Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

2. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. 2. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. Fig. with the hollow side away from you. as shown in Fig. grasp it and hold the same as a club. distant. Ontario. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. It is held in this curve until dry. 1. Toronto. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . apart. --Contributed by J. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. To throw a boomerang. 1. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. E. long will make six boomerangs. wide and 2 ft. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. as shown in Fig.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. away. 1. A piece of plank 12 in. 2 -. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. until it is bound as shown in Fig. Noble. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis.Fig. The pieces are then dressed round. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention.

A very light. blocks . according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. one inside of the circle and the other outside. made of 6-in. First. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. and it may be necessary to use a little water. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. dry snow will not pack easily. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. but about 12 in.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. thick. A wall. it is not essential to the support of the walls. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. however. long. or rather no bottom at all. If the snow is of the right consistency. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. and with a movable bottom. forcing it down closely. the block will drop out. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. high and 4 or 5 in. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. 6 in. minus the top. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. which makes the building simpler and easier.

A little experience will enable one to do this work well. above the ground. --Contributed by Geo. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. 3. Fig. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. wide. There is no outward thrust. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. The piece of wood. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. 3 -. Fig. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. which can be made of wood. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. 1. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. D. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. Fig. Ore. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. which is about 1 ft. or an old safe dial will do. a. and the young architect can imitate them. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. It also keeps them out. Goodbrod. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. A nail. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. 1. Union. 2. 2. long and 1 in. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. C. is 6 or 8 in. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left.

one pair of special hinges. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. If ordinary butts are used. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. S. Syracuse.When taking hot dishes from the stove. Merrill. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. says the Sphinx. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. the box locked . New York. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. --Contributed by R. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. as the weight always draws them back to place.

and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. about 1-32 of an inch. allowing each coat time to dry. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. draw one-half of it. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. 2. All . It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. If they do not. If the measuring has been done properly. 3. Place the piece in a vise. It remains to bend the flaps. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. 1. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. smooth surface. To make a design similar to the one shown. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. as shown in Fig. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly.and the performer steps out in view. proceed as follows: First. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. -Contributed by L. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. With the metal shears. Augusta. as shown. as shown in Fig. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Fig. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. When the sieve is shaken. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. on drawing paper. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Alberta Norrell. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. Ga. one for each corner.

can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. causing it to expand. A piece of porcelain tube. long. from the back end. The common cork. of No. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. 25 German-silver wire. Denver. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. if rolled under the shoe sole. used for insulation. is fitted tightly in the third hole. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. as shown at AA. When the current is turned off. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. Colo. H. B. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. heats the strip of German-silver wire. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. in passing through the lamp. C. in diameter. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. and in the positions shown in the sketch. should be in the line. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. In boring through rubber corks.the edges should be left smooth. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. After this has dried. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. R. 25 gauge German-silver wire. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. The current. --Contributed by R. To keep the metal from tarnishing. which is about 6 in. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. If a touch of color is desired. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. A resistance. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. Galbreath. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . about 6 in. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation.

3. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Mo. leaving a space of 4 in. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. as shown in Fig. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. between them as shown in Fig. Fig. Purchase two long book straps. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. 1. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. . This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. with thin strips of wood. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. --Contributed by David Brown.bottom ring. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. Kansas City. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. 2.

B are mounted on the bottom of the box. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. 3. --Contributed by James M. 1. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. just the right weight for a woman to use. as . 1. 36 in. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. Y. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Kane. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. to form a handle.An ordinary electric bell. in diameter. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. and also prevent any leakage of the contents.. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Fig. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Fig. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. These are shown in Fig. are mounted on the outside of the box. The string is then tied. which is the right weight for family use. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. long. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. Syracuse. and a pocket battery. The folds are made over the string. C. Doylestown. 2. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. one weighing 15 lb. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. 1. --Contributed by Katharine D. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Fig. When the aeroplane tips. and one weighing 25 lb. Morse. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. A. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. 4. having a gong 2-1/2 in. N. Pa. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. and tack smoothly. Two strips of brass.. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights.

Floral Park. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. The saw. 2. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. if once used. bent as shown in Fig. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. in diameter. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. two 1/8 -in. and many fancy knick-knacks. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. 2. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. Frame Made of a Rod . Y. long. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. such as brackets. N. Day. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. machine screws. four washers and four square nuts. AA. 1. --Contributed by Louis J. 3/32 or 1/4 in.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig.

Michigan. A. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Drying will cause this to change to purple. the most expensive. if copper or brass. The buckle is to be purchased. be covered the same as the back. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. therefore. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. copper. Detroit. of water in which dissolve. File these edges. though almost any color may be obtained. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Apply two coats. as well as brass and copper. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. use them in place of the outside nuts.may be made of either brass. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. allowing each time to dry. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. If it colors the metal red. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. 1 part nitric acid. green and browns are the most popular. as well as the depth of etching desired. Of the leathers. In the design shown. 1 part sulphuric acid. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. For etching. it has the correct strength. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. Rub off the highlights. treat it with color. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. of water. after breaking up. using a swab and an old stiff brush. of course. Silver is the most desirable but. Scranton. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. Watch Fob For coloring silver. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. or silver. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. An Austrian Top [12] . --Contributed by W. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish.. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk.

When the shank is covered. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. 3/4 in. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. wide and 3/4 in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. Parts of the Top To spin the top. allowing only 1-1/4 in. A handle. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. thick. The handle is a piece of pine. 1-1/4 in. set the top in the 3/4 -in. --Contributed by J. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. hole in this end for the top. is formed on one end.F. Bore a 3/4-in. A 1/16-in. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. 5-1/4 in. Tholl. long. hole. pass one end through the 1/16-in. Ypsilanti. in diameter. Michigan. starting at the bottom and winding upward. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. . long.

The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. For black leathers. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. . A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Augusta. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. --A. --Contributed by Miss L. The baking surface. Alberta Norrell. having no sides. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Mich. Ga. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. A. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. tarts or similar pastry. Northville. Houghton.

break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. Mo. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. two turns will remove the jar.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. says Studio Light. then solder cover and socket together. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. Stringing Wires [13] A. When you desire to work by white light. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. Centralia. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. glass fruit jar. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. the same as shown in the illustration. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power.

Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. Wis. . 4 Braces. square by 12 in. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. and not tip over. 16 Horizontal bars. Janesville. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. 1-1/4 in. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. so it can be folded up. as shown in the cross-section sketch. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. 4 Vertical pieces. 1-1/4 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. square by 62 in. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits.for loading and development. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. They are fastened.

H. C. O. -Contributed by Charles Stem. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. Phillipsburg. The whole. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. The front can be covered . and a loop made in the end. If the loop is tied at the proper place. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. after filling the pail with water. Cincinnati. New York.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. Rosenthal. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. --Contributed by Dr. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. from scrap material. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. After rounding the ends of the studs. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction.

says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Develop them into strong prints. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. By using the following method. In my own practice. you are. and. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. by all rules of the game. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. --Contributed by Gilbert A. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. thoroughly fix. The . If the gate is raised slightly. if you try to tone them afterward. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. either for contact printing or enlargements. FIG. the color will be an undesirable. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. Baltimore. Md. Wehr. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. principally mayonnaise dressing. sickly one. The results will be poor. 1 FIG. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. the mouth of which rests against a.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper.

A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper..." Cyanide of potassium . being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.. 5 by 15 in. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in..bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.. Gray. when it starts to bleach... three times....... Iodide of potassium ..... When the desired reduction has taken place. to make it 5 by 5 in.... wide and 4 in. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.. The blotting paper can .. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete...... Cal.... this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. San Francisco.. preferably the colored kind.. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. etc. but.. where it will continue to bleach...... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. 1 and again as in Fig. in this solution. long to admit the angle support. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. in size.. Place the dry print.... The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper.. Water .... L. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig... transfer it to a tray of water... 16 oz. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. without previous wetting...... The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes... --Contributed by T. 2 oz.. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.... 2. It will bleach slowly and evenly. With a little practice.. 20 gr. A good final washing completes the process.. as it will appear clean much longer than the white.

Corners complete are shown in Fig. Wilson Aldred Toronto.J. the shaft 1 in. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Wisconsin. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. and a length of 5 in. Oshkosh. --Contributed by L. 3. Canada. Monahan. --Contributed by J. 20 gauge. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Make a design similar to that shown. wide.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. wide below the . the head of which is 2 in.

smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. Trace the design on the metal. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. after folding along the center line. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. freehand. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. Allow this to dry. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. 1 Fig. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. With the metal shears. 1. 2. After this has dried. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. Make one-half of the design. After the sawing. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. 3. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing.FIG. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. using carbon paper. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. Fig. deep. With files. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. then coloring. 1 part sulphuric acid. then put on a second coat. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. using a small metal saw. Pierce a hole with a small drill. as shown in Fig. being held perpendicular to the work. using turpentine. Apply with a small brush. but use a swab on a stick. then trace the other half in the usual way. which gives the outline of the design Fig. Do not put the hands in the solution. The metal must be held firmly. . Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. 4. For coloring olive green. 1 part nitric acid.

Ii is an ordinary staple. M. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Carl Cramer. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Morse. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. --Contributed by H. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. Richmond. --Contributed by M. thick. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. . A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. on a chopping board. East Hartford. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. After the stain has dried. Conn. Burnett. attach brass handles. then stain it a mahogany color. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. it does the work rapidly. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Syracuse. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Cal. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. New York. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. When this is cold. --Contributed by Katharine D. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. as shown.

also locate the drill holes. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. or tin. thick. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. some pieces of brass. brass. Atwell. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. one shaft. 1/4 in. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. Fig. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. in width at the shank. two enameled. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. indicating the depth of the slots. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. . --Contributed by Mrs. about 3/16 in. WARNECKE Procure some brass. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. saucers or pans. --Contributed by W. A. machine screws. Kissimmee. and several 1/8-in. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. as shown at A. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. H.. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. 4. 1. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. Cal. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. 53 steel pens. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. as shown in Fig. Jaquythe. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. square. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. L. not over 1/4 in. Florida. holes. Richmond.

The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. using two nuts on each screw. about 1/32 in. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. 3. 2. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. hole. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. There should be a space of 1/16 in. Fig. thick. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. 5. with the face of the disk. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. 2. with a 3/8-in. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. hole in the center. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. 3. as in Fig.. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. as shown in Fig. The shaft hole may also be filed square. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. If metal dishes. These are connected to a 3/8-in. each about 1 in. thick. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. and the ends filed round for the bearings. can be procured. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. in diameter and 1/32 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. machine screws and nuts. hole is drilled to run off the water. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. long by 3/4 in.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. brass and bolted to the casing. lead should be run into the segments. into the hole. 1. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. with 1/8-in. long and 5/16 in. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. supply pipe. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. Fig. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. as shown. wide and bend as shown in Fig. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. wide. Bend as shown in Fig. a square shaft used. and pins inserted. machine screws. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. A 3/4-in. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. 7. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. Fig. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. 6. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . If the shaft is square. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt.

long. With a string or tape measure. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. V. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. or more in diameter. Fasten with 3/4-in brads.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. using four to each leg. deep over all. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. --Contributed by S. When assembling. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Hamilton. Be sure to have the cover. Fasten with 3/4-in. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. 8-1/2 in. Now you will have the box in two pieces. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. we will call the basket. high and 15 in. three of which are in the basket. square and 30-1/2 in. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. La Salle. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. make these seams come between the two back legs. deep and 1-1/4 in. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. Ill. to make the bottom. Stain the wood before putting in the . The lower part. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. from the top of the box. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Canada. screws. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Cooke. Smith. --Contributed by F. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. The four legs are each 3/4-in. from the bottom end of the legs.

Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Boston. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. When making the display. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. --also the lower edge when necessary. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. 1. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. you can.lining. wide. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. and gather it at that point. Cover them with the cretonne. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Md. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Baltimore. If all the parts are well sandpapered.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Fig. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. sewing on the back side. 2. The side.2 Fig. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. Packard. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Sew on to the covered cardboards. -Contributed by Stanley H. wide and four strips 10 in. Mass. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible.

Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. 3. Crockett. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Gloversville. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Y. and. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. --Contributed by B. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. It is not difficult to . Fig. Mo. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. Orlando Taylor. with slight modifications. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. saving all the solid part. When through using the pad. L. Cross Timbers. --Contributed by H. It is cleanly. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. N. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow.

Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. remove the contents. -Contributed by C. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . --Contributed by Edith E.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Mass. Both of these methods are wasteful. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. and secure it in place with glue or paste. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. or if desired. are shown in the diagram. Texas. it should be new and sharp. Lowell. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. and scrape out the rough parts. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. S. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. If a file is used. El Paso. Lane. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. After this is done. Bourne. After stirring. across the face. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete.

The insects came to the light. Oregon. --Contributed by Marion P. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. Those having houses . and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. The process works well and needs no watching. --Contributed by Geo. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. After several hours' drying. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Turl. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. Greenleaf. Wheeler. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. Canton. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel.cooking utensil. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. F. A Postcard Rack [25]. --Contributed by Loren Ward. circled over the funnel and disappeared. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. As these were single-faced disk records. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Ill. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Ill. Des Moines. Oak Park. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Iowa.

The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. The single boards can then be fixed. Glenbrook. Lay the floor next. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. --Contributed by Thomas E. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. Only three pieces are required. by 2 ft. plane and pocket knife. material. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. not even with the boards themselves. thick. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. and the second one for the developing bench. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. Mass. 6 in. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. will do as well. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. the bottom being 3/8 in. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. Dobbins. Conn. --Contributed by Wm. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. one on each side of what will be the . boards are preferable. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. but for cheapness 3/4 in. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. and both exactly alike.. and as they are simple in design. Rosenberg. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. Worcester. 6 in.. Both sides can be put together in this way. the best material to use being matched boards. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used.

. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. 9). one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. and to the outside board of the sides. It is shown in detail in Fig. etc. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. and the top as at C in the same drawing. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. which is fixed on as shown . At the top of the doorway.doorway. 8. so that the water will drain off into the sink. nailing them to each other at the ridge. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. 2 in section. as shown in Figs. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. 9 by 11 in. The roof boards may next be put on. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. 3 and 4.. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. 5. hinged to it. 6. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. and act as a trap for the light. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. 11. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. and should be zinc lined. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. by screwing to the floor. 7. In hinging the door. brown wrapping paper. The developing bench is 18 in. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. the closing side as at B. 10). The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. Fig. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. so that it will fit inside the sink. below which is fixed the sink. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. and in the middle an opening. is cut. wide.. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. 6. of the top of the door for the same reason. 6 and 9.

Details of the Dark Rook .

The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. as at I. as in Fig. The house will be much strengthened if strips. Fig. 20. mixing flour and water. if desired. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. hole bored in the center for a handle. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. or red light as at K. as shown in Fig. these being shown in Fig. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. and a tank stand on it. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. or the room may be made with a flat roof. 18. 16. 16. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. 6. and a 3/8-in. after lining with brown paper. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. 13. Fig. though this is hardly advisable. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. or stirring cocoa or chocolate.in Fig. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. but not the red glass and frame. Karl Hilbrich. --Contributed by W. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. 14. 13. are fastened in the corners inside. 15. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. screwing them each way into the boards. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. which makes it possible to have white light. 2. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. For beating up an egg in a glass. preferably maple or ash. Fig. In use. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. The handle should be at least 12 in. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. A circular piece about 2 in. 19. as at M. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. Pennsylvania. Erie. 17. 1. Fig. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. it is better than anything on the market. four coats at first is not too many. as shown in the sections.

Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading.copper should be. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. long. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Eureka Springs. as shown in the sketch. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. To operate. for a handle. Mo. Schweiger. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. Smith. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Ark. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. L. G. when put together properly is a puzzle. D. about 3/8 in. which. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Kansas City. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. --Contributed by L. -Contributed by E. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Yonkers. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. Mitchell. --Contributed by Wm. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. New York.

3. in order to thoroughly preserve it. holes should be drilled in the bottom. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. The design shown in Fig. 3. as is usually the case. which binds them together.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. as shown in Fig. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. as well as improve its appearance. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. . the rustic work should be varnished. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. 1. especially for filling-in purposes. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. A number of 1/2-in. 2. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. Having completed the bare box. to make it set level. as shown in Fig. need them. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. Each cork is cut as in Fig. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. The corks in use are shown in Fig. for the moment. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. After the box is trimmed. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. the box will require a greater height in front. If the sill is inclined.

it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. too dangerous. and observe results. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. as shown in Fig. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. 2. life in the summer time is a vexation. cabbages. F. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. it's easy. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. etc. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. 1. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. But I have solved the difficulty. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. Each long projection represents a leg. 4. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. being partly eaten into. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. When the corn is gone cucumbers. drilled at right angles. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. can't use poison.. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. . 3. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. Traps do no good. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. share the same fate.

The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. the coil does not heat sufficiently. cut some of it off and try again. About 9-1/2 ft. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. cut in 1/2-in. strips. Iowa. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. If. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. -. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. long. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. The solution can be used over and over again.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. . to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. and made up and kept in large bottles. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. of No. by trial. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos.

The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. Do not wash them. Doylestown. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. is a good size--in this compound. forks. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. and a strip. coffee pot. N. Morse. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. . These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Stir and mix thoroughly. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. but with unsatisfactory results.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. 1) removed. hot-water pot. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. C. --Contributed by Katharine D. to cause the door to swing shut. Knives. Y. it falls to stop G. as shown in the sketch. Kane. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Syracuse. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. of gasoline. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. Pa. --Contributed by James M. Dallas. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Fig 2. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. D. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. In cleaning silver. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Texas. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb.

--Contributed by Oliver S. Sprout. of course. using the paper dry. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. --Contributed by Theodore L. but unfixed. negatives. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. Harrisburg. which is. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Ill. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. New Orleans. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. La. later fixed and washed as usual. Waverly. Pa. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Fisher. . Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot.

1. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. then . is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. a harmonograph is a good prescription. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. In this uncertainty lies the charm. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. metal. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. To obviate this difficulty. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. Fig. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. The harmonograph.

A pedestal. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. with a nail set or punch. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. A small weight. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. Arizona. what is most important. --Contributed by Wm.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. and unless the shorter pendulum is. is attached as shown at H. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. etc. Punch a hole. of about 30 or 40 lb. in diameter. such as a shoe buttoner. A length of 7 ft. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. provides a means of support for the stylus. Holes up to 3 in. in the center of the circle to be cut. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. which can be regulated. 1. as shown in Fig. A small table or platform. makes respectively 3. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum.. as shown in the lower part of Fig. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. is about right for a 10-ft. Another weight of about 10 lb. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. J. ceiling. G. to prevent any side motion. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. one-fourth. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. for instance. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. as long as the other. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . Rosemont. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. --Contributed by James T. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. Chicago. A weight. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. one-fifth. Gaffney. that is. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. or the lines will overlap and blur. R. 1. The length of the short pendulum H. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. K.. exactly one-third. 1-3/4 by 2 in. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. Ingham.

The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. 4. Fig. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. distributing them over the whole card. and 4 as in Fig. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. dividing them into quarters. 5. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints.J. Cape May City. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. 1. Morey. The capacity of the vise. then put 2 at the top. Chicago. The two key cards are made alike.J. 3. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. Cruger. and proceed as before. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. 2.H. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. of course. --Contributed by J. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. N. one for the sender and one for the receiver. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. Fig. 6. then 3 as in Fig. -Contributed by W. a correspondent of .

long. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. from the top and bottom. Ga. Alberta Norrell. Wind the successive turns of . Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. into the inside face of each upright to support the No.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. respectively. --Contributed by L. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. drill 15 holes. 22 gauge German-silver wire. of water. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. If constructed of the former. acetic acid and 4 oz. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. says Popular Electricity. Asbestos board is to be preferred. After securing the tint desired. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. 30 gr. remove the prints. sheet of well made asbestos paper. 6 gauge wires shown. 1/2 oz. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. of ferricyanide of potash. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. the portion of the base under the coil. 1/4 in. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. deep. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. of 18-per-cent No. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. of the uprights. wood-screws. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. Augusta. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. citrate of iron and ammonia. After preparing the base and uprights. Cut through the center. To assemble.

cut and dressed 1/2 in. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. as they are usually thrown away when empty. Y. 16 gauge copper wire. square. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. Ward. then fasten the upright in place. which. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. if one is not a smoker. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. --Contributed by Frederick E. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. but these are not necessary. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. Small knobs may be added if desired. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. screws. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. etc. The case may be made of 1/2-in. N. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. rivets. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. Labels of some kind are needed.. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . 14 gauge. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. Ampere.

This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish.. it must be ground or filed to a point. Richmond. --Contributed by A. The parts are put together with dowel pins. Copper. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. In soldering galvanized iron. B. especially if a large tub is used. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. being careful about the heat. Heat it until hot (not red hot). tinner's acid. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. California. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. as shown in the sketch. This is considerable annoyance. D. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. Larson. G. zinc. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. C. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. E and F. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. brass. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. then to the joint to be soldered." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. of glycerine to 16 oz. Wis. --Contributed by W. a piece of solder. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. Jaquythe. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. S. A. and rub the point of the copper on it. the pure muriatic acid should be used. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. Eureka Springs. The material can be of any wood. and one made of poplar finished black. of water. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. If the soldering copper is an old one. --C. lead. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. galvanized iron. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. tin.14 oz. Kenosha. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. . Ark. and labeled "Poison. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. particularly so when the iron has once been used. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. sandpaper or steel wool. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. or has become corroded. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face.

Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. thick and 1-1/4 in.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. N. Hankin. Troy. 2. The disk will come out pan shaped. -Contributed by H. in diameter. D. I bind my magazines at home evenings. Take a 3/4-in. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. nut. The dimensions shown in Fig. and drill out the threads. which gives two bound volumes each year. Fig. B. 1. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Brass rings can be plated when finished. in diameter. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. round iron. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. The covers of the magazines are removed. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. Six issues make a well proportioned book. Fig. Apart from this. however. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. C. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. This completes the die. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. The punch A. 7/8 in. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. W. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. Place the band. Y. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. with good results. such as copper. This will leave a clear hole. brass and silver. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. wide. a ring may be made from any metal.

The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. size 16 or larger. on all edges except the back. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. The covering can be of cloth. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. 1. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. If started with the January or the July issue. The covering should be cut out 1 in. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. is nailed across the top. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. Start with the front of the book. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. threaded double. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. The string No. and place them against the strings in the frame. Place the cardboard covers on the book. 1. Coarse white thread. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. then back through the notch on the right side. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. C. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. The sections are then prepared for sewing. 2.4. and a third piece. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. through the notch on the left side of the string No. which is fastened the same as the first. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. 1. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. and then to string No. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. 1/8 in. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. is used for the sewing material. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. as shown in Fig. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. . 5. 2. using .pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. allowing about 2 in. deep. of the ends extending on each side. After drawing the thread tightly. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. 1 in Fig. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. Five cuts. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it.

iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. --Contributed by Clyde E. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Place the cover on the book in the right position. on which to hook the blade. round iron. Tinplate. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Divine. Encanto. at opposite sides to each other. and mark around each one. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Cal. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Nebr. College View. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. and. For the blade an old talking-machine .

with a steel sleeve. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. A. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C).Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. in order to drill the holes in the ends. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch.. -Contributed by Willard J. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. or double extra heavy. as shown. thick. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. F. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. Then on the board put . as it is sometimes called. B. at the same end. C. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. Miss. Hays. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. E. and 1/4 in. bore. with 10 teeth to the inch. thick. and 1/4 in.. by 4-1/2 in. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. On the upper side. and a long thread plug. Summitville. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. and file in the teeth. fuse hole at D. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. and another piece (B) 6 in. Make the blade 12 in. by 1 in. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. hydraulic pipe. Moorhead. Ohio. long.

Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. of rubber-covered wire. using about 8 in. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . 4 jars. and some No. the jars need not be very large. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. H. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. Connect up as shown. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. of wire to each coil. high around this apparatus. If you are going to use a current of low tension. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. about 5 ft. Boyd. A lid may be added if desired. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. Philadelphia. as from batteries. --Contributed by Chas.

on No. 2 in. The illustration shows how to shape it. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. as they "snatch" the ice. 30 in. above the ground. For the brass trimmings use No. sheet brass 1 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. At the front 24 or 26 in. First sandpaper all the wood. by 6 in. Z. by 2 in. 3 and No. long. & S.. as they are not substantial enough. wide and 2 in. by 5 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. long by 22 in. Use no screws on the running surface. 4. two for each jar. The top disk in jar No. however. thick.. A 3/4-in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. and bolt through. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. 4 in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. oak boards. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. wide by 3/4 in. by 1 in. C. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. An iron washer. Construct the auto front (Fig. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. B.. long. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. Put arm of switch on point No. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. gives full current and full speed. 27 B. On the door of the auto front put the . 11 in. or source of current. 2. To wire the apparatus. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. long. and four pieces 14 in. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. is used to reduce friction. square by 14 ft. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. In proportioning them the points A. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. Use no nails. The stock required for them is oak.. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. B. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. . Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution.. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. wide and 3/4 in. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars.. 1 on switch. by 1-1/4 in. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. 7 in. 2 and 3. thick. 1 is connected to point No. No. A variation of 1/16 in. long. 3 in. by 1-1/4 in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. 2 is lower down than in No. C.. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. Fig. two pieces 34 in. beginning at the rear. The sled completed should be 15 ft. steel rod makes a good steering rod. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. 5 on switch. 1 and so on for No. 1. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. direct to wire across jars. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. two pieces 30 in. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. Their size also depends on the voltage. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. making them clear those in the front runner. two pieces 14 in. and for the rear runners: A. 15-1/2 in. by 5 in. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. 4) of 3/4-in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. apart.the way. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. B and C. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. by 2 in. The current then will flow through the motor. with the cushion about 15 in. and plane it on all edges. The connection between point No. 2. 34 in. 3. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. are important. 2. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. See Fig. Equip block X with screw eyes. wide. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. 16-1/2 in.

long. If desired. may be stowed within. brass plated. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. to improve the appearance. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . parcels. Then get some upholstery buttons. or with these for $25. a number of boys may share in the ownership. by 30 in. to the wheel. cheap material. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. cutting it out of sheet brass. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. If the expense is greater than one can afford. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. such as burlap. The best way is to get some strong. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. such as used on automobiles. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. a brake may be added to the sled. by 1/2 in. Fasten a horn. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. which is somewhat moist. fasten a cord through the loop. If desired. overshoes. etc.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. lunch. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel.

.tree and bring. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Leland. Lexington. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Ill. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. --Contributed by Stewart H.

outside diameter and 1/16 in. though more difficult. FC. by drawing diameters. The straight-edge. made from 1/16-in. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. some files. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. First take the case of a small gearwheel. say 1 in. 2. 1. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. The Model Engineer. sheet metal. mild steel or iron. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. Fig. With no other tools than a hacksaw. CD. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. Fig. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. will be over the line FG. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. with twenty-four teeth. from F to G. Fig. 4). but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. so that the center of the blade. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . the same diameter as the wheel. Draw a circle on paper. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. A small clearance space. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. which. a compass. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. E. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. when flat against it. thick. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. London. The first tooth may now be cut. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. the cut will be central on the line. This guide should have a beveled edge. 3.

as shown in Fig. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. or several pieces bound tightly together. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. ground it with a large piece of zinc. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. transmitter. 1. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. as shown in Fig. A bright. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. as shown in Fig. If there is no faucet in the house. Focus the camera in the usual manner. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. some wire and some carbons. No shock will be perceptible. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. Then take one outlet wire. hold in one hand. 2. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. B.Four Photos on One Plate of them. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. R. electric lamp. each in the center. B. Make a hole in the other. and the other outlet wire. 1. . either the pencils for arc lamps. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners.

and about that size. or more of the latter has been used. One like a loaf of bread. a transmitter which induces no current is used. serves admirably. Then set the whole core away to dry. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. For a base use a pine board 10 in. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. Wrenn. But in this experiment. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. D D are binding posts for electric wires. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. of course. Slattery. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. They have screw ends. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. Ohio. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. Emsworth. are also needed. Dry batteries are most convenient. by 12 in. Pa. as indicated by E E. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. Several battery cells. Ashland. 36 wire around it. J. under the gable. B. and will then burn the string C. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. A is a wooden block. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . by 1 in. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. leaving about 10 in. at each end for terminals. and again wind the wire around it. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. one at the receiver can hear what is said. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. --Contributed by Geo. as shown. If desired.

lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. The apparatus is now ready for operation. 14 wire. C. B B. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. Fig. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. and switch. At one side secure two receptacles. Place 16-cp. until the hand points to zero on the scale. in parallel. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling.. for the . the terminal of the coil. 1. B B. The coil will commence to become warm. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. C. connecting lamp receptacles. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. and one single post switch. Fig. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. Turn on switch. F. D. First make a support. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. Newark. The oven is now ready to be connected. in series with bindingpost. Jr. 2. Ohio. run a No. These should have hollow ends. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. Connect these three to switch.wire. From the other set of binding-posts. as shown. E. 12 or No. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. while C is open. as shown. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. and the lamps. D.

although brass is better. 6. Montreal. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. but if for a 4way. The box is 5-1/2 in. 3. 1. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. although copper or steel will do.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. thick. until the scale is full. 4. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. remove the valve. 4 in. 36 magnet wire instead of No. drill a hole as shown at H. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. C. to prevent it turning on the axle. wide and 1/8 in. long. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. At a point a little above the center.. 1/2 in. D. Fig. drill in only to the opening already through. This may be made of wood. 1/4 in. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. To make one. as shown in the cut. The core. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. Mine is wound with two layers of No. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. 4 amperes. 3 amperes. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. from the lower end. wind with plenty of No. etc. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through.or 4-way valve or cock. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. 5.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. Fig. 14. inside measurements. Fig. where A is the homemade ammeter. a standard ammeter. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. is then made and provided with a glass front. If for 3-way. 5. is made of wire. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities.E. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. and D. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. a variable resistance. 2. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. 1. 7. --Contributed by J. Dussault. long. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. a battery. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. After drilling. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. The pointer or hand. E. drill through the entire case and valve. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. deep. is made of iron. A wooden box. This is slipped on the pivot. wide and 1-3/4 in. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. B. high. 10 turns to each layer. 14 wire. Fig. It is 1 in. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. D. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. long and make a loop. aluminum being preferable for this purpose.

B. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. By connecting the motor. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. and a metal rod. To start the light. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. D. high. and the other connects with the water rheostat. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. E. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. A. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. One wire runs to the switch. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. which is used for reducing the current. making two holes about 1/4 in. This stopper should be pierced. in thickness . in diameter. F. and the arc light. as shown. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. provided with a rubber stopper.performing electrical experiments. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water.

1. A piece of wood. Turn on the current and press the button. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Fig. Having finished the interrupter.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Y. Fig. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. If the interrupter does not work at first. Jones. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. --Contributed by Harold L. 1. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. as shown in C. N. If all adjustments are correct. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. long. B. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. 1. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. where he is placed in an upright open . Fig. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Fig. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. To insert the lead plate. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. A. 2. 2. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. As there shown. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Carthage. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. as shown in B. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Having fixed the lead plate in position.

but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. giving a limp. The glass should be the clearest possible. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. high. light-colored garments. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. If everything is not black. dressed in brilliant.. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. Its edges should nowhere be visible. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. with the exception of the glass. and must be thoroughly cleansed. especially the joints and background near A. which can be run by three dry cells. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. is constructed as shown in the drawings. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. from which the gong has been removed. especially L. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. loosejointed effect. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. figures and lights. A. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell.coffin. should be colored a dull black. The skeleton is made of papier maché. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. All . and can be bought at Japanese stores. and wave his arms up and down. until it is dark there. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. L and M. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. as the entire interior. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. by 7-1/2 in. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. should be miniature electric lamps. within the limits of an ordinary room. The model. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. to aid the illusion. They need to give a fairly strong light. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. inside dimensions. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. the illusion will be spoiled. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. A white shroud is thrown over his body. could expect from a skeleton. The lights. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. by 7 in. If it is desired to place the box lower down.

so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. Fry. Cal. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. --Contributed by Geo. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. fat spark. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. square block. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. San Jose. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. after which it assumes its normal color. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. W. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . Two finishing nails were driven in. a double-pointed rheostat could be used.that is necessary is a two-point switch. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. as shown in the sketch. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. placed about a foot apart. If a gradual transformation is desired. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps.

with two tubes. 1. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. -Contributed by Dudley H. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. hydrogen gas is generated. into the receiver G. One of these plates is connected to metal top. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. A (see sketch). and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. soldered in the top. B and C. If a lighted match . This is a wide-mouth bottle. as shown. and should be separated about 1/8 in. The plates are separated 6 in. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. In Fig. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. by small pieces of wood. Cohen. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. to make it airtight. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. In Fig. the remaining space will be filled with air. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. New York. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. or a solution of sal soda. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. F. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water.

in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. and the ends of the tube. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. P. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. 1. says the Model Engineer. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. A 1/64-in. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. A nipple. A. long. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. which forms the vaporizing coil. 2 shows the end view. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. then a suitable burner is necessary. which is plugged up at both ends. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . as is shown in the illustration. of No. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. A. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. London. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. copper pipe. If desired. long. from the bottom. B. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. A. by means of the clips. either by passing a current of electricity around it. 36 insulated wire. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. or by direct contact with another magnet. is made by drilling a 1/8in. N. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. One row is drilled to come directly on top. C C. The distance between the nipple. Fig. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. 1/2 in. is then coiled around the brass tube. copper pipe. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. A. in diameter and 6 in. 1-5/16 in. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. A piece of 1/8-in. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. N. Fig. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. should be only 5/16 of an inch.

After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Take two strips of stout cloth. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. larger all around than the book. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. A disk of thin sheet-iron. Fig. this makes a much nicer book. should be cut to the diameter of the can. smoothly. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Fig. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. leaving the folded edge uncut. trim both ends and the front edge. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Cut four pieces of cardboard. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. fold and cut it 1 in. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. longer and 1/4 in. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. but if the paper knife cannot be used. 3. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips.lamp cord. at the front and back for fly leaves. Fig. boards and all. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. Turn the book over and paste the other side. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. cut to the size of the pages. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. duck or linen. 1/4 in. 1. taking care not to bend the iron. about 8 or 10 in. with a fine saw. 2).

4). Bedford City. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. of tank A is cut a hole. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. as shown. Ont. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. without a head. Parker. is soldered onto tank A. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. Toronto. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. but its diameter is a little smaller. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. A. or rather the top now. as shown in the sketch. H. --Contributed by James E. Noble. --Contributed by Joseph N. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. is made the same depth as B. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. and a little can. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. Another tank. B. is turned on it. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. C. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. pasting them down (Fig. 18 in. which will just slip inside the little can. in diameter and 30 in. In the bottom. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. Another can. A gas cock. E. This will cause some air to be enclosed. deep. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. is perforated with a number of holes. is fitted in it and soldered. the joint will be gas tight. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. D. Va. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. .

S. H is a square knot.. Bott. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. C. D. and about 26 in. fastened in the bottom. If the pushbutton A is closed. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. with an electric-bell magnet. are shown in detail at H and J. Beverly. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. tacks. The bridle knots. and sewed double to give extra strength. long. should be 1/4 in. square by 42 in. exactly 12 in. The armature. The longitudinal corner spines. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. should be 3/8 in. by 1/2 in. The small guards. when finished. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. D. Fig. A. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. B. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. making the width. B. J. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. E. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. to prevent splitting. 1. basswood or white pine. The wiring diagram. Fig. shows how the connections are to be made. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. The diagonal struts. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. and the four diagonal struts. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. which moves to either right or left. 2. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. thus adjusting the . -Contributed by H. B. If the back armature. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. A A. should be cut a little too long. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. N. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. as shown at C. which may be either spruce. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. long.

thus shortening G and lengthening F. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. the batteries do not run down for a long time. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. can be made of a wooden . D. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. Stoddard. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. Closing either key will operate both sounders. for producing electricity direct from heat. Kan. --Contributed by A. Chicago. to prevent slipping. --Contributed by Edw. as shown. and. and if a strong wind is blowing. A bowline knot should be tied at J. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. Harbert. that refuse to slide easily. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. shift toward F. Clay Center. If the kite is used in a light wind. with gratifying results. however. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. E.lengths of F and G.

The wood screw. with a number of nails. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in.frame. E. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. which conducts the current into the cannon. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. or parallel with the compass needle. --Contributed by A. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. A. A and B.. C. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. A. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. spark. C. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. and the current may then be detected by means. to the cannon. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. Fasten a piece of wood. D. placed on top. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. E. in position. Then. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. Chicago. and also holds the pieces of wood. 14 or No. When the cannon is loaded. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. B. C. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. 16 single-covered wire. with a pocket compass. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. by means of machine screws or. A. F.

The fulcrum of the lever is at C. --Contributed by Joseph B. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. Chicago. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. --Contributed by Henry Peck. 1. . Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Fig. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown.the current is shut off. Mich. but no weights or strings. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. B. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. within the reach of the magnet. press the button. H. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Marion. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. Ohio. requiring a strong magnet. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. A hole for a 1/2 in. To lock the door. Connect as shown in the illustration. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. Big Rapids. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. where there is a staple. A. Bend the strips BB (Fig. L. In Fig. To unlock the door. Fig. 1. in this position the door is locked. when in position at A'. square and 3/8 in. Keil. 1. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. A and S. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. now at A' and S'. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. A and S. to receive the screw in the center. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. screw is bored in the block. with the long arm at L'. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. To reverse.

--Contributed by C. pipe with 1-2-in. if enameled white on the concave side. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. J. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. When the holes are finished and your lines set. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. long. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. are enameled a jet black. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. Rand. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. Thread the other end of the pipe. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. put in the handle. gas-pipe. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. and may be made at very slight expense. and C is a dumbbell. hole. The standard and base. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. West Somerville. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. about 18 in. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. Mass. and if desired the handles may . When ready for use. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. or for microscopic work.

Fig. B. A. D. E. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. long and 8 in. across. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. 1. Make a cylindrical core of wood. high by 1 ft. This peculiar property is also found in ice. North Easton. M. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . 1. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. as shown at A in the sketch. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. with a cover. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. Warren.be covered with leather. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. Mass. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. 8 in. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time.. inside the pail. which shall project at least 2 in. Fig. across. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. --Contributed by C.

bottom and sides. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. thick. W. carefully centering it. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. such . 25%. C. and cut it 3-1/2 in. Cover with paper and shellac as before. It is placed inside the kiln. projecting from each end (Fig. and your kiln is ready for business. 1390°-1410°. but will be cheaper in operation. which is the hottest part. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. about 1 in. make two wood ends. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. sand. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos.. and graphite. 60%. This is a clay cylinder (Fig.-G. layer of the clay mixture. 1). and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. wider than the kiln. but it will burn a great deal of gas. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. long. strip of sheet iron. 1330°. pipe 2-ft.. Whatever burner is used. let this dry thoroughly. and with especial caution the first time. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. of fine wire. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. long over the lid hole as a chimney. 15%. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in.mixture of clay. in diameter. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. and varnish. thick. C. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. if there is to be any glazing done. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. as is shown in the sketch. if you have the materials. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. as dictated by fancy and expense. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends.. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. L. the point of the blue flame. and 3/8 in. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. pack this space-top. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. say 1/4 in. the firing should be gradual. pipe. in diameter. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. The 2 in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. Fit all the parts together snugly. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. or make one yourself. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. full length of iron core. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. After finishing the core. E. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. 2 in. This done. After removing all the paper. When lighted. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. Set aside for a few days until well dried. hotel china. and 3/4 in. cutting the hole a little smaller. Fig. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. to hold the clay mixture. If the cover of the pail has no rim. Line the pail. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. C. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. 2. hard porcelain. Wind about 1/8 in. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. 1). diameter. 3) with false top and bottom. and on it set the paper wrapped core. passing wire nails through and clinching them.

and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. R. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. Then. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. 2. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. procure a new deck. Take the red cards. all cards facing the same way. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. Of course. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. Chicago. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. and plane off about 1/16 in. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. as in Fig. D.. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch.53 in. and discharges into the tube. taking care to have the first card red. as in Fig. T. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. length of . . C. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. B. 8 in. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. overlaps and rests on the body. --Contributed by J. around the coil. leaving long terminals. diameter. square them up. C. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. and so on. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. square them up and place in a vise. every alternate card being the same color. about 1/16 in. Next restore all the cards to one pack. A. 2). red and black. and divide it into two piles. bind tightly with black silk. C. as shown in the sketch herewith. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. 2. Washington. You can display either color called for. Then take the black cards. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. the next black. with a plane. The funnel. 1.

The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. Drill all the horizontal pieces. as the difficulties increase with the size. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. of the frame. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. angle iron for the frame. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. and then the frame is ready to assemble. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. E. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. C. the same ends will come together again. B. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. D. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. stove bolts. The bottom glass should be a good fit. F. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces.C. Fig. It should be placed in an exposed location. stove bolts. thus making all the holes coincide. When the glass is put in the frame a space. E. Let . After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. 1 gill of litharge. so that when they are assembled. A. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. Long Branch. B. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. and this is inexpensive to build. to form a dovetail joint as shown. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. To find the fall of snow. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. The cement. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. A. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. 1. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. about 20 in.. All the horizontal pieces.J. the first thing to decide on is the size. through the holes already drilled. B. The upright pieces. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. N. 1 gill of fine white sand.

Fig. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. if desired. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. B. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. D. a centerpiece (A. having a swinging connection at C. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. on the door by means of a metal plate. Fasten the lever. Aquarium Finished If desired. A. and. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. to the door knob.

the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. I referred this question to my husband. 1 . from the outside top of the frame. 2 ft. 6 in. To make the frame. Fig. 2 is an end view. will open the door about 1/2 in. approximately 1 ft. PAUL S. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. but mark their position on the frame. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. several lengths of scantling 3 in. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. 1.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. screwed to the door frame. as at E. Fig. They are shown in Fig. Do not fasten these boards now. which is 15 in. A small piece of spring brass. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. Y. long. long. showing the paddle-wheel in position. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. soldered to the end of the cylinder. to form the slanting part. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. according to the slant given C. and Fig. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. Cut two of them 4 ft. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. to keep the frame from spreading. Fig. and another. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. 1 is the motor with one side removed. Cut two pieces 30 in. long. Fig. 26 in. hoping it may solve the same question for them. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. 1. D. Two short boards 1 in. to form the main supports of the frame. C. with a water pressure of 70 lb. thus doing away with the spring. 3 shows one of the paddles. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. long. --Contributed by Orton E. B. wide by 1 in. F. for the top. another. Fig. E. 2 at GG. AA. N. wide . or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. Buffalo. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. White. Fig. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. another..

holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. 2) and another 1 in. remove the cardboard. steel shaft 12 in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole.burlap will do -. long and filling it with babbitt metal. iron 3 by 4 in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. 2) with a 5/8-in. as shown in Fig. 1. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. hole to form the bearings. Fig. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. and drill a 1/8-in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. hole through them. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. with the wheel and shaft in place. 2) form a substantial base. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. and a 1/4 -in. Next secure a 5/8-in. from one end by means of a key. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Fig. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. Take the side pieces. 24 in.along the edges under the zinc to form . On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. take down the crosspieces. 4. in diameter. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. These are the paddles. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. to a full 1/2 in. thick (HH. Tack one side on. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. thick.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. then drill a 3/16-in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. iron. GG. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. pipe. Make this hole conical. Drill 1/8-in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). hole through its center. Fasten them in their proper position. tapering from 3/16 in. long to the wheel about 8 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. that is. and drill a 1-in. after which drill a 5/8 in. (I. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. hole through their sides centrally. by 1-1/2 in. When it has cooled. Now block the wheel. Fig. holes.

Correct exposure depends. It is obvious that. on the lens. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. sewing machine. it would be more durable. but as it would have cost several times as much. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. as shown in the sketch at B. Focus the camera carefully. and the subject may move. says the Photographic Times.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. If sheet-iron is used. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. ice-cream freezer. start the motor. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. Do not stop down the lens. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. as this makes long exposure necessary. and leave them for an hour or so. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. drill press.a water-tight joint. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. The best plate to use is a very slow one. but now I put them in the machine. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. Raise the window shade half way. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. any window will do. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. shutting out all light from above and the sides. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. place the outlet over a drain. Drill a hole through the zinc. Darken the rest of the window. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. or what is called a process plate. remove any white curtains there may be. of course. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. and as near to it as possible. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. . and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. light and the plate. If the bearings are now oiled. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation.

which is made of iron and cork. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. or wood. a glass tube. B. and without fog. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. the core is drawn down out of sight. a core. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. The core C. With a piece of black paper. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. with binding posts as shown. full of water. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. or an empty developer tube. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. without detail in the face. The current required is very small. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. or can be taken from an old magnet. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. and a base. 2. until the core slowly rises. The glass tube may be a test tube. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. an empty pill bottle may be used. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. On completing . The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. as a slight current will answer. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. C.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. by twisting. 2. A. D. as shown in Fig. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. hard rubber. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong.

or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. 1. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. finest graphite. and are changed by reversing the rotation. This is a mysterious looking instrument. is Benham's color top. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. The colors appear different to different people. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. according to his control of the current. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. water and 3 oz. and one not easy to explain. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. white lead.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. and make a pinhole in the center. 1 pt. whale oil. 1 lb. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows .

C. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. In prize games. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. A. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. and asks an observer to withdraw a card.B. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out.L. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. B. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. nearly every time. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other.. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. especially if the deck is a new one. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. fan-like. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. before cutting. or three spot. deuce. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. As this device is easily upset. In making hydrogen. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. Chicago. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. thus partly filling bottles A and C. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. when the action ceases. -Contributed by D. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced.

3). Detail of Phonograph Horn .. 4. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. 1. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. 10 in. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Fig. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. --Contributed by F. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Bently. long and 3 in. 12 in. long. S. --Contributed by C. (Fig. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. Jr. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Dak. W. Huron. in length and 3 in. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. Detroit. . wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Form a cone of heavy paper. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. as shown in Fig. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. 2. in diameter. Make a 10-sided stick. J. Fig.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. 9 in. S. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft..

E. 6. on one side and the top. allowing 1 in. push back the bolt. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. it is equally easy to block that trick. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. will cause an increased movement of C. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. Fig. and walk in. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. long. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. about the size of a leadpencil. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . Fortunately. A piece of tin. A. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. --Contributed by Reader. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. Cut out paper sections (Fig. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. making it three-ply thick. but bends toward D. C. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. A second piece of silk thread. with a pin driven in each end. bend it at right angles throughout its length. Remove the form.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. Denver.

B.. 4 ft. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. The reverse switch. Two wood-base switches. --Contributed by J. as shown. Paul. S. By this arrangement one. put together as shown in the sketch. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. Minn. B. A. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. S. The feet. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. The upper switch. S S. long. W. will last for several years. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. The 2 by 4-in. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. posts. while the lower switch. R. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. Jr. are made 2 by 4 in. or left to right. Fremont Hilscher. and rest on a brick placed under each end. long. West St. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. are 7 ft. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with.strip.. is connected each point to a battery.

every house. and valve crank S. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. In Fig. Fig. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. Fig. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. H and K. and a cylindrical . 2 and 3. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. The hose E connects to the boiler. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. FF. which is made of tin. which will be described later. the other parts being used for the bearing B. either an old sewing-machine wheel. 2. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. cut in half. with two washers. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. The valve motion is shown in Figs. 3/8 in. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. pulley wheel. thick. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. 1. and in Fig. The steam chest D. The base is made of wood. E. or anything available. the size of the hole in the bearing B. and has two wood blocks. The piston is made of a stove bolt. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. is an old bicycle pump. and the crank bearing C.

G. and the desired result is obtained. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. Fry. 4. Cal. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. The valve crank S. This engine was built by W. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. This is wound with soft string. of Cuba. to receive the connecting rod H. powder can. Wis. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. C. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. 1. as it is merely a trick of photography. Fig. using the positive wire as a pen. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. . --Contributed by Geo. at that. W. J. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. and a very amusing trick. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. G. Eustice. as shown in Fig. First. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. Schuh and A. is cut out of tin. San Jose. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. or galvanized iron. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. can be an old oil can.piece of hard wood. 3. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. and saturated with thick oil. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. The boiler. Fig.

3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. When turning. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. Fig.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. and place a bell on the four ends. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. Fig. as shown at AA. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Cut half circles out of each stave. to cross in the center. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. The smaller wheel. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. C. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. as shown. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. and Fig. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. and pass ropes around . Fig. diameter. B. 1 will be seen to rotate. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. B. They may be of any size. 1 by covering up Figs. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool.

To make this lensless microscope. produces a higher magnifying power).. which accounts for the sound. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. This in turn will act on the transmitter. Louis.M. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. but not on all. such as clothes lines. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. procure a wooden spool. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. which allows the use of small sized ropes. St. as shown in the illustration. W. long. --Contributed by H. A (a short spool. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. Mo. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. From a piece of thin . The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. from the transmitter. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter.G.

It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. the diameter will appear three times as large. is made of iron.. B. 2. darting across the field in every direction. B. i. Viewed through this microscope. . and at the center. the object should be of a transparent nature.. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. which are pieces of hard wood. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. otherwise the image will be blurred. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. 1. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. A. fastened to a wooden base. The pivot. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. by means of brads. the diameter will appear twice as large. The lever. D. C. cut out a small disk. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. Fig. in which hay has been soaking for several days. or 64 times. and so on. place a small object on the transparent disk. as in all microscopes of any power. if the distance is reduced to one-third. can be made of brass and the armature. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. D. which costs little or nothing to make. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. H. if the distance is reduced to one-half. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. held at arm's length.) But an object 3/4-in. E. which may be moistened to make the object adhere.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. An innocent-looking drop of water. e. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. 3. The spring. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. and look through the hole D. (The area would appear 64 times as large. C. is fastened at each end by pins. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. To use this microscope. bent as shown.

The back. wide. brass. coils wound with No. 1. KEY-A. wood. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. HH. 16 in. should be about 22 in. Fig.SOUNDER-A. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. long by 16 in. wide. F. between the armature and the magnet. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. C. AA. 2. The door. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. long. 16 in. in length and 16 in. wide and set in between sides AA. similar to the one used in the sounder. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. brass or iron soldered to nail. and are connected to the contacts. E. A switch. nail soldered on A. wood: C. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. C. brass: E. wood: F. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. DD. soft iron. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. or taken from a small one-point switch. which are made to receive a pivot. wide and about 20 in. brass: B. or a single piece. is cut from a board about 36 in. thick. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. The base of the key. long and 14-1/2 in. B. can be made panel as shown. Fig. Cut the top. B. Each side. The binding posts. A. fastened near the end. 26 wire: E. D. wide. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. FF. wide. D. . D. K. connection of D to nail. binding posts: H spring The stop. K.

as shown in the sketch. with 3/4-in. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. When the electrical waves strike the needle. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. 13-1/2 in. E. cut in them. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver.. Garfield. In operation. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. brads.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. 2 and made from 1/4-in. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. Make 12 cleats. as shown. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. AA. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. material. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . Ill. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. long.

Brown. pulls down the armature. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. --Contributed by R. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. --Contributed by John Koehler. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. Pushing the wire. down into the water increases the surface in contact. through which a piece of wire is passed. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. N. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. A fairly stiff spring. Ridgewood. The cord is also fastened to a lever. Fairport. in order to increase the surface. and thus decreases the resistance. N. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. C. When the pipe is used. F. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. Y. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. B. A. A. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. when used with a motor.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. J. will give a greater speed. filled with water. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. and. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. A (see sketch). the magnet. E.

Gachville. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. if desired. even those who read this description.for the secret contact. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. N. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. Of course. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. --Contributed by Perry A. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. B. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Borden. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door.

-Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. wide. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. Washington. as shown in Fig. The top board is made 28-in. Connect switch to post B. The three shelves are cut 25-in. 2. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. Jr. thick and 12-in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. C. as shown in Fig. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes.. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached.whenever the bell rings. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. where the other end of wire is fastened. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. wide. With about 9 ft. for 6-in. for 10in. Dobson. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. 1. N. long and 5 in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. A. --Contributed by Dr. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. Cal. . Cut the end pieces each 36-in. From a piece of brass a switch. and on both sides of the middle shelf. records. D. East Orange. --Contributed by H. from the bottom. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. deep and 3/4 in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. apart. H. in a semicircle 2 in. records and 5-5/8 in. long and full 12-in. wide. J. Compton. C. wide. E. Nails for stops are placed at DD. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. wide. Mangold.

as shown by the dotted lines. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. as shown in Fig. Va. E. which in operation is bent. to which is fastened a cord. 1. B. A. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. Roanoke. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. When the cord is passed over pulley C. closed.

Do not fasten the sides too . if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. B. which should be about 1/2 in. In the sides (Fig. in diameter. 5) when they are placed. Figs. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. In these grooves place wheels. square and 7/8 in. Now put all these parts together. D. apart. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. Cut two grooves. it too loose. 1 in. 3. in diameter. to turn on pins of stout wire. 3). E. 4 shows the wheel-holder. CC. in diameter. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. deep and 1/2 in.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. is compressed by wheels. holes (HH. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. E. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. Fig. they will bind. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. long. Notice the break (S) in the track. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. The crankpin should fit tightly. as shown in the illustration. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. Bore two 1/4 in. but a larger one could be built in proportion. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. Fig. thick. deep. against which the rubber tubing. wide. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. If the wheels fit too tightly. Put the rubber tube. they will let the air through. thick (A. in diameter. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. through one of these holes. 1 in. 1. excepting the crank and tubing. Figs. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. Fig. These wheels should be 3/4 in. one in each end. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. wide. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in.

securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. For ease in handling the pump. Hubbard. Fig. Take the center of the bar. and 3-1/2 in. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. from each end. is all the expense necessary. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. from each end. A in Fig. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. AA. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. Fig. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. 1. from that mark the next hole. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. 2. mark for hole and 3 in. tubing. the other wheel has reached the bottom. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. because he can . To use the pump. mark again. In the two cross bars 1 in. If the motion of the wheels is regular. The three legs marked BBB. Two feet of 1/4-in. beyond each of these two. 2. AA. 1. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. long. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. Idana. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. costing 10 cents. 1. iron. a platform should be added. and mark for a hole. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. The screen which is shown in Fig. B. Fig. Cut six pieces. 1. 17-1/2 in. and are 30 in. The animal does not fear to enter the box. of material. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. from each end. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. as it gives steadiness to the motion. stands 20 in. Kan. as shown in Fig. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. Then turn the crank from left to right. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. 1. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. though a small iron wheel is better. from the bottom and 2 in. Fig. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. --Contributed by Dan H. the pump will give a steady stream. 15 in. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. and 1/2 by 1/4-in.

of water dissolve 4 oz. C. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. sulphuric acid. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. The battery is now ready for use. potassium bichromate. Place the carbon in the jar. If the solution touches the zinc. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. until it is within 3 in. 4 oz. It is useful for running induction coils. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. When the bichromate has all dissolved. but if one casts his own zinc. The truncated. --Contributed by H. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. shuts him in. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. To cause a flow of electricity. acid 1 part). When through using the battery. rub the zinc well. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. The mercury will adhere. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. however. of the top. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. The battery is now complete. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. and touches the bait the lid is released and. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. 14 copper wire. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. add slowly. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. stirring constantly. there is too much liquid in the jar. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. . giving it a bright. Meyer. If it is wet. silvery appearance. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. and the solution (Fig. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. long having two thumb screws. If the battery has been used before. 2).see through it: when he enters. dropping. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. Philadelphia. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. or small electric motors. 1) must be prepared. some of it should be poured out. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. or.

