. which is the hottest part. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. Wind about 1/8 in. let this dry thoroughly. and on it set the paper wrapped core. if you have the materials. This done. pack this space-top. in diameter. and 3/4 in. but it will burn a great deal of gas. as is shown in the sketch. 15%. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. 60%. bottom and sides. pipe. full length of iron core. if there is to be any glazing done. and your kiln is ready for business. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. take out the plugs in the top and bottom.mixture of clay. Fit all the parts together snugly. diameter. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. 1330°. long over the lid hole as a chimney. 2. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. Set aside for a few days until well dried. C. thick. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. and varnish. wider than the kiln. hard porcelain. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. and graphite. about 1 in. Fig. say 1/4 in. Cover with paper and shellac as before. projecting from each end (Fig. long. pipe 2-ft.-G. If the cover of the pail has no rim. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency.. of fine wire. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. but will be cheaper in operation. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. and with especial caution the first time. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. When lighted. 1390°-1410°. and cut it 3-1/2 in. C. such . of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. carefully centering it. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. Whatever burner is used. After finishing the core. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. 1). In like manner make the cover of the kiln. sand. 2 in. 25%. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. in diameter. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. W. to hold the clay mixture. L. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning.. make two wood ends. C. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. thick. layer of the clay mixture. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. or make one yourself. 1). 3) with false top and bottom. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in.

about 1/16 in. as in Fig. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. R. . with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. C. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. and so on. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. Then. and plane off about 1/16 in. with a plane. around the coil. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. D. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. and divide it into two piles. Chicago. Next restore all the cards to one pack. A. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. all cards facing the same way. square them up. the next black. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. Then take the black cards. 2). bind tightly with black silk. Take the red cards. B..Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. as shown in the sketch herewith. Washington. diameter. square them up and place in a vise. red and black. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. every alternate card being the same color. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. C. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. 2. length of . and discharges into the tube. leaving long terminals. 2. Of course. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. as in Fig. --Contributed by J. overlaps and rests on the body. T.53 in. taking care to have the first card red. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. You can display either color called for. The funnel. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. procure a new deck. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. 8 in. 1. C.

A. All the horizontal pieces. 1 gill of fine white sand. angle iron for the frame. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. E. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. Long Branch. thus making all the holes coincide. and this is inexpensive to build. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. 1 gill of litharge. N. The bottom glass should be a good fit. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. When the glass is put in the frame a space. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. C. To find the fall of snow. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. and then the frame is ready to assemble. through the holes already drilled. about 20 in. F.C. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. Let . Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. stove bolts. Drill all the horizontal pieces. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. Fig. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. B. E.J. D. It should be placed in an exposed location. as the difficulties increase with the size. A. The upright pieces. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. 1.. so that when they are assembled. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. the first thing to decide on is the size. B. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. stove bolts. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. B. The cement. to form a dovetail joint as shown. of the frame. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. the same ends will come together again.

Fig. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. and. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. a centerpiece (A. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. D. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. A. Aquarium Finished If desired. on the door by means of a metal plate. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. B. if desired. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. to the door knob. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. having a swinging connection at C. Fasten the lever.

soldered to the end of the cylinder. hoping it may solve the same question for them. wide by 1 in. E. Y. 3 shows one of the paddles. another. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. Two short boards 1 in. 2 ft. Fig. N. as at E. --Contributed by Orton E. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. 1 is the motor with one side removed. screwed to the door frame. long. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. D. several lengths of scantling 3 in. A small piece of spring brass. thus doing away with the spring. to form the slanting part. 2 at GG. which is 15 in. Fig. Cut two pieces 30 in. will open the door about 1/2 in. and Fig. with a water pressure of 70 lb. They are shown in Fig. and another. Fig. to form the main supports of the frame. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. To make the frame. 1. 2 is an end view. wide . WINTER In these days of modern improvements.. Buffalo. long. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. showing the paddle-wheel in position. long. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. AA. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. C. 26 in. I referred this question to my husband. approximately 1 ft. to keep the frame from spreading. long. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. 1 . from the outside top of the frame. another. but mark their position on the frame. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. B. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. 1. Fig. Do not fasten these boards now. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. Fig. PAUL S. White. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. Fig. Cut two of them 4 ft. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. 6 in. according to the slant given C. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. for the top. F.

long and filling it with babbitt metal. with the wheel and shaft in place. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. (I. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. Fasten them in their proper position. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Take the side pieces. to a full 1/2 in. hole through their sides centrally. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. long to the wheel about 8 in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. 2) and another 1 in. as shown in Fig. 24 in. When it has cooled. and drill a 1/8-in. steel shaft 12 in. after which drill a 5/8 in. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. hole to form the bearings. hole through the exact center of the wheel. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. from one end by means of a key. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in.along the edges under the zinc to form . Fig. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. thick (HH. Now block the wheel. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. hole through its center. Next secure a 5/8-in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. Fig. take down the crosspieces. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. remove the cardboard. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. 1. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Tack one side on. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. in diameter. and a 1/4 -in. GG. that is. iron. pipe. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. then drill a 3/16-in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. and drill a 1-in. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. 2) form a substantial base. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. 2) with a 5/8-in. Make this hole conical. Drill 1/8-in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. holes.burlap will do -. thick. by 1-1/2 in. These are the paddles. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Fig. hole through them. iron 3 by 4 in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). 4. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. tapering from 3/16 in.

Raise the window shade half way. or what is called a process plate. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. it would be more durable. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. It is obvious that. Focus the camera carefully. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. . a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. Darken the rest of the window. The best plate to use is a very slow one. If the bearings are now oiled. Correct exposure depends. of course. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. says the Photographic Times. Drill a hole through the zinc. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. remove any white curtains there may be. and the subject may move. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. as shown in the sketch at B. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Do not stop down the lens. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. light and the plate. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. shutting out all light from above and the sides. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. sewing machine. place the outlet over a drain. on the lens. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. start the motor. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. and leave them for an hour or so. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. as this makes long exposure necessary. If sheet-iron is used. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. but as it would have cost several times as much. drill press. ice-cream freezer. and as near to it as possible. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it.a water-tight joint. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. any window will do. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. but now I put them in the machine.

but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. C. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. by twisting. The glass tube may be a test tube. or wood.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. and a base. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. a core. full of water. The core C. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. a glass tube. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. until the core slowly rises. 2. an empty pill bottle may be used. On completing . A. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. which is made of iron and cork. as shown in Fig. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. as a slight current will answer. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. with binding posts as shown. without detail in the face. With a piece of black paper. or an empty developer tube. D. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. The current required is very small. the core is drawn down out of sight. 2. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. B. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. or can be taken from an old magnet. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. hard rubber. and without fog.

Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. and are changed by reversing the rotation. 1 pt. and one not easy to explain. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. 1. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. water and 3 oz. is Benham's color top. and make a pinhole in the center. The colors appear different to different people. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. 1 lb. finest graphite.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. according to his control of the current. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . whale oil. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. white lead. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. This is a mysterious looking instrument.

which is then replaced in any part of the pack. A. B. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. deuce. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. especially if the deck is a new one. Chicago. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. In making hydrogen. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken.L. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. As this device is easily upset. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. before cutting. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack.B. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. -Contributed by D. fan-like. nearly every time. thus partly filling bottles A and C. or three spot. In prize games. when the action ceases.. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. C. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch.

12 in. 10 in. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. 3). Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. W. 1. in length and 3 in. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Make a 10-sided stick. Bently. .requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Detail of Phonograph Horn . Fig. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. 4. that will fit loosely in the tube A. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. 9 in. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Huron. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Fig. as shown in Fig. in diameter. Dak. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. Jr. S. long.. --Contributed by F. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. 2. --Contributed by C. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Detroit. (Fig.. long and 3 in. J. Form a cone of heavy paper. S. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim.

will cause an increased movement of C. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. allowing 1 in. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. Fig. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. 6. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. C. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. making it three-ply thick. --Contributed by Reader. bend it at right angles throughout its length. it is equally easy to block that trick. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. Remove the form. long. with a pin driven in each end. A piece of tin. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. push back the bolt. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. and walk in. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. E. A. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. on one side and the top. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. about the size of a leadpencil. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. Fortunately. A second piece of silk thread. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. but bends toward D. Denver. Cut out paper sections (Fig. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the .The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins.

4 ft. put together as shown in the sketch.. or left to right. --Contributed by J. The reverse lever when moved from right to left.. The upper switch. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. A. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . The feet. while the lower switch. Minn. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. as shown. is connected each point to a battery. B. will last for several years. Paul. Jr. The reverse switch. B.strip. long. are made 2 by 4 in. By this arrangement one. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. are 7 ft. Fremont Hilscher. posts. W. S. S. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. West St. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. S S. R. The 2 by 4-in. long. and rest on a brick placed under each end. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. Two wood-base switches.

The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. The steam chest D. the size of the hole in the bearing B. the other parts being used for the bearing B. 2 and 3. The valve motion is shown in Figs. thick. Fig. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. or anything available. with two washers. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. cut in half. The piston is made of a stove bolt. 1. 3/8 in. and in Fig. The base is made of wood. is an old bicycle pump. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. which is made of tin. either an old sewing-machine wheel. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. In Fig. 2. FF. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. which will be described later. and valve crank S. and the crank bearing C. and has two wood blocks. Fig. The hose E connects to the boiler. and a cylindrical . E. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. pulley wheel. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. H and K. is part of the piston tube of the same pump.every house. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder.

1. Fig. of Cuba. The valve crank S. 3. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. This engine was built by W. Wis. powder can. --Contributed by Geo.piece of hard wood. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. as it is merely a trick of photography. is cut out of tin. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. Schuh and A. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. C. using the positive wire as a pen. First. Fry. 4. as shown in Fig. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. to receive the connecting rod H. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. Eustice. or galvanized iron. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. W. and saturated with thick oil. G. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. J. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. San Jose. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. can be an old oil can. This is wound with soft string. . Fig. and the desired result is obtained. G. and a very amusing trick. Cal. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. The boiler. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. at that.

Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. Fig. 1 by covering up Figs. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. diameter. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. 1 will be seen to rotate. as shown at AA. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. Fig. and Fig. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. When turning.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. as shown. B. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. Fig. B. to cross in the center. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. Cut half circles out of each stave. C. The smaller wheel. They may be of any size. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. and pass ropes around . and place a bell on the four ends. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction.

procure a wooden spool. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. This in turn will act on the transmitter. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. from the transmitter. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. which allows the use of small sized ropes. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. A (a short spool. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. From a piece of thin . thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. Louis. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. but not on all.. long. which accounts for the sound. produces a higher magnifying power).Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. Mo. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end.G. To make this lensless microscope. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry.M. --Contributed by H. such as clothes lines. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. W. as shown in the illustration. St. and enlarge the bore a little at one end.

if the distance is reduced to one-half.. C. cut out a small disk. and look through the hole D. Viewed through this microscope. bent as shown. The lever. H. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. 3. otherwise the image will be blurred. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. as in all microscopes of any power. 1. The pivot. . Fig. the object should be of a transparent nature. which costs little or nothing to make. B. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. A. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. which are pieces of hard wood. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. darting across the field in every direction. D. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. is made of iron. or 64 times. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. is fastened at each end by pins. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. the diameter will appear twice as large. C. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. by means of brads. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. and so on. place a small object on the transparent disk. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. if the distance is reduced to one-third. and at the center. An innocent-looking drop of water. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. 2. E. The spring. D. i. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. the diameter will appear three times as large. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms.) But an object 3/4-in. (The area would appear 64 times as large. can be made of brass and the armature. held at arm's length.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. To use this microscope.. B. in which hay has been soaking for several days. fastened to a wooden base. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. e. which may be moistened to make the object adhere.

The base of the key. connection of D to nail. long and 14-1/2 in. B. soft iron. FF. D. C. The binding posts. long by 16 in. and are connected to the contacts. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. KEY-A. binding posts: H spring The stop. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. wide and about 20 in. A switch. wide. E. brass or iron soldered to nail. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. K. AA. DD. should be about 22 in. Each side. F. coils wound with No. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. D. nail soldered on A. Fig. Cut the top. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. 2. or a single piece. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. 16 in. . is cut from a board about 36 in. wide. long. wide. in length and 16 in. which are made to receive a pivot. brass: E. 16 in. brass: B. The door. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. thick. C. K. 1. Fig. similar to the one used in the sounder. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. between the armature and the magnet. brass. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. wood: C. fastened near the end. The back. can be made panel as shown. 26 wire: E. wood: F. wide. D. A. B. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. HH. or taken from a small one-point switch. wide and set in between sides AA. wood. The binding posts are like those of the sounder.SOUNDER-A.

the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. cut in them. as shown. 2 and made from 1/4-in. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. Garfield. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides..How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. with 3/4-in. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. material. AA. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. E. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. as shown in the sketch. brads. Ill. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. 13-1/2 in. When the electrical waves strike the needle. long. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. In operation. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. Make 12 cleats.

when used with a motor. A. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. Ridgewood. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. through which a piece of wire is passed. E. Y. will give a greater speed. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. down into the water increases the surface in contact. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. --Contributed by John Koehler. A (see sketch). When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. When the pipe is used. filled with water. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. C. in order to increase the surface. pulls down the armature. N. J.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. F. B. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . N. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. The cord is also fastened to a lever. A. and. Brown. and thus decreases the resistance. the magnet. Pushing the wire. A fairly stiff spring. --Contributed by R. Fairport. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way.

In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. N. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. if desired. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. B. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . even those who read this description. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts.for the secret contact. Borden. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. --Contributed by Perry A. Gachville. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. Of course.

D. Washington. from the bottom. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. wide. as shown in Fig. for 10in. . N. --Contributed by H. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Dr. Cal. apart. wide. wide. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. The three shelves are cut 25-in. wide. Jr. wide. C. and on both sides of the middle shelf. East Orange. records and 5-5/8 in.. Connect switch to post B. 1. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. Nails for stops are placed at DD. E. 2. for 6-in. From a piece of brass a switch. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. Two drawers are fitted in this space. Mangold. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. in a semicircle 2 in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. H. where the other end of wire is fastened. long and 5 in. The top board is made 28-in. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. A. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. J. deep and 3/4 in. With about 9 ft. long and full 12-in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. C. thick and 12-in. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. Dobson. Compton. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B.whenever the bell rings. records.

When the cord is passed over pulley C. E. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. A. as shown in Fig. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. to which is fastened a cord. as shown by the dotted lines. 1. which in operation is bent. closed. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Roanoke. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. Va. B. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. --Contributed by Douglas Royer.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time.

so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Put the rubber tube. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. Fig. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. in diameter. 1 in. long. in diameter. Fig. 1. it too loose. through one of these holes.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. CC. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. in diameter. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. Fig. Bore two 1/4 in. which should be about 1/2 in. square and 7/8 in. 4 shows the wheel-holder. deep. D. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. as shown in the illustration. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. E. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. one in each end. 1 in. B. 5) when they are placed. to turn on pins of stout wire. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. Now put all these parts together. In these grooves place wheels. Figs. is compressed by wheels. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. Notice the break (S) in the track. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. against which the rubber tubing. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. If the wheels fit too tightly. excepting the crank and tubing. deep and 1/2 in. they will bind. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. they will let the air through. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. 3. Cut two grooves. The crankpin should fit tightly. but a larger one could be built in proportion. apart. E. 3). Do not fasten the sides too . 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. These wheels should be 3/4 in. wide. Figs. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. holes (HH. thick (A. In the sides (Fig. in diameter. wide. thick.

costing 10 cents. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. The three legs marked BBB. 2. from each end. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. AA. The animal does not fear to enter the box. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. 15 in. Take the center of the bar. Idana. B. Kan. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. is all the expense necessary. Fig. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. from each end. tubing. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. Two feet of 1/4-in. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. 1. In the two cross bars 1 in. For ease in handling the pump. 1. To use the pump. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. Fig. AA. --Contributed by Dan H. 17-1/2 in. the pump will give a steady stream. Then turn the crank from left to right. though a small iron wheel is better. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. a platform should be added. Cut six pieces. 1. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. mark again. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. Fig. 2. 1. the other wheel has reached the bottom. stands 20 in. The screen which is shown in Fig. because he can . mark for hole and 3 in. 1. and mark for a hole. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. as shown in Fig. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. If the motion of the wheels is regular. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. from the bottom and 2 in. A in Fig. long. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. and 3-1/2 in. from each end. of material. iron. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Hubbard. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. beyond each of these two. and are 30 in. from that mark the next hole. Fig. as it gives steadiness to the motion.

The mercury will adhere. and the solution (Fig. however. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. until it is within 3 in. --Contributed by H. of the top. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. of water dissolve 4 oz. giving it a bright. sulphuric acid. dropping. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. acid 1 part). 4 oz. C. If it is wet. 14 copper wire. stirring constantly. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. It is useful for running induction coils. potassium bichromate. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. The truncated. When the bichromate has all dissolved. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. The battery is now ready for use. or. there is too much liquid in the jar. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. 2). To cause a flow of electricity. . but if one casts his own zinc. 1) must be prepared. silvery appearance. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. rub the zinc well. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. Philadelphia. shuts him in. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. some of it should be poured out. and touches the bait the lid is released and. When through using the battery. add slowly. The battery is now complete. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. long having two thumb screws. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc.see through it: when he enters. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. or small electric motors. If the solution touches the zinc. Meyer. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. If the battery has been used before. Place the carbon in the jar.

This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house.. the jump-spark coil . in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. the battery circuit. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. which opens the door. e. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. while the coal door is being opened.Fig. with slight changes. After putting in the coal. however. pressing the pedal closes the door. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. i. The price of the coil depends upon its size. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. If. Wis. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. Madison.

6. which is made of light copper wire. coil. in a partial vacuum. Now for the receiving apparatus. as shown in Fig. 7. W W.7. After winding. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. Fig. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line.described elsewhere in this book. the full length of the coil. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. being a 1-in. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. in a straight line from top to bottom. W W. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. made of No. while a 12-in. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. . This will make an excellent receiver. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. and closer for longer distances. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. apart. as shown in Fig. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. 5. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. 7. This coil. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. 6. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. Change the coil described. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. diameter. 7). Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig.

but it could be run by foot power if desired. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. but simply illustrates the above to show that. and hence the aerial line. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. which will be described later. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. above the ground. in the air. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. A large cone pulley would then be required. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. where A is the headstock. 90°. 1 to 4. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. No.The aerial line. may be easily made at very little expense. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. Figs. as it matches the color well. being at right angles. 1). For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. . to the direction of the current. are analogous to the flow of induction. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. These circles. For an illustration. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. The writer does not claim to be the originator.6 stranded. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. Run a wire from the other binding post. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. 90°. only. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. A. at any point to any metal which is grounded. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). wireless is very simple when it is once understood. I run my lathe by power. B the bed and C the tailstock. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. being vertical. using an electric motor and countershaft. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. after all. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil.

on the under side of the bed. and runs in babbitt bearings. After pouring. The headstock. 2 and 3. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. Heat the babbitt well. Fig. making half of the square in each half of the bearing.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. just touching the shaft. The bolts B (Fig. but not hot enough to burn it. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. tapered wooden pin. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. pitch and 1/8 in. Fig. Fig. 5. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. The bearing is then ready to be poured. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. one of which is shown in Fig. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. too. which pass through a piece of wood. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. A. and it is well to have the shaft hot. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. deep. which are let into holes FIG. 6 Headstock Details D. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. steel tubing about 1/8 in. and Fig. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. 5. Fig. 4. To make these bearings. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. thick. 4. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. B. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. 6. If the bearing has been properly made.

Newark. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. N.J. This prevents corrosion. B. lock nut. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. the alarm is easy to fix up. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. and a 1/2-in. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. If one has a wooden walk. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. so I had to buy one. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. Ill. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. embedded in the wood. FIG. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. they may be turned up after assembling.other machines. of the walk . A. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. If not perfectly true. The tail stock (Fig. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. Oak Park. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. Take up about 5 ft.

so that they will not touch. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Finally. add potassium cyanide again. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. Fig. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. 2). silver or other metal. water. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. to remove all traces of grease. Minneapolis. To avoid touching it. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. save when a weight is on the trap. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. leaving a clear solution. and the alarm is complete. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. to roughen the surface slightly. Jackson. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. hang the articles on the wires. --Contributed by R. of water. Connect up an electric bell. Then make the solution . clean the articles thoroughly. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Minn. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. S. Do not touch the work with the hands again. (A. before dipping them in the potash solution.

and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. hole in its center. 10 in. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. zinc. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. Take quick. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. from the lower end. lead. 3. but opens the door. Fig. Repeat six times. a hand scratch brush is good.5 to 4 volts. 3) strikes the bent wire L. Fig. which . of clothesline rope and some No. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. and then treated as copper. an old electric bell or buzzer. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. if one does not possess a buffing machine. I. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. --Model Engineer. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. With an electric pressure of 3. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. The wooden catch. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. In rigging it to a sliding door. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. If more solution is required. pewter. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. which is held by catch B. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. A (Fig. On brass. 1 not only unlocks. 1. This solution. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. If accumulators are used. 3) directly over the hole. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down.up to 2 qt. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. nickel and such metals. silver can be plated direct. and 4 volts for very small ones. make a key and keyhole. of water. which is advised. and the larger part (F. Screw the two blocks together. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. Make a somewhat larger block (E. long. square. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. saw a piece of wood. 1). with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. piece of broomstick. Having finished washing the precipitate. as at F. also. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. use 2 volts for large articles. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. Before silver plating. long. When all this is set up. 1 in. Then. as shown in Fig. The wooden block C. about 25 ft. A 1/4 in. copper. Fig. light strokes. shaking. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. must be about 1 in. Where Bunsen cells are used. such metals as iron. 1). allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. Fig. 18 wire. To provide the keyhole. Can be made of a 2-in. thick by 3 in. a circuit is completed. with the pivot 2 in. will serve for the key. B should be of the same wood. with water. German silver. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. with water. when the point of the key touches the tin.

sides and end. the illumination in front must be arranged. 116 Prospect St. Klipstein. H. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. he points with one finger to the box. and a slit. 1. the requisites are a large soap box. some black paint. New Jersey. to throw the light toward the audience. H. and plenty of candles. no painting inside is required. between the parlor and the room back of it. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. or cave. Thus. half way from open end to closed end. although a little more trouble. Receiving the bowl again. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. B. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. with the lights turned low. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. The box must be altered first. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. surrounding a perfectly black space. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. H. one-third of the length from the remaining end. and finally lined inside with black cloth. shows catch B. enlarged. 2. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. Heavy metal objects. . and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. floor. such as forks. Fig. a few simple tools. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. One end is removed. heighten the illusion. 1. East Orange. Objects appear and disappear. Fig. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. The interior must be a dead black. He removes the bowl from the black box. Next. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. should be cut a hole. with a switch as in Fig. Next. 0. he tosses it into the cave. and hands its contents round to the audience. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. top. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. in his shirt sleeves.. some black cloth. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. On either side of the box. and black art reigns supreme. In front of you. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. which unlocks the door. Fig. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. Fig. 3. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. is the cut through which the rope runs. --Contributed by E. The magician stands in front of this. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. the box should be painted black both inside and out. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. cut in one side. 2. so much the better. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. One thing changes to another and back again. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). spoons and jackknives. To prepare such a magic cave. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C.

who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. But illusions suggest themselves. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. if.Finally. which are let down through the slit in the top. The exhibitor should be . Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. and pours them from the bag into a dish. of course. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. a screen must be used. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. as presented by Hermann. only he. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. in which are oranges and apples. was identical with this. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. his confederate behind inserts his hand. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. which can be made to dance either by strings. had a big stage. the room where the cave is should be dark. you must have an assistant. and several black drop curtains. The audience room should have only low lights. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. and if portieres are impossible. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. The illusion. is on a table) so much the better. into the eyes of him who looks. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. one on each side of the box. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. of course. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. Consequently. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut.