The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. while the coal door is being opened. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. however. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. which opens the door. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. i. Wis. Madison.Fig. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. the jump-spark coil .. pressing the pedal closes the door. After putting in the coal. with slight changes. If. e. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. the battery circuit. The price of the coil depends upon its size. --Contributed by Edward Whitney.

the full length of the coil. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. being a 1-in. as shown in Fig. 7). in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. Now for the receiving apparatus. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. . This will make an excellent receiver. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. This coil. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. and closer for longer distances. 5. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. W W. W W. Change the coil described. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. 7. while a 12-in. After winding.described elsewhere in this book. 7. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. which is made of light copper wire. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. diameter. made of No. apart. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. 6. Fig. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. in a partial vacuum. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". in a straight line from top to bottom. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth.7. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. as shown in Fig. coil. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. 6.

is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. above the ground. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. B the bed and C the tailstock. 90°. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. 1 to 4. These circles. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. using an electric motor and countershaft. being at right angles. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. which will be described later. The writer does not claim to be the originator. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. For an illustration. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). at any point to any metal which is grounded. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles.6 stranded.The aerial line. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. in the air. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. being vertical. as it matches the color well. to the direction of the current. A. may be easily made at very little expense. Figs. where A is the headstock. No. A large cone pulley would then be required. are analogous to the flow of induction. after all. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. 90°. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. but it could be run by foot power if desired. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. but simply illustrates the above to show that. 1). . after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. I run my lathe by power. Run a wire from the other binding post. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. and hence the aerial line. only.

deep. which are let into holes FIG. B. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. Fig. 4. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. To make these bearings. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. Fig. steel tubing about 1/8 in. on the under side of the bed. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. The headstock. The bolts B (Fig. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. but not hot enough to burn it. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . Heat the babbitt well. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. and it is well to have the shaft hot. 6 Headstock Details D. 4. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. 6. too. After pouring. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. Fig. 5.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. Fig. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. which pass through a piece of wood. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. and runs in babbitt bearings. If the bearing has been properly made. one of which is shown in Fig. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. thick. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. and Fig. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. A. The bearing is then ready to be poured. pitch and 1/8 in. 2 and 3. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. 5. just touching the shaft. tapered wooden pin.

After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. B. Newark. so I had to buy one. A. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. Ill. they may be turned up after assembling. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. This prevents corrosion. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. If one has a wooden walk. lock nut. Oak Park. N. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. The tail stock (Fig.other machines. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. of the walk . 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. embedded in the wood. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. Take up about 5 ft. FIG. and a 1/2-in. the alarm is easy to fix up. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them.J. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. If not perfectly true.

then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. hang the articles on the wires. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Connect up an electric bell. to remove all traces of grease. Do not touch the work with the hands again. clean the articles thoroughly. leaving a clear solution. Jackson. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Then make the solution . Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. save when a weight is on the trap. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. To avoid touching it. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. of water. silver or other metal. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. S. 2). Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. Minneapolis. Minn. water. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. so that they will not touch. --Contributed by R. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. Fig. Finally. and the alarm is complete. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. add potassium cyanide again. (A. before dipping them in the potash solution. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. to roughen the surface slightly.

Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. pewter. This solution. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. 1 not only unlocks. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. If more solution is required. which . with the pivot 2 in. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. German silver. Fig. light strokes. In rigging it to a sliding door. Can be made of a 2-in. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. 1. The wooden catch. which is held by catch B. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. 1). long. of clothesline rope and some No. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. Repeat six times. as at F. hole in its center. use 2 volts for large articles. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. 3) directly over the hole. a hand scratch brush is good. Before silver plating. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. 18 wire. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. Fig. when the point of the key touches the tin. with water. which is advised. Take quick. 10 in. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. from the lower end. square. long. --Model Engineer. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. shaking. as shown in Fig. a circuit is completed. The wooden block C. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. make a key and keyhole. also. B should be of the same wood. A (Fig. copper. With an electric pressure of 3. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. lead. will serve for the key. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. Screw the two blocks together. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. A 1/4 in. 3) strikes the bent wire L. Make a somewhat larger block (E. piece of broomstick. Then. with water. I. To provide the keyhole. When all this is set up. Where Bunsen cells are used. about 25 ft. thick by 3 in. saw a piece of wood.up to 2 qt. of water. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. and then treated as copper. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. 1). If accumulators are used. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. nickel and such metals. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. such metals as iron. an old electric bell or buzzer. but opens the door. On brass. Fig. must be about 1 in. silver can be plated direct. Having finished washing the precipitate.5 to 4 volts. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. Fig. and 4 volts for very small ones. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. and the larger part (F. zinc. 1 in. 3. if one does not possess a buffing machine.

Fig. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. . and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. 1. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. East Orange. which unlocks the door. 2. Thus. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. one-third of the length from the remaining end. One end is removed. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. some black cloth. 116 Prospect St. cut in one side. 0. the illumination in front must be arranged. One thing changes to another and back again. B. Fig. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. Fig. with a switch as in Fig. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. and relies on a principle of optics for its success.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. spoons and jackknives. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. Heavy metal objects. sides and end. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. and plenty of candles. and finally lined inside with black cloth. in his shirt sleeves. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. should be cut a hole. 3. shows catch B. the box should be painted black both inside and out. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. to throw the light toward the audience. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty.. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. or cave. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. he tosses it into the cave. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. and black art reigns supreme. The interior must be a dead black. H. H. Objects appear and disappear. heighten the illusion. so much the better. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. such as forks. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). The magician stands in front of this. and hands its contents round to the audience. a few simple tools. top. some black paint. H. is the cut through which the rope runs. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. To prepare such a magic cave. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. surrounding a perfectly black space. 1. with the lights turned low. although a little more trouble. he points with one finger to the box. The box must be altered first. Next. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. In front of you. half way from open end to closed end. Receiving the bowl again. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. Fig. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. On either side of the box. --Contributed by E. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. no painting inside is required. Next. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. Klipstein. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. He removes the bowl from the black box. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. floor. 2. between the parlor and the room back of it. and a slit. New Jersey. the requisites are a large soap box. enlarged. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair.

It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. as presented by Hermann. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. in which are oranges and apples. The illusion. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. The audience room should have only low lights. was identical with this. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. his confederate behind inserts his hand. if. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. and several black drop curtains. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. you must have an assistant. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. a screen must be used. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms.Finally. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. the room where the cave is should be dark. and if portieres are impossible. But illusions suggest themselves. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. and pours them from the bag into a dish. Consequently. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. of course. of course. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. which can be made to dance either by strings. which are let down through the slit in the top. had a big stage. only he. is on a table) so much the better. one on each side of the box. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. into the eyes of him who looks. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. The exhibitor should be .

b3. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. at L. d. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. and c1 – electricity. Then. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. so arranged that. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. e1 and e2. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. terminal c3 will show +. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. Finally. 2. as shown in Fig. and c2 to the zinc. by means of two wood screws. A represents a pine board 4 in. 1. their one end just slips under the strips b1.a boy who can talk. b1. terminal c3 will show . suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. held down by another disk F (Fig. c2. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. 2. b2. when handle K is turned to one side. by 4 in. Fig. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. b3. FIG. or b2. c3. b2. c1. making contact with them as shown at y. if you turn handle K to the right. 1. respectively. or binding posts. respectively. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . and c4 + electricity. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base.. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. About the center piece H moves a disk. vice versa. A. and a common screw. On the disk G are two brass strips. with three brass strips. f2. 2). making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). square. respectively. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. making contact with them. is shown in the diagram. held down on disk F by two other terminals. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. c4.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. held down on it by two terminals.

Jr. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. and C and C1 are binding posts. from five batteries. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. . E. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. 3. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. from four batteries. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. -Contributed by A. Newark. jump spark coil. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. Ohio. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). thus making the message audible in the receiver. when on No. when on No. When switch B is closed and A is on No. Tuttle.. you have the current of one battery. --Contributed by Eugene F. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. 4. and when on No. 5. when A is on No. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. from three batteries. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. B is a onepoint switch. Joerin. and then hold the receiver to your ear. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. 1.

The device thus arranged. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. traveled by the thread. as shown in the sketch. of Burlington. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. per second. which may be a button or other small object. La. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. Handy Electric Alarm . Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. over the bent portion of the rule. New Orleans. mark.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. so one can see the time. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. is the device of H. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. P. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. B.. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. When you do not have a graduate at hand. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. mark. Redmond. and supporting the small weight. per second for each second. rule. and placed on the windowsill of the car. E. Thus. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. A. A. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Wis. A.

I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. Crafton. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. Instead. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. Pa. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. S. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch.which has a piece of metal. for a wetting is the inevitable result. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. Lane. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. and with the same result. --Contributed by Gordon T. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. Then if a mishap comes. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. which illuminates the face of the clock. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. C. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. --C. soldered to the alarm winder. . When the alarm goes off. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. B. wrapping the wire around the can several times. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. but may be closed at F any time desired.

which in turn support the mold while it is being made. as shown. whence it is soon tracked into the house.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. small machinery parts. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. bearings. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. and many other interesting and useful articles. A. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. binding posts. It is possible to make molds without a bench. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. ornaments of various kinds. 1 . as the sand is sure to get on the floor. but it is a mistake to try to do this. New York City. C. L. --Contributed by A. when it is being prepared. as shown in Fig. 1. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. battery zincs. models and miniature objects. which may. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. BE. The first thing to make is a molding bench. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. If there is no foundry Fig. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. engines. Two cleats. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. cannons.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . With the easily made devices about to be described. AA. Macey. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. and duplicates of all these. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings.

A good way to make the flask is to take a box. but this operation will be described more fully later on." or upper half. high. The rammer. is shown more clearly in Fig. and the "drag. If the box is not very strong. Fig.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. The cloth bag. is nailed to each end of the cope. A A. H. try using sand from other sources. D. F. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. by 6 in. and this. and the lower pieces. It is made of wood and is in two halves. is filled with coal dust. makes a very good sieve. G. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. The dowels. 1. Fig. as shown. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. will be required. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. 2. the "cope. DD. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. by 8 in. a little larger than the outside of the flask. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. CC. II . is made of wood. A wedge-shaped piece. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. is about the right mesh. and a sieve. as shown. J. CC. E. The flask. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. which can be either aluminum. 2 . which should be nailed in. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. say 12 in. A slight shake of the bag Fig. 1. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. which can be made of a knitted stocking. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. and saw it in half longitudinally. white metal. If desired the sieve may be homemade." or lower part.How to Make a Mold [96] . nailed to replace the bottom of a box. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding.near at hand. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. previous to sawing. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. An old teaspoon.

as shown at C. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. in order to remove the lumps. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. the surface of the sand at . turn the drag other side up. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. where they can watch the molders at work." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. or "cope. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. Place another cover board on top. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. The sand is then ready for molding. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. and scatter about 1/16 in. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. as described. In finishing the ramming. or "drag. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. as shown at E. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. and thus judge for himself. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. It is then rammed again as before. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. as shown at D. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. as shown. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag." in position. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. and if water is added. as it is much easier to learn by observation. and by grasping with both hands. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. After ramming. and then more sand is added until Fig.

by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. as shown at J. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. as shown at H. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. is next cut. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes." or pouring-hole. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. thus holding the crucible securely. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. after being poured. This is done with a spoon. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. place the cope back on the drag. in order to prevent overheating.E should be covered with coal-dust. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. wide and about 1/4 in. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. as shown at G. Fig. as shown at F. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. and then pour. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. it shows that the sand is too wet. to give the air a chance to escape. deep. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. in diameter. III. . These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. Place a brick or other flat. After drawing the pattern. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. thus making a dirty casting. made out of steel rod. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. as shown in the sketch. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. The "sprue. as shown at H.

although somewhat expensive. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. the following device will be found most convenient. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. 15% lead. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. but any reasonable number may be used. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. or from any adjacent pair of cells.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. and. is very desirable. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. used only for zinc. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. babbitt. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. Minneapolis. and the casting is then ready for finishing. Morton. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. Referring to the figure. If a good furnace is available. --Contributed by Harold S. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. may be used in either direction. Although the effect in the illustration . white metal and other scrap available. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. In my own case I used four batteries. battery zincs.

rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. 3/4 in. If desired. To make it take a sheet-iron band. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. as shown at A. backward. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. Then walk down among the audience. as shown in the illustration. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. Then replace the table. outward. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. Chicago. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. Fig. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . Make one of these pieces for each arm. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. which will be sufficient to hold it. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. A. shaft made. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. B. The bearings. B. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. --Contributed by Draughtsman. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. Put a sharp needle point. may be made of hardwood. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. 2. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. By replacing the oars with paddles. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. connected by cords to the rudder. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. The brass rings also appear distorted.

drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. C. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. when it will again return to its original state. 2 and 3. being simply finely divided ice. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. A. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. or the paint will come off. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. and a weight. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. Fig. In the same way. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. E. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. 1. but when in motion. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. 3. spoiling its appearance. D. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. If babbitt is used. should be made of wood. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. Snow. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. The covers.melted babbitt. W. If galvanized iron is used. as shown in Fig. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. or under pressure. 1. 1. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. A block of ice. The hubs. as shown in Fig. 2. It may seem strange that ice .

the large body of ice has to bend in moving. as shown on page 65. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. by 1/2 in. but. as per sketch. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. Lane. but by placing it between books. sometimes only one or two feet a day. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. The rate of flow is often very slow. by 5 in. by 2 in. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. thus giving a high resistance contact. no matter how slow the motion may be. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in.. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. Pa. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. which resembles ice in this respect. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. P. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. Crafton. it will gradually change from the original shape A. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. or supporting it in some similar way. in. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. and assume the shape shown at B. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in.should flow like water. whenever there is any connection made at all. square. --Contributed by Gordon T. B. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. brass. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. Pressing either push button. by 1/4. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions.

thumb screws. A is the circuit breaker. J. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. The parts are: A. weight. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. K . draft chain. In the wiring diagram. about the size used for automobiles. Ward. The success depends upon a slow current. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. and five dry batteries. and C.000 ft. wooden supports. the battery. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. --Contributed by A. G. vertical lever. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. C. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. horizontal lever. E. cord. D. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. as shown. draft. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. pulleys. G. F. B. H. alarm clock. the induction coil. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. Pa. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. Wilkinsburg. as shown. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. B. Indianapolis. I. furnace. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message.

If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. as well as the bottom. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. The frame (Fig. 2 are dressed to the right angle. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . Kalamazoo. 3. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. Mich. where house plants are kept in the home. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. Artistic Window Boxes The top. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. material framed together as shown in Fig. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. will fit nicely in them. which will provide a fine place for the plants. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. such as used for a storm window. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open.

In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. and cost 27 cents FIG. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. 1 each complete with base. and the instrument will then be complete. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. where they are glad to have them taken away. for some time very satisfactorily. Canada. and will give the . Thus. However. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. in this connection. e. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. after a rest. as if drawn upon for its total output.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. but maintain the voltage constant. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. Grant. as indicated by Fig. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. this must be done with very great caution. N. 1. A certain number of these. and a suitable source of power. i. W. is something that will interest the average American boy. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. one can regulate the batteries as required. a cork and a needle. can be connected up in series. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. by connecting them in series. 1 cp. --Contributed by Wm. multiples of series of three. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. in diameter.. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. This is more economical than dry cells. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. However. since a battery is the most popular source of power. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series.. in any system of lamps. Halifax. S. so as to increase the current. The 1/2-cp. Push the needle into the cork.. which sells for 25 cents. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. It must be remembered. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high.

and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. or 1-1/4 cents per hour.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. by the proper combination of these. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. if wound for 6 volts. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. we simply turn on the water. where the water pressure is the greatest. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. These will give 3 cp. 3. although the first cost is greater. as in Fig. especially those of low internal resistance. 11 series. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. according to the water pressure obtainable. FIG. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. Chicago. which is the same as that of one battery. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. for display of show cases. So. lamps. generates the power for the lights. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. However. lamp. Fig. Thus. or 22 lights. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. double insulated wire wherever needed. 18 B & S. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. to secure light by this method. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. 1-cp. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. making. lamps. and diffused light in a room. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. each. Thus. and then lead No. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. 2 shows the scheme.proper voltage. In conclusion. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. . and running the series in parallel. If wound for 10 volts. and for Christmas trees.. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts.

To reverse the motor. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. DD. A indicates the ground. . bars of pole-changing switch. --Contributed by F. we were not bothered with them. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. --Contributed by Leonard E. Parker. B. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. switch. CC.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. field of motor. Santa Clara. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. or from one pattern. simply change the switch. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. a bait of meat. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. brushes of motor. After I connected up my induction coil. Emig. and the sides. are cut just alike. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. thus reversing the machine. Ind. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. B. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. Cal. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. A. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. as shown in the sketch. outside points of switch. and C. center points of switch. BB. AA. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. the letters indicate as follows: FF. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Plymouth. or a tempting bone.

903 Vine St. W. If it is not. A. Hutchinson. a hammer. thus locking the door. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. The button can be hidden. attached to the end of the armature B. To unlock the door. or would remain locked. Cal. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. and a table or bench. merely push the button E. -Contributed by Claude B.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. When the circuit is broken a weight. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. which is in the door. San Jose. as it is the key to the lock. Melchior. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. The experiment works best .. Minn. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. a piece of string. Fry. one cell being sufficient.

1). 18 Gorham St. 4). the key turns. Canada. -. 3. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Schmidt. Brockville. W.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. . run through a pulley. forming a loop. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. which pulls the draft open. On another block of wood fasten two wires. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. 3. A. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. attached at the other end. D. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. in the ceiling and has a window weight. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Porto Rico. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. Culebra. releasing the weight. Tie the ends of the string together. C. 2. where it will remain suspended as shown. Crawford Curry. I. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Ontario. --Contributed by Geo.Contributed by F. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Wis. the current flows with the small arrows. the stick falls away. P. Madison. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig.. When the alarm rings in the early morning.

D. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. get two pieces of plate glass. thick. square and 1 in. or from a bed of flowers. R. Use a barrel to work on. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. and break the corners off to make them round. J. which fasten to the horn. Connect two wires to the transmitter. N. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. or tree. thence to a switch. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. Camden. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers.. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. and . Farley. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. and then to the receiver. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. 6 in. including the mouthpiece.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. and the other to the battery. First. made with his own hands. The cut shows the arrangement. S. running one direct to the receiver. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. J. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. Jr. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. --Contributed by Wm.

or it will not polish evenly. with pitch. and label. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. by the side of the lamp. L. and the under glass or tool convex. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. of water. A.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. In a dark room. also rotate the glass. in length. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. and a large lamp. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. When dry. while walking around the barrel. Have ready six large dishes. then take 2 lb. spaces.. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. Fig. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. When polishing the speculum. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. twice the focal length away. a round 4-in. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. 2. or less. with 1/4-in.. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. and is ready for polishing. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. and spread on the glass. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. Fig. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. Then warm and press again with the speculum. When done the glass should be semitransparent.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. then 8 minutes. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. set the speculum against the wall. the coarse grinding must be continued. wide around the convex glass or tool. Use a binger to spread it on with. so the light . turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. melt 1 lb. wetting it to the consistency of cream. using straight strokes 2 in. 1. 2. wet till soft like paint. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. unless a longer focal length is wanted. as in Fig. Fasten. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in.

the speculum is ready to be silvered. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. Fig. Place the speculum S. must be procured.. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. Silver nitrate ……………………………. with distilled water. fill the dish with distilled water. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. Now add enough of the solution A.. if a hill in the center. long to the back of the speculum. from the lamp.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass.. The polishing and testing done. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film..……………………………. When the focus is found. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. The knife should not be more than 6 in. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water …………………………….……………. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. or hills. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. as in K. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Fig. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. Fig. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. longer strokes. 100 gr. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. 840 gr.. Then add solution B. Then add 1 oz. add the ammonia solution drop by drop.……………………………….. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. and pour the rest into the empty dish. 2. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. face down.. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. 25 gr. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. touched with rouge. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. then ammonia until bath is clear. that was set aside. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. 4 oz.100 gr. 4 oz. Solution D: Sugar loaf .. With pitch. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp.. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz.. If not. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. Nitric acid . If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. When dry. deep. 39 gr. the speculum will show some dark rings. cement a strip of board 8 in. Two glass or earthenware dishes. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. Place the speculum. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). also how the rays R from a star . 2.

two glass prisms. deg. . Mellish. Then I made the one described. long and cost me just $15. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. slightly wider than the lens mount. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. The flatter they are the less they will distort. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. Thus an excellent 6-in. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. My telescope is 64 in. cover with paper and cloth. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. and proceed as for any picture. telescope can be made at home. Make the tube I of sheet iron. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. using strawboard and black paper. with an outlay of only a few dollars. is a satisfactory angle. which proves to be easy of execution. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. stop down well after focusing.John E. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold.. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. About 20. Place over lens.

then add a little sulphate of potash. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. but will not preserve its hardening. The paper is exposed. A. add the plaster gradually to the water. instead of the contrary. -Contributed by A. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. says the Master Painter. The rays of the clear. unobstructed light strike the mirror. To unlock. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. 1. 2. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. Do not stir it. as shown in Fig. and reflect through the negative. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. or powdered alum. Boody. Ill. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. D. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. Fig. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. complete the arrangement. Zimmerman. through the lens of the camera and on the board. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. push the button D. B. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. .

but will remain suspended without any visible support. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. Fig. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. 3. also provide them with a handle. as shown in the sketch. as at A and B. as in Fig. use a string. 2. Fasten on the switch lever. so that it can rotate about these points. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. 2. Then blow through the spool.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. To reverse. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. throw . 1).

carbon sockets. Push one end of the tire into the hole. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. North Bend. rinse in alcohol. Thomas. D. --Contributed by R. -Contributed by Morris L. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. A is the electricbell magnet. binding posts. . a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Take out. the armature. B. In the sketch. L. Tex. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. San Marcos. San Antonio. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Levy. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Neb. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. and E E. as shown in the sketch. carbons. wash in running water. Go McVicker. --Contributed by Geo. although this is not necessary. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. and rub dry with linen cloth. C C. Tex.

and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. 36 magnet wire. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. --Contributed by Joseph B. wound evenly about this core. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Brooklyn. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. 16 magnet wire. By means of two or more layers of No. long or more. 14 or No.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Bell. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists.

a box like that shown in Fig. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. hole is bored in the center of one end. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. 4. long and 5 in. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. A 7/8-in. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. which is an important factor of the coil. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. When cut and laid in one continuous length. at a time. diameter. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. 1. which is desirable. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. 2 yd. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. with room also for a small condenser. or 8 in. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. The primary is made of fine annealed No. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. This makes a condenser which may be folded. making two layers. but if it is not convenient to do this work. the entire core may be purchased readymade. in length. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. No. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. and finally the fourth strip of paper. The condenser is next wrapped .which would be better to buy ready-made. and the results are often unsatisfactory. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. coil illustrates the general details of the work. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. as shown in Fig. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. one piece of the paper is laid down. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. wide. The following method of completing a 1-in. about 6 in. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. as the maker prefers. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. then the strip of tin-foil. After the core wires are bundled. in diameter. long and 2-5/8 in. In shaping the condenser. Beginning half an inch from one end. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in.

securely with bands of paper or tape. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. whole length.. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. 4 in. long and 12 in. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. lines H. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. ready for assembling. C. which is insulated from the first. and the other sheet. G. B. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. The alarm key will turn and drop down. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. forms the other pole or terminal. I. flange turned on one side. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. copper lever with 1-in. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. battery . See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. A. Fig. shows how the connections are made. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. V-shaped copper strip. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. E. long to key. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. switch. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. shelf for clock. which allows wiring at the back. bell. to the door. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. one from bell. go. F. D. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. round so that the inside . The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. the letters indicate as follows: A. 3. and one from battery. spark. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. open switch C.) The wiring diagram. by 12 in. wide. B.

Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells.diameter is 7 in. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. If desired for use immediately. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. of zinc sulphate. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. Use a glass or metal shade. This is for blowing.. from the bottom. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. of blue stone. but add 5 or 6 oz. London. Line the furnace. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. do not shortcircuit. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. Short-circuit for three hours. but with the circuit. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. . and the battery is ready for use. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. The circuit should also have a high resistance. 2 in. instead of close to it. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. says the Model Engineer. and then rivet the seam. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. That is what they are for.

changes white phosphorus to yellow." which created much merriment.9 of a volt. for others the opposite way. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. herein I describe a much better trick. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. oxygen to ozone. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. thus producing two different vibrations. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. 1. grip the stick firmly in one hand. porcelain and paper. the thumb and second finger changing places: e.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. If too low. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Ohio. long. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and then. imparting to them a violet tinge. This type of battery will give about 0. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. If any or your audience presume to dispute. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. At least it is amusing. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. while for others it will not revolve at all. below the bottom of the zinc. but the thing would not move at all. Outside of the scientific side involved. for some it will turn one way. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Enlarge the hole slightly. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. To operate the trick. square and about 9 in. or think they can do the same let them try it. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm.. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. the second finger along the side. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. affects . as in the other movement. Try it and see. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. and therein is the trick. 2. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. g.

and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. if possible.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. insects. but small flowers. however. an old tripod screw. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. chemicals. a means for holding it vertical. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. earth. To the front board is attached a box. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. but this is less satisfactory. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. and. and one of them is photomicrography. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. but not essential. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. says the Photographic Times. a short-focus lens. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern.

Madison.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 697 44 lb. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. Cap. or 31 ft. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. 7-1/2 in. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 7 ft.--Contributed by George C. 7-1/2 in. The following table will give the size. in Cu. 65 4 lb. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. while it is not so with the quill. 12 ft. 9 ft. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. Ft Lifting Power. 8 ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. in diameter. Boston. or 3 ft. Fig. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 6 ft. wide from which to cut a pattern. balloon. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. A line. 5 in. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 381 24 lb. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. which is 15 ft. 179 11 lb. long and 3 ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb. If the balloon is 10 ft. and a line. 268 17 lb. Mass. 5 ft. 1. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. 905 57 lb. CD. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 113 7 lb. AB. 11 ft.

2. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. cutting all four quarters at the same time. Procure 1 gal. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. and so on. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. on the curved line from B to C. The pattern is now cut. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. Repeat this operation four times.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. of beeswax and boil well together. This test will show if the bag is airtight. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. of the very best heavy body. The cloth segments are sewed together. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. 3. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. 70 thread. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. The amounts necessary for a 10- . keeping the marked part on the outside. 4. making a double seam as shown in Fig. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. using a fine needle and No. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times.

as shown in Fig.Green Iron ammonium citrate . pipe. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. Water 1 oz. B. . if it is good it will dry off. When the clock has dried. of gas in one hour. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. 5. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. with water 2 in. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. Vegetable oils should never be used. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. above the level of the water in barrel A. The 3/4-in. this should be repeated frequently. of sulphuric acid. but if any grease remains on the hand. of iron. C. with the iron borings. In the barrel. About 15 lb. . ft. with 3/4in. should not enter into the water over 8 in. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. After washing a part. A. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. a clean white rag. 150 gr. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. The outlet. to the bag. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. oil the spindle holes carefully. or dusting with a dry brush. using a fine brush. capacity and connect them.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. C. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. B. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. 1 lb. A. ]. balloon are 125 lb. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. Fill the other barrel. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. of water will make 4 cu. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. which may sound rather absurd. or a fan. until no more dirt is seen. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. 1 lb. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. B. by fixing. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. it is not fit to use. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. 5 . of iron borings and 125 lb. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. A. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes.. leaving the hand quite clean.ft. All FIG. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings.

or carbon. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. and keep in the dark until used. 20 to 30 minutes. to avoid blackened skin. Port Melbourne. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. fix in hypo. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. The positive pole. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. toning first if desired. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Dry the plates in the dark. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1.Water 1 oz. A cold. . of any make. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. or battery. A longer exposure will be necessary. keeping the fingers out of the solution. . Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Dry in the dark. or zinc.000 ft. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. at the time of employment. Exposure. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. Printing is done in the sun. This aerial collector can be made in . The negative pole. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. says the Moving Picture World. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. The miniature 16 cp. dry atmosphere will give best results. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in.. and a vigorous negative must be used.

part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. As the telephone offers a high resistance. This will complete the receiving station. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. lay a needle. holes . and as less current will flow the short way. both positive and negative. 5 in. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. in diameter. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. a positive and a negative. the resistance is less. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. and have the other connected with another aerial line. long. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end.various ways. as described below. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. forming a cup of the pipe. If the waves strike across the needle. will soon become dry and useless. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. If the wave ceases. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. lead pipe. when left exposed to the air. The storage cell. making a ground with one wire.

does not need to be watertight. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. a round one. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. or tube C. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. Two binding-posts should be attached. namely: a square hole. one to the positive.as possible. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. or tube B. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. an oblong one and a triangular one. This box can be square. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. B. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. says the Pathfinder. on each end. This support or block. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. The other plate is connected to the zinc. and the other to the negative. This. except for about 1 in. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. When mixing the acid and water. by soldering the joint. of course. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. D. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry.

as shown in Fig. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. and match them together. thick cut two pieces alike. 1. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. were fitted by this one plug. 1. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. Ill. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. all around the edge. about 20 in. Only galvanized nails should be used. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. and has plenty of good seating capacity. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. This punt. A and B. From a piece of brass 1/16 in.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. Chicago. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. 2. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. C. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. wide. long. 2. leaving about 1/16 in. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. as shown in Fig. back and under. deep and 4 ft. . between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. as it is not readily overturned. 3. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. C. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. is built 15 ft. The third piece of brass. in place on the wood. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. wide.

In Fig. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. A piece of 1/4-in. thick and 3-1/2 in. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] .-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. A. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. square (Fig 2). is cut 1 in. gas pipe. Wash. Tacoma. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. B. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water.

* * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. which the writer has made. if possible. no special materials could be obtained. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. it had to be borne in mind that. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. says the Model Engineer. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. Wagner. with the exception of insulated wire. may be of interest to some of our readers.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor." has no connection with the outside circuit. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . The winding of the armature. which can be developed in the usual manner.--Contributed by Charles H. In designing. no more current than a 16-cp. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. without auxiliary phase. and to consume. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. or "rotor. H. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. lamp.

It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. 4. bolts put in and tightened up. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third.the field-magnet. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. and filled with rivets. this little machine is not self-starting. 1. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. Holes 5-32 in. 5. no steel being obtainable. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. with the dotted line. as shown in Fig. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. After assembling a second time. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. 3. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. 2. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. to be filed out after they are placed together. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. The stator is wound full with No. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. wrought iron. Unfortunately. thick. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. in diameter were drilled in the corners. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. C. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. They are not particularly accurate as it is. B. holes. were then drilled and 1/4-in. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. while the beginnings . being used. as shown in Fig. or "stator. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. also varnished before they were put in. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. and all sparking is avoided. about 2-1/2 lb. A. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in.

McKinney. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. 1. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. and would not easily get out of order. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. 2. having no commutator or brushes. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. One is by contact. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. The lantern slide is a glass plate. a regulating resistance is not needed. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. and as each layer of wire was wound. it would be very simple to build. In making slides by contact. This type of motor has drawbacks. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. and as the motor runs at constant speed. The image should . N. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. and the other by reduction in the camera. Newark. J. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. and all wound in the same direction. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. E. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. Jr.. as a means of illustrating songs. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. if applied immediately. and especially of colored ones. If too late for alcohol to be of use. film to film. The rotor is wound with No. 3-Contributed by C. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. as before stated. No starting resistance is needed.

as shown in Fig. C. 5. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. It is best. the formulas being found in each package of plates. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. to use a plain fixing bath. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. they are much used by travelers. 2. and then a plain glass. 3. except that the binding is different. as shown in Fig. over the mat. Select a room with one window. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. Fig.appear in. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. and development should be over in three or four minutes. 4. 1. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. These can be purchased from any photo material store. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. Draw lines with a pencil. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. B. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. D. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. Being unbreakable. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. about a minute. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. If the exposure has been correct. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. a little extra work will be necessary. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. if possible. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. A. also. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate.

known as rods and cones. from the center of this dot draw a star. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. as shown in Fig. Fig. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. 1. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. long. is to be used for the seat. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. in diameter and 20 in. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. 1. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. A piece of canvas. long. wide and 50 in. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. 2. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. Fig. Hastings. from the ends. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. or other stout cloth. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . 16 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. Vt. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. as shown at A. These longer pieces can be made square. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. holes bored in the end pieces. in diameter and 40 in. Corinth. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. while the dot will be in front of the other. long. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. If the star is in front of the left eye. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. as shown at B. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. from the end piece of the chair.

in thickness and 10 in. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion.-Contributed by P. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. A belt. O'Gara. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. 1. J. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. per square inch. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. as well as to operate other household machines. Cal. . Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. made from an ordinary sash cord. 2. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. as shown in Fig. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. A disk 1 in. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. Auburn. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. as shown in Fig.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing.

A simple. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. it serves a very useful purpose. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. says the Scientific American. Cut out a piece from the block combination. with as fine a thread as possible. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. direction. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. to the top of the bench. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. long. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. Put the bolt in the hole. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. The part of a rotation of the bolt. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. . carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. 3/4 in. leaving it shaped like a bench. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. Bore a 1/4-in. thick and 2-1/2 in. will be the thickness of the object. then removing the object. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. and the construction is complete. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. fairly accurate. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. or inconvenient to measure. square for a support. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. divided by the number of threads to the inch. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. wide. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. screwing it through the nut.

Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Place a 3/4-in. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. beyond the end of the wood. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. which show up fine at night. piece of wood 12 ft. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. long. Oal. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. globe that has been thrown away as useless. Bore a 3/4-in. long is used for the center pole. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. material 12 ft. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. bolt in each hole. Santa Maria. The wheel should be open . Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water.

A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. pieces used for the spokes. A. of the ends with boards. The boards may be nailed or bolted. and the lower part 61/2 in. thick. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. The coil. C. at the bottom. wide and 1/8 in. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. to be operated by the magnet coil. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. made of the same material. Fort Worth. and on its lower end a socket. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. The spool . A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. long. from the top end. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted.Side and Top View or have spokes. thick. L. H and J. long. is soldered. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. long. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. in diameter. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. B. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. Tex. A cross bar. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. O. P. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. 1/2 in.-Contributed by A. from the ends. C. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. A piece of brass 2 in. square and 3 or 4 in. Graham. long. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. thick is used for the armature. at the top and 4 in. which should be 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in.

a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. which may be had by using German silver wire.--A. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. D and E. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. A. S. When you slide the pencil along the casing. 1. making a hole just a little larger than the rod.000 for irrigation work. one without either rubber or metal end. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it.is about 2-1/2 in. B. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. At the bottom end of the frame. and place it against a door or window casing. The armature. do it without any apparent effort. 2 the hat hanging on it. F. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. Mass. for insulating the brass ferrule. This tie can be used on grain sacks. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. . S.J. A soft piece of iron. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S.E. Randolph. Bradlev. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. then with a firm. C.000. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. or a water rheostat heretofore described. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. and directly centering the holes H and J. and in numerous other like instances. by soldering. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. 2. that holds the lower carbon. R. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. is drilled. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. long. This is a very neat trick if performed right. --Contributed by Arthur D.

in diameter and 1/16 in. The coil ends are made from cardboard. About 70 turns of No. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. long and 1 in. S. wide. for adjustment.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. 2. about 1 in. for the primary. in diameter and 2 in. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. Fig. hole in the center. 1. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. thick. leaving the projections as shown. D. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. The core of the coil. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. The switch. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. S. 1. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. in diameter. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. mixed with water to form a paste. long. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. Experiment with Heat [134] . 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. The vibrator.500 turns of No. is connected to a flash lamp battery. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. about 3/16 in. B. and then 1. F. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. Fig. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. for the secondary. C. A. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. with a 3/16-in. from the core and directly opposite. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. about 1/8 in. The vibrator B. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. in diameter. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. may be made from a 3/8-in. is constructed in the usual manner. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in.

While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. The lock. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. 2 to fit the two holes. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. 1. 16 in. wide. The tin is 4 in. long and when placed over the board. which seemed to be insufficient. as shown in the sketch. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. which is cut with two holes. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. between the boards. as shown. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. 1. in an ordinary water glass. with which to operate the dial. lighted. it laps down about 8 in. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. thick on the inside. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate.Place a small piece of paper. and the same distance inside of the new board. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. was to be secured by only three brass screws. Fig. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. The three screws were then put in the hasp. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. and then well clinched. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. . The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. The hasp. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. brass plate. which is only 3/8-in. The knob on the dial extends out too far. board. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig.

If the box is made large enough. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . any article placed therein will be reflected in. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. which completely divides the box into two parts. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. clear glass as shown. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. one in each division. square and 8-1/2 in. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. When the rear part is illuminated. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. and the back left dark. square and 10-1/2 in. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. When making of wood. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. high for use in window displays. or in the larger size mentioned. but when the front part is illuminated. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. the glass. black color. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. not shiny. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box.

. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. a tank 2 ft. When using as a window display. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. alternately. into the other. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. long and 1 ft. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. as shown at A in the sketch.. When there is no electric current available. above the top of the tank. as shown in the sketch. and with the proper illumination one is changed. as it appears. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. wide will be about the right size.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. and 6 ft. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. and boring two holes with a 1-in. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. long. each. 1 in. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. is built on the front. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. or ferrous sulphate. using a 3/4-in. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. from the ground. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. bore from each end. one for each side. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. however. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. Columbus. and a solution of iron sulphate added. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. but with a length of 12 in. The 13-in. hole bored the full length through the center. 2 ft. bit. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. wide. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. lines gauged on each side of each. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. with a length of 13 in. hole. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. high.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. under sides together. If a planing mill is near. long. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. radius. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. is the green vitriol. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. wide. two pieces 1-1/8 in. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. Iron sulphate. A small platform. thick and 3 in. 5 ft. square. gauge for depth. and a door in front. dried and mixed with linseed oil. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. This hole must be continued . as shown. Three windows are provided. 6 in. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. square and 40 in. O. The pieces can then be taken out. This precipitate is then washed. then use a red-hot iron to finish. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. Shape the under sides first. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in.

No lap is needed when joints are soldered. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. A better way. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. square and drawing a diagonal on each. hole in each block. Electric globes--two. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. If the parts are to be riveted. For art-glass the metal panels are ." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. apply two coats of wax.through the pieces forming the base. Directions will be found on the filler cans. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. three or four may be attached as shown. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. if shade is purchased. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. Saw the two blocks apart. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. The sketch shows one method of attaching. thick and 3 in. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. When the filler has hardened. When this is dry. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade.

as brass. METAL SHADE .The Completed Lamp cut out.Construction of Shade . such as copper. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.

The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. The arms holding the glass. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. Figure 1 shows the side. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . as shown in the sketch. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. 2 the front view of this stand. and Fig. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. one way and 1/2 in.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. the other. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. the object and the background. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. as in ordinary devices.

They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. wide and 11 in. Put the ring in place on the base. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. thick 5/8-in. channel in the circumference of the ring. about 1-1/4 in. uncork and recork again. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Cut another circular piece 11 in. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. thus forming a 1/4-in. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. An ordinary pocket compass. Before mounting the ring on the base. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. as it is very poisonous. as shown in the cut. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. in diameter. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. and an inside diameter of 9 in. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. and swinging freely. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. wide and 6-5/16 in. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. pointing north and south. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. in diameter for a base. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. outside diameter. long. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. as shown in the sketch. If the light becomes dim. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in.

289 . Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. and north of the Ohio river.500 . but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. from the second to the third. The results given should be multiplied by 1. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi.715 . in diameter and 8 in.088 . above the half can. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere.600 . from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. Corresponding mirrors. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.865 1. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. of the top. CC. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. B. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.182 . into these cylinders. EE.420 . 1 oz. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. Place on top the so- .cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. are mounted on a base. and mirrors. AA. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. black oxide of copper. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .

alcohol. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. 62 gr. 31 gr. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Colo. then they will not rust fast. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. always remove the oil with a siphon. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. little crystals forming in the liquid. University Park. When renewing. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . In Fig. which otherwise remains clear. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. slender bottle. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. the wheel will revolve in one direction. of pulverized campor. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. Put the solution in a long. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. says Metal Worker. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat.

If two of them are floating on the same solution. will allow the magnet to point north and south. This is used in place of the spoon. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. on the under side of the cork. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. A paper-fastener box. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. If zinc and copper are used. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. Solder in the side of the box . floating on a solution. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. about 1-1/4 in. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. Lloyd Enos. If zinc and carbon are used. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. --Contributed by C. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. Attach to the wires. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument.

This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. A circular piece of cardboard. Thos. The spring should be about 1 in. can be made of oak. hole. wide and 6 in. E. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. and then solder on the cover. C. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. Wind evenly about 2 oz. 1/2. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. long. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. thick. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. is made from a piece of No. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron.in. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. as shown in Fig.1-in. and on the other around the glass tube. 14 wire will do. one on each side of the board. C.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. D.not shorter than 18 in. of wire on each end extending from the coil. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. E. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. If the hose is not a tight fit. Put ends. piece of 1/4-in. Take a small piece of soft iron. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. The base. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it.Contributed by J. 1-1/4 in. 1. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. brass tubing. of No. D. Bore holes for binding-posts. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. C. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. The standard. long. B. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. D. H. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. 10 wire about 10 in. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. or made with a little black paint. long that has about 1/4-in. stained and varnished. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. away. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . Rhamstine. wide and 2-1/2 in. A. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. glass tubing . Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. G--No. to it. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. A. 3 in. . The bottom of the box.in. To this standard solder the supporting wire. B. Use a board 1/2. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. F.

At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter.of the coil.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. 5. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. 3. J.--Contributed by R. of 8-oz. Milwaukee. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. as shown in Fig. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. four hinges. When the glass becomes soft. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. of mercury will be sufficient. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. About 1-1/2 lb. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. making a support as shown in Fig. Cuba. Y. Wis. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. . 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in.--Contributed by Edward M. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. canvas. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. Smith. two pieces 2 ft. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. The iron plunger. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. N. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. in diameter. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. of No. 2. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. 3-in. E. from the right hand. Teasdale. long. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. long are used for the legs. long. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. long. long. long. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. is drawn nearer to the coil. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. D. about 1 in. 3 in. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. 1. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd.

long. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. --Contributed by David A. 5. expelling all the air. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. This tube as described will be 8 in. Take 1/2 in. 6. leaving 8 in. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. Can. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. 3. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. thus leaving a. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. Keys. Toronto. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube.. holding in the left hand. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. Measure 8 in. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. small aperture in the long tube. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg.. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. Break off the piece of glass. Break this thread off about 1/8 in.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. Fig. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. 2. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. The tube now must be filled completely. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. 4. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. of vacuum at the top. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube.

2. thick. 4. 1. 3 in. joint be accurately put together. Fig. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in.6 -. but yellow pine is the best. long. 3 in. 6. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. long. This forms a slot. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. The large pulley is about 14 in. material 2 in. wood screws. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. as shown in Fig. 3. thick. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. cut in the shape shown in Fig.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. Four blocks 1/4 in. with each projection 3-in. from the end of same. 1 in. These are bent and nailed. 7. thick.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. wide and 5 ft. in diameter. FIG. as in Fig. wide and 12 in. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. thick. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. and 1/4 in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. wide and 5 ft. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. thick. wide and 3 in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. 4 in. 5. as shown in Fig. 1 in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. 9 in. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. long. and the single projection 3/4 in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. wide and 5 ft. long.

The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. R.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. --Contributed by C. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Kan. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. attach runners and use it on the ice. above the runner level. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. . leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. by 1-in. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. first removing the crank. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Manhattan. Water 1 oz. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. says Photography. Welsh. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string.

The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 3. and very much cheaper. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. This is done with a camel's hair brush. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. 1 oz. 1. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. from an ordinary clamp skate. --Contributed by Edward M. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. Mass. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. . Printing is carried rather far. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. Newton. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. also. Leominster. The print is washed. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. Treasdale. of water.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. --Contributed by Wallace C. 2.

Take two glass tubes. say. and 3 ft. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. Alexandria. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. The thread is broken off at the . long. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. A. hole. which represents the back side of the door. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. Then. The swing door B. high for rabbits. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. Church. 2. square piece. and bend them as shown in the sketch. and to the bottom. 1-1/2 ft. causing the door to swing back and up. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. as shown in the sketch. about 10 in. wide and 4 in. 1.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. high. with about 1/8-in. Place a 10-in. --Contributed by H. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. too. Fig. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. wide. from one end. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. Fig. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. extending the width of the box. F. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. 1 ft. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. Va. fasten a 2-in. 1.

The front part of the box may be draped with curtains.proper place to make a small hole. C. says Camera Craft.by 7-in. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. long. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. say 8 in. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. 3. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. Jr. Take two pieces of pasteboard. . in size. 1. black surfaced if possible. wide. 1 in. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. as shown in Fig. -Contributed by William M. but cut it 1/4 in. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. and exactly 5 by 7 in. inside of the opening. Out two rectangular holes. Paste a piece of strong black paper. from the edge on each side of these openings.. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. Fig. D. This opening. wide. shorter. 2. Fig. in size. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. and go in the holder in the same way. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. Crilly. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. trolley cars. Cut an opening in the other piece. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. high and 12 in. to be used as a driving pulley. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. 10 in. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. wide and 5 in. horses and dogs. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. automobiles. A and B. B. shorter at each end. being 1/8 in. Chicago.by 5-in. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. plates. camera and wish to use some 4. long. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in.

if it has previously been magnetized. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. long and 6 in. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. in diameter." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. A cell of this kind can easily be made. into which the dog is harnessed. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water.. wide will be required. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. The needle will then point north and south. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. making a . This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill.in.

Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. 3/4 lb. fuel and packing purposes. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. plaster of paris. one that will hold about 1 qt. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. long which are copper plated. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. short time.in. for a connection. with narrow flanges. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. fodder. under the spool in the paraffin. when the paraffin is melted. B is a base of 1 in. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. only the joints. beeswax melted together. Place the pan on the stove. pine. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt.watertight receptacle. This makes the wire smooth. 1/4 lb. File the rods to remove the copper plate. filter. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. of the plate at one end. 1 lb. sal ammoniac. pull out the wire as needed. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. of water. . Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. leaving about 1/2-in. F is a spool. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. Do not paint any surface. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. Form a 1/2-in. A is a block of l-in. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. of the top. in which P is the pan. of rosin and 2 oz. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. says Electrician and Mechanic. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. Pack the paste in. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. zinc oxide. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. in diameter and 6 in. and a notch between the base and the pan.

no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Try it and see. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. If any of your audience presume to dispute. and one friend tells me that they were . You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. let them try it. for some it will turn one way. g. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. but the thing would not move at all. grip the stick firmly in one hand. while for others it will not revolve at all. Enlarge the hole slightly. Ohio. square and about 9 in. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified." which created much merriment. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. Toledo. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. for others the opposite way. and therein is the trick. 2. long. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. and he finally. At least it is amusing. and then. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. thus producing two different vibrations. as in the other movement. or think they can do the same. by the Hindoos in India. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig.. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. from vexation. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. the thumb and second finger changing places: e.

so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. 7. 4. by means of a center punch. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. The experiments were as follows: 1. To operate. 6. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. and. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and.100 r. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. and I think the results may be of interest. gave the best results. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. p. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. If the pressure was upon an edge. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. m. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. 2. the rotation may be obtained. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. A square stick with notches on edge is best. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. no rotation resulted. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. 3. Thus a circular or . The depth of the notches was also unimportant. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. secondly. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. rotation was obtained. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. Speeds between 700 and 1. 5.

D. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. and the height of the fall about 6 in. C. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. Duluth. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action... Lloyd. unwetted by the liquid. --Contributed by G. Washington. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. and the resultant "basket splash. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. Minn. at first. A.D.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. --Contributed by M. is driven violently away. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. if the pressure is from the left." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. Ph. A wire is tied around the can. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. so far as can be seen from the photographs. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. forming a handle for carrying. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. as shown. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. a piece of wire and a candle. . Sloan. or greasy. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. the upper portion is. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. G. it will be clockwise. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. thick and 1 in. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. 1. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. as shown. axle. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. Each wheel is 1/4 in. hole drilled in the center. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. in diameter. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. long. with a 1/16-in. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. flange and a 1/4-in. about 2-5/8 in.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. as shown in Fig.

Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. The parts. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. These ends are fastened together. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. wide and 16 in. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. 5. San Antonio. 1 from 1/4-in. Fig. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. put together complete. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. which must be 110 volt alternating current. each in its proper place. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. of No. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles.50. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. The motor is now bolted. and the locomotive is ready for running. --Contributed by Maurice E. 2. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. The current. wood. 2. are shown in Fig. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. A trolley. with cardboard 3 in. 3. or main part of the frame. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. 6. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. long. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. bent as shown. If the ends are to be soldered.brass. is made from a piece of clock spring. Fuller. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. The first piece. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. This will save buying a track. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. 4. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. is made from brass. as shown in Fig. Texas. 3. Fig. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. lamp in series with the coil. holes 1 in. bottom side up.

3. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Cincinnati. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. as shown in Fig. but do not heat the center. The quarter will not go all the way down. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. and as this end . 2. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. then continue to tighten much more. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. the length of a paper clip. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Fig. O. Fig 1. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. 1. and holes drilled in them. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts.

All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. In the sketch. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. When the cutter A. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. A pair of centers are fitted. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. or should the lathe head be raised. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. has finished a cut for a tooth.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. 2 and 1 respectively. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. When the trick is to be performed. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. and adjusted . or apparent security of the knot. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel.

(2. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). tea cosey. Y. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. In this manner gears 3 in. --Contributed by Howard S. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. Brooklyn. such as brass or marble. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. (4. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. An ordinary machine will do. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. The frame holding the mandrel. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. lady's card case.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. if but two parts. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. at the same time striking light. coin purse. Bunker. and a nut pick.) Make on paper the design wanted. twisted around itself and soldered. if four parts are to be alike. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. note book. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. book mark. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. holding it in place with the left hand. about 1-1/2 in. (5. (6. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. draw center lines across the required space.) Place the paper design on the leather and. Fold over along these center lines. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. blotter back. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. above the surface. --Contributed by Samuel C. dividing it into as many parts as desired. trace the outline.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. watch fob ready for fastenings.to run true. gentleman's card case or bill book. lady's belt bag. Second row: -Two book marks.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. 2. (1. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. 1. long. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). N. or one-half of the design. Fig. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. swing lathe. (3. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. Bott. When connecting to batteries. tea cosey.

How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. some heavy rubber hose. Secure . and an ordinary bottle.

The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. The electrodes are made . Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. and bore a hole through the center.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. and push it through a cork. B.C. where it condenses. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. a distance of 900 miles. D. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals.. C. Thrust a pin. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. If the needle is not horizontal. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. A. Florida. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. from Key West. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. into which fit a small piece of tube.

or flying-machine. long for the body of the operator. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. long. To make a glide. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. and also to keep it steady in its flight. 2. free from knots. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. 1-1/2 in. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. 2 in. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. thick. 1-1/4 in.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. apart and extend 1 ft.in. as shown in Fig. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. D. by 3/4 in. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. take the glider to the top of a hill. thick. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. both laterally and longitudinally. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. The operator can then land safely and . 2 arm sticks 1 in. Four long beams 3/4 in. wide and 3 ft. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. long. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. 1. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. slacken speed and settle. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. several strips 1/2 in. Connect as shown in the illustration. long. 3. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. thick. wide and 4 ft. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. 3/4 in. All wiring is done with No. using a high resistance receiver. If 20-ft. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. lengths and splice them. Powell. wide and 3 ft. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. wide and 4 ft. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. square and 8 ft long. wide and 20 ft. 16 piano wire. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. thick. lumber cannot be procured. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. wide and 4 ft long. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. which is tacked to the front edge. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Edwin L. long. 12 uprights 1/2 in. long. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. 1. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. C. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. 1. as shown in Fig. 2. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. thick. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. Washington. 1/2. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. use 10-ft.

gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Of course. but this must be found by experience. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Great care should be . Glides are always made against the wind. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour.gently on his feet.

Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.exercised in making landings. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. M. When heated a little. --Contributed by L. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. Olson. 2. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. 1. a creature of Greek mythology. half man and half horse. Bellingham. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . which causes the dip in the line.

To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. a piece of brass or steel wire. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. about the size of stove pipe wire. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. 14 in. will complete the material list. at the other. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. about the size of door screen wire. square. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. making it 2-1/2 in. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. outside the box. of small rubber tubing. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. in diameter. this will cost about 15 cents. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. long. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. long and about 3/8 in. The light from the . soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen.

This is very simple when you know how. Dayton. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. as shown in Fig. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. while others will fail time after time. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. If done properly the card will flyaway. as shown in Fig. M. as shown in the sketch. . --Photo by M. leaving the penny poised on the finger end.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. 1. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. O. Hunting. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. 2. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end.

it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. This game is played by five persons. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. hold the lump over the flame. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. When the desired shape has been obtained. as described. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. Cool in water and dry. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. as shown. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. one between the thumb and finger of each hand." or the Chinese students' favorite game. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. then put it on the hatpin head. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. place the other two. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. as before. closing both hands quickly. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . If a certain color is to be more prominent. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again.

Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. or more in width. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. passing through neutralizing brushes. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. these sectors. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. distribute electric charges .

GG. 1-1/2 in. 1. D. and pins inserted and soldered. the side pieces being 24 in. free from wrinkles. long and the shank 4 in. The drive wheels. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. long. in diameter. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. wide at one end. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. are made from solid. 3. to which insulating handles . close grained wood turned in the shape shown. in diameter and 15 in. from about 1/4-in. The two pieces. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. in diameter. and 4 in. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. 3/4 in. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. in diameter. as shown in Fig. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. RR. The plates. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. turned wood pieces. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. These pins. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. brass tubing and the discharging rods. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. in diameter. 2. as shown in Fig. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. and this should be done before cutting the circle. and the outer end 11/2 in. 1 in. Two solid glass rods. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. in diameter. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. wide. The fork part is 6 in. EE. in diameter. material 7 in. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. The plates are trued up. The collectors are made. or teeth. Two pieces of 1-in. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. after they are mounted. Fig. are made from 7/8-in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. long and the standards 3 in. and of a uniform thickness. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. 4. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. Fig. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. at the other. 3. C C. long.

wide and 22 ft. in diameter. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. ball and the other one 3/4 in. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. Colo. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. Colorado City. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Lloyd Enos. D. which are bent as shown. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. one having a 2-in. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft.are attached. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water.. 12 ft. KK. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. and the work was done by themselves. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. --Contributed by C. long. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete.

string together.is a good one. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. and bore a hole 1/2 in. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. bit. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. yet such a thing can be done. The key will drop from the string. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. They can be used to keep pins and needles. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. as at A. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. pens . deep. using a 1-in. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork.

With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. also trace the decorative design. When the stamping is completed. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. Raise the ends. 9. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. etc. 23 gauge. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. This is to make a clean. 4. 6. then the other side. above the metal.and pencils. 8. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. using a nail filed to chisel edge. etc. sharp division between background and design. very rapid progress can be made. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. flat and round-nosed pliers. 7. Draw one-half the design free hand. and the third one 1/4 in. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. above the work and striking it with the hammer. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. Use . The second oblong was 3/4 in. Inside this oblong. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. stamp the background promiscuously. unless it would be the metal shears. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house.. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. or cigar ashes. slim screw. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. they make attractive little pieces to have about. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. Having determined the size of the tray. They are easily made. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. 2. inside the first on all. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. extra metal on each of the four sides. about 3/4-in. 3. inside the second on all. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch.. 5. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. two spikes. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Proceed as follows: 1. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. file.

"8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. 7. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. The eyes. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. 10. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. and fourth fingers. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. 9. second fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. first fingers. In the first numbering. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. 6. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. third fingers. 8. and the effect will be most pleasing.

then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. thumbs. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. which would be 70. In the second numbering. etc. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. the product of 12 times 12. as high as you want to go.. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. etc. if we wish. or numbers above 10. or 80. 11. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. which would be 16. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144.. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. above 20 times 20. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. but being simple it saves time and trouble. Still. At a glance you see four tens or 40. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. or 60. or the product of 8 times 9. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. 2 times 2 equals 4. 25 times 25.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. which tens are added. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. viz. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. there are no fingers above. . 400. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. renumber your fingers. 600. or the product of 6 times 6. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. Put your thumbs together. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. above 15 times 15 it is 200. 12. first fingers. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. etc. Let us multiply 12 by 12. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. and the six lower fingers as six tens.. Two times one are two. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70.

It takes place also. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. the value of the upper fingers being 20. about a vertical axis.. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. the value which the upper fingers have.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. whether the one described in second or third numbering. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. The inversion and reversion did not take place. in the case of a nearsighted person. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. 3. thumbs. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. 8. being 80). adding 400 instead of 100. 75 and 85. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. And the lump sum to add. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. For figures ending in 6. thirties. any two figures between 45 and 55. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. the revolution seems to reverse. and so on. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. Take For example 18 times 18. 2. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. twenties. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. Proceed as in the second lumbering. when he removes his spectacles. . but was compulsory and followed regular rules. etc. the lump sum to add. further. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. however. not rotation. first fingers 22. For example. forties. 7. first finger 17. or what. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. at the will of the observer. lastly. beginning the thumbs with 16. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. the inversion takes place against his will. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. 21. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. or from above or from below. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. and. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. which is the half-way point between the two fives. as one might suppose. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side.

holding it firmly in a horizontal position. The ports were not easy to make. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. tee. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. A flat slide valve was used. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. the other appearance asserts itself. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. when he knows which direction is right. sometimes the point towards him.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. Looking at it in semidarkness. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. and putting a cork on the point. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. as . It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat.