Finally. On the disk G are two brass strips. by means of two wood screws. Fig. 1. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. making contact with them as shown at y. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. b2. b3. 1. b2. is shown in the diagram. so arranged that. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . c4. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. when handle K is turned to one side. and c4 + electricity. if you turn handle K to the right. making contact with them. vice versa. b3. held down on it by two terminals. and c1 – electricity. c1. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. e1 and e2. c2. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. square. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. A. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. terminal c3 will show .a boy who can talk. 2. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. c3. or binding posts. respectively. Then. by 4 in. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. A represents a pine board 4 in. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. or b2. their one end just slips under the strips b1. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. b1. About the center piece H moves a disk. 2. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. with three brass strips. 2). at L. as shown in Fig. FIG. and a common screw. held down on disk F by two other terminals. terminal c3 will show +. held down by another disk F (Fig.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. respectively. f2.. respectively. d. and c2 to the zinc.

. When switch B is closed and A is on No. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). B is a onepoint switch. E. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. you have the current of one battery. and when on No. jump spark coil. thus making the message audible in the receiver. when on No. . which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. Jr. Newark. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. from three batteries. 3. Tuttle. from five batteries. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. Ohio. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. 1. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. and then hold the receiver to your ear. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . --Contributed by Eugene F. when A is on No. 4. -Contributed by A. when on No. from four batteries. 5. Joerin. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. and C and C1 are binding posts.

per second for each second. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. mark. B. P. over the bent portion of the rule. and placed on the windowsill of the car. When you do not have a graduate at hand. E. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. A. Redmond. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. which may be a button or other small object. traveled by the thread. A. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. per second. mark. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. is the device of H.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. New Orleans. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. and supporting the small weight. La. as shown in the sketch. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. of Burlington. rule. The device thus arranged. Wis. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. Handy Electric Alarm . A. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. Thus. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in.. so one can see the time.

Lane. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. B. for a wetting is the inevitable result. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. Crafton. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. . but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. but may be closed at F any time desired. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. Then if a mishap comes. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. --C. Pa. soldered to the alarm winder. and with the same result. When the alarm goes off. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. which illuminates the face of the clock.which has a piece of metal. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. S. C. Instead. wrapping the wire around the can several times. --Contributed by Gordon T.

bearings. Macey. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. 1. battery zincs. cannons. With the easily made devices about to be described. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. L. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. as shown. The first thing to make is a molding bench. whence it is soon tracked into the house. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. small machinery parts. 1 . as the sand is sure to get on the floor. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. but it is a mistake to try to do this. It is possible to make molds without a bench. engines. and duplicates of all these. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. BE. A. If there is no foundry Fig. and many other interesting and useful articles.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . binding posts. as shown in Fig. C. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. when it is being prepared. --Contributed by A. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. models and miniature objects. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. ornaments of various kinds. which may. Two cleats. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. New York City. AA.

If desired the sieve may be homemade. II . and a sieve. which can be either aluminum. but this operation will be described more fully later on. 2. DD. 2 . say 12 in. which can be made of a knitted stocking. G. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. CC. Fig. as shown. J. a little larger than the outside of the flask. The rammer. will be required.How to Make a Mold [96] . CC. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. The flask. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. is made of wood. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. E. 1. high. and the lower pieces. Fig. and this. It is made of wood and is in two halves.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. the "cope. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. A A. as shown. makes a very good sieve. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. H. by 6 in. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. D. previous to sawing. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. 1.near at hand. A wedge-shaped piece. An old teaspoon. and the "drag. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. The cloth bag. A slight shake of the bag Fig. which should be nailed in." or upper half. is about the right mesh. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. is nailed to each end of the cope. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. F. and saw it in half longitudinally. is filled with coal dust. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. is shown more clearly in Fig. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. The dowels. try using sand from other sources. by 8 in." or lower part. If the box is not very strong. white metal. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand.

but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. and by grasping with both hands. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. It is then rammed again as before. as shown at C.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. and scatter about 1/16 in. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. and thus judge for himself. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. Place another cover board on top. After ramming. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. as shown at E. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. the surface of the sand at . and then more sand is added until Fig. where they can watch the molders at work. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. as shown. as it is much easier to learn by observation. as shown at D. In finishing the ramming. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. The sand is then ready for molding. or "drag. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. turn the drag other side up. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together." in position. in order to remove the lumps. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. and if water is added. or "cope. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. as described. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope.

as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. After drawing the pattern. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. and then pour. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. in order to prevent overheating. place the cope back on the drag. thus making a dirty casting. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern.E should be covered with coal-dust. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. as shown at J. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. as shown in the sketch. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. made out of steel rod. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. it shows that the sand is too wet. . which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. Fig. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. wide and about 1/4 in. as shown at H. as shown at F. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. is next cut. after being poured. as shown at H. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. thus holding the crucible securely. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. as shown at G." or pouring-hole. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. to give the air a chance to escape. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. deep. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. The "sprue. III. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. in diameter. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. This is done with a spoon. Place a brick or other flat. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured.

babbitt. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. but any reasonable number may be used. or from any adjacent pair of cells. and the casting is then ready for finishing. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. In my own case I used four batteries. 15% lead. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. Referring to the figure. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. the following device will be found most convenient. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. Minneapolis. and. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. Morton. used only for zinc. If a good furnace is available. although somewhat expensive. --Contributed by Harold S. Although the effect in the illustration . as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. may be used in either direction. is very desirable. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. battery zincs. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. white metal and other scrap available.

rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. The bearings. If desired. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. B. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. 2. To make it take a sheet-iron band. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. Put a sharp needle point. A. By replacing the oars with paddles. Make one of these pieces for each arm. may be made of hardwood. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. which will be sufficient to hold it. connected by cords to the rudder. The brass rings also appear distorted. Chicago. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. as shown at A. --Contributed by Draughtsman. B. Fig. shaft made. Then replace the table. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. 3/4 in. Then walk down among the audience. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. backward. outward. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. as shown in the illustration. but preferably of iron pipe filled with .

1. In the same way. as shown in Fig. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. or under pressure. and a weight. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. A. Snow. but when in motion. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. should be made of wood. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. If galvanized iron is used. 1. 1. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. being simply finely divided ice. C. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. The hubs. 2. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. Fig. D. W. or the paint will come off. It may seem strange that ice . Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. spoiling its appearance. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. E. If babbitt is used. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. when it will again return to its original state.melted babbitt. 3. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. The covers. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. 2 and 3. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. as shown in Fig. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. A block of ice.

but by placing it between books. thus giving a high resistance contact. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. which resembles ice in this respect. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below.should flow like water. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. by 2 in. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. --Contributed by Gordon T. whenever there is any connection made at all. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. The rate of flow is often very slow. in. brass. and assume the shape shown at B. P. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. by 1/4. B. by 1/2 in. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. or supporting it in some similar way. Crafton. sometimes only one or two feet a day. it will gradually change from the original shape A. as per sketch. but. Pa. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. Pressing either push button.. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. by 5 in. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. as shown on page 65. square. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. no matter how slow the motion may be. Lane.

draft. Pa. I. weight. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. as shown. about the size used for automobiles. wooden supports. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. as shown. K . B. F. draft chain. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. Ward. G. vertical lever. C. and C. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. E. the battery. D.thumb screws. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. alarm clock. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. the induction coil. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. Indianapolis. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. and five dry batteries.000 ft. cord. --Contributed by A. The success depends upon a slow current. B. furnace. In the wiring diagram. A is the circuit breaker. The parts are: A. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. horizontal lever. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. H. Wilkinsburg. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. G. pulleys. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. J. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. a key or push-button for completing the circuit.

When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. Mich. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. 2 are dressed to the right angle. which will provide a fine place for the plants. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. as well as the bottom. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. will fit nicely in them. Artistic Window Boxes The top. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. Kalamazoo. The frame (Fig. such as used for a storm window. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . material framed together as shown in Fig. 3. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. where house plants are kept in the home. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. -Contributed by Gordon Davis.

Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. e. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. --Contributed by Wm. and a suitable source of power. i. and cost 27 cents FIG. 1. Halifax. S. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. a cork and a needle. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. as if drawn upon for its total output. W. in any system of lamps. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. where they are glad to have them taken away. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. one can regulate the batteries as required. can be connected up in series. However. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. so as to increase the current. 1 each complete with base. as indicated by Fig. which sells for 25 cents. and the instrument will then be complete. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. Thus. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. and will give the . Grant. It must be remembered. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. for some time very satisfactorily. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. 1 cp. after a rest. is something that will interest the average American boy. by connecting them in series. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. in this connection. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. A certain number of these. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. However... This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. multiples of series of three. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also.. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. Canada. this must be done with very great caution. but maintain the voltage constant. N. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. The 1/2-cp. in diameter. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. since a battery is the most popular source of power. This is more economical than dry cells. Push the needle into the cork.

lamp. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. So. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. lamps. as in Fig. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and diffused light in a room. although the first cost is greater. or 22 lights. if wound for 6 volts. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. according to the water pressure obtainable. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. especially those of low internal resistance. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. making. FIG. generates the power for the lights. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. double insulated wire wherever needed. In conclusion. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. Chicago. Thus. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. by the proper combination of these. However. and for Christmas trees. to secure light by this method. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. 18 B & S. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. 11 series. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. Fig. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. . and then lead No. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. lamps. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. we simply turn on the water. where the water pressure is the greatest. which is the same as that of one battery. 1-cp. and running the series in parallel. 2 shows the scheme. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run.. These will give 3 cp. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. for display of show cases. each. Thus. and cost about the same as a 32-cp.proper voltage. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. 3. If wound for 10 volts. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps.

B. the letters indicate as follows: FF. are cut just alike. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. or from one pattern. To reverse the motor. --Contributed by F. . This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. switch.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Emig. B. outside points of switch. field of motor. A. a bait of meat. bars of pole-changing switch. center points of switch. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. thus reversing the machine. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. AA. we were not bothered with them. CC. brushes of motor. --Contributed by Leonard E. Cal. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. and the sides. Santa Clara. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. or a tempting bone. DD. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. Parker. A indicates the ground. simply change the switch. Ind. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. After I connected up my induction coil. BB. and C. as shown in the sketch. Plymouth. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch.

When the circuit is broken a weight. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. 903 Vine St. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. attached to the end of the armature B. -Contributed by Claude B. Melchior. To unlock the door. Minn. one cell being sufficient. Cal. merely push the button E. If it is not. A. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. and a table or bench.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. which is in the door. Hutchinson. or would remain locked.. The button can be hidden. a piece of string. W. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. The experiment works best . as it is the key to the lock. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. Fry. thus locking the door. San Jose. a hammer.

the current flows with the small arrows. --Contributed by Geo. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Wis. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Canada. I. the stick falls away. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. On another block of wood fasten two wires. run through a pulley. 2. where it will remain suspended as shown. 3. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. C. Crawford Curry. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. in the ceiling and has a window weight. -. 1). 3. forming a loop. Madison. 18 Gorham St. Culebra. as shown in Fig. 4). To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. W. Porto Rico. Tie the ends of the string together. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table.. attached at the other end. When the alarm rings in the early morning.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head.Contributed by F. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. the key turns. P. Brockville. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. D. . When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. which pulls the draft open. A. releasing the weight. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Ontario. Schmidt.

For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. which fasten to the horn. square and 1 in. or from a bed of flowers. J. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. or tree. D. J.. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. including the mouthpiece. Camden. --Contributed by Wm. and the other to the battery. and then to the receiver. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. Connect two wires to the transmitter. made with his own hands. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. The cut shows the arrangement. thence to a switch. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. Farley. First. R. N. Use a barrel to work on. S. and . thick. and break the corners off to make them round. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. 6 in. get two pieces of plate glass. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. running one direct to the receiver.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. Jr.

block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. as in Fig. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. the coarse grinding must be continued. also rotate the glass. and a large lamp. using straight strokes 2 in. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. A. wet till soft like paint. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. set the speculum against the wall. When done the glass should be semitransparent. and label. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. or it will not polish evenly. with pitch. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. 1.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. When dry. spaces. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in.. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. of water. L. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. wide around the convex glass or tool. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. a round 4-in. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. In a dark room. and the under glass or tool convex. then 8 minutes. Have ready six large dishes. or less. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. When polishing the speculum. Use a binger to spread it on with. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. and is ready for polishing. wetting it to the consistency of cream. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. by the side of the lamp. 2. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. in length. Place a large sheet of pasteboard.. melt 1 lb. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. while walking around the barrel. Fig. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. Then warm and press again with the speculum. unless a longer focal length is wanted. Fig. and spread on the glass. so the light . and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. twice the focal length away. then take 2 lb. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. Fasten. 2. with 1/4-in.

The polishing and testing done. as in K. if a hill in the center. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. 39 gr. the speculum will show some dark rings. Place the speculum S. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. 2. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. and pour the rest into the empty dish. When the focus is found. also how the rays R from a star . Fig. Now add enough of the solution A. Fig.. with distilled water. When dry. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. cement a strip of board 8 in. that was set aside.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. deep.. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). long to the back of the speculum.…………………………….. Two glass or earthenware dishes.. 840 gr. Fig. the speculum is ready to be silvered.100 gr. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. Silver nitrate ……………………………. Then add solution B. from the lamp. If not. Solution B: Distilled water …………………………….. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. or hills.. face down. Solution D: Sugar loaf . longer strokes. 4 oz.. 4 oz.. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. The knife should not be more than 6 in. fill the dish with distilled water. Then add 1 oz. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency.. Place the speculum. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Alcohol (Pure) …………….……………. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. 100 gr. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. 2. then ammonia until bath is clear.………………………………. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. must be procured.. touched with rouge. With pitch. Nitric acid . 25 gr. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in.

is a satisfactory angle. which proves to be easy of execution. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. Make the tube I of sheet iron. telescope can be made at home.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. My telescope is 64 in. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount.John E. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. stop down well after focusing. .. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. using strawboard and black paper. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. Then I made the one described. Thus an excellent 6-in. deg. and proceed as for any picture. long and cost me just $15. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. Mellish. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. Place over lens. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. with an outlay of only a few dollars. The flatter they are the less they will distort. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. About 20. slightly wider than the lens mount. two glass prisms. cover with paper and cloth. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford.

which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. complete the arrangement. A. The paper is exposed. Ill. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. The rays of the clear. instead of the contrary. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. . A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. add the plaster gradually to the water. but will not preserve its hardening. through the lens of the camera and on the board. and reflect through the negative. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. Zimmerman. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. 1.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. as shown in Fig. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. or powdered alum. unobstructed light strike the mirror. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. then add a little sulphate of potash. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. Do not stir it. push the button D. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. says the Master Painter. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. -Contributed by A. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. 2. Boody. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. Fig. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. B. D. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. To unlock.

1). as at A and B. 2. 2. use a string. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. Fig. also provide them with a handle. throw . thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. but will remain suspended without any visible support. so that it can rotate about these points. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. as in Fig. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. To reverse.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. Fasten on the switch lever. Then blow through the spool. 3. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. as shown in the sketch. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass.

carbons. carbon sockets. In the sketch. San Antonio. and E E. D. binding posts. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Take out. Neb. as shown in the sketch. Tex. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. and rub dry with linen cloth. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. although this is not necessary. San Marcos. -Contributed by Morris L. --Contributed by Geo. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. rinse in alcohol. Go McVicker.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. B. North Bend. L. the armature. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Tex. wash in running water. . Thomas. A is the electricbell magnet. C C. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. Levy. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. --Contributed by R. Push one end of the tire into the hole.

--Contributed by Joseph B. Brooklyn. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. wound evenly about this core. 16 magnet wire. Bell. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Divested of nearly all technical phrases. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. By means of two or more layers of No. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. 14 or No.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. long or more. 36 magnet wire. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well.

in diameter. diameter. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. which is desirable. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. hole is bored in the center of one end. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. a box like that shown in Fig. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. A 7/8-in. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. The following method of completing a 1-in. and finally the fourth strip of paper. with room also for a small condenser. making two layers. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. about 6 in. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. and the results are often unsatisfactory. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. as the maker prefers. The primary is made of fine annealed No. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. coil illustrates the general details of the work. 4. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. 1. at a time. No. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. After the core wires are bundled. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. The condenser is next wrapped . as shown in Fig. Beginning half an inch from one end. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. wide. in length. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. the entire core may be purchased readymade. then the strip of tin-foil. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. 2 yd. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. which is an important factor of the coil. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. or 8 in. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. When cut and laid in one continuous length. one piece of the paper is laid down. In shaping the condenser. long and 2-5/8 in. but if it is not convenient to do this work. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. This makes a condenser which may be folded. long and 5 in.which would be better to buy ready-made.

See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. which is insulated from the first. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. go. by 12 in. C. flange turned on one side. the letters indicate as follows: A. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. open switch C. ready for assembling. long to key.) The wiring diagram. The alarm key will turn and drop down. lines H. F. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. which allows wiring at the back. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. copper lever with 1-in. Fig. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact.. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. and the other sheet. round so that the inside . wide. B. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. G. I.securely with bands of paper or tape. to the door. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. switch. battery . and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. spark. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. forms the other pole or terminal. long and 12 in. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. shows how the connections are made. whole length. and one from battery. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. E. A. 3. V-shaped copper strip. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. shelf for clock. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. D. 4 in. B. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. one from bell. bell. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back.

If desired for use immediately. from the bottom. but add 5 or 6 oz. says the Model Engineer. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. do not shortcircuit. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. but with the circuit. Short-circuit for three hours. That is what they are for. and the battery is ready for use. The circuit should also have a high resistance. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. This is for blowing. London. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Use a glass or metal shade. of zinc sulphate. and then rivet the seam. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. Line the furnace. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries.. instead of close to it. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. 2 in. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb.diameter is 7 in. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. of blue stone. .

the second finger along the side. 2. for some it will turn one way. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. This type of battery will give about 0. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. for others the opposite way.9 of a volt. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. and then. imparting to them a violet tinge. Try it and see. Ohio. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. changes white phosphorus to yellow. oxygen to ozone. Enlarge the hole slightly. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. If too low. long. square and about 9 in. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction.. and therein is the trick. affects . To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. 1. thus producing two different vibrations. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. as in the other movement. At least it is amusing. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. or think they can do the same let them try it. Outside of the scientific side involved. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. To operate the trick. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made." which created much merriment. g. porcelain and paper. but the thing would not move at all.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. If any or your audience presume to dispute. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. while for others it will not revolve at all. herein I describe a much better trick. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. below the bottom of the zinc.

If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. chemicals. insects. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. says the Photographic Times. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. an old tripod screw. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. earth.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. a means for holding it vertical. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. and one of them is photomicrography. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. a short-focus lens. however. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. but this is less satisfactory. To the front board is attached a box. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. if possible. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. and. but small flowers. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. but not essential. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters.

Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 11 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 9 ft. Fig. Boston. 697 44 lb. 179 11 lb. 268 17 lb. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 5 ft. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 381 24 lb. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. CD. or 31 ft. wide from which to cut a pattern. 5 in. 113 7 lb. 1. 7-1/2 in. Mass. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 7 ft. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. A line. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Divide one-quarter of the circle . which is 15 ft. Madison. If the balloon is 10 ft. 12 ft. The following table will give the size. 65 4 lb. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. balloon. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 8 ft. 905 57 lb. 6 ft. long and 3 ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 7-1/2 in. in Cu. AB. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. while it is not so with the quill. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. in diameter. and a line. Ft Lifting Power.--Contributed by George C. Cap. or 3 ft.

using a fine needle and No.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. The cloth segments are sewed together. The amounts necessary for a 10- . and so on. Repeat this operation four times. This test will show if the bag is airtight. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. of the very best heavy body. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. 2. 70 thread. Procure 1 gal. keeping the marked part on the outside. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. 3. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. 4. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. on the curved line from B to C. The pattern is now cut. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. cutting all four quarters at the same time. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. making a double seam as shown in Fig. of beeswax and boil well together. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb.

until no more dirt is seen. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. When the clock has dried. of water will make 4 cu. of gas in one hour. ]. this should be repeated frequently. with the iron borings. if it is good it will dry off. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. of sulphuric acid. 5 . This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. 150 gr. B. of iron borings and 125 lb. as shown in Fig. In the barrel. . to the bag. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. with 3/4in. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock.Green Iron ammonium citrate . The 3/4-in. The outlet. with water 2 in. About 15 lb. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. using a fine brush. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. After washing a part. by fixing. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. but if any grease remains on the hand. ft. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured.ft. Water 1 oz. A. balloon are 125 lb. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. leaving the hand quite clean. or a fan.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. 1 lb. capacity and connect them. 1 lb. a clean white rag. pipe. oil the spindle holes carefully. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator.. or dusting with a dry brush. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. B. B. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. 5. A. it is not fit to use. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. A. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. Fill the other barrel. of iron. C. All FIG. which may sound rather absurd. above the level of the water in barrel A. Vegetable oils should never be used. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. should not enter into the water over 8 in. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. C. . Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed.