The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. Kutscher. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. The steam chest is round. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. across and 1/2 in. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. While this engine does not give much power.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. in diameter. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. if continued too long without proper treatment. across the head. H. about 2 in. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. Fasten the block solidly. inexpensive. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. apart. such as is shown in the illustration. The eccentric is constructed of washers. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. Ill.. Springfield. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. and make in one end a hollow. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. secure a piece of No. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. -Contributed by W. deep. pipe 10 in. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. saw off a section of a broom handle. Next take a block of wood. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. If nothing better is at hand. . Beating copper tends to harden it and. it is easily built. as in a vise. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. pipe. The tools are simple and can be made easily. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. bottom side up.

and. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. This process is called annealing. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. S. To produce color effects on copper. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. Camden. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. To overcome this hardness.will cause the metal to break. O. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. C. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. Hay. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. especially when the object is near to the observer. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. --Contributed by W. the other to the left. Vinegar. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. as it softens the metal.

and without any picture. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. . In order to make them appear before the card. It is just as though they were not there. they must be a very trifle apart. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. while both eyes together see a white background. only the orange rays may pass through. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. it. So with the stereograph. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. and lies to the right on the picture. in the proper choice of colors. with the stereograph. because of the rays coming from them. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. although they pass through the screen. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. because. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. would serve the same purpose. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. however. diameter. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. from the stereograph. not two mounted side by side. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. that for the right. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. the left eye sees through a blue screen. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. as for instance red and green. the further from the card will the composite image appear. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. the one for the left eye being blue. orange.stereoscope. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. The red portions of the picture are not seen. disappears fully. But they seem black. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. The further apart the pictures are.

A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. in diameter. thick. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. The weight of the air in round . How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. wireless. or the middle of the bottle. Place a NO. A No. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. in the shape of a crank. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. Cal. 12 gauge wire. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. 1/4 in.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. San Francisco. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. long and a hole drilled in each end. etc. This should only be bored about half way through the block. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. wide and 1 in. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke.

or a column of mercury (density 13. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. will calibrate itself. long. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. 34 ft. wide and 4 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. thick. a bottle 1 in. square. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. long. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. a glass tube 1/8 in. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. and a slow fall. high. but before attempting to put in the mercury. Before fastening the scale. The 4 in. if you choose. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. internal diameter and about 34 in. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. if accurately constructed. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. or. square. Only redistilled mercury should be used. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury.numbers is 15 lb. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. long. 30 in. high. wide and 40 in. In general. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. are marked off and divided into sixteenths.. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. the contrary. . the instrument. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. When the tube is filled to within 1 in.6) 1 in. high. pine 3 in. But if a standard barometer is not available. inside diameter and 2 in. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather.

A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. a cover from a baking powder can will do. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. 5. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Number the pieces 1. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. thick. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . wide and 10 in. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. 6 and 7. 1. the size of the outside of the bottle. which is slipped quickly over the end. 3. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. and place them as shown in Fig.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. long. 2. Procure a metal can cover. Mark out seven 1-in. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support.

as shown in Fig. Move 2-Jump No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Move 12-Jump No. N. 7 over No. 3. in diameter. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. procure unbleached tent duck. Move 4-Jump No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. Move 7-Jump No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces.-Contributed by W. l over No. This can be done on a checker board. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 2 over No. which is the very best material for the purpose. Move 5-Jump No. 6 to No. 2. 6 in. each 10 ft. 7. Woolson. 5. 7's place. 3 to the center. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. Move 6-Move No. Make 22 sections. 6 into No. 3. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. Move 9-Jump No. Move 10-Move No.J. 2. 5 over No. 5's place. 1 to No. 2's place. using checkers for men. Move 3-Move No. 1 into No. L. 1. Move 13-Move No. long and 2 ft. 5's place. 2 . Move 14-Jump No. 2's place. 3. 5 over No. shaped like Fig. Move 15-Move No. Move ll-Jump No. 2 over No. 3 over No. Move 8-Jump No. 6. To make such a tent. 6. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. Cape May Point. 1. 6 over No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 7 over No. 3 into No.

with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised.J. 3 in. Tress. Have the tent pole 3 in. Use blocks. as in Fig. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Fig. wide by 12 in. Fig. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Emsworth. 6. As shown in the sketch. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. fill with canvas edging. will do. 2. long and 4 in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip.in. wide at the bottom. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. to a smooth board of soft wood. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. round galvanized iron. high. about 9 in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. made in two sections. leaving the rest for an opening. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. added. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. 6-in. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. 5. Pa. These are ventilators. in diameter. --Contributed by G. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground.. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. After transferring the design to the brass. wide at the bottom. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. 5) stuck in the ground. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. In raising the tent. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Punch holes in the brass in . 9 by 12 in. long. diameter. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. from the top. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. 2 in.

excepting the 1/4-in.the spaces around the outlined figures. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. apart. but before punching the holes. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. It will not. When the edges are brought together by bending. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. cut out the brass on the outside lines. . I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. When all the holes are punched. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. The pattern is traced as before. bend into shape. around the outside of the pattern. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. Corr. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. Chicago. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes.

A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. --Contributed by Geo. between which is placed the fruit jar. A cast-iron ring. better still. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. --Contributed by H. pipe. If a wheel is selected. or center on which the frame swings. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. G. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. E. Dunham. or. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Badger. Que. Stevens. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. or less. A 6-in. These pipes are . The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. Sometimes the cream will accumulate.however. partially filled with cream. Mayger. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. Oregon.. allowing 2 ft. pipe is used for the hub. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in.

The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. An extra wheel 18 in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. pipe. bent to the desired circle. Four braces made from 1/2-in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe clamps. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange.

while doing this. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . as shown in Fig. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. 3. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. 1. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. and the guide withdrawn. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. The performer. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. and dropped on the table. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. which was placed in an upright position. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover.

Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. in diameter on another piece of tin. The box can be made of selected oak or . -Contributed by C. in a half circle. and second. first. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. Mo. it requires no expensive condensing lens. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. Colo. St. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. --Contributed by H. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. 1. Denver. 2. D. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Harkins. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. F. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Louis.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. White.

2. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. This will be 3/4 in. focal length. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. and 2 in. long. represented by the dotted line in Fig. long. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. An open space 4 in.mahogany. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. 5-1/2 in. wide. but not tight. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. Two or three holes about 1 in. from each end. wide and 6-1/2 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. as shown in Fig. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. long and should be placed vertically. The door covering this hole in the back. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. AA. wide and 6-1/2 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. wide by 5 in. and. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. wide and 5 in. high and 11 in. fit into the runners. 1. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. high and must . Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. 3-1/2 in. If a camera lens is used. from each end of the outside of the box.

and extending the whole height of the lantern. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. West Toledo. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. calling that knuckle January. April. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand.. 1. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month." etc. calling this February. provided it is airtight. then the second knuckle will be March. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. as it requires an airtight case. Bradley. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. the article may be propped up . Ohio. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. June and November. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. --Contributed by Chas. This process is rather a difficult one. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. C. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. and so on.

and the direct current is taken from the point indicated.with small sticks. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. the lid or cover closed. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. running small motors and lighting small lamps. Y. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. fruit jars are required. 1. giving it an occasional stir. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. In both Fig. H. . but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. taking care to have all the edges closed. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. one of lead and one of aluminum. and the lead 24 sq. and set aside for half a day. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. N. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. --Contributed by J. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. or suspended by a string. 2. in. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. The top of a table will do. Crawford. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. In each place two electrodes. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. Schenectady. 1 and 2. in. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. Pour in a little turpentine. but waxed. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown.

bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. After a few seconds' time. as well as others. which you warm with your hands. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. Cleveland. he throws the other. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces.. This trick is very simple. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. O. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. He. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. You have an understanding with some one in the company. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. you remove the glass. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. as you have held it all the time. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass.

How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. if any snags are encountered. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. in diameter in the center. but by being careful at shores. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents.take the handiest one. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. Colo. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot.-Contributed by E. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Pull the ends quickly. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. . Be sure that this is the right one. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. put it under the glass. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. on a table. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. near a partition or curtain. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Crocker. Victor. J. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. but in making one.

Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. long. wide. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. and. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. selected pine. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 11 yd. apart. 1 piece. 2 gunwales. by 16 ft. from the bow and the large one. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 1. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. of 1-1/2-yd. Paint.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. square by 16 ft. 1/8 in. 2 and braced with an iron band. 1 in. clear pine. of 1-yd. 9 ft. 7 ft. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. at the ends. and fastened with screws. ducking. for the bow. screws and cleats. 1 mast. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 4 outwales. 1 in. 2 in. 3 and 4. 50 ft. thick and 3/4 in. wide 12-oz. long. for the stern piece. wide and 12 ft. Fig. 3 in. the smaller is placed 3 ft. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. by 10 ft. by 2 in. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. 1/4 in.. 1 piece. one 6 in. and is removed after the ribs are in place. wide and 12 ft. from the stern. 8 in. by 16 ft. for center deck braces. by 8 in. long. by 2 in. are as follows: 1 keelson.. by 15 ft. of rope. 14 rib bands. wide unbleached muslin. drilled and fastened with screws. for cockpit frame. 1 in. by 12 in. and the other 12 in. The keelson. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. is 14 ft. long. from each end to 1 in. 8 yd. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. 1 in. Both ends are mortised. 3 in. as illustrated in the engraving.

There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. doubled. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. A piece of oak. wide. long. 5. Before making the deck. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. thick and 12 in. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. The 11-yd. 9. long. is cut to fit under the top boards. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. 4 in. Fig. They are 1 in. Figs. in diameter through the block. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. 6 in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. The deck is not so hard to do. 6 and 7. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. thick 1-1/2 in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. wide and 14 in. 1/4 in. apart. screws. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. . but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. A seam should be made along the center piece. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. wide and 3 ft. 3-1/2 ft. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. The block is fastened to the keelson. thick. gunwales and keelson. A 6-in. 6. and fastened to them with bolts. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. corner braces. is a cube having sides 6 in. long. 1 in. Braces. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. a piece 1/4 in. These are put in 6 in. wide. thick. length of canvas is cut in the center. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. wide and 24 in. from the bow. This block. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. Fig. 7 and 8. A block of pine.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. thick and 1/2 in. wood screws. 1 in. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. The trimming is wood. also. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. long is well soaked in water.

long. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. thick by 2 in. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. --Contributed by O. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. wide. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. 11. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. are used for the boom and gaff. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The keel. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. . Fig. Tronnes. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. each 1 in. in diameter and 10 ft. The mast has two side and one front stay. The house will accommodate 20 families. 12. is 6 in. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. wide at one end and 12 in. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. The sail is a triangle. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. A strip 1 in. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. Wilmette. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. long. E. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. Ill. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. 10 with a movable handle. at the other. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. apart in the muslin.

2 in. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. Take this and fold it over . long and five 1/2-in. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. with the ends and the other side rounding. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. 1 yd. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. long. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. five 1/2-in. wide and 30 in. 2-1/2 in. wide and 2 ft. one 11-1/2 in. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. wide. about 5/16 in. 5. long. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. Bevel both sides of the pieces.into two 14-in. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. as shown in Fig. E. thick. and the other 18 in. flat headed screws. flat-headed screws. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. square. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. wide. thick. and 3 ft. Tronnes. flat on one side. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. Cut the maple. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. --Contributed by O. 3. Ill. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. 2-1/2 in. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. 4. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. thick. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. long. Wilmette.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. 1. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. 2. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. Fig.

are rounded. St. is set. 3 in. Another piece. and the four outside edges. 2 and 3. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. pieces 2-5/8 in. Fig. About 1/2 in. thick. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. forming an eye for a screw. The bag is then turned inside out. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. the mechanical parts can be put together. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. wide and 6-3/4 in. about 3/8 in. E. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. long. wide and 5 in. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. C. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. Mo. long. 5 from 1/16-in. wide and 3 ft. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. leaving a small opening at one corner. wide . long. The front. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. long. Louis. wide and 2-1/2 in. After the glue. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. and take care that the pieces are all square. Wind three layers of about No. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. 1. C. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. A. Bliss. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. then centered. soaked with water and blown up. Figs. square. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. long. 6-1/2 in. as well as the edges around the opening. 3/8 in. and make a turn in each end of the wires. When the glue is set. 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-3/4 in. the top and bottom. The sides are 3-1/4 in. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. A. --Contributed by W. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. F. of each end unwound for connections. long. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. thick and 3 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. this square box is well sandpapered. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. If carefully and neatly made. B. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. long. Glue a three cornered piece. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. long. D. thick. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. but can be governed by circumstances. 3-1/4 in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in.once. square. wide and 4-1/2 in. Cut another piece of board.

1/4 in. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. Place the tin. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. These wires should be about 1 in. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. hole is fastened to the pointer. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. so it will just clear the tin. L. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. 5. Chapman. board. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set.and 2-5/8 in. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. long. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. and fasten in place. Fig. 1/16 in. G. long. 5-1/2 in. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. 4. Another strip of tin. 4. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. wide and 2-1/2 in. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. The base is a board 5 in. R. and the farther apart they will be forced. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. A pointer 12 in. 4 is not movable. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil.A. Richmond Hill. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. in diameter. the same size as the first. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. W. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. bored in the back. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. showing a greater defection of the pointer. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. Yorkshire. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. from one end. I.R. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. from the spindle. the part carrying the pointer moves away. Austwick Hall. and as the part Fig. The resistance is now adjusted to show . F. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. The stronger the current. thick. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. C. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. --Contributed by George Heimroth. wide and 9 in. Like poles repel each other. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale.S. that has the end turned with a shoulder. long. Fig. When the current flows through the coil. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. The end of the polar axis B.

Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. A. 1881. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. shows mean siderial. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. 10 min. 10 min. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. The following formula will show how this may be found. M. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. 30 min. and vice . The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. thus: 9 hr. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. say Venus at the date of observation. at 9 hr.

f. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. Conn.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. and then verify its correctness by measurement. owing to the low internal resistance. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. Hall. --Contributed by Robert W. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess.m. if one of these cannot be had. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. . Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. or. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. New Haven. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality.

put the fish among the ashes. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . especially for cooking fish. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. as shown in the accompanying picture. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. The boring bar. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. leaves or bark. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. arsenic to every 20 lb. thick. of alum and 4 oz. inside diameter and about 5 in. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. fresh grass. Wet paper will answer. 3/8 in. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. long. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. Then. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. Fig. When the follower is screwed down. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. 1. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. cover up with the same. 1-3/4 in. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. and heap the glowing coals on top.

about 1/2 in. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. pipe. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. pipe. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. fastened with a pin. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . pipe were fitted to these holes so that. and threaded on both ends.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. thick. when they were turned in. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in.

This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. bent in the shape of a U. wide. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. 3. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. long. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. the float is too high. and which gave such satisfactory results. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. was then finished on an emery wheel. Iowa. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. This plate also supports the rocker arms. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. Fig. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. 30 in.valve stems. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. then it should be ground to a fit. 4. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. It . however. A 1-in. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. 5. thick and 3 in. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. The rough frame. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. but never one which required so little material. Clermont. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. as the one illustrated herewith. Fig. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. If the valve keeps dripping. a jump spark would be much better. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. labor and time. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. Fig. 2. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. square iron.

The upright is a 4 by 4-in. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. The crosspiece is 2 in. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. This makes an easy adjustment. Use a heavy washer at the head. square. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . As there is no bracing. timber. being held in position by spikes as shown. If it is to be used for adults. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. long. W.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. long. Nieman. extending above. 12 ft. from all over the neighborhood. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. strong clear material only should be employed. for the "motive power" to grasp. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. in diameter and 15 in." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. square and 5 ft. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. no matter what your age or size may be. in fact. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. strengthened by a piece 4 in. long. long is the pivot. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. completes the merry-go-round. set 3 ft. A malleable iron bolt. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. A 3/4 -in. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. The illustration largely explains itself. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. --Contributed by C. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. square and 2 ft. hole bored in the post. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. 3/4 in. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. in the ground with 8 ft. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. so it must be strong enough. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. It looks like a toy. and. with no trees or buildings in the way. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. from the center." little and big. butting against short stakes. rope is not too heavy. The seats are regular swing boards. and a little junk.

Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. Both have large reels full of . away. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. A reel is next made. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. 2. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. The bow is now bent.the fingers. one for the backbone and one for the bow. and sent to earth. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. To wind the string upon the reel. The backbone is flat. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. Having placed the backbone in position. if nothing better is at hand. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. 1. 4. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. a wreck. as shown in Fig.2 emery. and 18 in. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. then it is securely fastened. 1/4 by 3/32 in. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. These ends are placed about 14 in. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. light and strong. square. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. long.

he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. Y. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. the balance. or glass-covered string. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. common packing thread. Bunker. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Moody. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite.string. Newburyport. Brooklyn. The handle end is held down with a staple. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . N. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string.-Contributed by S. First. If the second kite is close enough. Mass. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. often several hundred yards of it. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. C. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. --Contributed' by Harry S. he pays out a large amount of string. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle.

Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . such as mill men use. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. then draw the string up tight. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Corinth. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. must be attached to a 3-ft. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. length of 2-in. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Hastings. square (Fig. Vt. --Contributed by Earl R. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. each the size of half the table top. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. If the table is round. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. then a dust protector. lengths (Fig. cutting the circular piece into quarters.

17-1/2 in. 6-1/4 in.. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. which spoils the leather effect.9-1/4 in. hard pencil. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. from E to F. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. trace the design carefully on the leather. Moisten the . get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together.. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. and E to G. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad.-Contributed by H. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. E. . 2-1/4 in. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. Calif. Use a smooth. G to H. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away.. 16-1/4 in. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. from C to D. Wharton. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. Oakland. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. trace this or some other appropriate design on it.

I made this motor . Cut out the leather for the handle openings. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. Trace the openings for the handles. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. and lace through the holes. is taken off at a time. wide. get something with which to make a lining. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. apart. with the rounded sides of the tools. To complete the bag. G-J. H-B.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Now cut narrow thongs. place both together and with a leather punch. and E-G. Cut it the same size as the bag. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. if not more than 1 in. and corresponding lines on the other side. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. about 1/8 in. also lines A-G. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire.

Calif. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. Pasadena. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. D. 24 gauge magnet wire. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. --Contributed by J. 2.M. as shown in Fig.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. iron. Shannon. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. 1. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. B. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. . Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. each being a half circle. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. long. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. 1. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. of No. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. in length. 2-1/4 in. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger.

Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. pasted in alternately. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. near the center. balloon should be about 8 ft. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . are the best kind to make. from the bottom end. high. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. 1. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. and the gores cut from these. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. The gores for a 6-ft.

leaving the solution on over night. As the boat is driven forward by this force. lap on the edges. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. These are to hold the wick ball. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. E. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. 3. 5. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. 1. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. leaving a long wake behind. Staunton. as shown in Fig.widest point. in diameter. 4. B. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. using about 1/2-in. After washing. so it will hang as shown in Fig. Fig. --Contributed by R. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. The steam. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. In starting the balloon on its flight. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. 2. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. A. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. saturating it thoroughly. somewhat larger in size. as shown in Fig. If the gores have been put together right. coming through the small pipe A. In removing grease from wood. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. after which the paint will adhere permanently. The boat soon attains considerable speed. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it.

The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. high and 8 in. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. 1. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. In using either of the two methods described. Third. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. apart on these lines. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The blocks are about 6 in. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. wide by 6 in. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. long and each provided with a handle. if you have several copies of the photograph. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . as is shown in Fig. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. long. There are three ways of doing this: First. Second. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. in bowling form. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw.

If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Hellwig. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. --Contributed by John A. thick. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Albany. Rinse the plate in cold water. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. N. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Y. being careful not to dent the metal. Fig.Fig. 2. not pointed down at the road at an angle.

and Fig. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. S. CC. in diameter. 6 in. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. 1 Fig. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. through which passes the set screw S. thick. 5 in. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. long for the base. wide and 8 in. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. and not produce the right sound. wide and of any desired height. A circular piece of wood. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. and. Break off the frame. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. A. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Va. A. Corner irons. With this device. which is 4 in. Paine. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight.upon any particular object. are screwed to the circular piece. Richmond. with a set screw. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. In Fig. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. These corner irons are also screwed to. B. is fastened to a common camera tripod. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. --Contributed by R. 2 the front view. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can.

. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. La Salle. in diameter of some 1-in. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Ill. Kidder. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. I made a wheel 26 in. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. thus producing sound waves. S. pine boards. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. D. This will make a very compact electric horn.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. as only the can is visible. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. This horn. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. Lake Preston. -1. R. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block.

If there is a large collection of coins. 1. 2. A. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Purdy. 1. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. The frame is made of a heavy card.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . O. --Contributed by James R. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. thick and 12 in. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. B. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. the same thickness as the coins. --Contributed by C. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Doylestown. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Kane. Fig. Ghent. square.

This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. A rivet punch is desirable. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. One Cloud. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. though not absolutely necessary. --Contributed by R. for after the slides have been shown a few times. several large nails. Canada. The material required is a sheet of No. --Contributed by August T.J. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. Toronto. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. It will hold 4 oz. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. into which to place the screws . Neyer. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. Noble. Cal. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. A lead pencil. Milwaukee. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. --Contributed by J. thick. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. If desired. Wis. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. and then glued together as indicated. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. plus a 3/8-in. Smith. of developer. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. they become uninteresting.E. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. border all around. a hammer or mallet. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. cut and grooved. melted and applied with a brush.

like the one shown. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Fasten the metal to the board firmly. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. both outline and decoration. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. and file it to a chisel edge. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. using 1/2-in. draw one part. There are several ways of working up the design. Remove the screws. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. Take the nail. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. never upon the metal directly. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. screws placed about 1 in. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design.

for the top. About 1/2 yd. using a 1/2in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. long. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. 3. . as shown in Fig. Rivet the band to the holder. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. 3/4 in. 2. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. long. up from the lower end. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in.wall. l-1/8 in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. square and 181/2 in. Do not bend it over or flatten it. 1. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. in the other. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. each 1 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. and two lengths. of 11-in. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. square and 11 in. square. being ball bearing. Provide four lengths for the legs. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. long. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. for the lower rails. two lengths. The pedal. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg.

The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. F. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. having quite a length of threads. Quackenbush. --Contributed by John Shahan. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. --Contributed by W. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . New York City. Attalla.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. Ala.

long. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. wide and 8-1/4 in. --Contributed by C. each 1-1/4 in. initial. from one end. the end of the other piece is folded over. Ironwood.. D. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. from the end. one about 1 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. long. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. long. Purchase a 1/2-in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. stitched on both edges for appearance. Mich. and 3/8 in. and two holes in the other. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. something that is carbonated. Two pieces of felt. making a lap of about 1 in. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. in depth. college or lodge colors. Luther. The desired emblem. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. using class. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. and the other 2-3/4 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt.

--Contributed by John H. This method allows a wide range of designs. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Fig. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. 2. which can be procured from a plumber. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. as shown in the sketch. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Schatz. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . from the center and opposite each other. if desired by the operator. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Punch two holes A. as shown at B. or a pasteboard box. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. in the cover and the bottom. Indianapolis. in diameter and 2 in. and the cork will be driven out. about 2 in. A piece of lead. or more in height. 1. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. 1/4 in. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. Ind.

Columbus. . so that it will indent without cutting the leather. O. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. 1. 3. The pieces of tin between the holes A. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. Fig. A piece of thick glass. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. putting in the design. 4. metal. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. When the can is rolled away from you. on both top and bottom. 5. or marble will serve. and the ends of the bands looped over them. are turned up as in Fig. allowing the two ends to be free. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. it winds up the rubber band.Rolling Can Toy lead.

one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. I secured a board 3/4 in. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. from each end. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . After this has been done. Next place the leather on the glass. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. 3 in. hole through it. 1 in.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. If it is desired to "line" the inside. or more thick on each side. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. The edges should be about 1/8 in. long and bored a 1/2-in. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. wide and 20 in. face up. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. thicker than the pinion. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. New York City. deep in its face. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. and. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. thick. A pencil may be used the first time over. mark over the design. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side.

1. 1 top board. much of the hard labor will be saved. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. Rice. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 4 guides. Fig. Syracuse. Make the lower frame first. New York. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 2 crosspieces. 2 side rails. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 1 screw block. 2. 3 by 3 by 20 in. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Cut the 2-in. 1 piece for clamp. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. thick top board. lag screws as shown. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. N. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Y. pieces for the vise slides. 2 by 2 by 18 in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 3 by 3 by 6 in. and fit it in place for the side vise. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 2 end rails.in the board into the bench top. Now fit up the two clamps. 1 back board. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Brooklyn. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. --Contributed by A. 1 piece for clamp. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 3 by 3 by 36. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 1 piece. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 1 by 9 by 80 in. M. in diameter. 1 top board. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in.

1 nail set. 1 brace and set of bits. in diameter. 1 2-ft. 1 cross cut saw. The bench is now complete. it can be easily found when wanted. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 countersink. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 claw hammer. 2 screwdrivers. Only the long run. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 marking gauge. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 pocket level. 1 pair pliers. rule. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 24 in. 1 set chisels. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 compass saw. 1 rip saw. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. as well as the pattern maker.. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 24 in..screws. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 wood scraper. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 monkey wrench. . a list is given which will answer for a general class of work.. 3 and 6 in. 1 jack plane or smoother. The amateur workman. They can be purchased at a hardware store. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 set gimlets. 1 pair dividers.

Fig. but will not make . Fig. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. 2. 1. No. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C.1 6-in. the projecting point A. becomes like A. 2 and 00 sandpaper. 1. try square.1. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. 3. The calf skin. being softer. 1 oilstone. will sink into the handle as shown at D. Fig. Doylestown. Kane. ---Contributed by James M. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. will be easier to work. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. Pa. after constant use. Fig.

A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. water or heat will not affect. Having prepared the two sides. but a V-shaped nut pick. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. such as copper or brass.as rigid a case as the cow skin. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. lay the design on the face. First draw the design on paper. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. the same method of treatment is used. when dry. -Contributed by Julia A. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. which steam. and the length 6-5/8 in. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. If cow hide is preferred. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. . Two pieces will be required of this size. After the outlines are traced. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. New York City. Turn the leather. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. secure a piece of modeling calf. cover it completely with water enamel and. White. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. will do just as well. then prepare the leather. The form can be made of a stick of wood. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. If calf skin is to be used. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall.

it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. C. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. and an adjustable friction-held loop.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Portland. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Richmond. Herrman. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. as shown in the sketch. New York City. --Contributed by Chester L. Maine. . --Contributed by W. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Cal. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. A. Cobb. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Jaquythe. --Contributed by Chas. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low.

The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. Middletown. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. --Contributed by Wm. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. for instance. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. Roberts. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner.. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. was marked out as shown. This was very difficult. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. . Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. Mass. B. Cambridge. Conn. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Wright. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. A thick piece of tin. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. an inverted stewpan. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. --Contributed by Geo. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones.

Herbert. face down. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. on a clear piece of glass. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. Ind. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. Chicago. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. and quite new. such as chair seats. When dry. Bone. but not running over. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. F. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. so some bones were quickly calcined. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. as shown. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. pulverized and applied. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. apply powdered calcined magnesia. L. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. The next morning there was no trace of oil. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. and the grease will disappear. --Contributed by Paul Keller. but only an odor which soon vanished. Indianapolis. well calcined and powdered.. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. Illinois. used as part of furniture. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. If any traces of the grease are left. If the article is highly polished. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. .Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. which has been tried out several times with success. There was no quicklime to be had. --Contributed by C. A beautifully bound book. of boiling water.

a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. thick. New York. set and thumbscrews. If properly adjusted.. 2 in. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel.. Tarrytown. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. This coaster is simple and easy to make. says Scientific American. soft steel with the opening 6 in. high and are bolted to a block of wood. Howe. 6 in. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. The pieces marked S are single. wide and 12 in. deep and 5 in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. long. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. --Contributed by Geo. the pieces . A.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired.

The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. Their size depends on the plate used. to the underside of which is a block. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. E. A sharp knife. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. no doubt. for sending to friends. says Camera Craft. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. they will look remarkably uniform. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. The seat is a board. albums and the like.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. If the letters are all cut the same height. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork.

and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. photographing them down to the desired size. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. The puzzle is to get . Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. pasting the prints on some thin card. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. mount them on short pieces of corks.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. using care to get it in the right position. In cutting out an 0. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. and. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. for example. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. after. So arranged. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. So made. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives.

when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. N. Old-Time Magic . then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . Bayley. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside.J. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.-Contributed by I. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. He smells the bait. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. with the longest end outside.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. Cape May Point. of its top. G. A hole 6 or 7 in. hung on pivots. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. so they will lie horizontal. squeezes along past the center of the tube. snow or anything to hide it. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. says the American Thresherman. long that will just fit are set in.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in.