Printing is done in the sun. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. dry atmosphere will give best results. Dry the plates in the dark. of any make. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. toning first if desired. keeping the fingers out of the solution. The miniature 16 cp. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. or zinc. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly.Water 1 oz. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. This aerial collector can be made in . A cold. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E.000 ft. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. and a vigorous negative must be used. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. A longer exposure will be necessary. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. . and keep in the dark until used. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. to avoid blackened skin. fix in hypo. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Dry in the dark. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. . This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. or battery. or carbon. The negative pole. The positive pole. Exposure. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Port Melbourne. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. Print to bronzing under a strong negative.. at the time of employment. 20 to 30 minutes. says the Moving Picture World. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry.

of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. As the telephone offers a high resistance. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. will soon become dry and useless. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. lead pipe. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. and have the other connected with another aerial line. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. as described below. in diameter. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. long. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. both positive and negative. If the wave ceases. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. This will complete the receiving station. a positive and a negative. and as less current will flow the short way. lay a needle. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased.various ways. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. making a ground with one wire. 5 in. If the waves strike across the needle. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. the resistance is less. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. The storage cell. holes . when left exposed to the air. forming a cup of the pipe.

The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. This. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. B.as possible. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. Two binding-posts should be attached. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. one to the positive. namely: a square hole. This box can be square. an oblong one and a triangular one. by soldering the joint. This support or block. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. a round one. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. and the other to the negative. The other plate is connected to the zinc. D. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. or tube B. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. of course. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. on each end. does not need to be watertight. except for about 1 in. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . or tube C. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. says the Pathfinder. When mixing the acid and water. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells.

as shown in Fig. 3. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. C. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. as it is not readily overturned. wide. as shown in Fig. wide. A and B. The third piece of brass. 2. all around the edge. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. Chicago. 1. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. leaving about 1/16 in. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. and match them together. about 20 in. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. long. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. were fitted by this one plug. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. is built 15 ft. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. . This punt. and has plenty of good seating capacity. thick cut two pieces alike. C. in place on the wood. 1. Only galvanized nails should be used. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. 2. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. deep and 4 ft. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. Ill.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. back and under. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig.

Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. thick and 3-1/2 in. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. gas pipe. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Tacoma. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . A piece of 1/4-in. A. Wash. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. In Fig. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. B. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. square (Fig 2). Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. is cut 1 in. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward.

it had to be borne in mind that. H. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. Wagner. The winding of the armature. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . if possible. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night.--Contributed by Charles H. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. no more current than a 16-cp. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. says the Model Engineer. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. In designing.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. which the writer has made. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure." has no connection with the outside circuit. without auxiliary phase. may be of interest to some of our readers. lamp. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. with the exception of insulated wire. or "rotor. which can be developed in the usual manner. no special materials could be obtained. and to consume.

4. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. in diameter were drilled in the corners. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. as shown in Fig. 1. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. 5. They are not particularly accurate as it is. The stator is wound full with No. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. about 2-1/2 lb. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. A. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. 2. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. After assembling a second time. and all sparking is avoided. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. wrought iron. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. 3. being used. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. Unfortunately. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. while the beginnings . with the dotted line. Holes 5-32 in. C. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. were then drilled and 1/4-in. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. thick. holes. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. and filled with rivets. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. or "stator. as shown in Fig. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds.the field-magnet. B. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. this little machine is not self-starting. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. to be filed out after they are placed together. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. also varnished before they were put in. bolts put in and tightened up. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. no steel being obtainable." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required.

and especially of colored ones. 2. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. This type of motor has drawbacks. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. No starting resistance is needed. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. and all wound in the same direction. and as each layer of wire was wound. J. having no commutator or brushes. Newark. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. as a means of illustrating songs. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. film to film. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. E. One is by contact. Jr. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. which will make it appear as shown in Fig.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply.. 1. as before stated. N. In making slides by contact. a regulating resistance is not needed. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. it would be very simple to build. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. McKinney. The rotor is wound with No. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. The image should . 3-Contributed by C. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. The lantern slide is a glass plate. and the other by reduction in the camera. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. and as the motor runs at constant speed. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. if applied immediately. If too late for alcohol to be of use. and would not easily get out of order.

they are much used by travelers. 1. if possible. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. D. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. also. B. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. as shown in Fig. and development should be over in three or four minutes. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. A. Select a room with one window. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. If the exposure has been correct. 3. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. 2. C. to use a plain fixing bath. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. Fig. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. and then a plain glass. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. a little extra work will be necessary. the formulas being found in each package of plates. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. except that the binding is different. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. It is best. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. about a minute. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. 5. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. as shown in Fig. Being unbreakable. 4. Draw lines with a pencil. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. over the mat. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. These can be purchased from any photo material store. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing.appear in. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle.

The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. These longer pieces can be made square. Fig.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. wide and 50 in. 1. Vt. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. Fig. known as rods and cones. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. is to be used for the seat. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. as shown at A. while the dot will be in front of the other. as shown at B. or other stout cloth. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. 16 in. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. from the center of this dot draw a star. 2. Corinth. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. If the star is in front of the left eye. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. long. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . 1. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. from the ends. in diameter and 20 in. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. long. long. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. holes bored in the end pieces. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. in diameter and 40 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. from the end piece of the chair. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. as shown in Fig. A piece of canvas. Hastings.

was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. in thickness and 10 in. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. as shown in Fig. 1. 2. J. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. per square inch.-Contributed by P. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. O'Gara. A belt. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. A disk 1 in. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. made from an ordinary sash cord. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. as shown in Fig. . was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. as well as to operate other household machines. Cal. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. Auburn. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans.

so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. it serves a very useful purpose. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. to the top of the bench. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. wide. thick and 2-1/2 in. fairly accurate. with as fine a thread as possible. long. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. Cut out a piece from the block combination. Bore a 1/4-in. screwing it through the nut. then removing the object. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. will be the thickness of the object. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. divided by the number of threads to the inch. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. 3/4 in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. square for a support. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. Put the bolt in the hole. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. and the construction is complete. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. The part of a rotation of the bolt. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. direction. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. A simple. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. . says the Scientific American. or inconvenient to measure. leaving it shaped like a bench.

Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. long. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. The wheel should be open . How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. Place a 3/4-in. bolt in each hole. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Santa Maria. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. globe that has been thrown away as useless. Oal. beyond the end of the wood. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Bore a 3/4-in. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. long is used for the center pole. piece of wood 12 ft. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. which show up fine at night. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. material 12 ft. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. This may appear to be a hard thing to do.

14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. long. The coil.-Contributed by A. C. B. square and 3 or 4 in. L. and on its lower end a socket. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. Tex. thick is used for the armature. Fort Worth. thick. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. A piece of brass 2 in. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. wide and 1/8 in. H and J. from the top end. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. from the ends. which should be 1/4 in. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft.Side and Top View or have spokes. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. of the ends with boards. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. and the lower part 61/2 in. at the top and 4 in. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. pieces used for the spokes. at the bottom. to be operated by the magnet coil. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. thick. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. C. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. made of the same material. A cross bar. in diameter. Graham. The boards may be nailed or bolted. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. is soldered. P. 1/2 in. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. A. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. The spool . wide and 1/8 in. long. O. long. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. long.

F. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. . making a hole just a little larger than the rod.is about 2-1/2 in. for insulating the brass ferrule. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. The armature.E. Bradlev. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. and directly centering the holes H and J. that holds the lower carbon. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. A soft piece of iron. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. D and E. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. 2 the hat hanging on it. 2. then with a firm. This is a very neat trick if performed right. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. S. by soldering.000. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. When you slide the pencil along the casing. and place it against a door or window casing. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. Mass. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. --Contributed by Arthur D. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. one without either rubber or metal end. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. and in numerous other like instances. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. which may be had by using German silver wire. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. At the bottom end of the frame. Randolph. R. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. 1. This tie can be used on grain sacks. C.--A.J. do it without any apparent effort. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. or a water rheostat heretofore described. B. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in.000 for irrigation work. S. long. A. is drilled. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied.

long. S. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. The switch. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. for the secondary. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. The core of the coil. long and 1 in. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. S. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. mixed with water to form a paste. from the core and directly opposite. about 3/16 in. about 1 in. in diameter and 2 in. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. Fig. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. for the primary. 1. F. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. 1. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. The vibrator. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in.500 turns of No. Fig. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. leaving the projections as shown. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. About 70 turns of No. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. Experiment with Heat [134] . hole in the center. and then 1. B. in diameter. 2. in diameter and 1/16 in. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. is connected to a flash lamp battery. is constructed in the usual manner. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. The coil ends are made from cardboard. D. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. about 1/8 in. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. for adjustment. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. may be made from a 3/8-in. The vibrator B. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. with a 3/16-in. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. in diameter. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. A. thick. C. wide.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron.

Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. The knob on the dial extends out too far. and the same distance inside of the new board. 2 to fit the two holes. The hasp. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. Fig. which seemed to be insufficient. as shown. thick on the inside. 16 in. . The lock. which is only 3/8-in. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. in an ordinary water glass. lighted. The tin is 4 in. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. between the boards. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. 1. which is cut with two holes. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. long and when placed over the board. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. The three screws were then put in the hasp. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. wide. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. with which to operate the dial. as shown in the sketch. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling.Place a small piece of paper. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. it laps down about 8 in. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. 1. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. and then well clinched. was to be secured by only three brass screws. brass plate. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. board. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk.

black color. and the back left dark. but when the front part is illuminated. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. or in the larger size mentioned. square and 10-1/2 in. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. When the rear part is illuminated. When making of wood. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. any article placed therein will be reflected in. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. square and 8-1/2 in. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. the glass.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. If the box is made large enough. which completely divides the box into two parts. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. clear glass as shown. one in each division. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. high for use in window displays. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. not shiny. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view.

When there is no electric current available. above the top of the tank.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. wide will be about the right size. as shown at A in the sketch. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. alternately. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. and with the proper illumination one is changed.. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. into the other. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. as it appears. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. long and 1 ft. as shown in the sketch. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. When using as a window display. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. a tank 2 ft. . or a piece of this width put on the bottom. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

and a door in front. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. bit. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. square and 40 in.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. with a length of 13 in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. The pieces can then be taken out. thick and 3 in. or ferrous sulphate. This hole must be continued . Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. is built on the front. wide. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. bore from each end. radius. long. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. however. long. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. each. 1 in. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. two pieces 1-1/8 in. then use a red-hot iron to finish. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. 2 ft. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. 6 in. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. If a planing mill is near. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. O. as shown. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. but with a length of 12 in. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. hole bored the full length through the center. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. wide. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. using a 3/4-in. Columbus. Iron sulphate. Shape the under sides first. lines gauged on each side of each. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. one for each side. high. hole. 5 ft. is the green vitriol. gauge for depth. from the ground. Three windows are provided. square. and boring two holes with a 1-in. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. and 6 ft. under sides together. dried and mixed with linseed oil. and a solution of iron sulphate added. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. A small platform. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. This precipitate is then washed. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. The 13-in.

If the parts are to be riveted. A better way. Directions will be found on the filler cans. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. apply two coats of wax. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp.through the pieces forming the base. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. square and drawing a diagonal on each." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. For art-glass the metal panels are . Electric globes--two. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. three or four may be attached as shown. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. if shade is purchased. Saw the two blocks apart. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. When this is dry. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. When the filler has hardened. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. thick and 3 in. hole in each block. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain.

such as copper.The Completed Lamp cut out. METAL SHADE . and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. as brass. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.Construction of Shade .

The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. the object and the background. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. 2 the front view of this stand. and Fig. Figure 1 shows the side. as shown in the sketch. The arms holding the glass. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. as in ordinary devices. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. one way and 1/2 in. the other. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table.

These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. uncork and recork again. as shown in the sketch. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. wide and 11 in. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. and an inside diameter of 9 in. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. pointing north and south. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. If the light becomes dim.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. as shown in the cut. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. in diameter for a base. wide and 6-5/16 in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. thus forming a 1/4-in. Put the ring in place on the base. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. Before mounting the ring on the base. thick 5/8-in. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. as it is very poisonous. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. about 1-1/4 in. in diameter. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. An ordinary pocket compass. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. long. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. and swinging freely. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. channel in the circumference of the ring. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. Cut another circular piece 11 in. outside diameter. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use.

1 oz. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye.182 . CC. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.420 . black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. above the half can. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. of the top. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. B. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. AA.715 .600 . Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. black oxide of copper. The results given should be multiplied by 1. in diameter and 8 in.289 . are mounted on a base.865 1.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country.088 .500 . from the second to the third. and north of the Ohio river. and mirrors. Corresponding mirrors. Place on top the so- . A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. into these cylinders. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. EE. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago.

The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. slender bottle. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. In Fig. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. then they will not rust fast. When renewing. 31 gr. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. of pulverized campor. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. which otherwise remains clear. Colo. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. University Park. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. alcohol.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. 62 gr. always remove the oil with a siphon. little crystals forming in the liquid. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. the wheel will revolve in one direction. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. says Metal Worker. Put the solution in a long. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve.

If two of them are floating on the same solution. Lloyd Enos. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. on the under side of the cork. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. about 1-1/4 in. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. If zinc and carbon are used. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. If zinc and copper are used. Attach to the wires. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. This is used in place of the spoon. floating on a solution. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. will allow the magnet to point north and south. Solder in the side of the box . A paper-fastener box. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. --Contributed by C. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core.

and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. C. 1/2. A. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. or made with a little black paint. A. wide and 6 in. Bore holes for binding-posts.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. 14 wire will do. 1-1/4 in. Use a board 1/2. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. The base. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. is made from a piece of No. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. one on each side of the board. Wind evenly about 2 oz. B. long that has about 1/4-in. B. The bottom of the box. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. piece of 1/4-in. wide and 2-1/2 in. To this standard solder the supporting wire. D. C. D. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . C. to it. hole. E. long. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. A circular piece of cardboard. 3 in. away. Take a small piece of soft iron. can be made of oak. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. thick. long. Rhamstine. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. F. and then solder on the cover. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. The standard. On one side bend the wire around the tube B.in. If the hose is not a tight fit. stained and varnished. as shown in Fig. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in.1-in. glass tubing . 1. of wire on each end extending from the coil. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. . This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. of No. H. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. G--No.Contributed by J. D. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. The spring should be about 1 in. E.in. brass tubing. and on the other around the glass tube. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. Thos. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight.not shorter than 18 in. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. Put ends. 10 wire about 10 in.

making a support as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.--Contributed by Edward M. long. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. D. from the right hand. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. in diameter. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. Milwaukee. 3. Teasdale. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. long. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. of No. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. When the glass becomes soft. Smith. long. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. Cuba. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. The iron plunger.of the coil. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. 3-in. canvas. 5. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. long are used for the legs. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. four hinges. N. two pieces 2 ft. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. . The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. E. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. J. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. 2. Wis. Y. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. about 1 in. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. of mercury will be sufficient. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. is drawn nearer to the coil. 1. of 8-oz. long. pieces of wood as shown in Fig.--Contributed by R. 3 in. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. About 1-1/2 lb. long.

Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. holding in the left hand. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. small aperture in the long tube. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. 6.. 5. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Measure 8 in. Break off the piece of glass. thus leaving a. 4. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. 2. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. Keys. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. Toronto. --Contributed by David A. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. The tube now must be filled completely. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in.. of vacuum at the top. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. leaving 8 in. Fig. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. expelling all the air. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. This tube as described will be 8 in. Take 1/2 in. long. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. 3. Can. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] .

wide and 5 ft. as shown in Fig. 1 in. These are bent and nailed. thick. 6. 2. from the end of same. 7. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. This forms a slot. thick. wide and 3 in. joint be accurately put together. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. 5. 3. thick. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. but yellow pine is the best. as shown in Fig. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. Four blocks 1/4 in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. in diameter. 3 in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. long. as in Fig. wide and 5 ft. material 2 in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. 4 in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. Fig. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. wide and 5 ft. long. The large pulley is about 14 in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. thick.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. A crosspiece 3/4-in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. wide and 12 in. cut in the shape shown in Fig. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides.6 -. 1 in. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. with each projection 3-in. 9 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. wood screws. 4. 3 in. long. long. and 1/4 in. 1. FIG. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. thick. and the single projection 3/4 in. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the .

and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. --Contributed by C. by 1-in. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. Water 1 oz. Kan. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. R. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. above the runner level. attach runners and use it on the ice. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Manhattan. says Photography. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Welsh. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. . The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. first removing the crank. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine.

Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. of water. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. 1. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. . as shown in Fig. 3. Leominster. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. Newton. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. 1 oz. --Contributed by Edward M. --Contributed by Wallace C. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. Printing is carried rather far. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. as shown in Fig. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. Treasdale. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. 2. from an ordinary clamp skate. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. and very much cheaper. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. The print is washed.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. Mass. also.

Alexandria. Va. wide and 4 in. 1. The thread is broken off at the . from one end. and bend them as shown in the sketch.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. A. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. about 10 in. Then. square piece. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. and 3 ft. 1. Place a 10-in. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. with about 1/8-in. --Contributed by H. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. Church. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. Fig. long. say. which represents the back side of the door. high for rabbits. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. The swing door B. wide. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. Fig. 2. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. high. 1-1/2 ft. Take two glass tubes. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. and to the bottom. extending the width of the box. causing the door to swing back and up. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. as shown in the sketch. 1 ft. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. F. too. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. fasten a 2-in. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. hole. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A.

will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. 3. high and 12 in. and go in the holder in the same way. wide and 5 in. Chicago. says Camera Craft. 2. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. plates. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. long. Fig. D. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. wide. B. shorter at each end. Crilly. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. to be used as a driving pulley. as shown in Fig. inside of the opening. . Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. shorter. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. Fig. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. in size. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders.proper place to make a small hole. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. wide. and exactly 5 by 7 in. Paste a piece of strong black paper.by 5-in. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. camera and wish to use some 4. automobiles. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. Cut an opening in the other piece. in size. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. 1 in. 1. but cut it 1/4 in. black surfaced if possible. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in.. 10 in.by 7-in. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. Take two pieces of pasteboard. -Contributed by William M. horses and dogs. C. Out two rectangular holes. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. long. trolley cars. from the edge on each side of these openings. being 1/8 in. say 8 in. This opening. Jr. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. A and B.

in. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent.. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. making a . which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. long and 6 in. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. if it has previously been magnetized. wide will be required. A cell of this kind can easily be made. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. in diameter. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. into which the dog is harnessed. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. The needle will then point north and south. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod.

pull out the wire as needed. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. 1/4 lb. of rosin and 2 oz. 1 lb. 3/4 lb. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. leaving about 1/2-in. of water. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. with narrow flanges. in diameter and 6 in. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. only the joints. Place the pan on the stove. filter. B is a base of 1 in. of the plate at one end. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. when the paraffin is melted. pine. and a notch between the base and the pan. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. File the rods to remove the copper plate.in. for a connection. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. A is a block of l-in. short time. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. Form a 1/2-in. says Electrician and Mechanic. beeswax melted together. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. plaster of paris. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. fuel and packing purposes. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. zinc oxide. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. fodder. long which are copper plated. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. Pack the paste in. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. Do not paint any surface. F is a spool. in which P is the pan. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. under the spool in the paraffin. one that will hold about 1 qt.watertight receptacle. . of the top. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. sal ammoniac. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. This makes the wire smooth. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side.

for others the opposite way. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated." which created much merriment. If any of your audience presume to dispute. g. by the Hindoos in India. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. thus producing two different vibrations. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. while for others it will not revolve at all. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. square and about 9 in. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. from vexation. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Try it and see. and one friend tells me that they were . and therein is the trick. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. Ohio. Enlarge the hole slightly. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath.. but the thing would not move at all. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. and then. At least it is amusing. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. long. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Toledo. let them try it. grip the stick firmly in one hand. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. and he finally. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. for some it will turn one way. 2. as in the other movement. or think they can do the same. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it.

It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. by means of a center punch. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. The experiments were as follows: 1. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left.100 r. Speeds between 700 and 1. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. 3. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. gave the best results. secondly. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. m. p. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. 5. 2. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. 7. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. rotation was obtained. 4. and I think the results may be of interest. the rotation may be obtained. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. To operate. If the pressure was upon an edge. A square stick with notches on edge is best. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. and. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. Thus a circular or . Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. no rotation resulted. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. 6.

a piece of wire and a candle. A wire is tied around the can. Sloan. . This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. G.. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. Duluth. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. forming a handle for carrying. at first.D. --Contributed by G. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. Minn. A. unwetted by the liquid.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. and the resultant "basket splash. Ph. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. and the height of the fall about 6 in. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. it will be clockwise. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. is driven violently away. Lloyd. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. if the pressure is from the left. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. D. so far as can be seen from the photographs. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. Washington.. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. the upper portion is. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. or greasy. --Contributed by M. C. as shown.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Each wheel is 1/4 in. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. hole drilled in the center. 1. thick and 1 in. with a 1/16-in. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. flange and a 1/4-in. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. in diameter. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. about 2-5/8 in. as shown. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. as shown in Fig. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. axle. long. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1.

Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. is made from a piece of clock spring. Fig. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. 6. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. are shown in Fig. San Antonio. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. bottom side up. 3/4 in. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. 3. and the locomotive is ready for running. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . each in its proper place. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. wide and 16 in. is made from brass. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. A trolley.brass. as shown in Fig. These ends are fastened together. bent as shown. lamp in series with the coil. The first piece. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. Texas. with cardboard 3 in. Fuller. which must be 110 volt alternating current. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. put together complete. 1 from 1/4-in. or main part of the frame. long. Fig. The motor is now bolted.50. 2. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. holes 1 in. --Contributed by Maurice E. of No. 3. as shown in Fig. 4. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. 5. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. The parts. 2. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. If the ends are to be soldered. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. The current. wood. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. This will save buying a track.

Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Fig. Fig 1. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. and as this end . When cold treat the other end in the same way. 2. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. O.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. 1. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. and holes drilled in them. The quarter will not go all the way down. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. but do not heat the center. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. the length of a paper clip. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. 3. then continue to tighten much more. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. as shown in Fig. Cincinnati.

For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. has finished a cut for a tooth. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. and adjusted . When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. or should the lathe head be raised. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. 2 and 1 respectively. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. When the cutter A. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. In the sketch. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. or apparent security of the knot. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. When the trick is to be performed. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. A pair of centers are fitted.

The frame holding the mandrel. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . Make free-hand one quarter of the design. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. if four parts are to be alike. note book. An ordinary machine will do.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. Fold over along these center lines. about 1-1/2 in. at the same time striking light. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. N. In this manner gears 3 in. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. tea cosey. holding it in place with the left hand. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. 2. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. (4. (6. (5. and a nut pick. (3. blotter back. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. long. --Contributed by Samuel C. swing lathe. gentleman's card case or bill book. Bunker. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. twisted around itself and soldered. draw center lines across the required space. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated.) Place the paper design on the leather and.to run true.) Make on paper the design wanted. in diameter can be made on a 6-in.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. lady's belt bag. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. Second row: -Two book marks. such as brass or marble. Y. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. or one-half of the design. 1.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. dividing it into as many parts as desired. (2. Fig. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. --Contributed by Howard S. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. When connecting to batteries. book mark. Brooklyn. lady's card case. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. coin purse.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). if but two parts. above the surface. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. (1. watch fob ready for fastenings. trace the outline. Bott. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. tea cosey. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut.

some heavy rubber hose. Secure . and an ordinary bottle.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube.

D. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. a distance of 900 miles. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass.. B. and push it through a cork. Thrust a pin. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. If the needle is not horizontal. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. A. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. C. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. where it condenses. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. and bore a hole through the center. Florida. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. from Key West. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle.C. into which fit a small piece of tube. The electrodes are made . One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube.

wide and 3 ft. 1-1/2 in. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. by 3/4 in. thick. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center.in. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. as shown in Fig. wide and 4 ft. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. 1-1/4 in. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. thick. long. 2 in. lumber cannot be procured. long. wide and 20 ft. take the glider to the top of a hill. apart and extend 1 ft. 3/4 in. 2. thick. Washington. free from knots. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. wide and 4 ft long. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. All wiring is done with No. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. C. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. --Contributed by Edwin L. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. lengths and splice them. 3. and also to keep it steady in its flight. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. wide and 4 ft. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. D. Four long beams 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. slacken speed and settle. 1/2. 1. 1. 2 arm sticks 1 in. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. square and 8 ft long. thick. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. 1. long. 12 uprights 1/2 in. Connect as shown in the illustration. long. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. as shown in Fig. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. The operator can then land safely and . both laterally and longitudinally. using a high resistance receiver. To make a glide. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. If 20-ft. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. which is tacked to the front edge. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. long. long for the body of the operator. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. several strips 1/2 in. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. Powell. or flying-machine. thick.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. 2. use 10-ft. wide and 3 ft. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. 16 piano wire. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown.

Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. Great care should be . The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Glides are always made against the wind. Of course. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. but this must be found by experience. and the balancing is done by moving the legs.gently on his feet. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.

a creature of Greek mythology. Bellingham. as shown in Fig.exercised in making landings. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. --Contributed by L. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. M. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. Olson. half man and half horse. 2. which causes the dip in the line. When heated a little. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. 1. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips.

wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. a piece of brass or steel wire. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. in diameter. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. will complete the material list. about the size of stove pipe wire. The light from the . of small rubber tubing. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. outside the box. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. square.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. long. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. long and about 3/8 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. at the other. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. While at the drug store get 3 ft. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. about the size of door screen wire. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. this will cost about 15 cents. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. making it 2-1/2 in. 14 in. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered.

as shown in Fig. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. . Hunting. as shown in the sketch.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. 2. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. M. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. If done properly the card will flyaway. This is very simple when you know how. while others will fail time after time. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. 1. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. Dayton. O. --Photo by M. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. as shown in Fig.

then put it on the hatpin head. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. This game is played by five persons. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully." or the Chinese students' favorite game. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. as described. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. If a certain color is to be more prominent. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. as before.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. as shown. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. hold the lump over the flame. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. place the other two. When the desired shape has been obtained. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. closing both hands quickly. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. Cool in water and dry. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball.

or more in width. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. distribute electric charges . Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. passing through neutralizing brushes. these sectors. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in.

to which insulating handles . The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. and the outer end 11/2 in. The drive wheels.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. C C. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. 3. in diameter. after they are mounted. The two pieces. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. are made from solid. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. in diameter. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. and this should be done before cutting the circle. in diameter. long. Two solid glass rods. brass tubing and the discharging rods. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. in diameter and 15 in. as shown in Fig. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. 1 in. from about 1/4-in. Fig. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. Fig. in diameter. as shown in Fig. in diameter. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. The fork part is 6 in. in diameter. free from wrinkles. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. material 7 in. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. long and the standards 3 in. EE. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. The plates. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. wide at one end. The collectors are made. 1. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. and pins inserted and soldered. are made from 7/8-in. 1-1/2 in. and 4 in. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. the side pieces being 24 in. 2. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. and of a uniform thickness. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. 4. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. Two pieces of 1-in. wide. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. long. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. 3/4 in. or teeth. 3. GG. RR. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. These pins. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. at the other. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. D. long and the shank 4 in. turned wood pieces. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. The plates are trued up.

one having a 2-in. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. wide and 22 ft. Lloyd Enos. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. and the work was done by themselves. Colo. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. --Contributed by C. KK. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. Colorado City. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. D.are attached. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. ball and the other one 3/4 in.. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. 12 ft. long. which are bent as shown. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. in diameter.

pens . All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. using a 1-in. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. deep. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. yet such a thing can be done. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch.is a good one. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. They can be used to keep pins and needles. The key will drop from the string. bit. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. string together. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. as at A. and bore a hole 1/2 in. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place.

When the stamping is completed. also trace the decorative design. 7. two spikes. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. 5. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. above the metal. Use . 8. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. slim screw. Draw one-half the design free hand. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. 9. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch.. inside the second on all. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. Raise the ends. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. they make attractive little pieces to have about. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. Having determined the size of the tray. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in.and pencils. 3. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. or cigar ashes. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. 6. 2. sharp division between background and design. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. 4. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. etc. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in.. stamp the background promiscuously. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. file. etc. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. about 3/4-in. using a nail filed to chisel edge. extra metal on each of the four sides. They are easily made. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. Proceed as follows: 1. This is to make a clean. unless it would be the metal shears. then the other side. above the work and striking it with the hammer. inside the first on all. flat and round-nosed pliers. very rapid progress can be made. and the third one 1/4 in. The second oblong was 3/4 in. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. Inside this oblong. 23 gauge.

Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. 7. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. In the first numbering. 10. first fingers. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. and fourth fingers. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. and the effect will be most pleasing. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. The eyes. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. second fingers. 9. third fingers. 8. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. 6. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72.

Let us multiply 12 by 12.. thumbs. the product of 12 times 12. first fingers. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. 12. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. there are no fingers above. Still. viz. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. 400. etc. above 15 times 15 it is 200. renumber your fingers. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. etc. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. if we wish. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. or the product of 8 times 9. which would be 70. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. 600.. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. 11. At a glance you see seven tens or 70.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. but being simple it saves time and trouble.. or numbers above 10. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. which would be 16. Put your thumbs together. In the second numbering. Two times one are two. etc. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. and the six lower fingers as six tens. . or 80. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. which tens are added. or 60. 25 times 25. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. or the product of 6 times 6. 2 times 2 equals 4. above 20 times 20. At a glance you see four tens or 40. as high as you want to go.

4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. whether the one described in second or third numbering. at the will of the observer. Take For example 18 times 18. 2. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. any two figures between 45 and 55. beginning the thumbs with 16. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. or from above or from below. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. 21. twenties. 3. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. For example. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. about a vertical axis. adding 400 instead of 100. the value which the upper fingers have. which is the half-way point between the two fives. It takes place also. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200.. 8. etc. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. the inversion takes place against his will. and so on. not rotation. thumbs. 7. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. the revolution seems to reverse. and. the value of the upper fingers being 20. And the lump sum to add. first finger 17. first fingers 22. being 80). the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. in the case of a nearsighted person. . Proceed as in the second lumbering. thirties. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. lastly. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. 75 and 85. For figures ending in 6. as one might suppose. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. when he removes his spectacles. further. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. forties. The inversion and reversion did not take place.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. or what. the lump sum to add. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. however. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes.

as . sometimes the point towards him. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. and putting a cork on the point. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. Looking at it in semidarkness. the other appearance asserts itself.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. when he knows which direction is right. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. The ports were not easy to make. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. tee. A flat slide valve was used. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer.

The steam chest is round. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. Next take a block of wood. . With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. across the head. Kutscher. While this engine does not give much power. -Contributed by W. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. The eccentric is constructed of washers. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. inexpensive. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. saw off a section of a broom handle. pipe. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. if continued too long without proper treatment. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. Springfield. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. H.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. Beating copper tends to harden it and. secure a piece of No. pipe 10 in. bottom side up. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. and make in one end a hollow. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. apart. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration.. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. Fasten the block solidly. The tools are simple and can be made easily. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. in diameter. deep. as in a vise. such as is shown in the illustration. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. Ill. If nothing better is at hand. across and 1/2 in. about 2 in. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. it is easily built. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection.

the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. To overcome this hardness. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. and. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. O. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. Camden. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. S. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. the other to the left. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. C. Vinegar. To produce color effects on copper. This process is called annealing. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . especially when the object is near to the observer. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. Hay. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. --Contributed by W. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. as it softens the metal. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish.will cause the metal to break. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper.

orange. the one for the left eye being blue. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. . that for the right. the further from the card will the composite image appear. and lies to the right on the picture. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. would serve the same purpose. only the orange rays may pass through. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. But they seem black. the left eye sees through a blue screen. in the proper choice of colors. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. The further apart the pictures are. it. and without any picture. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. from the stereograph. In order to make them appear before the card. with the stereograph.stereoscope. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. although they pass through the screen. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. not two mounted side by side. disappears fully. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. diameter. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. The red portions of the picture are not seen. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. while both eyes together see a white background. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. because. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. It is just as though they were not there. they must be a very trifle apart. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. however. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. as for instance red and green. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. So with the stereograph. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. because of the rays coming from them. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture.

Cal. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. This should only be bored about half way through the block. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. etc. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. or the middle of the bottle. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. wide and 1 in. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. 1/4 in. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. in the shape of a crank. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. thick. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. long and a hole drilled in each end. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. wireless. A No. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. Place a NO. in diameter. 12 gauge wire. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. San Francisco.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. The weight of the air in round . Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece.

so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. 30 in. Before fastening the scale. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. long. 34 ft. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. a glass tube 1/8 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. or. long. wide and 40 in. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. In general. high. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. Only redistilled mercury should be used. square. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. high. high. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. . The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. or a column of mercury (density 13. and a slow fall.6) 1 in. a bottle 1 in. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. pine 3 in. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. But if a standard barometer is not available. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. square. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. internal diameter and about 34 in. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow.numbers is 15 lb. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. the contrary. if accurately constructed. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. thick. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. will calibrate itself. inside diameter and 2 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. but before attempting to put in the mercury. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. the instrument. long. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in.. if you choose. wide and 4 in. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. The 4 in.

5. and place them as shown in Fig. wide and 10 in. Number the pieces 1. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. the size of the outside of the bottle. long.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. Procure a metal can cover. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. which is slipped quickly over the end. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. Mark out seven 1-in. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. 3. thick. 6 and 7. a cover from a baking powder can will do. 1. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. 2. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle.

3 into No. 2 . in diameter. Woolson. 3. 3 over No.J. using checkers for men. 2 over No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 6 into No. Move 12-Jump No. 2. 1 into No. 1. 2 over No. 7.Position of the Men move only one at a time. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 5. 5 over No. 3. Move 7-Jump No. 3. long and 2 ft. Make 22 sections. 7 over No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. procure unbleached tent duck. 7 over No. Move 10-Move No. Move 9-Jump No. 5 over No. 5's place. L. Cape May Point. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 6 over No. Move 2-Jump No.-Contributed by W. l over No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 2. 1 to No. 1. Move 14-Jump No. 5's place. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. shaped like Fig. 6 to No. To make such a tent. 7's place. 6 in. 2's place. 2's place. Move 13-Move No. N. Move ll-Jump No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Move 4-Jump No. each 10 ft. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. Move 5-Jump No. 6. This can be done on a checker board. Move 6-Move No. 3 to the center. Move 3-Move No. Move 8-Jump No. as shown in Fig. which is the very best material for the purpose. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 6. Move 15-Move No.

the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. wide by 12 in. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. 9 by 12 in. Nail a thin sheet of brass. added.. long. --Contributed by G. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. 3 in. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. fill with canvas edging. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. leaving the rest for an opening. Punch holes in the brass in . from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. As shown in the sketch. wide at the bottom. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. will do. 6. Fig. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. round galvanized iron. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. to a smooth board of soft wood. wide at the bottom. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. After transferring the design to the brass. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. Tress. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. from the top. Emsworth. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. Have the tent pole 3 in. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. long and 4 in. 2 in. Fig. Pa. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. 6-in. in diameter. 5) stuck in the ground. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Use blocks. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. diameter. as in Fig. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. high. 2. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised.in. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. These are ventilators. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine.J. In raising the tent. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. about 9 in. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. 5. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. made in two sections. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent.

. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. It will not. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. apart. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. When the edges are brought together by bending. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. The pattern is traced as before. excepting the 1/4-in. Corr. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern.the spaces around the outlined figures. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. around the outside of the pattern. When all the holes are punched. but before punching the holes. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. Chicago. bend into shape. cut out the brass on the outside lines.

--Contributed by Geo.however. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. Que. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. Mayger. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. G. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Dunham. Stevens. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. A cast-iron ring. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. or. allowing 2 ft. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. These pipes are .. partially filled with cream. or center on which the frame swings. E. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. --Contributed by H. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. between which is placed the fruit jar. Oregon. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. better still. A 6-in. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. or less. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. If a wheel is selected. Badger. pipe is used for the hub. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. pipe. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. Sometimes the cream will accumulate.

An extra wheel 18 in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe clamps. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. bent to the desired circle. pipe. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in.

The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. which was placed in an upright position. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. and dropped on the table. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. while doing this. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. as shown in Fig. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. and the guide withdrawn. The performer. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. 3. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. 1. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box.

Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. --Contributed by H. 1. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. White. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Harkins. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. in a half circle. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. The box can be made of selected oak or . Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Denver. -Contributed by C. F. and second. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. it requires no expensive condensing lens. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. D. Mo. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. St. 2.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. in diameter on another piece of tin. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. first. Louis. Colo.

wide. long and should be placed vertically. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. as shown in Fig.mahogany. long. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. wide and 6-1/2 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. long. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. AA. If a camera lens is used. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. 5-1/2 in. and 2 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. 2. wide by 5 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. 3-1/2 in. Two or three holes about 1 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. but not tight. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. 1. fit into the runners. An open space 4 in. This will be 3/4 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. high and 11 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. focal length. from each end. and. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. from each end of the outside of the box. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. wide and 5 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. The door covering this hole in the back. high and must . 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing.

then the second knuckle will be March. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. and extending the whole height of the lantern. Bradley. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. West Toledo.. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. as it requires an airtight case. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. and so on. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. Ohio. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. April. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. --Contributed by Chas. 1. C. June and November. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. calling that knuckle January. This process is rather a difficult one. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. calling this February. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. provided it is airtight. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens." etc. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. the article may be propped up . Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box.

1 and 2. one of lead and one of aluminum. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. Y. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. taking care to have all the edges closed. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. N. In both Fig. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. In each place two electrodes. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. or suspended by a string. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. . Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. --Contributed by J. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. but waxed. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. H. 2. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. The top of a table will do. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. in. and the lead 24 sq. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. fruit jars are required. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. the lid or cover closed.with small sticks. Crawford. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. Schenectady. in. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. giving it an occasional stir. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. and set aside for half a day. running small motors and lighting small lamps. 1. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. Pour in a little turpentine. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown.

everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. he throws the other. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. which you warm with your hands. as you have held it all the time. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. as well as others. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . you remove the glass. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Cleveland. You have an understanding with some one in the company. After a few seconds' time. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. and take the handkerchief and unfold it.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. This trick is very simple.. O. He. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass.

but by being careful at shores. . Colo. put it under the glass. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. in diameter in the center. on a table. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Pull the ends quickly. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Victor. near a partition or curtain. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. but in making one. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Crocker. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. J. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. if any snags are encountered. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. Be sure that this is the right one. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward.-Contributed by E.take the handiest one. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded.

See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. the smaller is placed 3 ft. wide. for cockpit frame. wide unbleached muslin. long. of rope. and fastened with screws.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. Paint. 8 yd. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. long.. by 2 in. by 15 ft. apart. Fig. ducking. 1 in. 1 in. at the ends. screws and cleats. from each end to 1 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. wide and 12 ft. 3 and 4.. is 14 ft. wide and 12 ft. 50 ft. as illustrated in the engraving. 1 mast. 1/8 in. selected pine. one 6 in. by 2 in. 1. Both ends are mortised. thick and 3/4 in. and the other 12 in. wide 12-oz. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 1/4 in. square by 16 ft. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 8 in. 2 in. by 16 ft. 1 piece. for the stern piece. 1 in. 3 in. by 12 in. long. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. drilled and fastened with screws. The keelson. are as follows: 1 keelson. by 16 ft. and is removed after the ribs are in place. 4 outwales. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. 11 yd. 2 and braced with an iron band. 3 in. from the bow and the large one. 1 in. 2 gunwales. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. for center deck braces. 1 piece. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. clear pine. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. by 8 in. 14 rib bands. 7 ft. long. by 10 ft. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. 9 ft. for the bow. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. of 1-yd. from the stern. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. and. of 1-1/2-yd.

The trimming is wood. wide. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. is a cube having sides 6 in. 7 and 8. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. 9. is cut to fit under the top boards. wide and 24 in. 1 in. wood screws. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. A piece of oak. This block. 1/4 in. A block of pine. 4 in. Braces. thick. The block is fastened to the keelson. A 6-in. thick 1-1/2 in. long. thick and 12 in. wide. from the bow. long. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. A seam should be made along the center piece. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. 6 and 7. gunwales and keelson. thick. screws. wide and 14 in. 5. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. 6 in. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. The 11-yd. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. in diameter through the block. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. corner braces. a piece 1/4 in. . and fastened to them with bolts. 3-1/2 ft. long. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. doubled. These are put in 6 in. 1 in. long is well soaked in water. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. length of canvas is cut in the center. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. Fig. 6. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. Figs. wide and 3 ft. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. The deck is not so hard to do. Before making the deck. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. also.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. apart. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. They are 1 in. Fig. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. thick and 1/2 in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales.

Several coats of good paint complete the boat. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. The house will accommodate 20 families. long. in diameter and 10 ft. --Contributed by O. 11. Fig. long. E. wide at one end and 12 in. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. wide. The mast has two side and one front stay. . The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. thick by 2 in. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. Wilmette. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. The sail is a triangle. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. apart in the muslin. 10 with a movable handle. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. 12. each 1 in. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. Tronnes. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. are used for the boom and gaff. The keel. at the other. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. is 6 in. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. Ill. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. A strip 1 in. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut.

thick. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. thick. square. wide and 2 ft.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. long. flat-headed screws. long and five 1/2-in. Wilmette. 5. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. long. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. flat on one side. 1 yd. flat headed screws. 1. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. and the other 18 in. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. long. --Contributed by O. Fig. wide and 30 in. Tronnes. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. 2 in. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. wide. Bevel both sides of the pieces. 2-1/2 in. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. E. as shown in Fig. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. 2. thick. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. 4. about 5/16 in. 2-1/2 in. one 11-1/2 in. with the ends and the other side rounding. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. Ill. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. and 3 ft. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. Take this and fold it over . After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. 3. Cut the maple. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. five 1/2-in.into two 14-in. wide. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces.

The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. thick. Wind three layers of about No. long. is set. and the four outside edges. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. the top and bottom. wide and 6-1/2 in. 6-1/2 in. --Contributed by W. long. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. are rounded. The sides are 3-1/4 in. square. long. 1. About 1/2 in. A. wide and 5 in. Figs. soaked with water and blown up. 3/8 in. long. of each end unwound for connections. C. F. Glue a three cornered piece. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. square.once. Mo. wide and 2-3/4 in. 3 in. After the glue. wide and 6-3/4 in. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. D. this square box is well sandpapered. wide and 3 ft. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. 3-1/4 in. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. Make a double stitch all around the edge. 2 and 3. wide . Bliss. thick and 3 in. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. long. wide and 4-1/2 in. If carefully and neatly made. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. then centered. and take care that the pieces are all square. Another piece. pieces 2-5/8 in. B. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. St. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. When the glue is set. long. thick. long. long. E. as well as the edges around the opening. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. The bag is then turned inside out. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. 1-1/4 in. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. Cut another piece of board. leaving a small opening at one corner. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. and make a turn in each end of the wires. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. The front. 5 from 1/16-in. C. forming an eye for a screw. the mechanical parts can be put together. A. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. Louis. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. but can be governed by circumstances. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. Fig. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. about 3/8 in.

The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. Austwick Hall. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. Place the tin. so it will just clear the tin. C. hole is fastened to the pointer. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. 1/16 in. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. Fig.A. These wires should be about 1 in. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. The end of the polar axis B. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. W. The stronger the current. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. that has the end turned with a shoulder. The resistance is now adjusted to show . A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. in diameter. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. Yorkshire. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. 4. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. 5. L. board. bored in the back. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. wide and 2-1/2 in.S. Another strip of tin. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. thick. Chapman. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. showing a greater defection of the pointer. long. When the current flows through the coil. 1/4 in. The base is a board 5 in. the part carrying the pointer moves away. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. Richmond Hill. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. A pointer 12 in.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. Fig. the same size as the first. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. long. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. from one end.R. from the spindle. and as the part Fig. I. G. 4. 5-1/2 in. Like poles repel each other. and fasten in place.and 2-5/8 in. --Contributed by George Heimroth. wide and 9 in. 4 is not movable. F. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. R. and the farther apart they will be forced. long. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle.

Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. shows mean siderial. thus: 9 hr. 1881. at 9 hr. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. 10 min. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. A. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. 30 min. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. M. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. 10 min. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. say Venus at the date of observation. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. The following formula will show how this may be found. and vice . There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye.

. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in.f. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. owing to the low internal resistance. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. --Contributed by Robert W.m. New Haven. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. Conn.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Hall. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. or. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. if one of these cannot be had.

If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. 3/8 in. When the follower is screwed down. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. long. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. as shown in the accompanying picture. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. Fig. Then. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. thick. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. arsenic to every 20 lb. and heap the glowing coals on top. Wet paper will answer. cover up with the same. The boring bar. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. especially for cooking fish. fresh grass. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. leaves or bark. inside diameter and about 5 in. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. of alum and 4 oz. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. put the fish among the ashes. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . 1-3/4 in. 1. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand.

These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. when they were turned in. about 1/2 in. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. fastened with a pin. and threaded on both ends. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. pipe. thick. pipe. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting.

If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down.valve stems. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. If the valve keeps dripping. however. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. but never one which required so little material. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. 4. 5. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. Fig. Clermont. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. bent in the shape of a U. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. was then finished on an emery wheel. 30 in. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. Fig. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. then it should be ground to a fit. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. and which gave such satisfactory results. square iron. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. 3. the float is too high. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. a jump spark would be much better. wide. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. The rough frame. Iowa. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. 2. A 1-in. Fig. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. This plate also supports the rocker arms. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. thick and 3 in. It . A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. labor and time. as the one illustrated herewith. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. long. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley.

rope is not too heavy. set 3 ft. If it is to be used for adults. This makes an easy adjustment. hole bored in the post. being held in position by spikes as shown. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. square and 2 ft. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. long. strengthened by a piece 4 in. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. As there is no bracing. strong clear material only should be employed. The seats are regular swing boards. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. W. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. with no trees or buildings in the way. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. long. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. 3/4 in. so it must be strong enough. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. from the center. in fact. and. from all over the neighborhood. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. It looks like a toy. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. A 3/4 -in. for the "motive power" to grasp. The crosspiece is 2 in." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. in the ground with 8 ft. and a little junk. timber. long. A malleable iron bolt. completes the merry-go-round. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. The illustration largely explains itself. in diameter and 15 in. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. square. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. 12 ft. Use a heavy washer at the head. long is the pivot." little and big. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. no matter what your age or size may be. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. extending above. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. butting against short stakes. square and 5 ft. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. Nieman. --Contributed by C. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top.

A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. one for the backbone and one for the bow. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. if nothing better is at hand.2 emery. and 18 in. 1/4 by 3/32 in. away. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. and sent to earth. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. light and strong. square. These ends are placed about 14 in. 2. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. long. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. The backbone is flat. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. To wind the string upon the reel. The bow is now bent. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. 1. Both have large reels full of . The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. A reel is next made. as shown in Fig. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. then it is securely fastened. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. a wreck.the fingers. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. 4. Having placed the backbone in position.

or glass-covered string. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. Y. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. --Contributed' by Harry S. often several hundred yards of it. N. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. he pays out a large amount of string. the balance. C. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . the first tries to spear him by swift dives. If the second kite is close enough. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration.-Contributed by S. The handle end is held down with a staple. Brooklyn. Mass. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever.string. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. Bunker. common packing thread. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Moody. Newburyport. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. First.

square (Fig. each the size of half the table top. such as mill men use. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. must be attached to a 3-ft. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. If the table is round. length of 2-in. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Corinth. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. lengths (Fig. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . then a dust protector. Vt. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Hastings. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. --Contributed by Earl R. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. then draw the string up tight. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. make the pad as shown in the illustration.

Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag.9-1/4 in. and E to G. 6-1/4 in. Oakland. hard pencil.. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. Use a smooth. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work..-Contributed by H. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. from E to F. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. 16-1/4 in. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Wharton. E. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. 2-1/4 in. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. Moisten the . If leaves are wanted in extending the table. Calif. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather.. which spoils the leather effect. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. . 17-1/2 in. trace the design carefully on the leather. G to H. from C to D. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working.

about 1/8 in. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. and corresponding lines on the other side. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. place both together and with a leather punch. Trace the openings for the handles. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. H-B. Now cut narrow thongs. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Cut it the same size as the bag. get something with which to make a lining. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. and E-G. wide. G-J. with the rounded sides of the tools. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. if not more than 1 in. apart. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. and lace through the holes. To complete the bag.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. also lines A-G. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. I made this motor . A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. is taken off at a time.

which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. long. 1. of No. 1. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. Calif. 2-1/4 in. Pasadena. each being a half circle. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. . Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. in length. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. as shown in Fig.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. B. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. --Contributed by J. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. 24 gauge magnet wire.M. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. iron. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. Shannon. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. D. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. 2. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts.

Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. from the bottom end. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. are the best kind to make. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. high. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. and the gores cut from these. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. balloon should be about 8 ft. The gores for a 6-ft. near the center. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. pasted in alternately. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. 1. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top.

saturating it thoroughly. In starting the balloon on its flight. These are to hold the wick ball. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. Staunton. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. in diameter. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. somewhat larger in size. as shown in Fig. A. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. E. after which the paint will adhere permanently. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. B. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. so it will hang as shown in Fig. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. After washing. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. lap on the edges. 5. as shown in Fig. The steam. 3. Fig. leaving a long wake behind. 4. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. 1. As the boat is driven forward by this force. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. leaving the solution on over night. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water.widest point. coming through the small pipe A. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. If the gores have been put together right. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. using about 1/2-in. The boat soon attains considerable speed. 2. In removing grease from wood. --Contributed by R.

Second. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. There are three ways of doing this: First. high and 8 in. wide by 6 in. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. long. as is shown in Fig. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. in bowling form. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. Third. if you have several copies of the photograph. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. The blocks are about 6 in. 1. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. long and each provided with a handle. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. In using either of the two methods described. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. apart on these lines. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft.

Hellwig. not pointed down at the road at an angle. N. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. being careful not to dent the metal. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . thick. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Rinse the plate in cold water. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Fig. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. Albany. 2. --Contributed by John A. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque.Fig. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Y.

and not produce the right sound. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. A. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. Paine. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. thick. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. through which passes the set screw S. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. Corner irons. A. Va. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. CC. 1 Fig. is fastened to a common camera tripod. which is 4 in. in diameter. S. These corner irons are also screwed to. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D.upon any particular object. 2 the front view. --Contributed by R. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. wide and of any desired height. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Richmond. Break off the frame. A circular piece of wood. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. In Fig. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. 5 in. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. 6 in. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. B. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. long for the base. and. are screwed to the circular piece. With this device. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . wide and 8 in. with a set screw. and Fig.

will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. . The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Ill. R.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. pine boards. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. as only the can is visible. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Kidder. This horn. D. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. -1. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. I made a wheel 26 in. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. S. thus producing sound waves. This will make a very compact electric horn. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. in diameter of some 1-in. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. Lake Preston. La Salle. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw.

The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. square. Purdy. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. O. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Fig. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. thick and 12 in. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. 1. --Contributed by James R. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Doylestown. B. If there is a large collection of coins. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Kane. Ghent. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. 2. --Contributed by C. 1. The frame is made of a heavy card. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. If the collection consists of only a few coins. A. the same thickness as the coins. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig.

and a stout board upon which to work up the design. melted and applied with a brush. cut and grooved. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. A rivet punch is desirable. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. It will hold 4 oz. into which to place the screws . Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. --Contributed by J. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. though not absolutely necessary. a hammer or mallet. Noble. thick. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. border all around. --Contributed by August T. Smith. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. The material required is a sheet of No. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. Canada.J. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. Wis. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. A lead pencil. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. One Cloud. they become uninteresting. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. several large nails. plus a 3/8-in. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. Milwaukee. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. If desired. Cal. Toronto. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. The more coats applied the darker the color will be.E. Neyer. --Contributed by R. and then glued together as indicated. of developer. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. for after the slides have been shown a few times.

Punch rivet holes in holder and band. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. using 1/2-in. Take the nail. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. Remove the screws. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. There are several ways of working up the design. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. screws placed about 1 in. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. never upon the metal directly. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. like the one shown. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . and file it to a chisel edge. both outline and decoration. draw one part.

square and 11 in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. 3. long. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. two lengths. long. and two lengths. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. About 1/2 yd. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. 2. for the lower rails. for the top. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. up from the lower end. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. l-1/8 in. 1. The pedal. Do not bend it over or flatten it. in the other. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. as shown in Fig. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. long. square and 181/2 in.wall. of 11-in. . being ball bearing. square. Provide four lengths for the legs. 3/4 in. each 1 in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. using a 1/2in. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. Rivet the band to the holder.

The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. New York City. --Contributed by John Shahan. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. Quackenbush. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. F. Ala. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. Attalla. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] .The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. --Contributed by W. having quite a length of threads. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph.

and two holes in the other. D. Purchase a 1/2-in. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. from the end. Luther. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. Two pieces of felt. something that is carbonated. long. wide and 8-1/4 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. long. from one end. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. initial. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. in depth.. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . using class. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. The desired emblem. each 1-1/4 in. one about 1 in. making a lap of about 1 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. the end of the other piece is folded over. and 3/8 in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. Ironwood. long. --Contributed by C. Assemble as shown in the sketch. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. college or lodge colors. and the other 2-3/4 in. Mich.

--Contributed by John H. and the cork will be driven out. or a pasteboard box.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . in the cover and the bottom. from the center and opposite each other. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. A piece of lead. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. Indianapolis. which can be procured from a plumber. 1/4 in. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. Schatz. in diameter and 2 in. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. Punch two holes A. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Fig. about 2 in. as shown at B. Ind. 1. 2. This method allows a wide range of designs. as shown in the sketch. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. or more in height. if desired by the operator. is cut in the shape shown in Fig.

. 4. metal. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. The pieces of tin between the holes A. 5. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. 3. Fig. Columbus. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. When the can is rolled away from you. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. on both top and bottom. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand.Rolling Can Toy lead. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. putting in the design. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. as shown in Fig. or marble will serve. and the ends of the bands looped over them. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. A piece of thick glass. 1. it winds up the rubber band. allowing the two ends to be free. O. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. are turned up as in Fig.

I secured a board 3/4 in. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. A pencil may be used the first time over. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. New York City. mark over the design. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. long and bored a 1/2-in. thicker than the pinion. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. Next place the leather on the glass. or more thick on each side. face up. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. and. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. hole through it. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. If it is desired to "line" the inside. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. from each end. deep in its face. 3 in. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. wide and 20 in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. After this has been done. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. The edges should be about 1/8 in. thick. 1 in.

much of the hard labor will be saved. 1 by 9 by 80 in. and fit it in place for the side vise. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 1 screw block. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 3 by 3 by 36. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown.in the board into the bench top. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 4 guides. 2 end rails. in diameter. 3 by 3 by 6 in. Syracuse. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Cut the 2-in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Make the lower frame first. 2. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. N. 1 top board. --Contributed by A. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 1 by 12 by 77 in. 1. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 1 piece for clamp. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. pieces for the vise slides. Y. M. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. Fig. Brooklyn. New York. 1 back board. Rice. Now fit up the two clamps. thick top board. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 2 crosspieces. 1 top board. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 1 piece for clamp. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. countersinking the heads of the vise end. 2 side rails. 1 piece. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . lag screws as shown. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in.

.. The bench is now complete. If each tool is kept in a certain place.. 24 in. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 pair dividers. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 jack plane or smoother.. 24 in. 1 claw hammer. in diameter. The amateur workman. rule. 1 pair pliers. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood.screws. 1 monkey wrench. as well as the pattern maker. 1 brace and set of bits. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 cross cut saw. 1 set gimlets. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. it can be easily found when wanted. Only the long run. 1 nail set. 1 countersink. 1 2-ft. 1 compass saw. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 2 screwdrivers. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 wood scraper. 1 rip saw. 3 and 6 in. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 set chisels. 1 pocket level. 1 marking gauge.

it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. Fig. try square. The calf skin. 1. but will not make . No.1. 1 oilstone. Doylestown. will sink into the handle as shown at D. Fig. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. will be easier to work. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. Kane. 1. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. becomes like A. after constant use.1 6-in. being softer. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. 3. Fig. Fig. ---Contributed by James M. 2. Pa. 2 and 00 sandpaper. the projecting point A. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife.

The form can be made of a stick of wood. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. If cow hide is preferred. the same method of treatment is used. but a V-shaped nut pick. After the outlines are traced. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. and the length 6-5/8 in. such as copper or brass. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. New York City. Turn the leather. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. -Contributed by Julia A. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. . cover it completely with water enamel and. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. Having prepared the two sides. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. when dry. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. If calf skin is to be used. then prepare the leather. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. Two pieces will be required of this size. lay the design on the face. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. secure a piece of modeling calf. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges.as rigid a case as the cow skin. water or heat will not affect. will do just as well. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. First draw the design on paper. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. White. which steam. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather.

New York City. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. C. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Maine. Cobb. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. as shown in the sketch. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. and an adjustable friction-held loop. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. A.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. Cal. Jaquythe. Herrman. . When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. --Contributed by Chas. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by Chester L. Portland. Richmond.

the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. was marked out as shown. Wright. This was very difficult. Mass. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. A thick piece of tin. Conn. for instance. Cambridge. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. or anyone that can shape tin and solder.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. . Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. --Contributed by Wm. Middletown. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. an inverted stewpan. --Contributed by Geo. Roberts.. B.

take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. When dry. --Contributed by Paul Keller. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. A beautifully bound book. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. but only an odor which soon vanished. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. L. . Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. There was no quicklime to be had. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. Indianapolis. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. so some bones were quickly calcined. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. pulverized and applied. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. and the grease will disappear. of boiling water. such as chair seats. Chicago. Illinois. well calcined and powdered. --Contributed by C. apply powdered calcined magnesia. used as part of furniture. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. Herbert. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. face down. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. Ind. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. and quite new. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. which has been tried out several times with success.. The next morning there was no trace of oil. as shown. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. on a clear piece of glass. but not running over. If any traces of the grease are left. If the article is highly polished. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. F. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Bone.

a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. set and thumbscrews. The pieces marked S are single. deep and 5 in. 6 in. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. --Contributed by Geo. soft steel with the opening 6 in. says Scientific American. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. A. Tarrytown. If properly adjusted. This coaster is simple and easy to make. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. New York. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. high and are bolted to a block of wood. wide and 12 in. 2 in. Howe. the pieces .Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement.. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. thick. long..

a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. albums and the like. no doubt. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. If the letters are all cut the same height. Their size depends on the plate used. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. The seat is a board. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. to the underside of which is a block. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. they will look remarkably uniform. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. A sharp knife. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. E. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. says Camera Craft. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. for sending to friends. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife.

to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. pasting the prints on some thin card. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. photographing them down to the desired size. for example. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. and. mount them on short pieces of corks. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. The puzzle is to get . and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. after. So arranged. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. using care to get it in the right position. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. So made. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. In cutting out an 0. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters.

the tube righting itself at once for another catch.-Contributed by I. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. Bayley. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. of its top. says the American Thresherman. squeezes along past the center of the tube. long that will just fit are set in. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. Old-Time Magic . The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. snow or anything to hide it. so they will lie horizontal. Cape May Point. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. A hole 6 or 7 in. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week.J. N. hung on pivots. G. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. He smells the bait. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. with the longest end outside. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand.

--Contributed by L. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Parker. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Pawtucket. or rub the hands a little before doing so. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Pocatello. E. then spread the string.faced up. Brooklyn. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Szerlip. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Press the hands together. then expose again. N. Idaho. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Y. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Rhode Island. --Contributed by L.

or a complete suit of armor. The handle is next made. The blade should be about 27 in. Glue the other side of the blade. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in.Genuine antique swords and armor. whether he requires a single sword only. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. long. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. 1 Fig. full size. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in.. When the whole is quite dry. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. 4 on the blade. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. 3 Fig. narrower. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. wipe the blade . near the point end. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. end of the blade. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. dark red. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. wide and 2 in. says the English Mechanic. 2 Fig. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. in building up his work from the illustrations. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. or green oil paint. thick. and if carefully made. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. 1. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. The pieces. When the glue is thoroughly dry. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. using a straightedge and a pencil. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. if any.. in width. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. they will look very much like the genuine article. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make.

. should be about 9 in. In making this scimitar. thick and 5 in. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. 3. of course. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. shows only two sides. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. This sword is about 68 in. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. square and of any length desired. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. about 1-1/2 in. preferably of contrasting colors. The length of the handle. allowing for a good hold with both hands. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. Fig. long. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. follow the directions as for Fig. 1/8 in. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. in the widest part at the lower end. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. 1.with light strokes up and down several times. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. the illustration. as it is . Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. and 3 in. 1. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. 2. the other is flat or half-round. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. in diameter. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. the other is flat or halfround. 4. take two pieces of wood. 3. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. 1. In making. the length of the blade 28 in.. 1. Both edges of the blade are sharp. In the finished piece. not for use only in cases of tableaux. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. the other two are identical. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. 2.

--Contributed by Katharine D. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. On each edge of the board.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. square. --Contributed by John Blake. N. A cold . It is made of a plank. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. The thinness of the plank. in an attempt to remove it. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. 2 in. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. as there was some at hand. piping and jackets by hard water. Both can be made easily. as can the pitch bed or block. Mass. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. as shown in the sketch. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. Doctors probed for the button without success. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. however. or an insecure fastening. Franklin. long. Y. and. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. A piece of mild steel. at the lower end. about 3/8 in. Morse. each about 1 ft. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Syracuse. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. and if so. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward.

For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. When the desired form has been obtained. tallow. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. using a small metal saw. 18 gauge. To remedy this. Trim up the edges and file them . Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again.. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. To put it in another way. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. on the pitch. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. 5 lb. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. design down. secure a piece of brass of about No. 5 lb. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. a file to reduce the ends to shape. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal.. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. plaster of Paris. When this has been done. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened.

1 ft. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. This in turn divided by 33. and still revolve. The smaller is placed within the larger. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. or 550 ft. 1) and the other 12 in. lb. Cutter. in one minute or 550 lb. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute.smooth. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. 2). Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. in the center. Fill the 3-in. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. 30 ft. 1 ft. to keep it from floating. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. That is lifting 33. make an unusual show window attraction. in diameter (Fig. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. using powdered pumice with lye.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. lb. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. living together in what seems like one receptacle.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. or fraction of a horsepower. one 18 in. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Clean the metal thoroughly. and hang a bird swing. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. but not to stop it. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Before giving the description. per second. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. --Contributed by Harold H. 3. Fig.000 lb. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. per minute. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. . This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. space between the vessels with water.000 ft. in diameter (Fig. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. over the smaller vessel. A. in one second. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush.

Mass. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. 2 Fig. Szerlip. Y. F. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. --Contributed. Somerville. Brooklyn.18 in. or on a pedestal. --Contributed by J. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Diameter Fig. N. The effect is surprising.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water.3 Fig. 1 Fig. Campbell. Diameter 12 in. by L.

and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. with the pliers. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. with other defects. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. Do not be content merely to bend them over. after which it is ready for use. Rivet the cup to the base. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. to keep the metal from tarnishing. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. Polish both of these pieces. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. keeping the center high. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. as a rule. and then. which may be of wood or tin. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. unsatisfactory. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. often render it useless after a few months service. is.copper of No. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. and the clay . the same as removing writing from a slate. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. This compound is impervious to water. then by drawing a straightedge over it. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. which. away from the edge. and cut out the shape with the shears. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. using any of the common metal polishes. In riveting. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown.

DeLoof. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. --Contributed by A. Mich. . then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Northville. in diameter and 5 in. long. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. It is made of a glass tube. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. 1. A. Mich. 2. Dunlop. Shettleston. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. Grand Rapids. The siphon is made of glass tubes. -Contributed by Thos. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by John T. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. the device will work for an indefinite time.can be pressed back and leveled. Houghton. Scotland.

will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. stilettos and battle-axes. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. put up as ornaments. This sword is 4 ft.FIG. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. As the handle is to . 1. London. in width and 2 in.1 FIG. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. long.

Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. narrower. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. in width. 5. In Fig. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. A German stiletto. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. Three large. sometimes called cuirass breakers. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. in length. small rope and round-headed nails. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. This axe is made similar to the one . sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. with wire or string' bound handle. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. Cut two strips of tinfoil. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. 20 spike. paint it a dark brown or black. one about 1/2 in. This weapon is about 1 ft. These must be cut from pieces of wood. glue and put it in place. Both handle and axe are of steel. sharp edges on both sides. 6. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. In Fig. This stiletto has a wood handle. the upper part iron or steel. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. the axe is of steel. firmly glued on. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. wood with a keyhole saw. The lower half of the handle is of wood. The handle is of wood. is shown in Fig. long with a dark handle of wood. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. 7. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. The sword shown in Fig. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. string. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. the same as used on the end of the handle. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. very broad. When dry. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. The crossbar and blade are steel. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. When the whole is quite dry. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. studded with brass or steel nails. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. When the glue is thoroughly dry. 8. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. then glued on the blade as shown. 9. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. 3 is shown a claymore. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. A German poniard is shown in Fig. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. long. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. This weapon is also about 1 ft. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. in length. with both edges sharp. The ball is made as described in Fig. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. which is about 2-1/2 ft. 4. In Fig. 11 were used. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig.represent copper. with both edges of the blade sharp. This sword is about 4 ft.

The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. 2. Chicago. 10. This will make a very good flexible belt. high. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. will pull where other belts slip. and as the tension members are all protected from wear.described in Fig. so the contents cannot be seen. W. together as shown in Fig. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. When wrapped all the way around. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. the ends are tied and cut off. such as braided fishline. Old-Time Magic . --Contributed by E. Davis. . If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand.

Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. --Contributed by A. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. an acid. held in the right hand. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. Before the performance. apparently. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. causing the flowers to grow. in a few seconds' time. Macdonald. As zinc is much lighter than iron. 2. The dotted lines in Fig. four glass tumblers. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . These wires are put in the jar. S. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. some of the liquid. or using small wedges of wood. 1 and put together as in Fig. with the circle centrally located. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. Calif. Oakland. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. There will be no change in color. Bridgeton. N. about one-third the way down from the top. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. filled with water. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end.J. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid.

Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. and kept ready for use at any time. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. If the size wanted is No. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. which are numbered for convenience in working. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. not only because of the fact just mentioned. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. unless some special device is used. and equally worthy of individual treatment. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. A. 2 for height. Richmond. says a correspondent of Photo Era. Cal. 4 for width and No. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. practical and costs nothing. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. Jaquythe. When many slides are to be masked.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. --Contributed by W. This outlines the desired opening. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines.

Secure a sheet of No. the paper is folded along the center line. which is dangerous. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. Draw a design. paint the design. but they can be easily revived. When etched to the desired depth. The one shown is merely suggestive. 16 gauge. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. a little less acid than water. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. not the water into the acid. the margin and the entire back of the metal. The decoration. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. and the extreme length 7 in. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. or a pair of old tongs. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. may be changed. is about right for the No. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. or. too. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. This done. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. about half and half. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. With a stick. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. possibly. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. using the carbon paper. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. and do not inhale the fumes. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish.

J is another wire attached in the same way. long. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. 1. through it. with the wires underneath. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. wide and of the same length as the table. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. 5. as shown in Fig. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. and about 2-1/2 ft. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Fig. high. about 2-1/2 in. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. 2. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. Then get two posts. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. about 8 in. 4. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. 24 parts water. Fig. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. Cut out a piece of tin. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. C and D. 2. as shown in the illustration. 5. thick. A. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. Fig. to the table. wide. about 1 in. repeat as many times as is necessary. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. Fig. 3. Nail a board. Fig. 2. as at H. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. 0 indicates the batteries. long and 1 ft. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. about 3 ft. in diameter and 1/4 in. When the button S is pressed. It may be either nailed or screwed down. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. attached to a post at each end. it will touch post F. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 3/8 in. . If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. the bell will ring. Paint the table any color desired. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. so that when it is pressed down. or more wide. The connections are simple: I. as in Fig. and bore two holes.

long. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. is to appear as steel. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together.. The entire weapon. handle and all. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. long serves as the dowel. thick. This weapon is about 22 in. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. After the glue is dry. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in.Imitation Arms and Armor . A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. but they are somewhat difficult to make. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. 2. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. The circle is marked out with a compass. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. the wood peg inserted in one of them. These rings can be carved out. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. 1. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. says the English Mechanic. The imitation articles are made of wood. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. A wood peg about 2 in. such as . An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.

The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. with a sharp carving tool. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil.ornamental scrolls. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. 6. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. The handle is of wood. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. long. All of these axes are about the same length. 8. studded with large brass or steel nails. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. used at the end of the fifteenth century. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. If such a tool is not at hand. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. as described in Fig. This weapon is about 22 in. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. is shown in Fig. also. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. The upper half of the handle is steel. 2. etc. or the amateur cannot use it well. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. as before mentioned. the hammer and spike. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. 5. as shown. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The lower half of the handle is wood. The handle is of steel imitation. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. flowers. leaves. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. The spikes are cut out of wood. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The entire handle should be made of one piece. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. 3. . or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The axe is shown in steel. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. covered with red velvet. Its length is about 3 ft. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb.

Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. 2. 4). 1. as shown in Fig. Each person plays until three outs have been made. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. a three-base hit. The knife falling on its side (Fig. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. calls for a home run. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. . and so on for nine innings. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. 6. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. Fig. then the other plays. the knife resting on its back. Chicago. 3. 5. as in Fig. 7) calls for one out.

The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. It may be found that the negative is not colored.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. of the rope and holds it. while the committee is tying him up. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. F. as shown in Fig. one of them burning .A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. hypo to 1 pt. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. Somerville. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. Campbell. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. with the rope laced in the cloth. 2. Old-Time Magic .-Contributed by J. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. as shown in Fig. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. If it is spotted at all. 1. This he does. of water for an hour or two. 3. Mass.

and the audience gaze on and see nothing. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way.. thus causing it to light. . Brown. Lebanon. New York City. shades the light for a few seconds. bolt. Ky. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. --Contributed by C. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. thick. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. 3/4 in. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. of water and 1 oz. showing that there is nothing between them.brightly. He then walks over to the other candle. B. of plumbago. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. The magician walks over to the burning candle.Contributed by Andrew G. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. Louisville. etc. 4 oz. with which he is going to light the other candle. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. of sugar. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. and. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. the other without a light. Drill Gauge screw. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. Ky. --Contributed by L. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. Thome. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. of turpentine. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. Evans. invisible to them (the audience). 4 oz.

thick. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. H. or blotting paper. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. In making up the solution. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. Denniston. steady current. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Do not add water to the acid. Y. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. 5 in. which will give a strong. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. long. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. --Contributed by C. diameter. long with an internal diameter of 2 in.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. but is not so good. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. Its current strength is about one volt. into a tube of several thicknesses. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. Pulteney. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. for the material. about 5 in. To make the porous cell. N.

It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. while the other end is attached by two screws. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. carrying the hour circle at one end.station. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. the other holding them apart. one drawing them together. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. but somewhat lighter. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. steel. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. One hole was bored as well as possible. steel. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. After much experimentation with bearings. long with a bearing at each end. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. Finally. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in.) may be obtained. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. a positive adjustment was provided. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The . The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. To insure this. steel. As to thickness.

It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. All these adjustments. need not be changed. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. once carefully made. To locate a known star on the map. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. Point it approximately to the north star. are tightened. excepting those on the declination axis. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. The pointer is directed to Alpha. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. To find a star in the heavens. The aperture should be 1/4 in. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. Cassiopiae. It is. turn the pointer to the star." When this is done. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. and 15 min. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. Each shaft. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. Set the declination circle to its reading.. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. apart. If the result is more than 24 hours. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. The pole is 1 deg. 45 min. Declination is read directly. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. save the one in the pipe. in each direction from two points 180 deg. subtract 24. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. and if it is not again directed to the same point. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. All set screws. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. When properly set it will describe a great circle." Only a rough setting is necessary. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. Instead. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. is provided with this adjustment. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes.. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension.

OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. -Contributed by Ray E. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. as shown in the sketch.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr.. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. cannon balls. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. The dance will begin. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. of ether. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. New Orleans. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. long. is folded several times. La. add a little more benzole. the others . which is the one examined. then add 1 2-3 dr. is the real cannon ball. The ball is found to be the genuine article. Ohio. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. In reality the first ball. a great effect will be produced. Plain City. If this will be too transparent. taking care not to add too much. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. benzole. Strosnider. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. 3 or 4 in. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination.

Somerville. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Return the card to the pack. without taking up any great amount of space.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. San Francisco. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. --Contributed by J. Mass. F. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Wis. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. 2.. Campbell. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. etc. Milwaukee. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. Cal. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. Fig. 1). The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. In boxes having a sliding cover. as shown in the illustration. small brooches. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. taps. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara.

but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. prints. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. slides and extra brushes. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. Connecticut. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. This box has done good service. Hartford. Beller. round pieces 2-1/4 in. thus giving ample store room for colors. .The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. as shown in the illustration. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. from the bottom of the box. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time.

the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. Fill the upper tub. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. When the ends are turned under.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. 2). -Contributed by C. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. tacking the gauze well at the corners. will answer the purpose. Mass. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. Darke. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. O. holes in the bottom of one. about threefourths full. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. FIG. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. West Lynn. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. with well packed horse manure. 1). or placed against a wall. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. costing 5 cents. .A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in.

At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. when they are raised from the pan. If plugs are found in any of the holes. Chicago. M. they should be knocked out. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. If the following directions are carried out. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. --Contributed by L. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. and each bundle contains . The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. cutting the cane between the holes. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. oil or other fluid. Eifel. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. if this is not available. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out.

put about 3 or 4 in. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. No plugs . which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. after having been pulled tight. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. 1. In addition to the cane. as shown in Fig. held there by inserting another plug. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. as it must be removed again.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. it should be held by a plug. then across and down. a square pointed wedge. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. and. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom.

The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. 1. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. but the most common. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. trim off the surplus rosin. -Contributed by E. Start at one corner and weave diagonally.3 in. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations.2+. as for example. the height of the line BC. in this case) times the . 4. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. and for 1° it would be . the height of which is taken from table No. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. as it always equals the latitude of the place. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. as the height of the line BC for lat. 42° is 4. stretch the third one. and the one we shall describe in this article. and for lat. is the base (5 in. as shown in Fig. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. it is 4. After completing the second layer.2 in. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. Michigan. 1. When cool. Fig. From table No. using the same holes as for the first layer.075 in. D. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. If handled with a little care. During the weaving. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. 40°.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. Even with this lubrication. we have 4. Detroit. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. W. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time.42 in. This will make three layers. The style or gnomon. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. the next smallest. 41°-30'. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. There are several different designs of sundials. 3. All added to the lesser or 40°. 1 lat. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used.= 4. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. 1. Their difference is . 3. R. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. If you have a table of natural functions. for 2°. Patrick. No weaving has been done up to this time. Fig. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. --Contributed by M. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. is the horizontal dial. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. It consists of a flat circular table. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer.075 in. 41 °-30'. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding.15 in. called the gnomon. 5 in. 5. as shown in Fig. or the style.5 in. The chemicals will not affect the rosin.15+. lat.

42 1.87 4.82 2. if of metal.85 1.44 44° 4. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.37 5.02 1.66 latitude. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.07 4. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. .63 56° 7. and for this size dial (10 in.46 3. 2 for given latitudes.42 45 .06 2. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.29 4-30 7-30 3. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.93 6.14 5.49 30 .30 1.82 5.39 .94 1.57 3.68 5-30 6-30 5.89 50° 5.38 . according to the size of the dial.93 2.91 58° 8.19 1.66 48° 5. using the points A and C as centers.88 36° 3. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.50 26° 2.40 34° 3.20 60° 8. or more. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .83 27° 2.42 .12 52° 6.76 1.32 6.18 28° 2. gives the 6 o'clock points.56 . for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.00 40° 4. base.55 30° 2. Chords in inches for a 10 in. which will represent the base in length and thickness.59 2. long. and perpendicular to the base or style.16 1. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.26 4.27 2.66 1.97 5 7 4.46 .03 3. To layout the hour circle. with a radius of 5 in.11 3. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.41 38° 3.87 1. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. an inch or two. or if of stone.55 46° 5.77 2.23 6. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. 2. Its thickness.28 . Table NO.64 4 8 3. Draw the line AD.37 54° 6.96 32° 3.10 6.81 4.79 4.99 2. 2.82 3.40 1. circle Sundial.49 3. Draw two semi-circles.55 4.85 35 .30 2.57 1. Fig.33 . may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.tangent of the degree of latitude.16 40 .33 42° 4. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. and intersecting the semicircles. For latitudes not given.55 5. 1. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.

or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.50 .53 1. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. E. April 16.63 1. Mitchell. Sioux City. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.14 1. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. 3. 3.46 4. Sept.24 5. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.37 2.71 2. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. then the watch is slower. adding to each piece interest and value. 2 and Dec.72 5. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.49 5. The + means that the clock is faster. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. says the English Mechanic. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.19 2. and for the difference between standard and local time.60 4.57 1. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .34 5.93 6. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. --Contributed by J. London. Sun time to local mean time..98 4. each article can be labelled with the name.79 6.01 1. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.52 Table No.from Sundial lime. June 15.06 2. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.54 60 . after allowing for the declination. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. if west.77 3. This correction can be added to the values in table No.49 3.50 55 .add those marked + subtract those Marked . it will be faster.10 4. An ordinary compass. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.30 2. As they are the genuine reproductions. 900 Chicago.21 2. and the .46 5.68 3.means that the dial is faster than the sun. 25. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.08 1. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.12 5.82 3. will enable one to set the dial.87 6. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.89 3. Each weapon is cut from wood. Iowa. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.

The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. When putting on the tinfoil. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. 1.. Partisan. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. . the length of which is about 5 ft. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. 3.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.

It is about 6 ft. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. A gisarm or glaive. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The edges are sharp. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. long with a round wooden handle. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. 5. the holes being about 1/4 in. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. about 4 in. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. which are a part of the axe. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. long. The extreme length is 9 ft. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. long. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. 6 ft. The spear is steel. . These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. used about the seventeenth century. This weapon is about 6 ft. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. in diameter. 7. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. is shown in Fig. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. 8. The length of this bar is about 5 in. sharp on the outer edges. press it well into the carved depressions. long with a round staff or handle. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig..which is square. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe.

The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. the most durable being bamboo. Workman. used for spacing and binding the whole together. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. B. 4. as shown in Fig. are less durable and will quickly show wear. They can be made of various materials. Loudonville. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. the cross cords. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. or in holes punched in a leather strap. In Figs.-Contributed by R. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. H. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. Substances such as straw. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. are put in place. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. apart. 5. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. Ohio. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. Cut all the cords the same length. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. This is important to secure neatness. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. The twisted cross cords should . 1. 2 and 3.

M. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Four V-shaped notches were cut. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. To remedy this. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. for a length extending from a point 2 in. La. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. 3 in. in which was placed a piece of glass. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail.be of such material. Lockport. This was turned over the top of the other can. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. Harrer. wide. The first design shown is for using bamboo. of the bottom. as shown at B. New Orleans. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. New York. below the top to within 1/4 in. A slit was cut in the bottom. -Contributed by Geo. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . bamboo or rolled paper. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. shaped as shown at C.

It would be well to polish the brass at first. Schaffner. do not throw away the gloves. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. wide. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. Pasadena. After this is finished. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. about 1/16 in. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. the brass is loosened from the block. --Contributed by W. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. giving the appearance of hammered brass. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. Sanford. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. is shown in the accompanying sketch. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces.tape from sticking to the carpet. This should be done gradually. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. --Contributed by Joseph H. Cal. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. Shay. N. Maywood. Newburgh. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. Ill. H. and two along the side for attaching the staff. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. --Contributed by Chas. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . Y. This plank. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. turned over but not fastened. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed.

--E. Cal. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Jaquythe. bent as shown.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Marshall. Ill. Oak Park. A. the pendulum swings . It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. in diameter. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. -Contributed by W. K. Unlike most clocks. Richmond. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water.

the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. B. Metzech. the center one being 2-3/4 in. A. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. such as this one. high and 1/4 in. high. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. . C. and the other two 2-5/8 in. by 1-5/16 in. about 6 in. on the board B. Two uprights. wide. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. and the result is not only novel but well worth while.. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. In using this method. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. wide that is perfectly flat. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. Chicago. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. The construction is very simple. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. away. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. says the Scientific American. 7-1/2 in. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. about 12 in. 6 in. 5/16 in. bearing on the latter. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. --Contributed by V. long and at each side of this. bar. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. only have the opposite side up. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. high. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. Fasten another board. is an electromagnet. to the first one with screws or glue. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. thick.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. in diameter. 3/4 in. Secure a board. Now place the board to be joined. are secured in the base bar. high.

as shown at A. 3. 4. by driving a pin through the wood. Fig.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. wide and 1 in. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. Phoenixville. square. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. The trigger. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. Vanderslice. --Contributed by Elmer A. or more. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. is fastened in the hole A. Fig. square inside. whose dimensions are given in Fig. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. from one end. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. 1. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. plates should be made 8 in. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. Pa. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. 2. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. 1. . 1. wide and 5 in. long.

The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. 5 parts of black filler. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. Fostoria. -Contributed by J. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. rubbing varnish and turpentine. by weight. one-half the length of the side pieces. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. as shown in the illustration.A. Simonis. 2 parts of whiting. if only two bands are put in the . The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. which allows 1/4 in. square. Ohio.

It must be kept moist and well . Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. 1. Shaw. Michigan. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. -Contributed by Abner B. preferably copper. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. which may be either of ground or plain glass. A double convex lens. London. as shown in Fig. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. A piece of metal. In constructing helmets. says the English Mechanic. is necessary. A mirror. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. in the opposite end of the box. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. and it may be made as a model or full sized. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. II. is set at an angle of 45 deg. keeps the strong light out when sketching. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. Grand Rapids. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. and the picture can be drawn as described. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. place tracing paper on its surface. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. Dartmouth. If a plain glass is used. 8 in. --Contributed by Thos. In use.lower strings. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. wide and about 1 ft. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. DeLoof. long. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. No. Mass. deep. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. G.

take. brown. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. on which to place the clay. as in bas-relief. 1. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. with a keyhole saw. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. This being done. 2. and left over night to soak. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. a few clay-modeling tools. or some thin glue. 3. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. shown in Fig. and over the crest on top. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. 1. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. All being ready. The clay. as shown in Fig. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. Scraps of thin. joined closely together. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. the clay model oiled. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. and continue until the clay is completely covered. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. will be necessary. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. After the clay model is finished. and the deft use of the fingers. 4 is the side outline of the helmet.kneaded. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks.

The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. The band is decorated with brass studs. 1. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper.as possible. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. --Contributed by Paul Keller. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. will make it look neat. 9. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. Indianapolis. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. or. The center of the ear guards are perforated. a few lines running down. then another coating of glue. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . a crest on top. When dry. which should be no difficult matter. and so on. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. as shown: in the design. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. 7. square in shape. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. The whole helmet. Before taking it off the model. This contrivance should be made of wood. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. Indiana. When perfectly dry. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. the skullcap. In Fig. the piecing could not be detected. one for each side. owing to the clay being oiled. with the exception of the vizor. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. and the ear guards in two pieces. as seen in the other part of the sketch. In Fig. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. When the helmet is off the model. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. should be modeled and made in one piece. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. 5. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. They are all covered with tinfoil.

when they are placed in opposite positions. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. are allowed to project about 1 in. JJ. This will make an open space between the plates. about 1 lb. or. 1 in. is shown in Fig. Fig. about 80 ft. each 4-1/2 in. one oblong piece of wood. 4. AA. This will allow the plate. 4. The mineral wool. If asbestos is used. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. should extend about 1/4 in. in diameter and 9 in. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . Fig. one fuse block. 4. screws. German-silver wire is better. GG. of No. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. Fig. thick. Fig. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. 1. and. A round collar of galvanized iron. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. 1. If a neat appearance is desired. which can be bought from a local druggist. The two holes. and two large 3in. AA. AA. until it is within 1 in. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. E and F. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. FF. as shown in Fig. 1. 3 in. of fire clay. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. 4. long. as it stands a higher temperature. of the top. one small switch. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. Fig. Fig. two ordinary binding posts. above the collar. Fig. 2. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. wide and 15 in. 4 lb. and C. if this cannot be obtained. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. Fig. 2. 4. 1. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. of mineral wool. 2. The reverse side of the base. about 1/4 in. also the switch B and the fuse block C. Fig. as shown in Fig. Fig. thick sheet asbestos. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. one glass tube. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. 4. with slits cut for the wires. 4. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. as shown in Fig. the fuse block. 22 gauge resistance wire. long. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. long. is then packed down inside the collar. 1. high. The holes B and C are about 3 in. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. 1. Fig. Fig. 3. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. for connections. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side.same size. The plate. if the measurements are correct. Fig. to receive screws for holding it to the base. the holes leading to the switch. 12 in. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts.

shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. 4. H. causing a short circuit.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. It should not be set on end. it leaves a gate for the metal. will slip and come in contact with each other. While the clay is damp. This completes the stove. --Contributed by R. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. Catherines. Cnonyn. allowing a space between each turn. II. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. A file can be used to remove any rough places. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. If it is not thoroughly dry. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. more wire should be added. When the tile is in place. It should not be left heated in this condition. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. above the rim. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. When this is done. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. 2. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. apart. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. using care not to get it too wet. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. Can. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. If this is the case. As these connections cannot be soldered. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. when cool. deep. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. Cal. Fig. St. then. This point marks the proper length to cut it. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. The clay. when heated. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. so that the circuit will not become broken. as the turns of the wires. Next. Fig. --Contributed by W. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. Richmond. Cover over about 1 in. Cut a 1/2-in. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. Jaquythe. steam will form when the current is applied. A. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. and pressed into it. KK. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on.

and the prints will dry rapidly. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. as shown. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. the pie will be damaged. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. square material in any size. Then clip a little off the . constructed of 3/4-in. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. and the frame set near a window. Thorne. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. Ky. --Contributed by Andrew G. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. is large enough. the air can enter from both top and bottom. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. but 12 by 24 in. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. says the Photographic Times. Louisville. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit.

This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. A 1/8-in. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. slip on two cardboard washers. An offset is bent in the center. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. Fig. for the crank. thick and 3 in. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. 1. thick. 1. As the shaft revolves. The connecting rod E. The connections are made as shown in Fig. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. 1/2 in. 2. Fig. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. in diameter. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. which gives the shaft a half turn. The board can be raised to place . allowing each end to project for connections. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. high. Fig. 1. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. Herron. 14 in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. wide. long. open out. which are fastened to the base. Two supports. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. as shown. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. W. causing a break in the current. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. Le Mars. thick and 3 in. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. each 1/2 in. 2-1/2 in. long. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. each 1 in. 1/2 in. in diameter and about 4 in. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. 1 and 3.Paper Funnel point. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. high. -Contributed by S. wide and 7 in. 3. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. high. The driving arm D. Figs. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. thereby saving time and washing. long. 22 gauge magnet wire. at GG. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. Iowa. 1. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. The upright B. wide and 3 in. 4 in. long.

Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. Stecher. --Contributed by William F. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. One or more pots may be used. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. 3 in. . Place the pot. in height. making a framework suitable for a roost. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Dorchester. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. on a board. In designing the roost. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. Mass. as shown in the sketch. bottom side up. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive.

grills and gratings for doors. as shown in Fig. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. in diameter. if it is other than straight lines. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. odd corners. The materials required are rope or. Wind the . 1. etc. paraffin and paint or varnish. preferably. The bottom part of the sketch. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. 1. and give it time to dry. F. without any corresponding benefit. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. will produce the pattern desired. ordinary glue. shelves. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. Fig. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more... when combined. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. F. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. that it is heated.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. windows. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. adopt the method described. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time.

cut and glue them together. N. -Contributed by Geo. Y. Harrer. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry.Fig. 2. Fig. M. Lockport. six designs are shown. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig.

. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. This piece of horse armor. says the English Mechanic. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. when it will be observed that any organic matter. which was used in front of a horse's head. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. and the sides do not cover the jaws. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. etc.. etc. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. As the . 1. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. London. chips of iron rust. but no farther. will be retained by the cotton.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it.. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular.

2. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. and the clay model oiled.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. as shown in the sketch. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. and will require less clay. 4. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. 2. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. This triangularshaped support. but for . This being done. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. An arrangement is shown in Fig. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. This can be made in one piece. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. 8. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. The armor is now removed from the model. and therefore it is not described. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. All being ready. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. which can be made in any size. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. with the exception of the thumb shield. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. In Fig. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. 6 and 7. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. the rougher the better. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. except the thumb and fingers. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. as the surface will hold the clay. which is separate. but the back is not necessary. the same as in Fig. then another coat of glue. This will make the model light and easy to move around.

are glued to it. A piece of board. long. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. 1/2 in. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. the top of the rod. in depth. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. When locating the place for the screw eyes. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. . N. will be about right. fastened to the rod. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. two for the jaws and one a wedge. two in each jaw. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. If it does not hold a charge. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Fasten a polished brass ball to. each about 1/4 in. the two pieces of foil will draw together. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. and the instrument is ready for use. Buxton. the foils will not move. 9. The two pieces of foil. are better shown in Fig. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. 2. wide and 1/2 in. Y. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. --Contributed by Ralph L. cut into the shape shown in Fig. --Contributed by John G. but 3-1/2 in. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. running down the plate. Calif. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. Goshen. La Rue. Redondo Beach.

wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. Bryan. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. A. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. as indicated in the . Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. as shown in the illustration. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. enameled or otherwise decorated. --Contributed by Mrs. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. 2-1/2 in. as this will cut under the water without splashing. hole bored through it. silvered. long. The can may be bronzed. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. At a point 6 in. Texas. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. about 15 in. Corsicana. pine board. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. M. from the smaller end. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. When a fish is hooked. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. is made of a 1/4-in. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply.

The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. thick. When it has dried over night. Having completed the drawing. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. long over all. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. such as basswood or pine was used. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. using powdered pumice and lye. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. Polish the metal. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. then with a nail. put a coat or two of wax and polish . and trace upon it the design and outline. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. or even pine. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. take a piece of thin wood. If soft wood. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Next prepare the metal holder. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. Basswood or butternut.Match Holder accompanying sketch. 3/8 or 1/4 in. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. 22 is plenty heavy enough. will do as well as the more expensive woods. Any kind of wood will do. using a piece of carbon paper. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. A good size is 5 in. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. punch the holes. as shown. wide by 6 in. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown.

--Contributed by W. can be made on the same standards. Jaquythe. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. Richmond. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. Two wire nails. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. each 1 in. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. is used for the base of this instrument. long. long. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. 1/2 in. Cal. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. If one has some insight in carving. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. Instead of the usual two short ropes. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. It is useful for photographers. of pure olive oil. are used for the cores of the magnets. . Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. A. If carving is contemplated. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. 2 in. thick. the whole being finished in linseed oil. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. wide and 5 in.

and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. the paper covering put on. when the key is pushed down. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. 3. Lynas. at A. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. similar to that used in electric bells. 1. --Contributed by W. All of the parts for the armor have been described. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. about No. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. . Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. 25 gauge. A rubber band. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. as shown by the dotted lines. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. acts as a spring to keep the key open. About 1 in. as shown in Fig. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. then covered with red. in the shape shown in the sketch. leaving about 1/4 in. A piece of tin. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. says the English Mechanic. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. cut in the shape of the letter T. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. London. except that for the legs. cloth or baize to represent the legs. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. H. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire.

A 1/4-in. Cut them to a length or 40 in. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. holes. apart. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. flat headed carriage bolt. apart. 3 in. So set up. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. one to another . in the other end. long. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. completes the equipment. In one end of the piece. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. about 1 in. These can be purchased at a stationery store. make the same series of eight small holes and. By moving the position of the bolt from. The two pieces are bolted together. can be made in a few minutes' time. Take the piece shown in Fig. Secure two strips of wood. or ordinary plaster laths will do. at each end. not too tight. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. Silver paper will do very well. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. for the sake of lightness. 1 and drill a 1/4in. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. Instead of using brass headed nails. hole in the center. says Camera Craft. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. 2. 1 in. drill six 1/4-in.. and eight small holes. Fig.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope.

This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. as in portraiture and the like. In this sketch. as shown in Fig. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. then B over C and the end stuck under A. A is the first string and B is the second. in Fig. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. Start with one end. but instead of reversing . lay Cover B and the one under D. 4. the one marked A. and the one beneath C. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. 2.of the larger holes in the strip. Then draw all four ends up snugly. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. doubled and run through the web of A. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. 2. 1. for instance. taking the same start as for the square fob. and lay it over the one to the right. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. long. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. 2. C over D and B. of the ends remain unwoven. Then take B and lay it over A. Fig. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. A round fob is made in a similar way. D over A and C.

as in making the square fob. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. Rupp. is left out at the center before starting on one side. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. as B. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. 3. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. --Contributed by John P. The round fob is shown in Fig. 5. as at A in Fig. Monroeville. A loop. over the one to its right. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. the design of which is shown herewith. is to be made of leather. Other designs can be made in the same manner. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. especially if silk strings are used. always lap one string. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. Ohio.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. 1-1/2 in. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . long.

When the supply of wax is exhausted. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. beeswax or paraffin. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. Any smooth piece of steel. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. . -Contributed by A. Northville. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. A. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. it can be easily renewed.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. such as a nut pick. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. using the reverse side. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. Houghton. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. pressing it against the wood. Mich. door facing or door panel. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. filling them with wax.

and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. D. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. E and F. place it face down in the dish. Enough plaster should. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. apart and driven in only part way. if blueprints are used. New York. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. but any kind that will not stick may be used. although tin ones can be used with good success.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. says Photographic Times. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. Fold together on lines C. Ill. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. leaving about 1/4 in. those on matte paper will work best. N. Y. The tacks should be about 1 in. . it is best to leave a plain white margin. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. and about 12 in. Select the print you wish to mount. remaining above the surface of the board. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. Petersburg. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. J. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. Thompson. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. long. --Contributed by O. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. thick. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. and after wetting.

will be rendered perfectly white. as shown in the right of the sketch. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire.. One of the . violets. roses. etc. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. bell flowers. without mixing the solutions. Lower into the test tube a wire. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. as shown at the left in the sketch. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. filling the same about onehalf full. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble.

Phonograph and Construction of Parts . 3.. L. A rod that will fit the brass tube. as shown in the sketch. 1. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. to keep the core from coming off in turning. The first point should be ground blunt. made of heavy tin. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. thick. about 1/8s in. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. as shown. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. or delicate tints of the egg. turned a little tapering. not too tightly. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. should be soldered to the box. is about 2-1/2 in. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. Fig. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. The sound box. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. long and made of wood. 1-7/8 in. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. --Contributed by L. Shabino. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. long. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. 2. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. Millstown. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. in diameter and 1 in. shading. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. The diaphragm. South Dakota. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The tin horn can be easily made. When soldering these parts together. but which will not wobble loose. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. and at the larger end.

Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. Colo. Victor. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. E.Contributed by E. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Chicago. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. and. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Gold. says the Iowa Homestead. put a board on top. mice in the bottom. Jr. Ill.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. wondering what it was.

with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. . The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Pereira. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. Buffalo. Y. --Contributed by Lyndwode. Ottawa. Can. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. N.

How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Richmond. by means of a flatheaded tack. as it can be made quickly in any size. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. longer than the length of the can. De Loof. --Contributed by Thos. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Jaquythe. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. A. and at one end of the stick fasten. as shown. cut round. Cal. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. This cart has no axle. through which several holes have been punched. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Mich. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. above the end of the dasher. a piece of tin. Grand Rapids. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Put a small nail 2 in. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. --Contributed by W. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in.

Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. I reversed a door gong. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. Doylestown. of course. wide and 3 ft. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. apart. wide and as long as the box. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by James M. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. 1 ft. thick. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. 2. La. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches.1.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. Kane. 1. long. cut in the center of the rounding edge. were below the level of the bullseye. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. Pa. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. board. Fig. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. 2 in. The candles. The baseboard and top are separable. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. deep and 3 in. Notches 1/8 in. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. as shown. 2. wide. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. 2. New Orleans. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. A wedge-shaped piece of . 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. screwed it on the inside of a store box.

Book Back Holders metal. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. 1. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. to prevent its scratching the desk top. --Contributed by G. Wood. West Union. wide into each side of the casing. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. the reason being that if both were solid. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. The block can also be used as a paperweight. the shelf could not be put on the window. will. For the handle. dressing one surface of each piece. After completing the handle. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. Mass. stone or wood. wide rubber bands or felt. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. etc. Ia. Worcester. Cover the block with rubber. Needles.. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. A. take two pieces of hard wood. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. the blade is put back into the groove . --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. After the glue has dried. when placed as in Fig. can be picked up without any trouble. 3. This device is very convenient for invalids. it can be removed without marring the casing. by cutting away the ends. When not in use. scissors. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. as shown in Fig.

Mass. Erie. -Contributed by W. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Hutchins. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. as shown in Fig. Pa. . Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Jacobs. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Ohio. 1. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them.and sharpened to a cutting edge. as shown in Fig. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. --Contributed by H. A. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. If desired. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. thus carrying the car up the incline. square and 4 in. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. S. A notch is cut in one side. 1 in. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Cleveland. Malden. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. 2. long. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute.

Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. If one such as is shown is to be used. Cape May Point. One sheet of metal.. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. . Prepare a design for the front. The letters can be put on afterward. a board on which to work it. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. N. and an awl and hammer. This will insure having all parts alike.J. 6 by 9-1/2 in.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. will be needed.

3/4 part. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. if desired. says Master Painter. mandolin or guitar." In all appearance. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. to right angles. as shown. turpentine. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. varnish. behind or through the center of a table leg. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. flat brush. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. that can be worked in your own parlor. If any polishing is required. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. placed on a table. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. On the back. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. or. 1 part. applied by means of a brush. The stick may be placed by the side of. 2 parts white vitriol. which is desirable. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise.Fasten the metal to the board. The music will not sound natural. only the marginal line is to be pierced. paste the paper design right on the metal. 1/4 part. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. Remove the metal. One coat will do. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. . will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. but weird and distant. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. in the waste metal. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. a violin. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. So impressive are the results. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it.

The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. Two pairs of feet. wide. 3. each 6 in. 2. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. apart.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. long. across the top. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. square bar iron. are shaped as shown in Fig. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. round-head machine screws. each 28 in. With proper tools this is easy. is bent square so as to form two uprights. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. it might be difficult. without them. The longest piece. thick by 1/2 in. . London. long and spread about 8 in. and is easy to construct. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. long and measuring 26 in. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. says Work.

Fig. 4. D. and the base border. in the grooves of the borders. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. C. lead. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. the latter being tapped to . and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. The design is formed in the lead. While the piece of lead D. Fig. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. A. Place the corner piece of glass. cut a long piece of lead. 6. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. on it as shown. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. The glass. as shown in Fig. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. 7. better still. is held by the brads. The brads are then removed. or. special flux purchased for this purpose. After the joints are soldered. B. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. After the glass is cut. 5. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. 5. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. using rosin as a flux.

and round the corners of one end for a ring. 8. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. in diameter and 1/4 in. This ring can be made of 1-in. long. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. bolt. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. wood screws in each washer. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. bolt. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. Bore a 3/4-in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads.the base of the clip. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. Fasten the plates to the block B. square and of the length given in the drawing. thick and drill 3/4-in. and two wood blocks. Camden. Dreier. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. The center pin is 3/4-in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. Two styles of hand holds are shown. Make three washers 3-in. Secure a post. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. This . long. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. N. rounded at the top as shown. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. J. then flatten its end on the under side. Jr. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. --Contributed by W. in diameter and about 9 in. one on each side and central with the hole. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. holes through their centers. plank about 12 ft. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours.. not less than 4 in. long. A and B. H. Bore a 5/8-in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. then drill a 3/4-in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. rocker bolt. as shown in Fig. plates.

maple. 7 in. and some one can swing an axe. 1/2 in. 4 pieces. by 2 ft. 4 in. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 4 pieces. 2-1/2 in. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. 16 screws. long. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 9 in. 50 ft. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. 1. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. Draw a line on the four 7-in. La. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. shanks. long. long. long. long. 4 in. by 3 ft. screws. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. To substitute small. 4 filler pieces. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. 1 by 7 in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. 3 in. in diameter and 7 in. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. long. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. New Orleans. the money outlay will be almost nothing. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. bit. chestnut or ash. 1-1/4in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. long and 1 piece. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. 2 by 4 in. because it will not stand the weather. hickory. square by 9-1/2 ft. from one edge. 3/4 by 3 in. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. If trees are convenient. bolts and rope. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. square by 5 ft. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. horse and rings. can make a first class gymnasium. The four 7-in. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. of 1/4-in. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. by 6-1/2 ft. straight-grained hickory. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. boards along the side of each from end to end.will make an excellent cover for a pot. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in.

Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. each 3 ft.. at each end. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. apart. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. deep and remove all loose dirt. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft.. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. piece of wood. 2. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. so the 1/2-in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. 8 in. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result.bored. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. Bore a 9/16-in. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. from the end. boards coincide. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. apart.

was at its height. When the interest of the crowd. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. in an endless belt. the effect will be as shown in the illustration.. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. not even the tumbler. He stretched the thread between two buildings. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. passing through a screweye at either end. the effect is very striking. apart. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. just visible against the dark evening sky. disappearing only to reappear again. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. And all he used was a black thread. but most deceptive at dusk. it is taken to the edge of the foot. not much to look at in daytime. about 100 ft. If the tumbler is rotated. and materially heightened the illusion. and ascends the stem. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. and then passes in a curve across the base. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. W. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. which at once gathered.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. it follows the edge for about 1 in." which skimmed along the distant horizon. . One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible.

by 10 ft. Bevel the ends of . 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. Chisel out two notches 4 in. 8 bolts. long. long. Fig. preferably cedar.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. by 7 ft. 2 side braces. long. A wire about No. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. square and 51/2 ft. 2 cross braces. 8 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 2 base pieces. 2 in. 8 in. 2 by 4 in. deep. square and 6 ft. To make the apparatus. long. by 3 ft. from either side of the center. 2 by 3 in. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 6 in. large spikes. long. 2 by 4 in. 7 in. 4 bolts. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. long. The cork will come out easily. 1. long. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. by 2 ft. La. and turned in a spiral D. New Orleans. 2 by 4 in. long. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. wide and 1 in. 8 in. 4 in. beginning at a point 9 in. 4 knee braces. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 4 in. so the point will be on top. 4 wood screws. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. long and 1 doz. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts.

and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. and countersinking the heads. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. of 7 ft. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. Two endpieces must be made. jellies. A large sized ladle. leave it undressed. --Contributed by W. so the bolts in both will not meet. except the bars. etc. These will allow the ladle to be turned. A. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. using four of the 7-in bolts. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. .the knee braces. leaving the strainer always in position. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. Richmond. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. After the trenches are dug. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. Cal. ( To be Continued. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. equipped with a strainer.. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. screws. save the bars. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. as shown in the diagram. If using mill-cut lumber. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. The wood so treated will last for years. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. which face each other. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. but even unpainted they are very durable. Jaquythe. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. additional long.

This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. drill press or planer.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. of sufficient 1ength. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. milling machine. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. Oil. A. thus holding the pail as shown. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. . or various cutting compounds of oil. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. partly a barrier for jumps. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. In order to accomplish this experiment. it is necessary to place a stick. which seems impossible.

long. apart in a central position on the horse. long. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. by 3 ft. wood yard or from the woods. 4 in. 7 in. apart. 2 by 4 in.. 4 in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. bolts. 2 by 4 in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. long. in the ground. 2 adjusting pieces. 4-1/2 in. to fasten the knee braces at the top. Procure from a saw mill. ten 1/2-in. piece of 2 by 4-in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. long. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. The round part of this log must be planed. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. beginning 1-1/2 in. 4 knee braces. bolts. is a good length. 3 in. bolt. long. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. These are placed 18 in. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. in diameter--the larger the better. The material required is as follows: Two posts. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. two 1/2-in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. 1 cross brace.. long. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. and free from knots. square by 5-1/2 ft. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. from each end. projections and splinters. 2 bases. long. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. 2 by 4 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. bolts. stud cut rounding on one edge. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. 1 in. long. by 3 ft. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. square by 5 ft. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. but 5 ft. These are well nailed in place. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. Hand holds must be provided next. To construct. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. by 3 ft. 4 in.

Also. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. it is caused by some obstruction. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. such as a dent. but nevertheless. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. then bending to the shape desired. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. snow. Jaquythe. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Richmond. over and around. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. Cal.horse top. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. etc. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. A. no one is responsible but himself. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. water. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. it is caused by an overloaded shell. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union.--Contributed by W. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. Such a hand sled can be made in a . pipe and fittings.

--Contributed by Arthur E. Toronto. thick. Paris. W. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Ontario. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. 1. Vener. The end elevation. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. Joerin.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. --Contributed by James E. 2. which. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. when complete. at E and F. These. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. when straightened out. France. Mass. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. --Contributed by J. Noble. then run a string over each part. will give the length. in width and 1/32 in. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. 1/4 or 3/16 in. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. is much better than a wood sled. Boston. . are all the tools necessary.

and the latter will take on a bright luster. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. It is best to use soft water. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. are nailed. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. The method shown in Figs. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. . After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. 4. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. AA and BB. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. nor that which is partly oxidized. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. 3.

class ice-yacht. as shown in Fig. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. 3. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. or various rulings may be made. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. 8 and 9. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. Percy Ashley in Rudder. 2. 2. 1). How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. or unequal widths as in Fig. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 4. . The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. The materials used are: backbone. as shown in Fig. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. Broad lines can be made. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

a tee and a forging. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. 1-Details of Lathe sort. 1. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. bent and drilled as shown.Fig. but if it is made much longer. out from the collar. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. long. The headstock is made of two tees. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. It can be made longer or shorter. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. Both the lower . pins to keep them from turning. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. pipe. a larger size of pipe should be used. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. about 30 in.

Musgrove. Indiana. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. To do this. and will answer for a great variety of work. --Contributed by W. M. Man. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. as shown in Fig. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. 3/4 or 1 in. Fruitvale. or a key can be used as well.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. Cal. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. a straight line should be scratched Fig. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. a corresponding line made on this. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. as shown in Fig. 2. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. Held. . The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Laporte. Boissevain. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. thick as desired. UpDeGraff. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. 1. W. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. else taper turning will result. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. 2. 2. It is about 1 in. but also their insulating properties. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. --Contributed by M.

the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. --Contributed by E. Cline. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. The handle is of pine about 18 in. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. J. Ark. Smith. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. as shown. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. In use. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. long. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. To obviate this. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. Ft.

To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. if this method is followed: First. face off the end of the piece. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. centering is just one operation too many. the drill does not need the tool. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. After being entered. Denver.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. This prevents the drill from wobbling. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. --Contributed by Walter W. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. and when once in true up to its size. La. New Orleans. on starting the lathe. which should be backed out of contact. White. take . Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. Colo. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.

The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. It can be used in a great number of tricks. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. the cap is placed over the paper tube. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. all the better. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. shown at C. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. a long piece of glass tubing. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. shorter t h a n the wand. by applying caustic soda or . the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. a bout 1/2 in. In doing this. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. vanishing wand. as shown in D. and this given to someone to hold. The glass tube B. and can be varied to suit the performer. is put into the paper tube A. After the wand is removed. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. unknown to the spectators. after being shown empty. The handkerchief rod. says the Sphinx.

With care and patience. square and 1-7/8 in. Glue strips of soft wood. 3/16. As the cement softens. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. long. as shown by K. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. Glue the neck to the box.potash around the edges of the letters. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. thick. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. can be made by the home mechanic. 1 Bottom. 2 Sides. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. and if care is taken in selecting the material. across the front and back to strengthen them. Cut a piece of hard wood. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. by 14 by 17 in. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. cut to any shape desired. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. The brace at D is 1 in. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. The sides. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. preferably hard maple. End. 1. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. 1/4 in. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. and glue it to the neck at F. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. with the back side rounding. This dimension and those for the frets . 1 End. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. 1 Neck.

-Contributed by J. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. A board 1 in. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. in diameter. long is used for a keel. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Frary. Stoddard.should be made accurately. thick and about 1 ft. When it is completed you will have a canoe. and beveled . toward each end. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. or backbone. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. but it is not. E. Six holes. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Norwalk. 1) on which to stretch the paper. Carbondale. 3/16 in. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. O. wide and 11-1/2 ft. H. --Contributed by Chas.Pa.

3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. Fig. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. For the gunwales (a. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. b.) in notches. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. when made of green elm. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. The ribs. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. The cross-boards (B. as before described. . b. long are required. thick. wide by 26 in. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. such as hazel or birch. 3. probably. and notched at the end to receive them (B. These are better. by means of a string or wire. long. Fig. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. 3/8 in. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. or other place. procure at a carriage factory. a. C.. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. are next put in. 3). 2. 13 in. but twigs of some other trees. and are not fastened. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. and so. Green wood is preferable. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. 1 and 2. buy some split cane or rattan. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. in such cases. will answer nearly as well. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. two twigs may be used to make one rib. 4). Any tough. In drying. Fig. thick. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. Fig. 3. 3). such as is used for making chairbottoms. which are easily made of long. 4. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. as shown in Fig. C. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. as they are apt to do. apart. b. and. Fig. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. but before doing this. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. 2). For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. Osiers probably make the best ribs. some tight strips of ash. twigs 5 or 6 ft. Shape these as shown by A. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. the loose strips of ash (b. in thickness and should be cut. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. Fig. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. Fig. 1. with long stout screws. or similar material. Fig. as shown in Fig. 2). slender switches of osier willow. two strips of wood (b. B. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. Fig.

and light oars. however. preferably iron. and very tough. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. if it has been properly constructed of good material. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. It should be smooth on the surface. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. of very strong wrapping-paper. When the paper is dry. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. Being made in long rolls. tacking it to the bottom-board. When thoroughly dry. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. but neither stiff nor very thick. If the paper be 1 yd. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. apply a second coat of the same varnish. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. You may put in . and held in place by means of small clamps. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. The paper is then trimmed. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. Then take some of the split rattan and. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. and steady in the water. wide. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. but with less turpentine. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. It should be drawn tight along the edges. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. after wetting it. and as soon as that has soaked in. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. 5). Fig. B. If not. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost.

The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. Fig. and make a movable seat (A. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. and if driven as shown in the cut. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. they will support very heavy weights. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. Fig. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. fore and aft. Drive the lower nail first. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. We procured a box and made a frame. 1 and the end in . 1. 5. Fig. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. 5). The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. to fit it easily. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. 2. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box.

Fig. being softer where the flame has been applied. and the result is. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. Close the other end with the same operation. This way has its drawbacks. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. Pa. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. This is an easy . One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. 4. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. A good way to handle this work. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. Pittsburg. 5. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. this makes the tube airtight. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. 3. and the glass.

-Contributed by A. rivet punch. with a piece of carbon paper. The candle holders may have two. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. flat and round-nosed pliers. also trace the decorative design. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. After the bulb is formed. Seventh. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. metal shears. second. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. or six arms. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . above the metal. Oswald.way to make a thermometer tube. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. fifth. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. four. above the work and striking it with the hammer. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. three. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. third. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. file. 23 gauge. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. Sixth. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. Give the metal a circular motion. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. thin screw. extra metal all around. then reverse. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. very rapid progress can be made. fourth.

Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. Having pierced the bracket. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. Small copper rivets are used. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. Metal polish of any kind will do. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . and holder. drip cup.

hammer. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. J. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. The gaff. the stick at the bottom of the sail. alcohol 2 parts. N. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. and other things as they were needed. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. if it has not absorbed too much ink. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. and it will be ready for future use. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. except they had wheels instead of runners. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. and brace and bit were the tools used. Fifty.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. and in a week . Heat 6-1/2 oz. on a water bath. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. I steer with the front wheel. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. F. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. using a steel pen. of glycerine to about 200 deg. is a broomstick. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. sugar 1 part. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. winding the ends where they came together with wire. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. deep. glycerine 4 parts. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. A saw. smooth it down and then remove as before. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Soak 1 oz. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. Shiloh. and add the gelatine. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. when it will be ready for use. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. all the rest I found. and water 24 parts. Mother let me have a sheet. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. The boom. Twenty cents was all I spent. thus it was utilized. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford.

Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. a projecting lens . A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

are . but if such a box is not found. If a small saw is used. and. The slide support. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. as desired. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. and the lens slide. E. 3. slide to about 6 ft. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. above the center. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. well seasoned pine. about 2 ft. 1. at a point 1 in. The board is centered both ways. 1/2 to 3/4 in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. describe a 9-in. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. A and B. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. G. and the work carefully done. wide and 15 in. and a projecting lens 2 in.. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. Fig. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. This ring is made up from two rings. thick. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. DD. long. A table. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. or a lens of 12-in. or glue. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. wide. high. 8 in. and 14 in. at a distance of 24 ft. focus enlarging a 3-in. provided the material is of metal. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. wire brads. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. H. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in.

Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. placed on the water. light burning oil. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. E. Minn. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. St. Small strips of tin. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. of safe. A sheet . but not long enough.-Contributed by G.constructed to slip easily on the table. Paul. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. To reach the water. should the glass happen to upset. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. apply two coats of shellac varnish. B. JJ. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. P. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. The arrangement is quite safe as. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. and when the right position is found for each. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. the water at once extinguishes the flame. the strips II serving as guides. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil.

form a piece of wire in the same shape. Fig. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. then the corners on one end are doubled over. 3. Y. Fig. Schenectady. I ordered a canvas bag. 12 ft. by 12 ft. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 1. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. 3 in. from a tent company. --Contributed by J. Crawford. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. 9 in.H. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. to cover the mattresses. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . N. 2. If one of these clips is not at hand. 4.. 3.

open on the edges. Denver. 1. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. A rubber band. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. Fig. thick. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. 3 to swing freely on the tack. Teasdale. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. A Film Washing Trough [331] . --Contributed by Edward M. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. in the center coil. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. V. Do not use too strong a rubber. so as to form two oblong boxes. apart. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. C. Attach a piece of steel rod. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. 1/2 in. long and 3/16 in. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. 2. first mark the binding-post A. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. Pa. Colo. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. as shown in Fig. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. wide. To calibrate the instrument. 2. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. An arc is cut in the paper. holes in the edge.each edge. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. to the coil of small wire for volts. --Contributed by Walter W. White. D. Fasten the wire with gummed label. Fig. insulating them from the case with cardboard. 3/4 in. 2. drill two 3/16 in. 1. through which the indicator works. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. long. 1/2 in. Warren. and insert two binding-posts. for amperes and the other post. 3/4 in. to keep it from unwinding. Fold two strips of light cardboard.

large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Hunting. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Wood Burning [331] .Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Place this can on one end of the trough. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Dayton. O. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Cut a 1/4-in. with the large hole up. M. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. --Contributed by M. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. as shown.

mouth downward. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. then into this bottle place. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat.

thick. provided the bottle is wide. If the cork is adjusted properly. many puzzling effects may be obtained. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. but not very thick. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. wide and 4 in. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. Ala. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig.Y. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. long. Whitehouse. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. 1. This will make a very pretty ornament. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. Auburn. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. as shown in the sketch. Upper Troy. --Contributed by Fred W. 2. Place the small bottle in as before. 3/4 in. --Contributed by John Shahan. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . N. If the small bottle used is opaque.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend.

How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. 3. was keyed to shaft C. The wire L was put . Fig. 1 in. pulley F. thick. iron rod. which gave considerable power for its size. 4. to the shaft. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. 1. G. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. was 1/4in. B. On a 1000-ft. which was nailed to the face plate. were constructed of 1-in. K. pulley. long. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. in diameter and 1 in. Fig. sugar pine on account of its softness. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. by the method shown in Fig. The 21/2-in. Fig. If a transmitter is used. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. which extended to the ground. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. Its smaller parts. wide. line. 1. even in a light breeze. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. --Contributed by D. or ordinary telephone transmitters. which was 6 in. Fig. thick. The bearing blocks were 3 in. thick and 3 in. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. Milter. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. such as blades and pulleys. 2 ft. high without the upper half. The shaft C. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. I. 2. A staple. 1. 1. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. W. as shown in Fig. Fig. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. Both bearings were made in this manner. 1. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A.

There a 1/4-in. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. Fig. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. in the center of the board P. cut out another piece of tin (X. for instance. pine 18 by 12 in. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. and was cut the shape shown. If you have no bell. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. as. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. hole for the shaft G was in the center. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. 1. G. apart in the tower. was 2 ft. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. long and 3 in. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. long and bend it as shown at A. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. through the latter. 25 ft. 1) 4 in. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Fig. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. hole was bored for it. The power was put to various uses. H. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. 3 in. long. so that the 1/4-in. The bed plate D. was tacked. long and 1/2 in. 6. when the windmill needed oiling. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. with brass headed furniture tacks. Two washers were placed on shaft C. 1. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. To lessen the friction here. long. 0. This fan was made of 1/4-in. The other lid. in diameter. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. washers were placed under pulley F. This board was 12 in. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. The smaller one. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. 1. Fig. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. 1. square to the board P at the top of the tower. Fig. 2. long and bend it as . This completes the receiver or sounder. Fig. with all parts in place. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. strips. To make the key. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. wide and 1 in. 6. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. R. 5. top down also. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. Fig. Fig. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. providing one has a few old materials on hand. a 1/2-in. across the thin edge of a board.

connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. -Contributed by John R. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. 1. Thus a center drive is made. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. at the front. 2. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. although it can be made with but two. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . When tired of this instrument. Before tacking it to the board. causing a buzzing sound. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. using cleats to hold the board frame. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. Now. and. leaving the other wire as it is. after the manner of bicycle wheels. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. as indicated. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft.shown. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. like many another device boys make. By adjusting the coils. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. McConnell. The rear barrels are. as shown at Water. fitted with paddles as at M. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Going back to Fig.

When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. copper piping and brass tubing for base. which will give any amount of pleasure. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. If the journals thus made are well oiled. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. To propel it. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. 1. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. there will not be much friction. 3. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. feet on the pedals. as shown in Fig. There is no danger. or even a little houseboat. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. The speed is slow at first. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. can be built. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels.

Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. 2. 1. Turn a small circle of wood. Fig. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Then melt out the rosin or lead. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. 1. then the glass disc and then the other ring. 1. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. Fig. Fig. 2. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. or it may be put to other uses if desired. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. A. C. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. If it is desired to make the light very complete. and so creating a false circuit. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. D. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained.of pleasure for a little work. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . If magnifying glass cannot be had. Fig. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Place one brass ring in cylinder. B. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. 2. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions.

4 in. bell. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. Utah. thick. and pulled tight. Ogden. --Contributed by C. after two turns have been made on the key. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. such as is used for cycle valves. brass strip. --Contributed by Geo. while lying in bed. F. brass rod. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. To throw on light throw levers to the left. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. wire from light to switch. dry batteries. near the bed. key of alarm clock. X. The parts indicated are as follows: A. Throw lever off from the right to center. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. shelf. if too small.india rubber tubing. 4-1/2 in. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. after setting alarm. wire from bell to switch. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. long. D. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. T. copper tubing. S. long. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. set alarm key as shown in diagram. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. To operate this. which stops bell ringing. I. E. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. To get the cylinder into its carriage. 3/8 in. wide and 1/16 in. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. contact post. B. switch. C. or 1/4in. by having the switch on the baseboard. bracket. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. When alarm goes off. wire from batteries to switch. Chatland. Swissvale. H. In placing clock on shelf. Brinkerhoff. C. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. 5-1/4 by 10 in. some glue will secure them. J. Pa.. G. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) .

3. 2. 1. about 3-1/2 in. Fig. 2. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. in diameter. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. as at B. gives the heater a more finished appearance. a bed warmer. long. about 6 in. making it as true and smooth as possible. This is to form the fuse hole. will do the heating. in diameter. beyond the end of the spindle. A flannel bag. Minn. Pull out the nail and stick. place stick and all in a pail of sand. as . as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. letting it extend 3/4 in. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. which can be made of an old can. Fig. Make the spindle as in Fig. 1. as in Fig. Make a shoulder. being careful not to get the sand in it. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. 4 in. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. --Contributed by Chas. 1/4 in. Fig. for instance. as at A. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. All that is required is a tin covering. from one end. Chapman. as at A. A small lamp of about 5 cp. wide. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. Lanesboro. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. Having finished this. S.

6 in. The illustration shows how this is done. thick. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. but if this wood cannot be procured. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . wide and 3 ft. 5/8 in. will be sufficient to make the trigger. deep. Joerin. wide and 3/8 in. this is to keep the edges from splitting. long. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. thick. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. long. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. A piece of oak. A piece of tin. spring and arrows. --Contributed by Arthur E. 1 in. wide and 6 ft. thick. 3/8 in. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. 1. ash. good straight-grained pine will do. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. 11/2 in. long. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. or hickory. The material must be 1-1/2 in.

Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. 7. Fig. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. or through the necessity of. To throw the arrow. place the arrow in the groove. The stick for the bow. Fig. 2. The bow is not fastened in the stock. When the trigger is pulled. To shoot the crossbow. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. E. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. Ill. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. from the end of the stock. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. from the opposite end. 4. wide at each end. The trigger. Fig. Wilmette. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. Such a temporary safe light may be . hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. in diameter. thick. as shown in Fig. and one for the trigger 12 in. it lifts the spring up. Trownes. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. 6. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. --Contributed by O. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. 9. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. which is 1/4 in. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. 3. better still. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. 8. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. A spring. as shown in Fig. having the latter swing quite freely.

Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. Remove one end. The cut should be about 5 ft. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. it is the easiest camp to make. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. This lamp is safe. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. says Photo Era. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. make the frame of the wigwam. making lighting and trimming convenient.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. the bark lean-to is a . The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. respectively. By chopping the trunk almost through. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. Remove the bottom of the box. since the flame of the candle is above A. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. is used as a door. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. The hinged cover E. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. C. and nail it in position as shown at A. from the ground. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. and replace as shown at B. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. or only as a camp on a short excursion. from the ground. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. apart. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. Moreover. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better.

a 2-in. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. and split the tops with an ax. A piece of elm or hickory. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. wide. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. long. piled 2 or 3 ft. and cedar. In the early summer. make the best kind of a camp bed. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. spruce. For a permanent camp. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. Tongs are very useful in camp. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. thick. and when the camp is pitched. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. long and 2 or 3 ft. makes a good pair of tongs. wide and 6 ft. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. 6 ft. For a foot in the middle of the stick. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. deep and covered with blankets. are a convenient size for camp construction.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. Sheets of bark. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. selecting a site for a camp. will dry flat. nails are necessary to hold it in place. . The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. 3 ft. Where bark is used. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. long and 1-1/2 in. The bark is easily pried off with an ax.

Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. . hinges. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. and affording accommodation for several persons. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. or even a rough lock for the camp larder.

the interior can. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. be kept at 90 or 100 deg.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. Doylestown. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. wide. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. Pa. B.. Fig. to another . changing the water both morning and night. and provide a cover or door. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. about 4 in. A. 1. I drove a small cork. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Kane. --Contributed by James M. B. deep and 4 in.

care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. limit. C. 3. if necessary. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. until. Fig. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. a liquid. The diagram. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum.glass tube. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. such as ether. 2. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. The current is thus compelled. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. 2. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. 4 and 5). which project inside and outside of the tube. fused into one side. for instance. E. This makes . for instance. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. to pass through an increasing resistance. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance.

thick. they will make a frame 3/4 in. is composed of wrought sheet iron. in diameter. which may be of any thickness so that. when several pieces are placed together. or pattern. but merely discolored. assemble and rivet them solidly. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. or even 1/16 in. and for the outside of the frame. two holes. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. making it 1/16 in. cannot be used so often. therefore. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. by turning the lathe with the hand. After cleaning them with the solution. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. which will make it uniform in size. tap. brass or iron. as shown in the left-hand sketch. screws. Fig. thick. on a lathe. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. If the thickness is sufficient. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. drill the four rivet holes. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. Then the field can be finished to these marks. Fig. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. larger than the dimensions given. The bearing studs are now made. When the frame is finished so far. Alpena. 3-3/8 in. thicker. hole is . After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. clamp the template. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. between centers. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. 3. After the template is marked out. 1. bent at right angles as shown. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. These holes are for the bearing studs. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. 3-3/8 in. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. set at 1/8 in. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. A 5/8in. in diameter. 2. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. brass. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. as shown in Fig. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. mark off a space. A. Michigan. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. Before removing the field from the lathe. to allow for finishing. 4-1/2 in.

file them out to make the proper adjustment. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . into which a piece of 5/8-in. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. The shaft of the armature. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. and build up the solder well. is turned up from machine steel. Fig.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. brass rod is inserted. 4. or otherwise finished. soldered into place. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. solder them to the supports. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. When the bearings are located.

1-1/8 in. by 1-1/2 in. 5. and then they are soaked in warm water. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. 1/8 in. to allow for finishing to size. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. After they . thick are cut like the pattern. thick. then drill a 1/8-in. holes through them for rivets. brass rod. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. The pins are made of brass. Armature-Ring Core. Procure 12 strips of mica. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. as shown in Fig. When this is accomplished. 9. 8. Find the centers of each segment at one end. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. as shown in Fig. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. 3. 3/4 in. 3. wide. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. and held with a setscrew. deep and 7/16 in. After the pieces are cut out. hole and tap it for a pin. The sides are also faced off and finished. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. 3/4 in. thick. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. Make the core 3/4 in. or segments. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. then clamp the whole in place with the nut.. threaded. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. thick and 1/4 in. wide. sheet fiber. When annealed. thick. Rivet them together. as shown in Fig. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. inside diameter. 7. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. as shown in Fig. being formed for the ends. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. washers. 6. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. 6. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. as shown m Fig. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. as shown in Fig.

The winding is started at A. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. 8 in. To connect the wires. or side. 6 in. of the end to protrude. After one coil. The two ends are joined at B. of the wire. This winding is for a series motor. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. about 100 ft. When the glue is set. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. of No. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. are soldered together. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. 1. shown at B. wide and 1 in. the two ends of the wire. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. 5. and wind on four layers. they are glued to the core insulation. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. by bending the end around one of the projections. sheet fiber. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. until the 12 slots are filled. Fig. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. which will take 50 ft. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. All connections should be securely soldered. 1. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. being required. shown at A. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Fig. after the motor is on the stand. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. thick. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. In starting to wind. The source of current is connected to the terminals. yet it shows a series of . long. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. Run one end of the field wire. The field is wound with No. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base.have dried. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. sheet fiber. and bring the end of the wire out at B. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in.

Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. is fastened to the metallic body. and one. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. as in the case of a spiral. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. A 1/2-in. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. one from each of the eight contacts. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. or. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. Nine wires run from the timer. still more simply. which serves as the ground wire. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north.

perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing.The Wind Vane. thus giving 16 different directions. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. It should be . wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. 45 deg. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. Without this attachment. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. of the dial. 6 in. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. long. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. Covering these is a thin. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. board. circle.

first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. To make it. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. if not too high. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. 14 by 18 in.about 6 ft. Y. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. To work these outlines." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. also a piece of new carpet. . A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. Buffalo. will be sufficient. Cut 3-in. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. thus making a universal joint. N. or. Blackmer. and about 6 in. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. Fill the box with any handy ballast. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. according to who is going to use it. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. will be enough for the two sides. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. Before tacking the fourth side. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. Place the leather on some level. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. is most satisfactory. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. however. though a special knife. -Contributed by James L. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. called a chip carving knife. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. making it heavy or light. and securely nail on the top of the box. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. will answer the purpose just as well. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. high. long to give the best results.

An ordinary sewing-machine . being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. A good leather paste will be required. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.

away from it. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. rather than the smooth side. square and tying a piece of . cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation.will do if a good stout needle is used. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. If a fire breaks out. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. --Contributed by Katharine D. and tie them together securely at the bottom. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. of water. Y. Syracuse. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. N. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. temporary lameness. as in cases of a sprained ankle. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Morse. or a hip that has been wrenched. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. can be thrown away when no longer needed. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. of common salt and 10 lb. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. B. a needle and some feathers. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch.

Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. A. Y. B. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. The coil is 1 in. cut to the length of the spool. and tacked it to the boards. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. The body of the receiver. Ashland. as shown. thus helping the rats to enter. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. N. G. high. N. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. long. Wis. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. wound on the head end. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. and the receiver is ready for use. letting it go at arm's length. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. but not sharp. long. There is a 1-in.J. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. --Contributed by John A. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. The strings should be about 15 in. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. commonly called tintype tin. The diaphragm C. The end is filed to an edge. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. setting traps. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. 1/8 in. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. the corners being wired. Hellwig. E. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. Paterson. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. and a coil of wire. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. etc. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. deep.string to each corner. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. A small wooden or fiber end. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. Albany. One end is removed entirely. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. . The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. board all around the bottom on the inside. made up of four layers of No.. Gordon Dempsey. wide and 1/16 in. laying poisoned meat and meal. --Contributed by J. This not only keeps the rats out. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. F. which is the essential part of the instrument. is cut on the wood.

wide. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. Take a pair of round-nose pliers.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. to . gold. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. Take a piece of string or. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. and bend each strip in shape. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. To clean small articles. begin with the smallest scrolls. A single line will be sufficient. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. The vase is to have three supports. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. a piece of small wire. better still.

3-1/2 in. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern..which the supports are fastened with rivets. as shown in the sketch. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. from the lines EF on the piece. using a duller point of the tool. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. . from E to F. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. 4-1/4 in. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Work down the outside line of the design. After taking off the pattern. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. About 1 in. from C to D. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. 6-3/8 in. Fold the leather on the line EF. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. sharp pencil.. wide when stitching up the purse. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. through which to slip the fly AGH. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. Trace also the line around the purse. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. 3-1/4 in. thus raising it. Press or model down the leather all around the design. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. and does not require coloring. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern.

Fit this to the two . deep. around the wheel. leaving the lug a. being cast in wooden molds. with the largest side down. by 12 ft. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. and a model for speed and power. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. and. thick. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. Cut off six pieces 12 in. and cut out a wheel. 3. deep. b. then nail it. with a compass saw. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. and tack the other piece slightly. When it is finished. long. Now take another piece of wood. then place the square piece out of which Fig. Then nail the wheel down firmly.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. as shown in Fig. First. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. square. and the projections B. It is neat and efficient. 1/2 in. all the way around. 1 was cut. 2. and cut it out as shown in Fig.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. as well as useful. It can be made without the use of a lathe. 1. following the dotted lines. This also should be slightly beveled. with the open side down. and which will be very interesting. Make the lug 1/4 in. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. the "open" side. with pins or small nails.

1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. square pieces of wood. 1. deep.pieces just finished. Now take another of the 12-in. After it is finished. and cut it out as shown in Fig. hole entirely through at the same place. Take the mold apart. then bolt it together. one of which should have a 3/8-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. hole 1/4 in. 4. as shown by the . and lay it away to dry. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. Now put mold No. slightly beveled. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. and bore six 1/4-in. bolts. square pieces of wood. place it between two of the 12-in. and clean all the shavings out of it. holes through it. in the center of it. and boring a 3/8-in. hole bored through its center. as shown by the black dots in Fig.

as shown by the black dots in Fig. Commencing 1-1/2 in.1. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. B. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. lay it on a level place. Using the Brace . and the exhaust hole in projection b. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. 4. holes at d. screw down. place it under the drill. A piece of mild steel 5 in. long.2. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. Then bolt the castings together. so that it will turn easily. After it is fitted in. This is the same as Fig. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. This will cast a paddle-wheel. and pouring metal in to fill it up.1. and run in babbitt metal again. and pour babbitt metal into it. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. d. Put this together in mold No. 6. the other right-handed. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. one in the lug. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. Pour metal into mold No. over the defective part. until it is full. from the one end. and connect to the boiler. only the one is left-handed. fasten a 3/8-in. wide and 16 in. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. as shown in illustration. instead of the right-handed piece. and bore three 1/4-in. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. holes. and two 1/4-in. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. Let it stand for half an hour. put the top of the brace through this hole. place the entire machine in a vise. drill in it. Fig. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. and the other in the base. long. see that the bolts are all tight. and lay it away to dry. This is mold No. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. and drill them in the same manner.black dots in Fig.2. take an ordinary brace. b. one in the projections. 1. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. 6. and drill it entirely through. true it up with a square. This is for a shaft.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Now take mold No. Now cut out one of the 12-in. in diameter must now be obtained. and 3/8-in. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. 5. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. where the casting did not fill out. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench.

Your turbine engine is now ready for work. and. and if instructions have been carefully followed.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Then take a knife or a chisel. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. while it is running at full speed.. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. turn the wheel to the shape desired. will do good service. At each end of the 6ft. one 6 ft. Plan of Ice Boat . and with three small screw holes around the edge. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. and the other 8 ft. long. piece and at right angles to it. with a boss and a set screw.

3. should be of hardwood. at the end. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. bolt the 8-ft. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. at the butt and 1 in. piece and at right angles to it. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. The spar should be 9 ft. in diameter. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. so much the better will be your boat. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. Make your runners as long as possible. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. Run the seam on a machine. 2 by 3 in. projecting as in Fig. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. in front of the rudder block. 1. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. Fig. at the top. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. 8 a reef point knot. in diameter in the center. plank nail 8-in. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. This fits in the square hole. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. boards to make the platform. tapering to 1-1/2 in. and about 8 in. long and 2-1/2 in. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. in diameter at the base. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. long. Over the middle of the 6-ft. long. which may come in handy in heavy winds.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. The tiller. plank. where they often did considerable damage. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . To the under side of the 8-ft. as the runners were fastened. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. 1. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. Fig. leaving 1 ft. in the top before the skate is put on. distant.

bent into a hook at each end. small piece of wood. and the alarm bell will ring. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. Phoenix. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. wide. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. B. R. The . When these parts have been put together in the manner described. Adams. S S. to block B. Comstock. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. P. --Contributed by John D. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. Ariz. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. allowing the springs to contact at C. and place it behind a stove. so that they come in contact at C. The arrangement proved quite too effective. block of wood nailed to A. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. Pa. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. Mechanicsburg. P. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. Its parts are as follows: A. --Contributed by J.

and make it into a clock to hang on the wall. including the . The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. in diameter. and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flanges or washers having a slight concave to their face. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. The seat arms may be any length desired. The center pole should be 10 ft. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way