Dry the stamps between two white blotters. then expose again. Pocatello. Press the hands together. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Pawtucket. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Szerlip. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Brooklyn. --Contributed by L. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . N. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. E.faced up. --Contributed by L. then spread the string. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. or rub the hands a little before doing so. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Y. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Rhode Island. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Idaho. Parker.

Glue the other side of the blade.Genuine antique swords and armor. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. wide and 2 in. using a straightedge and a pencil. end of the blade. The handle is next made. dark red. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. or a complete suit of armor. The blade should be about 27 in. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. or green oil paint.. they will look very much like the genuine article. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. thick. whether he requires a single sword only. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. if any. 4 on the blade. and if carefully made. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. in building up his work from the illustrations. says the English Mechanic. When the whole is quite dry. When the glue is thoroughly dry.. 3 Fig. in width. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. narrower. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. long. 1 Fig. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. near the point end. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. 1. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. The pieces. full size. 2 Fig. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. wipe the blade . and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw.

preferably of contrasting colors. allowing for a good hold with both hands. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. of course. should be about 9 in. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. This sword is about 68 in. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. the illustration. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. follow the directions as for Fig. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. take two pieces of wood. 1/8 in. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. In making. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. The length of the handle. and 3 in. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. Both edges of the blade are sharp. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. the other is flat or halfround. long. 1. 1. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. not for use only in cases of tableaux. 3. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. thick and 5 in. shows only two sides. 2. the other two are identical. in diameter. the length of the blade 28 in. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. In the finished piece. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece.with light strokes up and down several times. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. as it is . Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. 4. 2. 1. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. 1. In making this scimitar. Fig. square and of any length desired. 3. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory... The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. the other is flat or half-round. in the widest part at the lower end. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. about 1-1/2 in.

Doctors probed for the button without success. --Contributed by John Blake. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. as there was some at hand.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. and. piping and jackets by hard water. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. however. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. or an insecure fastening. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. and if so. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. about 3/8 in. --Contributed by Katharine D. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. The thinness of the plank. long. at the lower end. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. as shown in the sketch. N. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Syracuse. Mass. each about 1 ft. Both can be made easily. Franklin. A piece of mild steel. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. Morse. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. in an attempt to remove it. On each edge of the board. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. It is made of a plank. square. 2 in. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. A cold . as can the pitch bed or block. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. Y. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased.

a file to reduce the ends to shape. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. 5 lb. 18 gauge. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. To put it in another way. When this has been done. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. When the desired form has been obtained. using a small metal saw. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch.. 5 lb.. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. plaster of Paris. design down. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. secure a piece of brass of about No. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. To remedy this.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. Trim up the edges and file them . on the pitch. tallow. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design.

. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Cutter. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. and still revolve. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Clean the metal thoroughly. to keep it from floating. make an unusual show window attraction. 1 ft. Fig. but not to stop it. space between the vessels with water. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Before giving the description. 1) and the other 12 in. 3. in diameter (Fig. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. and hang a bird swing. lb. it may be well to know what horsepower means. This in turn divided by 33. in diameter (Fig. in the center. The smaller is placed within the larger. over the smaller vessel. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. per minute. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. in one minute or 550 lb. or fraction of a horsepower.smooth. 1 ft. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. --Contributed by Harold H. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. living together in what seems like one receptacle.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. in one second.000 ft. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. or 550 ft. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. using powdered pumice with lye. per second. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. 30 ft. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. lb. one 18 in. Fill the 3-in. A. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor.000 lb. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. 2). That is lifting 33.

or on a pedestal. F.3 Fig. --Contributed. Campbell. Diameter 12 in. 2 Fig. Y. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. 1 Fig. Szerlip. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. by L. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. N. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Diameter Fig. The effect is surprising.18 in.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Somerville. Mass. Brooklyn. --Contributed by J.

and the clay . covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. after which it is ready for use. Do not be content merely to bend them over. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. the same as removing writing from a slate. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference.copper of No. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. keeping the center high. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. unsatisfactory. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. away from the edge. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. with other defects. This compound is impervious to water. to keep the metal from tarnishing. as a rule. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. which may be of wood or tin. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. then by drawing a straightedge over it. often render it useless after a few months service. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. Rivet the cup to the base. In riveting. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. using any of the common metal polishes. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. Polish both of these pieces. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. which. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. with the pliers. is. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. and cut out the shape with the shears. and then. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would.

If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. Mich. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Scotland. --Contributed by A. as shown in Fig. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The siphon is made of glass tubes. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. It is made of a glass tube. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. 3/4 in. long. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. . --Contributed by John T. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. Shettleston. 1. Northville.can be pressed back and leveled. Mich. -Contributed by Thos. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. Grand Rapids. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. Dunlop. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. in diameter and 5 in. 2. A. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Houghton. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. DeLoof. the device will work for an indefinite time.

The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. London. in width and 2 in. long. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. As the handle is to . stilettos and battle-axes. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. put up as ornaments. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles.FIG. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. This sword is 4 ft.1 FIG. 1. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in.

This weapon is also about 1 ft. The ball is made as described in Fig. with both edges of the blade sharp. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. This axe is made similar to the one . round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. then glued on the blade as shown. This stiletto has a wood handle. This sword is about 4 ft. In Fig. long with a dark handle of wood. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle.represent copper. in width. with both edges sharp. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. A German poniard is shown in Fig. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. 7. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. In Fig. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. 11 were used. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. 20 spike. very broad. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. The handle is of wood. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. The lower half of the handle is of wood. narrower. Cut two strips of tinfoil. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. A German stiletto. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. 8. In Fig. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. is shown in Fig. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. 4. 9. string. one about 1/2 in. which is about 2-1/2 ft. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. the upper part iron or steel. sharp edges on both sides. 3 is shown a claymore. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. with wire or string' bound handle. small rope and round-headed nails. Both handle and axe are of steel. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. paint it a dark brown or black. studded with brass or steel nails. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. long. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. These must be cut from pieces of wood. glue and put it in place. When dry. sometimes called cuirass breakers. 6. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. The crossbar and blade are steel. the axe is of steel. wood with a keyhole saw. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. firmly glued on. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. in length. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. in length. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. This weapon is about 1 ft. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. 5. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. The sword shown in Fig. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. the same as used on the end of the handle. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. When the whole is quite dry. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. Three large. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel.

Old-Time Magic . --Contributed by E. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. Davis. 2. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. together as shown in Fig. . and as the tension members are all protected from wear. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. 10. high. will pull where other belts slip. Chicago. the ends are tied and cut off. W. This will make a very good flexible belt. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. such as braided fishline. so the contents cannot be seen. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper.described in Fig. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. When wrapped all the way around.

The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . Calif. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. or using small wedges of wood. an acid. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. Macdonald. filled with water. To make the flowers grow in an instant. These wires are put in the jar.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Before the performance. 2. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. some of the liquid. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. --Contributed by A. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. There will be no change in color. causing the flowers to grow. in a few seconds' time. held in the right hand. Oakland. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. N. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. four glass tumblers. about one-third the way down from the top. Bridgeton. S. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen.J. The dotted lines in Fig. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. with the circle centrally located. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. 1 and put together as in Fig. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. apparently.

and kept ready for use at any time. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. If the size wanted is No. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. A. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. Jaquythe. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. 4 for width and No. unless some special device is used. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. practical and costs nothing. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. says a correspondent of Photo Era. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. --Contributed by W. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. which are numbered for convenience in working. This outlines the desired opening. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. Richmond. not only because of the fact just mentioned. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. Cal. When many slides are to be masked. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. and equally worthy of individual treatment.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. 2 for height. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks.

but they can be easily revived. Secure a sheet of No. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. the margin and the entire back of the metal. not the water into the acid. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. With a stick. may be changed. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. Draw a design. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. about half and half. or. or a pair of old tongs. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. is about right for the No. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. The decoration. too. and do not inhale the fumes. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. paint the design. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. possibly. which is dangerous. When etched to the desired depth. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. a little less acid than water. The one shown is merely suggestive. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. 16 gauge. This done. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . and the extreme length 7 in. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. using the carbon paper. the paper is folded along the center line. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired.

How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. about 2-1/2 in. Fig. high. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. wide. 5. 2. A. It may be either nailed or screwed down. the bell will ring. as at H. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. to the table. 1. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. Fig. about 8 in. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. as in Fig. repeat as many times as is necessary. Nail a board. in diameter and 1/4 in. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. Fig. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. as shown in the illustration. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 0 indicates the batteries. Fig. 3/8 in. or more wide. Paint the table any color desired. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. 4. 2. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. so that when it is pressed down. Fig. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. with the wires underneath. through it. Then get two posts. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. and bore two holes. as shown in Fig. J is another wire attached in the same way. 5.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. attached to a post at each end. C and D. The connections are simple: I. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. and about 2-1/2 ft. about 3 ft. it will touch post F. about 1 in. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. 24 parts water. thick. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. 2. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. long. When the button S is pressed. long and 1 ft. Cut out a piece of tin. . M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. 3. wide and of the same length as the table.

the wood peg inserted in one of them. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. 2. The entire weapon. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. These rings can be carved out. long serves as the dowel. thick. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike.Imitation Arms and Armor . handle and all. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. A wood peg about 2 in.. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. such as . The imitation articles are made of wood. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. 1. long. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. says the English Mechanic. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. The circle is marked out with a compass. is to appear as steel. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. After the glue is dry. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. but they are somewhat difficult to make. This weapon is about 22 in.

fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. as before mentioned. leaves. All of these axes are about the same length. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The lower half of the handle is wood.ornamental scrolls. studded with large brass or steel nails. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. as described in Fig. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. The spikes are cut out of wood. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. or the amateur cannot use it well. long. . The tinfoil should be applied carefully. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. Its length is about 3 ft. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. The upper half of the handle is steel. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. used at the end of the fifteenth century. is shown in Fig. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. If such a tool is not at hand. 6. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. etc. 5. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. as shown. The handle is of wood. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The handle is of steel imitation. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. flowers. The axe is shown in steel. 2. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. 3. the hammer and spike. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The entire handle should be made of one piece. with a sharp carving tool. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. covered with red velvet. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. This weapon is about 22 in. also. 8.

The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. 3. 7) calls for one out. The knife falling on its side (Fig. calls for a home run. Chicago. 4). as shown in Fig. a three-base hit. as in Fig. the knife resting on its back. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. then the other plays. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. Each person plays until three outs have been made. 2. and so on for nine innings. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. . --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. 6. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. 1. 5. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. Fig.

1. as shown in Fig. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. of the rope and holds it. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. as shown in Fig. Somerville. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. Mass. while the committee is tying him up. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. of water for an hour or two. with the rope laced in the cloth.-Contributed by J. hypo to 1 pt. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. one of them burning . sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. This he does. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. It may be found that the negative is not colored. 3. If it is spotted at all.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. Old-Time Magic . the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. 2. F. Campbell.

4 oz. showing that there is nothing between them. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. of water and 1 oz. Louisville. Brown. He then walks over to the other candle. 4 oz. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. 3/4 in. bolt. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart.brightly. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. shades the light for a few seconds. of sugar. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. Thome. The magician walks over to the burning candle. B. New York City. the other without a light. --Contributed by C. Ky. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. of plumbago. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. Drill Gauge screw. Evans. Lebanon. with which he is going to light the other candle. . of turpentine. thus causing it to light. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. Ky. etc. --Contributed by L. thick. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. invisible to them (the audience). He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way.Contributed by Andrew G. and. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger..

add the acid to the water with constant stirring. into a tube of several thicknesses. 5 in. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. for the material. Denniston. Y. Do not add water to the acid. In making up the solution. N. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. --Contributed by C. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. steady current. or blotting paper. H. Pulteney. which will give a strong. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. To make the porous cell. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. about 5 in. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. but is not so good. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. thick. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. Its current strength is about one volt.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. diameter. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. long. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in.

The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. long with a bearing at each end. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. The . the other holding them apart. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. one drawing them together. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. As to thickness. steel. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. while the other end is attached by two screws.) may be obtained. steel. a positive adjustment was provided. steel. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. Finally. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. but somewhat lighter. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next.station. After much experimentation with bearings. One hole was bored as well as possible. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. To insure this. carrying the hour circle at one end. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other.

Point it approximately to the north star. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. need not be changed. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. 45 min. Each shaft. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. is provided with this adjustment. To locate a known star on the map. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. The pointer is directed to Alpha." When this is done. It is. Declination is read directly. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. and if it is not again directed to the same point.. turn the pointer to the star. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. Cassiopiae. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The aperture should be 1/4 in.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. All these adjustments. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The pole is 1 deg. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. Instead. When properly set it will describe a great circle. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. save the one in the pipe. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. All set screws. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. and 15 min. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. once carefully made. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. To find a star in the heavens. subtract 24.." Only a rough setting is necessary. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. Set the declination circle to its reading. apart. are tightened. If the result is more than 24 hours. excepting those on the declination axis.

benzole. Ohio. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. taking care not to add too much. If this will be too transparent. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Strosnider. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. a great effect will be produced. La. add a little more benzole.. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. Plain City. cannon balls. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. which is the one examined. then add 1 2-3 dr. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. as shown in the sketch. is folded several times. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. is the real cannon ball. In reality the first ball. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. New Orleans. 3 or 4 in. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. the others . The ball is found to be the genuine article. of ether. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. The dance will begin. -Contributed by Ray E. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. long.

are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. San Francisco. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. Cal. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. F. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. Wis. as shown in the illustration. 2. small brooches. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. Campbell. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Somerville. Fig. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. In boxes having a sliding cover. --Contributed by J. taps. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized .. without taking up any great amount of space. etc. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Milwaukee. Return the card to the pack. Mass. 1). The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box.

prints. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. . which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Hartford. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. This box has done good service. as shown in the illustration. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. round pieces 2-1/4 in. Beller. thus giving ample store room for colors. from the bottom of the box. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. slides and extra brushes. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Connecticut. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish.

and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. or placed against a wall. FIG. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. Mass. about threefourths full. with well packed horse manure. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. -Contributed by C. O. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. Fill the upper tub. 1). Darke.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. holes in the bottom of one. . and especially are the end pieces objectionable. 2). West Lynn. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. tacking the gauze well at the corners. When the ends are turned under. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. costing 5 cents. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. will answer the purpose. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig.

The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. if this is not available.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. they should be knocked out. cutting the cane between the holes. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. Chicago. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. --Contributed by L. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. Eifel. and each bundle contains . from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. when they are raised from the pan. If the following directions are carried out. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. oil or other fluid. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. If plugs are found in any of the holes. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. M. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out.

The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. held there by inserting another plug. after having been pulled tight. then across and down. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. and. In addition to the cane. it should be held by a plug. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. a square pointed wedge. put about 3 or 4 in. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. No plugs . 1. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. as shown in Fig. as it must be removed again. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn.

stretch the third one. called the gnomon. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. Their difference is . When cool.= 4. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented.075 in. From table No. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. as shown in Fig. trim off the surplus rosin. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. -Contributed by E.5 in. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. lat. R. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. Michigan. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. Fig. Patrick. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. 4. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. using the same holes as for the first layer. is the base (5 in. the height of the line BC. and for 1° it would be . Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. --Contributed by M. 1 lat. or the style.42 in. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. All added to the lesser or 40°. we have 4. 3. is the horizontal dial. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. Even with this lubrication. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. 42° is 4. If handled with a little care. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. as it always equals the latitude of the place. Detroit. This will make three layers. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. and for lat.075 in.2+. D. and the one we shall describe in this article. Fig. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . as shown in Fig. W.3 in. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired.15 in. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. There are several different designs of sundials. the height of which is taken from table No. If you have a table of natural functions. No weaving has been done up to this time. The style or gnomon. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. 5. 1. 41 °-30'. 40°. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts.15+. for 2°. 41°-30'. 3. 5 in. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. the next smallest. as for example. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. During the weaving. After completing the second layer. it is 4. as the height of the line BC for lat. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. After finishing this fourth layer of strands.2 in. 1. 1. in this case) times the . It consists of a flat circular table. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. but the most common. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time.

for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.46 3.20 60° 8.40 1. 1.11 3.77 2.82 3. with a radius of 5 in. 2.33 .96 32° 3.81 4. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.44 44° 4.38 . The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.06 2. Table NO. .57 1. Fig.76 1. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.50 26° 2. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.28 .56 .55 4.tangent of the degree of latitude. using the points A and C as centers.18 28° 2.02 1. base. 2. circle Sundial. an inch or two. according to the size of the dial.27 2. and for this size dial (10 in.16 1.57 3.89 50° 5.91 58° 8.33 42° 4. and intersecting the semicircles.40 34° 3.68 5-30 6-30 5.42 45 .87 4. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. Draw two semi-circles. or more. Chords in inches for a 10 in.12 52° 6. Its thickness.55 46° 5.93 6.37 54° 6.37 5.10 6.99 2.03 3.49 30 .85 35 .55 30° 2.46 .79 4.93 2. gives the 6 o'clock points. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.97 5 7 4.66 latitude. Draw the line AD.55 5.63 56° 7.39 .66 48° 5. 2 for given latitudes.29 4-30 7-30 3. For latitudes not given. which will represent the base in length and thickness.82 2.19 1. To layout the hour circle.41 38° 3.30 1.00 40° 4. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. if of metal. or if of stone. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.32 6.94 1.23 6. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .59 2.07 4. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.42 1.83 27° 2.85 1.64 4 8 3. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. long.87 1.49 3.88 36° 3.30 2. and perpendicular to the base or style.16 40 .66 1. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.26 4.14 5.82 5.42 . Height of stile in inches for a 5in. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.

The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. The + means that the clock is faster.50 55 .50 .01 1. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. Mitchell. if west. 2 and Dec.19 2. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.49 3.68 3. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. --Contributed by J. will enable one to set the dial. 3.means that the dial is faster than the sun. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. This correction can be added to the values in table No. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. it will be faster. Sioux City. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. 3.37 2.72 5. and for the difference between standard and local time.57 1.add those marked + subtract those Marked . says the English Mechanic. adding to each piece interest and value.89 3. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.79 6.08 1. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.98 4. Sept.93 6.46 4.24 5. An ordinary compass.87 6. E. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.46 5. Sun time to local mean time.60 4. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. As they are the genuine reproductions. Iowa.54 60 .52 Table No. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. April 16. 25.53 1.30 2.14 1. Each weapon is cut from wood. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .63 1. June 15.82 3.12 5.71 2.49 5.77 3.10 4. and the . making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. then the watch is slower.34 5. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.21 2.. London. each article can be labelled with the name. 900 Chicago. after allowing for the declination.06 2.from Sundial lime.

. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. Partisan. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. . When putting on the tinfoil. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. the length of which is about 5 ft. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. 3. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. 1. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. Glaive and Voulge brass nails.

used about the seventeenth century. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The edges are sharp. long with a round staff or handle. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood.. is shown in Fig. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The length of this bar is about 5 in. long. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. long with a round wooden handle. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. 5. 6 ft. The extreme length is 9 ft. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. 8.which is square. about 4 in. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. the holes being about 1/4 in. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. It is about 6 ft. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The spear is steel. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. This weapon is about 6 ft. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. long. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. . At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. sharp on the outer edges. 7. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. press it well into the carved depressions. A gisarm or glaive. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. in diameter. which are a part of the axe. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.

the cross cords. or in holes punched in a leather strap. This is important to secure neatness. Workman. 4. They can be made of various materials. B. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. Ohio. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. Cut all the cords the same length. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. are put in place. Loudonville. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. H. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. In Figs. used for spacing and binding the whole together. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. are less durable and will quickly show wear. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. 5. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. as shown in Fig. 2 and 3. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. the most durable being bamboo. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire.-Contributed by R. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. Substances such as straw. The twisted cross cords should . 1. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. apart.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected.

shaped as shown at C. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. Harrer. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. New Orleans. La. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. To remedy this. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. This was turned over the top of the other can. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. in which was placed a piece of glass. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. 3 in. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. Four V-shaped notches were cut. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. wide. -Contributed by Geo. A slit was cut in the bottom. bamboo or rolled paper. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. for a length extending from a point 2 in. of the bottom. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. as shown at B. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. below the top to within 1/4 in. The first design shown is for using bamboo. Lockport. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle.be of such material. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. New York. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. M. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material.

turned over but not fastened. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. do not throw away the gloves. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. H. This should be done gradually. It would be well to polish the brass at first. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. Maywood. Sanford. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. --Contributed by Chas. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. and two along the side for attaching the staff. --Contributed by W. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. Schaffner. Ill. After this is finished. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. is shown in the accompanying sketch. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy.tape from sticking to the carpet. Cal. Shay. Y. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . This plank. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. about 1/16 in. N. wide. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. --Contributed by Joseph H. Pasadena. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. giving the appearance of hammered brass. Newburgh. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. the brass is loosened from the block. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall.

Richmond. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Marshall.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. -Contributed by W. the pendulum swings . Cal. bent as shown. --E. Oak Park. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. K. Jaquythe. Unlike most clocks. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Ill. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. A. in diameter.

says the Scientific American. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. only have the opposite side up. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight.. is an electromagnet. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. high. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. bar. Chicago. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. 6 in. high and 1/4 in. long and at each side of this. wide that is perfectly flat. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. about 6 in. such as this one.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. high. the center one being 2-3/4 in. on the board B. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. 7-1/2 in. Metzech. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. --Contributed by V. Secure a board. by 1-5/16 in. about 12 in. 5/16 in. to the first one with screws or glue. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. high. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. 3/4 in. in diameter. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. B. In using this method. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. . and the other two 2-5/8 in. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. Two uprights. bearing on the latter. A. The construction is very simple. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. wide. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Fasten another board. Now place the board to be joined. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. C. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. thick. are secured in the base bar. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. away. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips.

The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. plates should be made 8 in. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. Phoenixville. 3. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. --Contributed by Elmer A. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. whose dimensions are given in Fig. 1. Vanderslice. . from one end. 1. long. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. The trigger. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. 2. Fig. 4. wide and 5 in. by driving a pin through the wood.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. square. or more. wide and 1 in. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. square inside. is fastened in the hole A. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Pa. as shown at A. Fig. 1. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig.

square. 2 parts of whiting. Simonis. Fostoria. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. by weight. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. 5 parts of black filler. Ohio. -Contributed by J. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. one-half the length of the side pieces. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. as shown in the illustration. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. rubbing varnish and turpentine. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull.A. which allows 1/4 in. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. if only two bands are put in the . and the mitered corners well glued and nailed.

is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. long. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. DeLoof. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. No. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. A mirror. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. preferably copper. A double convex lens. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. -Contributed by Abner B. It must be kept moist and well . The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. A piece of metal. and it may be made as a model or full sized. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. If a plain glass is used. In use. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. in the opposite end of the box. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. place tracing paper on its surface. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. says the English Mechanic. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. Dartmouth. deep. Mass. and the picture can be drawn as described. keeps the strong light out when sketching. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. which may be either of ground or plain glass. Shaw. is set at an angle of 45 deg. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. 8 in. London. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. as shown in Fig. is necessary. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. G. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. 1. wide and about 1 ft. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. In constructing helmets. --Contributed by Thos. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. Michigan. Grand Rapids. II.lower strings. If you wish to make a pencil drawing.

and continue until the clay is completely covered. a few clay-modeling tools. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. the clay model oiled. shown in Fig. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. brown. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. This being done. 2. 3. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. The clay. joined closely together. or some thin glue. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. will be necessary. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. with a keyhole saw. After the clay model is finished. and over the crest on top. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. 1.kneaded. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. as shown in Fig. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. as in bas-relief. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. and the deft use of the fingers. on which to place the clay. and left over night to soak. Scraps of thin. take. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. All being ready. 1.

A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. Indianapolis. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. The center of the ear guards are perforated. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. the skullcap.as possible. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . as seen in the other part of the sketch. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. as shown: in the design. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. and so on. 9. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. or. will make it look neat. Indiana. In Fig. the piecing could not be detected. a crest on top. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. They are all covered with tinfoil. then another coating of glue. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. In Fig. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. The band is decorated with brass studs. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. one for each side. Before taking it off the model. The whole helmet. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. 5. This contrivance should be made of wood. 7. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. a few lines running down. which should be no difficult matter. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. 1. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. owing to the clay being oiled. should be modeled and made in one piece. and the ear guards in two pieces. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. When dry. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. with the exception of the vizor. When the helmet is off the model. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. --Contributed by Paul Keller. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. When perfectly dry. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. square in shape.

12 in. and C. for connections. 4. German-silver wire is better. if the measurements are correct. 4. 1. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. Fig. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. 1 in. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. thick.same size. and. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. 2. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. 3 in. The holes B and C are about 3 in. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. Fig. AA. which can be bought from a local druggist. 4 lb. 1. Fig. and two large 3in. Fig. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. is then packed down inside the collar. FF. is shown in Fig. Fig. are allowed to project about 1 in. one fuse block. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. of the top. 1. JJ. 4. The mineral wool. as shown in Fig. Fig. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. long. of mineral wool. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. 4. Fig. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. of No. 3. This will make an open space between the plates. screws. above the collar. If a neat appearance is desired. one small switch. when they are placed in opposite positions. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. thick sheet asbestos. 1. If asbestos is used. 4. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. the fuse block. long. one oblong piece of wood. A round collar of galvanized iron. The plate. AA. until it is within 1 in. Fig. about 1 lb. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. with slits cut for the wires. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. as shown in Fig. as it stands a higher temperature. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. This will allow the plate. the holes leading to the switch. to receive screws for holding it to the base. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. 2. high. as shown in Fig. or. GG. 1. Fig. if this cannot be obtained. of fire clay. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. two ordinary binding posts. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. about 80 ft. Fig. Fig. each 4-1/2 in. E and F. also the switch B and the fuse block C. 4. AA. wide and 15 in. in diameter and 9 in. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. 4. should extend about 1/4 in. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. 22 gauge resistance wire. 1. one glass tube. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. about 1/4 in. long. 2. Fig. The reverse side of the base. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. The two holes. Fig.

The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. steam will form when the current is applied. This completes the stove. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. Richmond. Cal. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. This point marks the proper length to cut it. H. A file can be used to remove any rough places. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . Cut a 1/2-in. Jaquythe. 4. If this is the case. will slip and come in contact with each other. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. When the tile is in place. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. so that the circuit will not become broken. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. apart. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. Can. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. as the turns of the wires. It should not be set on end. causing a short circuit. then. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. deep. As these connections cannot be soldered. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. While the clay is damp. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. II. If it is not thoroughly dry. when heated. KK. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. Cover over about 1 in. and pressed into it. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. The clay. using care not to get it too wet. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. It should not be left heated in this condition. --Contributed by W. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. when cool. 2. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. Next. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. St. above the rim. When this is done. allowing a space between each turn. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. Catherines. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. --Contributed by R. A. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. it leaves a gate for the metal. more wire should be added. Fig. Fig. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. Cnonyn. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section.

square material in any size. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. but 12 by 24 in. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. --Contributed by Andrew G. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. and the prints will dry rapidly. Thorne. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. is large enough. the pie will be damaged. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. Ky. Then clip a little off the .Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. constructed of 3/4-in. Louisville. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. the air can enter from both top and bottom. says the Photographic Times. as shown. and the frame set near a window. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch.

As the shaft revolves. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. at GG. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. Fig. allowing each end to project for connections. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. 1/2 in. Herron. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. 2. thick. wide. 4 in. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. each 1 in. long. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. 1. 1/2 in. long. Iowa. The connecting rod E. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. 1. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. in diameter. each 1/2 in. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. wide and 3 in. thereby saving time and washing. A 1/8-in. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. Two supports. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. Le Mars. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. 3. The connections are made as shown in Fig. as shown. The board can be raised to place . open out. 22 gauge magnet wire. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. Figs. thick and 3 in. An offset is bent in the center. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. slip on two cardboard washers. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. high. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. 1. wide and 7 in. 1 and 3.Paper Funnel point. causing a break in the current. -Contributed by S. thick and 3 in. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. 1. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. in diameter and about 4 in. Fig. 2-1/2 in. long. high. The upright B. 14 in. high. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. which are fastened to the base. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. Fig. for the crank. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. which gives the shaft a half turn. The driving arm D. long. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. W. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in.

the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. . or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. in height. --Contributed by William F. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. as shown in the sketch. Dorchester. 3 in.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. Stecher. Place the pot. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. In designing the roost. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. making a framework suitable for a roost. One or more pots may be used. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. Mass. bottom side up. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. on a board.

Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. Wind the . can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. that it is heated. The bottom part of the sketch. odd corners. when combined. shelves. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. etc. preferably. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects.. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. ordinary glue.. in diameter. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Fig. grills and gratings for doors. F. adopt the method described. 1. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. 1. as shown in Fig. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. without any corresponding benefit. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. paraffin and paint or varnish. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. if it is other than straight lines. F.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. windows. The materials required are rope or. and give it time to dry. will produce the pattern desired.

Lockport. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Harrer. Fig.Fig. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. M. -Contributed by Geo. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . 2. N. cut and glue them together. Y. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. six designs are shown.

and the sides do not cover the jaws. but no farther. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in..Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. etc.. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. which was used in front of a horse's head. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. when it will be observed that any organic matter. London. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. says the English Mechanic. will be retained by the cotton.. etc. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. As the . 1. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. This piece of horse armor. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. chips of iron rust.

which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. but for . and the clay model oiled. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. then another coat of glue. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. which is separate. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. An arrangement is shown in Fig. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. This triangularshaped support. but the back is not necessary. This can be made in one piece. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. as the surface will hold the clay. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. and will require less clay. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. The armor is now removed from the model. 6 and 7. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. This being done. 4. 2. as shown in the sketch. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. which can be made in any size. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. 2. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. All being ready. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. This will make the model light and easy to move around. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. except the thumb and fingers. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. the rougher the better. 8. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. the same as in Fig. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. In Fig. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. and therefore it is not described. with the exception of the thumb shield.

will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. 1/2 in. cut into the shape shown in Fig. but 3-1/2 in. Calif. in depth. the foils will not move. each about 1/4 in. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. and the instrument is ready for use. La Rue. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. running down the plate. N. wide and 1/2 in. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. are better shown in Fig. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. --Contributed by John G. The two pieces of foil. Goshen. the two pieces of foil will draw together. will be about right. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. When locating the place for the screw eyes. long. two in each jaw. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. --Contributed by Ralph L. fastened to the rod. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. 2. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. Buxton.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. . two for the jaws and one a wedge. Y. 9. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Redondo Beach. A piece of board. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. the top of the rod. If it does not hold a charge. are glued to it.

A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. 2-1/2 in. Bryan. At a point 6 in. --Contributed by Mrs. Corsicana. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. Texas. from the smaller end. as shown in the illustration. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. is made of a 1/4-in. as this will cut under the water without splashing. long. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. about 15 in. M. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. The can may be bronzed. as indicated in the . A.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. hole bored through it. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. pine board. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. When a fish is hooked. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. silvered. enameled or otherwise decorated. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each.

The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Having completed the drawing. and trace upon it the design and outline. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. Any kind of wood will do. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. put a coat or two of wax and polish . Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. will do as well as the more expensive woods. Next prepare the metal holder. If soft wood. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. Basswood or butternut. as shown. 22 is plenty heavy enough. using a piece of carbon paper. A good size is 5 in. punch the holes. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. long over all. When it has dried over night. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. thick. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. or even pine.Match Holder accompanying sketch. 3/8 or 1/4 in. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. wide by 6 in. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Polish the metal. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. using powdered pumice and lye. such as basswood or pine was used. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. take a piece of thin wood. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. then with a nail. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running.

is used for the base of this instrument. are used for the cores of the magnets. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. A. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. --Contributed by W. If carving is contemplated. each 1 in. long. Two wire nails. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. Jaquythe. Instead of the usual two short ropes. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. If one has some insight in carving. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. 1/2 in. Cal. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. can be made on the same standards. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. of pure olive oil. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. thick. Richmond. 2 in. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. long. . the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. It is useful for photographers. wide and 5 in. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. the whole being finished in linseed oil.

All of the parts for the armor have been described. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. about No. H. --Contributed by W. except that for the legs. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. in the shape shown in the sketch. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. as shown by the dotted lines. when the key is pushed down. . acts as a spring to keep the key open. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. cloth or baize to represent the legs. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. A piece of tin. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. at A. then covered with red. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. 3. 1. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. cut in the shape of the letter T. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. as shown in Fig. About 1 in. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. the paper covering put on. 25 gauge. Lynas. similar to that used in electric bells. A rubber band. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. London. says the English Mechanic. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. leaving about 1/4 in.

about 1 in. hole in the center. at each end. A 1/4-in. Cut them to a length or 40 in. in the other end. So set up. completes the equipment. and eight small holes. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. These can be purchased at a stationery store. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. apart. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. Take the piece shown in Fig. flat headed carriage bolt. holes. not too tight. Silver paper will do very well. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. 3 in.. 2. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. 1 in. Fig. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. can be made in a few minutes' time. for the sake of lightness. one to another . Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. says Camera Craft. long. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. drill six 1/4-in. Instead of using brass headed nails. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. By moving the position of the bolt from. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. Secure two strips of wood. or ordinary plaster laths will do. The two pieces are bolted together. apart. make the same series of eight small holes and. 1 and drill a 1/4in. In one end of the piece. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish.

D over A and C. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. 2. taking the same start as for the square fob. Then draw all four ends up snugly. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. lay Cover B and the one under D. long. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. 2. 2. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. the one marked A. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. A is the first string and B is the second. then B over C and the end stuck under A. in Fig. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. 4. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. Fig. 1. C over D and B. doubled and run through the web of A. and the one beneath C. of the ends remain unwoven. and lay it over the one to the right. In this sketch. for instance. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. but instead of reversing . as in portraiture and the like. A round fob is made in a similar way. Start with one end. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. Then take B and lay it over A. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in.of the larger holes in the strip.

A loop. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. over the one to its right. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. always lap one string. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. Monroeville. Ohio. as in making the square fob. 3. The round fob is shown in Fig. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. as B. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. long. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. Rupp. especially if silk strings are used. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. is left out at the center before starting on one side. the design of which is shown herewith. 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by John P. Other designs can be made in the same manner. as at A in Fig. is to be made of leather. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. 5.

The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. using the reverse side. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. Any smooth piece of steel. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. . When the supply of wax is exhausted. such as a nut pick. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. Northville. pressing it against the wood. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. A. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. door facing or door panel. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. Mich. filling them with wax. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. it can be easily renewed. -Contributed by A. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. beeswax or paraffin. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. Houghton. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work.

D. remaining above the surface of the board. and after wetting. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. place it face down in the dish. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. apart and driven in only part way. but any kind that will not stick may be used. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. Ill. Petersburg. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. thick. and about 12 in. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. long. Thompson. Fold together on lines C. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. Y. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. says Photographic Times. J.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. New York. Select the print you wish to mount. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. N. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. . Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. Enough plaster should. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. it is best to leave a plain white margin. those on matte paper will work best. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. The tacks should be about 1 in. although tin ones can be used with good success. --Contributed by O. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. E and F. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. if blueprints are used. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. leaving about 1/4 in.

without mixing the solutions.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. Lower into the test tube a wire. filling the same about onehalf full. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution.. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. bell flowers. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. violets. will be rendered perfectly white. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. roses. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. as shown at the left in the sketch. etc. One of the . as shown in the right of the sketch. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire.

turned a little tapering. Millstown.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. is about 2-1/2 in. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. The sound box. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. should be soldered to the box. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. Fig. long. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. 1. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. When soldering these parts together. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. about 1/8s in. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. and at the larger end. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing.. 2. as shown. 3. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. --Contributed by L. The first point should be ground blunt. 1-7/8 in. long and made of wood. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. or delicate tints of the egg. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. as shown in the sketch. in diameter and 1 in. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . shading. L. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. not too tightly. to keep the core from coming off in turning. A rod that will fit the brass tube. The diaphragm. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. The tin horn can be easily made. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. Shabino. thick. but which will not wobble loose. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. South Dakota. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. made of heavy tin.

while playing in the yard close to a grain house. E. mice in the bottom. Gold.Contributed by E. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . and weighted it with a heavy stone. Victor. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. wondering what it was. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Chicago. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. Jr. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. and. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. put a board on top. Colo. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Ill. says the Iowa Homestead.

Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. N. . and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Buffalo. --Contributed by Lyndwode. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Can.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. Y. Pereira. Ottawa. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages.

This cart has no axle. De Loof. cut round. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. through which several holes have been punched. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. --Contributed by W. above the end of the dasher. Put a small nail 2 in. as shown. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. by means of a flatheaded tack. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. and at one end of the stick fasten. as it can be made quickly in any size.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Richmond. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. a piece of tin. Mich. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Grand Rapids. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Cal. longer than the length of the can. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. --Contributed by Thos. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. Jaquythe. A.

2. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. Doylestown. Kane. The baseboard and top are separable. deep and 3 in. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. A wedge-shaped piece of . Fig. wide and 3 ft. long. thick. Notches 1/8 in. 2. New Orleans. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. apart. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. of course. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. I reversed a door gong.1. 1/4 in.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. La. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. --Contributed by James M. screwed it on the inside of a store box. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. board. 1. 1-1/2 in. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. were below the level of the bullseye. 2. as shown. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. Pa. cut in the center of the rounding edge. wide and 1/8 in. The candles. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. wide. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. wide and as long as the box. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. 2 in. 1 ft.

Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. After the glue has dried. will. Needles. When not in use. A. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. West Union.Book Back Holders metal. 1. by cutting away the ends. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. wide into each side of the casing. as shown in Fig. etc. Cover the block with rubber. This device is very convenient for invalids. take two pieces of hard wood. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding.. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. dressing one surface of each piece. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. Worcester. For the handle. scissors. Ia. the shelf could not be put on the window. --Contributed by G. the blade is put back into the groove . Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. it can be removed without marring the casing. the reason being that if both were solid. can be picked up without any trouble. 3. Wood. Mass. when placed as in Fig. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. The block can also be used as a paperweight. After completing the handle. stone or wood. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. to prevent its scratching the desk top. wide rubber bands or felt.

A. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. as shown in Fig. thus carrying the car up the incline. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down.and sharpened to a cutting edge. 1 in. Hutchins. A notch is cut in one side. . Each one is made of a hardwood block. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. is shown in the accompanying sketch. 2. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Pa. Ohio. If desired. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Jacobs. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. 1. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Mass. S. Erie. as shown in Fig. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. --Contributed by H. long. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. -Contributed by W. Cleveland. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. square and 4 in. Malden. to fit a mortise cut in the bench.

J. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. a board on which to work it. One sheet of metal. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. N.. This will insure having all parts alike. 6 by 9-1/2 in. . --Contributed by Willie Woolsen.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. Prepare a design for the front. will be needed. If one such as is shown is to be used. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. The letters can be put on afterward. Cape May Point. and an awl and hammer.

If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. placed on a table. The music will not sound natural. 1 part." In all appearance. a violin. mandolin or guitar. behind or through the center of a table leg. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. as shown. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. 2 parts white vitriol. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. if desired. applied by means of a brush. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. varnish. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. 3/4 part. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. On the back. paste the paper design right on the metal.Fasten the metal to the board. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. in the waste metal. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. to right angles. Remove the metal. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. but weird and distant. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. says Master Painter. . flat brush. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. that can be worked in your own parlor. turpentine. If any polishing is required. One coat will do. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. 1/4 part. only the marginal line is to be pierced. which is desirable. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. or. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. So impressive are the results. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. The stick may be placed by the side of.

wide. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. and is easy to construct. long and measuring 26 in.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. 3. each 28 in. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. it might be difficult. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. With proper tools this is easy. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. The longest piece. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. thick by 1/2 in. . which should be about 5-1/2 ft. are shaped as shown in Fig. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. across the top. London. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. without them. square bar iron. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. round-head machine screws. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. each 6 in. long. 2. is bent square so as to form two uprights. apart. says Work. long and spread about 8 in. Two pairs of feet.

B. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. on it as shown. is held by the brads. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. in the grooves of the borders. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. Fig. lead. as shown in Fig. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. cut a long piece of lead. A. 4. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. The design is formed in the lead. using rosin as a flux. Fig. 5.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. better still. 6. After the glass is cut. The glass. special flux purchased for this purpose. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. D. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. and the base border. C. While the piece of lead D. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. After the joints are soldered. 7. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. 5. Place the corner piece of glass. The brads are then removed. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. the latter being tapped to . or.

The center pin is 3/4-in. not less than 4 in. Two styles of hand holds are shown. H. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. This ring can be made of 1-in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. A and B. Secure a post. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. This . one on each side and central with the hole. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. Bore a 3/4-in. and round the corners of one end for a ring. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. square and of the length given in the drawing. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Bore a 5/8-in. rounded at the top as shown. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Make three washers 3-in. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. Fasten the plates to the block B. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. thick and drill 3/4-in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. --Contributed by W. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. plates. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. and two wood blocks. then drill a 3/4-in. long. 8. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. bolt. Dreier. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. bolt. J. wood screws in each washer. long. in diameter and about 9 in. Camden. as shown in Fig. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. long. holes through their centers. plank about 12 ft. then flatten its end on the under side. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. in diameter and 1/4 in. Jr. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in.. rocker bolt. N. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown.the base of the clip.

of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. 4 pieces. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. bolts and rope. Draw a line on the four 7-in. 16 screws. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. 4 in. 4 filler pieces. hickory. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. screws. maple. apart for a distance of 3 ft. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. long. The four 7-in. 1. 2-1/2 in. 3 in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. To substitute small. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. 2 by 4 in. by 6-1/2 ft. the money outlay will be almost nothing. by 3 ft. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. square by 9-1/2 ft. La. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 4 in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. long. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. 1/2 in. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. horse and rings. boards along the side of each from end to end. long and 1 piece. long. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. New Orleans. 1 by 7 in. 7 in. 3/4 by 3 in. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. long. long. If trees are convenient. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. from one edge. square by 5 ft. can make a first class gymnasium. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. shanks. chestnut or ash. of 1/4-in.will make an excellent cover for a pot. long. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. because it will not stand the weather. bit. in diameter and 7 in. straight-grained hickory. and some one can swing an axe. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. 9 in. 50 ft. 4 pieces. by 2 ft. 1-1/4in.

This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. apart. Bore a 9/16-in. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. piece of wood. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. so the 1/2-in. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. deep and remove all loose dirt. 8 in. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. from the end. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire.. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. and once tightened the bar will be rigid.. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. apart. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. at each end. each 3 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. 2. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. boards coincide. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather.bored.

. and then passes in a curve across the base. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. disappearing only to reappear again. which at once gathered. He stretched the thread between two buildings. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. not much to look at in daytime. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. it is taken to the edge of the foot. and ascends the stem. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. and materially heightened the illusion. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. the effect is very striking. apart. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed." which skimmed along the distant horizon. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. W. not even the tumbler. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. it follows the edge for about 1 in. in an endless belt. If the tumbler is rotated. When the interest of the crowd. but most deceptive at dusk. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. which at once gave the suggestion of distance.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. And all he used was a black thread. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. . By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. just visible against the dark evening sky. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. passing through a screweye at either end. was at its height. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. about 100 ft. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip.

long. 7 in. 2 side braces. 2 base pieces. by 2 ft. square and 51/2 ft. La. long. long. 2 by 4 in. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 4 knee braces. 2 by 4 in. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. by 3 ft. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. long. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. New Orleans. square and 6 ft. 2 by 3 in. 4 wood screws. long. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. and turned in a spiral D. long. large spikes. 8 in. Fig. A wire about No. deep. The cork will come out easily. 8 in. by 7 ft. wide and 1 in. 2 cross braces. long and 1 doz. 4 bolts. so the point will be on top. 4 in. 1. 8 in. 2 by 4 in. 6 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Chisel out two notches 4 in. long. 8 bolts. long. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. by 10 ft. from either side of the center.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. beginning at a point 9 in. To make the apparatus. 4 in. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 2 in. Bevel the ends of . preferably cedar. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles.

and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. and countersinking the heads. equipped with a strainer. using four of the 7-in bolts. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. leave it undressed. A large sized ladle. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. Two endpieces must be made. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. A. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. . of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. Richmond. save the bars. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. except the bars. additional long. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. ( To be Continued. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft.the knee braces. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. --Contributed by W. Cal. but even unpainted they are very durable. After the trenches are dug. so the bolts in both will not meet. If using mill-cut lumber. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. of 7 ft.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. etc. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. leaving the strainer always in position. which face each other. These will allow the ladle to be turned. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. as shown in the diagram. Jaquythe. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. screws.. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. The wood so treated will last for years. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. jellies.

which seems impossible. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. it is necessary to place a stick. milling machine. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. thus holding the pail as shown. partly a barrier for jumps. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. or various cutting compounds of oil. drill press or planer. of sufficient 1ength. A. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. In order to accomplish this experiment. Oil. .

long. The material required is as follows: Two posts. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. and free from knots. 1 cross brace. bolts. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. projections and splinters. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. by 3 ft. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. wood yard or from the woods. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. long. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. is a good length. 4 in. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. square by 5 ft. Procure from a saw mill. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. bolt. but 5 ft.. ten 1/2-in. by 3 ft. 2 by 4 in. in diameter--the larger the better. long. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. bolts. square by 5-1/2 ft. 4-1/2 in. Hand holds must be provided next. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. 3 in. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. 4 knee braces. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. 2 by 4 in. bolts. These are placed 18 in. long. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. These are well nailed in place. 2 bases. 4 in. stud cut rounding on one edge. 2 by 4 in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. 7 in. The round part of this log must be planed. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. from each end. long. piece of 2 by 4-in.. by 3 ft. beginning 1-1/2 in. To construct. in the ground. 2 adjusting pieces. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. long. 4 in. apart. long. apart in a central position on the horse. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. two 1/2-in. to fasten the knee braces at the top. long. 1 in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse.

Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. snow. Jaquythe. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. then bending to the shape desired. etc. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder.horse top. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. over and around. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. it is caused by some obstruction. but nevertheless. Such a hand sled can be made in a .--Contributed by W. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. such as a dent. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. Richmond. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. pipe and fittings. Also. no one is responsible but himself. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. water. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. A. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. it is caused by an overloaded shell. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. Cal. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard.

Paris. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. --Contributed by Arthur E.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. . The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. W. --Contributed by J. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Vener. 1/4 or 3/16 in. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. These. 1. Boston. then run a string over each part. France. will give the length. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. are all the tools necessary. 2. --Contributed by James E. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. Mass. which. Ontario. in width and 1/32 in. Noble. is much better than a wood sled. at E and F. The end elevation. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. when straightened out. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Toronto. Joerin. thick. when complete. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers.

3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. AA and BB.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. 4. The method shown in Figs. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. and the latter will take on a bright luster. nor that which is partly oxidized. are nailed. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. It is best to use soft water. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. . 3. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver.

or unequal widths as in Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. or various rulings may be made. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 4. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. 3. as shown in Fig. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. 2. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. as shown in Fig. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. 2. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 8 and 9.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. Percy Ashley in Rudder. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. Broad lines can be made. The materials used are: backbone. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. 1). . class ice-yacht.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. out from the collar. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The headstock is made of two tees. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. 1. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. 1-Details of Lathe sort. It can be made longer or shorter. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. bent and drilled as shown. about 30 in. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. Both the lower . The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. but if it is made much longer. long. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. pipe. pins to keep them from turning. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center.Fig. a larger size of pipe should be used. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. a tee and a forging. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The point should extend about 11/2 in. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig.

1. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. --Contributed by M. Cal. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Man. Fruitvale. Indiana. Boissevain. 2. Held. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. 2. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. Laporte. and will answer for a great variety of work. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. Musgrove. a straight line should be scratched Fig. --Contributed by W. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. It is about 1 in. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. or a key can be used as well. 3/4 or 1 in. a corresponding line made on this. To do this. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. but also their insulating properties. UpDeGraff. as shown in Fig. thick as desired. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. 2. W. else taper turning will result. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. . Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. --Contributed by W. M. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig.

as shown. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] .Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. --Contributed by E. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. In use. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. To obviate this. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. long. Cline. Ark. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Smith. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. J. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. Ft. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. The handle is of pine about 18 in.

Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. the drill does not need the tool. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. take . Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. New Orleans. White. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. face off the end of the piece. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. if this method is followed: First. on starting the lathe. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. and when once in true up to its size. Colo. La. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. --Contributed by Walter W. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. which should be backed out of contact. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. This prevents the drill from wobbling. centering is just one operation too many. Denver. After being entered. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand.

After the wand is removed. by applying caustic soda or . The handkerchief rod. all the better. vanishing wand. and this given to someone to hold. and can be varied to suit the performer. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. says the Sphinx. a long piece of glass tubing. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. is put into the paper tube A. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. It can be used in a great number of tricks. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. unknown to the spectators. In doing this. as shown in D. after being shown empty. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. shorter t h a n the wand. the cap is placed over the paper tube. shown at C. The glass tube B. a bout 1/2 in.

Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. as shown by K. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. As the cement softens. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. 1 End. 2 Sides. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. preferably hard maple. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. The brace at D is 1 in. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. 1 Neck. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. by 14 by 17 in. With care and patience. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. across the front and back to strengthen them. Cut a piece of hard wood. The sides. This dimension and those for the frets . and glue it to the neck at F. long. 1. can be made by the home mechanic. Glue the neck to the box. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. thick. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. with the back side rounding. 1/4 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material. the finished instrument will have a fine tone.potash around the edges of the letters. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. 1 Bottom. 3/16. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. End. Glue strips of soft wood. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. square and 1-7/8 in. cut to any shape desired. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F.

Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. in diameter. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. long is used for a keel. 1) on which to stretch the paper. Stoddard. or backbone. A board 1 in. Norwalk. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. E. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Carbondale. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. Frary. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. toward each end.Pa. When it is completed you will have a canoe. H. -Contributed by J. 3/16 in. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. --Contributed by Chas. O. thick and about 1 ft. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. and beveled . but it is not. Six holes.should be made accurately. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand.

the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. and notched at the end to receive them (B. C. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. which are easily made of long. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. C. In drying. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. probably. For the gunwales (a. with long stout screws. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. but before doing this. or similar material. wide by 26 in. 4. The ribs. Fig. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. long are required. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. as shown in Fig. The cross-boards (B. and. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. are next put in. 2). . or other place. as they are apt to do. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A.) in notches. 3. two strips of wood (b. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. thick. B. b. b. when made of green elm. Fig. Fig. Osiers probably make the best ribs. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. thick. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. long. by means of a string or wire. 3. such as hazel or birch. Fig. Fig. Any tough. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. 3). These are better. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. Fig. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. but twigs of some other trees. in thickness and should be cut. 13 in. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. 1. and are not fastened. buy some split cane or rattan. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. Fig. and so. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. in such cases. Fig. 4). Fig. apart. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. as shown in Fig. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. twigs 5 or 6 ft. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. a. b. two twigs may be used to make one rib. 3). Shape these as shown by A. the loose strips of ash (b. some tight strips of ash. as before described. slender switches of osier willow. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. procure at a carriage factory. 2. such as is used for making chairbottoms. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. will answer nearly as well. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. 3/8 in. 2). the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. Green wood is preferable.. 1 and 2.

The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. If the paper be 1 yd. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. Being made in long rolls. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. but neither stiff nor very thick. and very tough. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. and steady in the water. preferably iron. Fig. When thoroughly dry. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. but with less turpentine. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. and held in place by means of small clamps. after wetting it. if it has been properly constructed of good material. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. If not. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. however. The paper is then trimmed. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. apply a second coat of the same varnish. wide. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. and as soon as that has soaked in. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. and light oars. tacking it to the bottom-board. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. It should be smooth on the surface. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. of very strong wrapping-paper. 5). B. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. It should be drawn tight along the edges. Then take some of the split rattan and. You may put in . When the paper is dry. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish.

We procured a box and made a frame. 1. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. 5). Fig. and if driven as shown in the cut. 1 and the end in . and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. Drive the lower nail first. fore and aft.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. Fig. 5. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. and make a movable seat (A. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. 2. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. Fig. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. to fit it easily. they will support very heavy weights. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig.

more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. This way has its drawbacks. 3. and the result is. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. being softer where the flame has been applied. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. Close the other end with the same operation. 5. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. this makes the tube airtight. A good way to handle this work. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. Pittsburg. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg.Fig. and the glass. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. This is an easy . as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. 4. Pa.

and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . above the metal. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. thin screw. 23 gauge. Oswald. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. Seventh. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. extra metal all around. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. with a piece of carbon paper. three. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. Give the metal a circular motion. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. third. or six arms.way to make a thermometer tube. file. The candle holders may have two. flat and round-nosed pliers. fourth. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. very rapid progress can be made. above the work and striking it with the hammer. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. second. rivet punch. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. then reverse. metal shears. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. also trace the decorative design. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. -Contributed by A. Sixth. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. four. fifth. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. After the bulb is formed.

It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . and holder.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. drip cup. Having pierced the bracket. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. Small copper rivets are used. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. Metal polish of any kind will do.

or more copies can be obtained from a single original. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. Fifty. and brace and bit were the tools used. The boom. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. Heat 6-1/2 oz. if it has not absorbed too much ink. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. on a water bath. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. all the rest I found. the stick at the bottom of the sail. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. they were like an ice boat with a sail. The gaff. Mother let me have a sheet. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. F. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. using a steel pen. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. is a broomstick. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. A saw. winding the ends where they came together with wire. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. sugar 1 part. and in a week . How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. hammer. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. when it will be ready for use. smooth it down and then remove as before. I steer with the front wheel. Twenty cents was all I spent. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. of glycerine to about 200 deg.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. and it will be ready for future use. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. J. except they had wheels instead of runners. deep. Shiloh. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. thus it was utilized. glycerine 4 parts. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. and add the gelatine. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. Soak 1 oz. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. and water 24 parts. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. N. and other things as they were needed. alcohol 2 parts.

Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. a projecting lens .

long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. about 2 ft. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. H. are . in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. wide. but if such a box is not found. 8 in. and a projecting lens 2 in. 3. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. well seasoned pine. wide and 15 in. The slide support. or a lens of 12-in. as desired. and the lens slide. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. and. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. DD. 1. G. E. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. describe a 9-in. at a point 1 in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. A and B. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. focus enlarging a 3-in. A table. high. The board is centered both ways. thick. or glue. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. If a small saw is used. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. Fig. slide to about 6 ft.. and 14 in. wire brads. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. above the center. This ring is made up from two rings. provided the material is of metal. 1/2 to 3/4 in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. and the work carefully done. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. long. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. at a distance of 24 ft.

but not long enough. The arrangement is quite safe as. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in.constructed to slip easily on the table. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. of safe. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. A sheet . all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. B. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. P. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. the strips II serving as guides. Small strips of tin. JJ. Minn. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. apply two coats of shellac varnish. E. and when the right position is found for each. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. St. To reach the water. placed on the water. should the glass happen to upset. the water at once extinguishes the flame. light burning oil. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. Paul.-Contributed by G.

H. Fig. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. to cover the mattresses. from a tent company. N. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. 12 ft. 3 in. 9 in. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 4. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 3. Fig. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. I ordered a canvas bag. 1. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. then the corners on one end are doubled over. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. 3. 2. Y. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . by 12 ft. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. Crawford. If one of these clips is not at hand. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart.. --Contributed by J. form a piece of wire in the same shape.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. Schenectady.

to keep it from unwinding. Do not use too strong a rubber. so as to form two oblong boxes. wide. 2. 2. 3 to swing freely on the tack. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. as shown in Fig. through which the indicator works. --Contributed by Walter W. To calibrate the instrument. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. in the center coil. insulating them from the case with cardboard. open on the edges. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Edward M. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. Warren. for amperes and the other post. Fold two strips of light cardboard. Fig. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. V. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. Denver. A Film Washing Trough [331] . and insert two binding-posts. drill two 3/16 in. C. White. 1. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. 2. 1/2 in. D. thick. first mark the binding-post A. Pa. 1. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. An arc is cut in the paper. Colo. A rubber band. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. to the coil of small wire for volts. long and 3/16 in. Fasten the wire with gummed label. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. 3/4 in. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one.each edge. Attach a piece of steel rod. long. Teasdale. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. apart. Fig. 1/2 in. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. holes in the edge.

Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Hunting. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Place this can on one end of the trough. with the large hole up. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Cut a 1/4-in. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Wood Burning [331] . --Contributed by M. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Dayton. as shown. O. M. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut.

mouth downward. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . then into this bottle place. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat.

many puzzling effects may be obtained. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. N. Ala. but not very thick. as shown in the sketch. If the cork is adjusted properly. long. 2.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend.Y. provided the bottle is wide. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Upper Troy. 3/4 in. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. Whitehouse. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. Place the small bottle in as before. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. If the small bottle used is opaque. This will make a very pretty ornament. thick. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. 1. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . --Contributed by John Shahan. --Contributed by Fred W. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. Auburn. wide and 4 in. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen.

1. pulley. 2 ft. such as blades and pulleys. 1. --Contributed by D. thick. high without the upper half. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. The bearing blocks were 3 in. Fig. 4. thick. Milter. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. to the shaft. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. 2. Both bearings were made in this manner. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. by the method shown in Fig. sugar pine on account of its softness. thick and 3 in. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. as shown in Fig. K. which was nailed to the face plate. 1. 3. was 1/4in. The shaft C. Fig. Fig. 1 in. G. B. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. long. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. Fig.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. The wire L was put . line. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. were constructed of 1-in. The 21/2-in. If a transmitter is used. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. 1. pulley F. which was 6 in. 1. Its smaller parts. I. in diameter and 1 in. Fig. which gave considerable power for its size. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. which extended to the ground. even in a light breeze. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. On a 1000-ft. A staple. was keyed to shaft C. W. iron rod. or ordinary telephone transmitters. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. wide.

0. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. across the thin edge of a board. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. top down also. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. with brass headed furniture tacks. 3 in. strips. 5. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. 1. 2. through the latter. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. Fig. long. cut out another piece of tin (X. as. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. 1. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. pine 18 by 12 in. Fig. 1. hole for the shaft G was in the center. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. To make the key. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. in the center of the board P. The bed plate D. for instance. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. square to the board P at the top of the tower. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. washers were placed under pulley F. long and 1/2 in. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. This completes the receiver or sounder. so that the 1/4-in. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. There a 1/4-in. If you have no bell. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. Fig. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. H. in diameter. This board was 12 in. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. R. a 1/2-in. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. 1) 4 in.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. long and bend it as . The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. providing one has a few old materials on hand. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. long and bend it as shown at A. with all parts in place. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. wide and 1 in. 1. 6. To lessen the friction here. and was cut the shape shown. Two washers were placed on shaft C. This fan was made of 1/4-in. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. long. Fig. The smaller one. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. was 2 ft. apart in the tower. was tacked. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. The power was put to various uses. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. The other lid. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. G. long and 3 in. when the windmill needed oiling. Fig. Fig. 6. 25 ft. hole was bored for it. Fig. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in.

fitted with paddles as at M. The rear barrels are. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. as indicated. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. When tired of this instrument. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Now. and. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. McConnell. leaving the other wire as it is. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. using cleats to hold the board frame. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Going back to Fig. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. Before tacking it to the board. 2. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. By adjusting the coils. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. although it can be made with but two. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. 1. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. at the front. like many another device boys make. after the manner of bicycle wheels. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. -Contributed by John R. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . as shown at Water. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. Thus a center drive is made. causing a buzzing sound.shown.

as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. can be built. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. there will not be much friction. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . which will give any amount of pleasure. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. To propel it. copper piping and brass tubing for base. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. There is no danger. or even a little houseboat. If the journals thus made are well oiled. feet on the pedals.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. 3. The speed is slow at first. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. as shown in Fig. 1.

2. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. C. B. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. Fig. 2. A. Then melt out the rosin or lead. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. Fig. Turn a small circle of wood. then the glass disc and then the other ring. If it is desired to make the light very complete. Shape small blocks of boxwood. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. Fig. 2. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. 1. Fig. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. 1. D. If magnifying glass cannot be had. or it may be put to other uses if desired. 1. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . and so creating a false circuit. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead.of pleasure for a little work. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Place one brass ring in cylinder.

How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. wide and 1/16 in. bracket. some glue will secure them. wire from bell to switch. --Contributed by C. To operate this. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. bell. such as is used for cycle valves. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. --Contributed by Geo. near the bed. X. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . which stops bell ringing. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. 4-1/2 in. after two turns have been made on the key. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. or 1/4in. J. Swissvale. E.india rubber tubing. Utah. I. H. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. brass rod. Ogden. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. by having the switch on the baseboard. 3/8 in. long. Brinkerhoff. dry batteries. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. switch. key of alarm clock. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. When alarm goes off. F. brass strip. shelf. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. T. contact post. after setting alarm. To throw on light throw levers to the left. G.. D. wire from batteries to switch. while lying in bed. Pa. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. 5-1/4 by 10 in. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. C. S. wire from light to switch. long. Chatland. C. In placing clock on shelf. To get the cylinder into its carriage. 4 in. and pulled tight. set alarm key as shown in diagram. copper tubing. B. if too small. Throw lever off from the right to center. thick. The parts indicated are as follows: A.

letting it extend 3/4 in. A flannel bag. Make the spindle as in Fig. wide. being careful not to get the sand in it. Pull out the nail and stick. about 3-1/2 in. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. 1. as at A. as at A. gives the heater a more finished appearance. in diameter. Lanesboro. Fig. beyond the end of the spindle. in diameter. S. Make a shoulder. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. 2. long. All that is required is a tin covering. Fig. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. as . which can be made of an old can. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. A small lamp of about 5 cp. Chapman. making it as true and smooth as possible. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. place stick and all in a pail of sand. as in Fig. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. about 6 in. as at B. 3. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. from one end. 1. 4 in.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. Fig. will do the heating. for instance. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. Having finished this. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Minn. This is to form the fuse hole. 1/4 in. a bed warmer. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. 2. --Contributed by Chas.

11/2 in. long. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. wide and 3 ft. A piece of tin. ash. or hickory. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. this is to keep the edges from splitting. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. thick. The material must be 1-1/2 in. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. spring and arrows. 1 in. long. --Contributed by Arthur E. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. but if this wood cannot be procured. thick. 1. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. thick. good straight-grained pine will do. deep. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . Joerin. The illustration shows how this is done. long. 6 in. wide and 6 ft. will be sufficient to make the trigger. wide and 3/8 in. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. A piece of oak. 3/8 in. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. 5/8 in.

Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. 8. Fig. as shown in Fig. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. wide at each end. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. or through the necessity of. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. 3. 6. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. The trigger. 4. having the latter swing quite freely. A spring. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. from the opposite end. To throw the arrow. Fig. thick. When the trigger is pulled. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. To shoot the crossbow. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. it lifts the spring up. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. in diameter. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. The bow is not fastened in the stock. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. The stick for the bow. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. Trownes. Fig. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. Wilmette. E. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. 7. from the end of the stock. and one for the trigger 12 in. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. as shown in Fig. better still. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. Such a temporary safe light may be . then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. 2. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. which is 1/4 in. place the arrow in the groove. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. --Contributed by O. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. Ill. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. 9.

for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. apart. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. it is the easiest camp to make. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. The hinged cover E. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. Remove the bottom of the box. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. from the ground. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. By chopping the trunk almost through. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. since the flame of the candle is above A. Remove one end. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. C. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. make the frame of the wigwam. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. The cut should be about 5 ft. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. the bark lean-to is a . They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. respectively. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. says Photo Era. Moreover. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. making lighting and trimming convenient. is used as a door. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. from the ground. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. and replace as shown at B. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. The Indian camp is the easiest to make.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. and nail it in position as shown at A. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. This lamp is safe.

are a convenient size for camp construction. In the early summer. long and 1-1/2 in. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. 6 ft. deep and covered with blankets. Tongs are very useful in camp. selecting a site for a camp. wide. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. For a permanent camp. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. long. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. make the best kind of a camp bed. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. 3 ft. . then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. thick. and when the camp is pitched. spruce. and split the tops with an ax. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. For a foot in the middle of the stick. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. piled 2 or 3 ft. long and 2 or 3 ft. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. Where bark is used. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. a 2-in. will dry flat. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. nails are necessary to hold it in place.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. wide and 6 ft. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. A piece of elm or hickory. Sheets of bark. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. makes a good pair of tongs. and cedar.

Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. hinges. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. . Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. and affording accommodation for several persons. or even a rough lock for the camp larder.

and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. the interior can. and provide a cover or door. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. deep and 4 in. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. Fig. Pa. 1. wide. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. about 4 in. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Kane. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. A. to another . --Contributed by James M. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell.. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. B. B. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. I drove a small cork. changing the water both morning and night. Doylestown. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within.

until. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. 2. The diagram. 3. The current is thus compelled. This makes . 2. C. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. E. limit. fused into one side. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. 4 and 5). and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. if necessary. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted.glass tube. a liquid. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. which project inside and outside of the tube. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. to pass through an increasing resistance. for instance. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. such as ether. Fig. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. for instance.

brass or iron. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. or pattern. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A 5/8in. in diameter. to allow for finishing. therefore. when several pieces are placed together. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. When the frame is finished so far. bent at right angles as shown. clamp the template. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. Before removing the field from the lathe. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. they will make a frame 3/4 in. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. in diameter. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. 3-3/8 in. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. drill the four rivet holes. two holes. Alpena. Fig. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. assemble and rivet them solidly. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. making it 1/16 in. screws. which will make it uniform in size. Michigan. After cleaning them with the solution. is composed of wrought sheet iron. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. cannot be used so often. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. After the template is marked out. brass. between centers. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. These holes are for the bearing studs. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. mark off a space. set at 1/8 in. hole is . 3. If the thickness is sufficient. Then the field can be finished to these marks. 1. larger than the dimensions given. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. thicker. but merely discolored. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. and for the outside of the frame. tap. by turning the lathe with the hand. on a lathe.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. thick. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. The bearing studs are now made. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. 2. as shown in Fig. which may be of any thickness so that. 3-3/8 in. 4-1/2 in. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. A. as shown in the left-hand sketch. thick. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. or even 1/16 in. Fig.

The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. 4. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. file them out to make the proper adjustment. solder them to the supports. The shaft of the armature. When the bearings are located. soldered into place. into which a piece of 5/8-in. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. Fig. brass rod is inserted. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. is turned up from machine steel. and build up the solder well. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . or otherwise finished. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft.

The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. 3. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. 3/4 in. and held with a setscrew. to allow for finishing to size. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. thick. as shown in Fig. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. 6. When this is accomplished. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. as shown in Fig. by 1-1/2 in. threaded. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. sheet fiber. 7. then drill a 1/8-in. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. wide. Find the centers of each segment at one end. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. hole and tap it for a pin. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. thick and 1/4 in. Rivet them together. being formed for the ends. brass rod. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. The sides are also faced off and finished. 3. inside diameter. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. 5. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. thick are cut like the pattern. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. 8. Armature-Ring Core. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. washers. 1-1/8 in. Procure 12 strips of mica. as shown in Fig. 9. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. After the pieces are cut out. holes through them for rivets. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. and then they are soaked in warm water. thick. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. When annealed. or segments. deep and 7/16 in. Make the core 3/4 in. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. 1/8 in. After they . The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. as shown in Fig. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. thick. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe.. as shown m Fig. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. wide. The pins are made of brass. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. 6.

being required. 6 in. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. the two ends of the wire. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. until the 12 slots are filled. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. After one coil. This winding is for a series motor. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. yet it shows a series of . Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. 8 in. wide and 1 in. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. All connections should be securely soldered. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. In starting to wind. The two ends are joined at B. The source of current is connected to the terminals. Fig. 1. sheet fiber.have dried. Run one end of the field wire. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. shown at A. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. they are glued to the core insulation. 1. or side. about 100 ft. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. of the end to protrude. which will take 50 ft. When the glue is set. To connect the wires. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. thick. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. shown at B. of No. 5. after the motor is on the stand. of the wire. and wind on four layers. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. Fig. The winding is started at A. sheet fiber. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. long. The field is wound with No. by bending the end around one of the projections. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. are soldered together. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side.

They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. Nine wires run from the timer. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. which serves as the ground wire. still more simply. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. or. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. is fastened to the metallic body. as in the case of a spiral. and one. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. A 1/2-in. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. one from each of the eight contacts.

Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. thus giving 16 different directions. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. of the dial. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. 6 in. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. Without this attachment. long. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. It should be .The Wind Vane. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. circle. Covering these is a thin. 45 deg. board. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card.

is most satisfactory. 14 by 18 in. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. will be enough for the two sides. will be sufficient. To make it. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. called a chip carving knife. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. Blackmer. -Contributed by James L. or. according to who is going to use it. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. also a piece of new carpet. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. Fill the box with any handy ballast. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. Place the leather on some level. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. though a special knife. if not too high. however. and securely nail on the top of the box. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. long to give the best results. Buffalo. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. To work these outlines. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. Before tacking the fourth side. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. and about 6 in. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. thus making a universal joint. Y. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. high. Cut 3-in. N. will answer the purpose just as well.about 6 ft. . A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. making it heavy or light.

fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. An ordinary sewing-machine . Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. A good leather paste will be required.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown.

of common salt and 10 lb. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. away from it. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. --Contributed by Katharine D. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. a needle and some feathers. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. and tie them together securely at the bottom.will do if a good stout needle is used. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. B. N. Syracuse. square and tying a piece of . Morse. temporary lameness. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Y. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. rather than the smooth side. of water. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. and fasten the feathers inside of it. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. can be thrown away when no longer needed. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. as in cases of a sprained ankle. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. or a hip that has been wrenched. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. If a fire breaks out. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb.

My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. The body of the receiver. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. There is a 1-in. as shown. The coil is 1 in. Gordon Dempsey. G. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. Y. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. which is the essential part of the instrument. The strings should be about 15 in.J. and tacked it to the boards. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. long. commonly called tintype tin. deep. and a coil of wire. is cut on the wood. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool.. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. letting it go at arm's length. This not only keeps the rats out. and the receiver is ready for use. --Contributed by J. N. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. B. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. wide and 1/16 in. etc. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. One end is removed entirely. made up of four layers of No. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. A. Wis. setting traps. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. The diaphragm C. cut to the length of the spool. thus helping the rats to enter. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. --Contributed by John A. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. The end is filed to an edge. wound on the head end. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. Paterson. Albany. board all around the bottom on the inside. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. high. Hellwig. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. . and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. F. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. laying poisoned meat and meal. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. N. When the distance to produce the right sound is found.string to each corner. 1/8 in. but not sharp. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. E. long. A small wooden or fiber end. the corners being wired. Ashland.

care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. wide. and bend each strip in shape. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. better still. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. a piece of small wire. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. A single line will be sufficient. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. begin with the smallest scrolls. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. to . gold. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. The vase is to have three supports. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. Take a piece of string or. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. To clean small articles. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase.

and does not require coloring.. Press or model down the leather all around the design. from C to D. from the lines EF on the piece. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. wide when stitching up the purse. Trace also the line around the purse. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. About 1 in. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. using a duller point of the tool. After taking off the pattern. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. Fold the leather on the line EF. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. . and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. thus raising it. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. sharp pencil. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. 4-1/4 in. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. 3-1/4 in. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned.which the supports are fastened with rivets. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. as shown in the sketch.. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. through which to slip the fly AGH. 3-1/2 in. 6-3/8 in. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. from E to F. Work down the outside line of the design.

or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. the "open" side. and. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. square. being cast in wooden molds. 3. as well as useful. deep. Make the lug 1/4 in. long. Fit this to the two . Procure a thin board 1/4 in. 2. and a model for speed and power. deep. as shown in Fig. First. 1 was cut. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. It can be made without the use of a lathe. Cut off six pieces 12 in. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. and tack the other piece slightly. Now take another piece of wood. When it is finished. Then nail the wheel down firmly. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. with the largest side down. 1/2 in. then nail it. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. It is neat and efficient. thick. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. leaving the lug a.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. and the projections B. following the dotted lines. all the way around. and cut out a wheel. then place the square piece out of which Fig. with pins or small nails. around the wheel. with the open side down. by 12 ft. and which will be very interesting. This also should be slightly beveled. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. and cut it out as shown in Fig. 1. b. with a compass saw.

and cut it out as shown in Fig. square pieces of wood. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. 1. Now put mold No. Take the mold apart.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. and bore six 1/4-in. After it is finished. one of which should have a 3/8-in. hole 1/4 in. holes through it. and lay it away to dry. hole entirely through at the same place.pieces just finished. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. 4. bolts. deep. as shown by the . Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. Now take another of the 12-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. then bolt it together. and clean all the shavings out of it. in the center of it. and boring a 3/8-in. hole bored through its center. slightly beveled. square pieces of wood. place it between two of the 12-in.

Using the Brace . A piece of mild steel 5 in. put the top of the brace through this hole. and the other in the base. This will cast a paddle-wheel. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Now take mold No. B. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. and drill it entirely through. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. Now cut out one of the 12-in. and pouring metal in to fill it up. Then bolt the castings together. d. true it up with a square. and run in babbitt metal again. drill in it. fasten a 3/8-in. screw down. over the defective part. one in the projections. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. from the one end. Pour metal into mold No. and bore three 1/4-in. 6. 1. Commencing 1-1/2 in. the other right-handed. until it is full. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. This is for a shaft. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel.1. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. After it is fitted in. long. 5. and connect to the boiler. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. as shown in illustration. take an ordinary brace. only the one is left-handed. 6. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. Fig. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. and two 1/4-in.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. where the casting did not fill out. lay it on a level place. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. and lay it away to dry. holes. wide and 16 in. and pour babbitt metal into it. and the exhaust hole in projection b. This is the same as Fig. so that it will turn easily. see that the bolts are all tight. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. in diameter must now be obtained.2. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. instead of the right-handed piece. long. This is mold No. Let it stand for half an hour. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. place the entire machine in a vise. holes at d.black dots in Fig. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. b.2. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. one in the lug. 4. and drill them in the same manner.1. Put this together in mold No. place it under the drill. and 3/8-in.

with a boss and a set screw. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. while it is running at full speed. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. long. piece and at right angles to it. and the other 8 ft. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. one 6 ft. Plan of Ice Boat . and with three small screw holes around the edge. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. and. will do good service. At each end of the 6ft. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in.. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Then take a knife or a chisel. turn the wheel to the shape desired. and if instructions have been carefully followed.

in diameter at the base. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. which may come in handy in heavy winds. at the top. 1. long and 2-1/2 in. so much the better will be your boat. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. 1. Fig. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. long. Run the seam on a machine. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. 3. The tiller. plank. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. 2 by 3 in. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. piece and at right angles to it. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. tapering to 1-1/2 in. 8 a reef point knot. Make your runners as long as possible. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. bolt the 8-ft. as the runners were fastened. at the end. leaving 1 ft. projecting as in Fig. long. plank nail 8-in. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. at the butt and 1 in. To the under side of the 8-ft. Over the middle of the 6-ft. in front of the rudder block. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. in the top before the skate is put on. This fits in the square hole. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. and about 8 in. in diameter in the center. where they often did considerable damage. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. The spar should be 9 ft. should be of hardwood. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. in diameter. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. distant. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . boards to make the platform. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. Fig. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely.

small piece of wood. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. Pa. and the alarm bell will ring. to block B. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. Adams. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. Phoenix. Ariz. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. The . but one that will afford any amount of amusement.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. Mechanicsburg. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. P. bent into a hook at each end. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. allowing the springs to contact at C. and place it behind a stove. S S. B. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. R. P. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. Its parts are as follows: A. The arrangement proved quite too effective. --Contributed by J. block of wood nailed to A. --Contributed by John D. wide. Comstock. so that they come in contact at C. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration.

high. 2. The stump makes the best support. Take the glass. and make it into a clock to hang on the wall. including the . Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flanges or washers having a slight concave to their face. and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. 1. Then get a 10-cent frying pan. The center pole should be 10 ft. in diameter. says the American Boy. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. Gild the pan all over. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. A passenger rides in each seat and the motorman takes his station at the middle. The seat arms may be any length desired. 6 in. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig.

run clear. chain or anything made entirely of silver and fasten a small copper wire to it and hang on the brass pipe with connections to the carbon of the battery. Herd. When well cleaned place in the plating bath and carefully watch the results. potassium cyanide. The parts can be divided into minutes with small lines the same as shown in the drawing. Coil the other end of the string around the finger covering the part from the ring to and over the finger joint. or the places touched by your fingers will cause the silver plate to peel off when finished. brass pipe. Take an ordinary wet battery and fasten two copper wires to the terminals and fasten the other ends of the wires to two pieces of heavy copper wire or 1/4-in. Iowa How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360] Take an ordinary glass fruit jar or any other receptacle in glass. clean the yellowish scum off.p. If small bubbles come to the surface you will know that you have too much of the anode or the piece of silver hanging in the solution and you Plating Jar and Battery must draw out enough of the piece until you can see no more bubbles. then take the article out and with a tooth brush and some pumice. rinse in clear water and dry in sawdust. which will hold 1 qt. The wires must be well soldered to the brass pipe to make a good connection. Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361] When a ring cannot be removed easily from the finger. In this way the ring can be easily . place in hot water. Always take the zincs out of the solution when not in use and the batteries will last longer. and print black figures in the small circles. of silver chloride and 1-1/2 oz. cold water over the article and if it appears greasy. Leave the piece to be plated in the solution for about one-half hour.handle. When thoroughly dry. take a cotton flannel rag and some polishing powder and polish the article. take a string or thread and draw one end through between the ring and the flesh. Make new hands that are long enough to reach the figures from sheet brass or tin and paint them black. This description applies only to silver plating. Articles of lead. In order to see if your battery is working. Calendar figures can be pasted on small circles and these pasted on the frying pan. tin or any soft metal cannot be silver plated unless the article is first copper plated. When well scoured. When the solution is made up and entirely dissolved the outfit is ready for plating. Davenport. ring. of liquid and fill it with rain or distilled water and then add 3/4 oz. Let this dissolve and incorporate well with the water before using. Procure a small piece of silver. Do not touch the article after you once start to clean it. a silver button. When cleaning any article there should be a copper wire attached to it. --Contributed by Carl P. take a small copper wire and touch one end to the anode pipe and the other end to the pipe holding the article to be plated. Clean the article to be plated well with pumice and a brush saturated in water. Uncoil the string by taking the end placed through the ring and at the same time keep the ring close up to the string. pewter. When these two parts touch there will be a small spark. of c. The article must have a fine polish before plating if it is desired to have a finely polished surface after the plate is put on. not metal.

K. A solid. which can be any size from 3 to 12 in. If you have a jig saw. Penn. drive an iron or wood shaft through the center making a tight fit. a thin smooth wood board and mark out various shaped pieces as shown in the accompanying cut. This wood-mounted picture can be sawed out making all shapes of blocks. The boards for the track are made with a sloping edge on which the cone is to roll. A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361] Take any photographic print and mount it on heavy cardboard. if you Picture Marked for Cutting have a jig saw. The slope should not be too flat. or. after turning the cone. If the picture is mounted on cardboard. Matietta. The spindle can be turned out of the solid at the same time as the cone.Wrapping the Finger slipped over the knuckle and off from the finger. can be made by anyone having a wood-turning lathe. Rolling Uphill Illusion [361] This interesting as well as entertaining illusion. or the cone will not roll. similar to two cones placed base to base. and it should be such that the . you can make a bromide enlargement from the negative you have selected and mount the print on a smooth board that is not too thick. the sides sloping to an angle of 45 deg. Miller. New York City. the lines can be cut through with a sharp pointed knife. or. --Contributed by J. This slope will depend on the diameter of the cone. is accurately turned in a lathe. which forms a perfect jig-saw puzzle. --Contributed by Erich Lehmann.

The lower end of the tracks are closed until the high edge of the cone rests upon the inside edges of the tracks and the high end spread sufficiently to take the full width of the cone and to allow the shaft to fall into the notches. A notch should be cut in the tracks. . N. besides the destruction of tools. like that of file manufacturing. as a matter of fact this steel is intended for chisels. Hampson. If this steel is annealed. then a cold water anneal may be used with less time. and will not be discovered until the construction of the model is seen from all sides. This will insure a true job and diminishes the danger of spring in the final hardening. but fine enough to closely surround the steel and exclude the air so that the steel cools very slowly. loam. Y. then removing the steel from the fire and allowing it to cool in the air until black and then quenching in water. Where it is impossible to wait so long as the foregoing method takes. Machining or filing such steel is exceedingly slow and difficult. a good substitute can be made from two funnels. Thus it will be seen that the diameter of the cone determines the length of the slope of the tracks. --Contributed by I. Annealing may be done by heating the steel to a cherry red. Annealing Chisel Steel [362] Persons who have occasion to use tool or carbon steel now and then and do not have access to an assorted stock of this material find that the kind most readily obtained at the hardware store is the unannealed steel known as chisel steel. sand. not any more. Should it be difficult to make the cone from wood. as indicated. the metal will be comparatively soft and in a condition to machine easily and rapidly. Cape May Point. If possible. --Contributed by Donald A. This method consists of heating the work as slowly and thoroughly as the time will permit. Bayley. it can be worked as easily as the more expensive annealed steel. When the cone and tracks are viewed from the broadside the deception will be more perfect. keep the steel red hot in the fire several hours. the steel should be annealed again after the roughing cuts have been taken and before machining to the final size. drills. for the shaft to drop into at the end of the course. or any substance not inflammable.J. G. and like tools which require only forging and filing. N. annealing benefits the metal by relieving strains in the piece. In lieu of lime.The Illusion one end will be higher than the other by a little less than half the diameter of the cone. Should a particularly accurate job be called for. Middletown. bury in ashes. If well done. the longer the better. In certain processes. and burying it in a box of slaked lime. In addition to softening the steel. where it is allowed to remain until all the heat is gone. the steel blanks are kept hot for 48 hours or more.

How to Make a Post Card Holder [363] This holder is designed to lay flat on the counter or to stack one on top of the other. 1. . Williamson. keeping each variety of cards separate. or a number of them can be fastened on any upright surface to display either horizontal or vertical cards. The dimensions for the right size are given in Fig. Daytona. The holders can be made from sheet tin. The Pattern for Cutting the Metal completed holder is shown in Fig. Fla. brass or aluminum. --Contributed by John F. 2 as fastened to a wall. zinc. the dotted line showing where the bends are made.

tightly sealed and the paint will be found suitable for use for several days. Perfume-Making Outfit [363] The real perfume from the flowers is not always contained in the liquid purchased for perfume. honeysuckles or any flower having a strong and sweet odor. carnations. For each drop of oil add 2 oz. Change the flowers each day as long as they bloom. do not use strong oil. Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363] The projecting tube of the lens on a hand camera can be easily fitted with a duplicator while the box camera with its lens set on the inside and nothing but a hole in the box does not have such advantages. The bottle is now placed in the sun and kept there for a day and then the flowers are removed and fresh ones put in. The outfit necessary is a large bottle or glass jar with a smaller bottle to fit snugly into the open mouth of the large one. Saturate the sponge with pure olive oil. Fill the large bottle or jar with flowers. such as roses. and place it inside of the smaller bottle. of grain alcohol. as shown in the illustration.Unused Paint [363] Do not allow paint that is left over from a job to stand uncovered. pansies. Secure a small piece of very fine sponge and wash it clean to thoroughly remove all grit and sand. Place the small bottle containing the sponge upside down in the large one. If stronger perfume is desired add only 1 oz. The most expensive perfume can be made at home for less than 10 cents an ounce. . alcohol to each drop of oil. The can should be. Remove the sponge and squeeze out the oil. A small piece of heavy cardboard can be made to produce the same results on a box camera as a first-class duplicator applied to a hand camera.

also. La. it seems to act as a lubricant to keep particles of metal from collecting on the cloth and scratching or digging in the surface of the metal. A compass applied to the circles in either figures will show that they are perfectly round. Keep the . as well as nicking the tools that are being sharpened. -Contributed by Maurice Baudier. These particles of metal when stuck to the stone are the cause of spoiling it. but not always easily obtained. Chippewa Falls. B. The cloth in this condition will do little or no cutting. will push the cardboard over and expose one-half of the plate and the same pressure at B.Duplicator Attached to a Camera The cardboard is cut triangular and attached to the front end of the camera as shown in Fig. Pins can be stuck in the end of the camera on each side of the lens opening at the right place to stop the cardboard for the exposure. A very light lard oil is equally good for this purpose. --Contributed by Norman S. With this device one can duplicate the picture of a person on the same negative. will reverse the operation and expose the other one-half. appear to be more rounding. A simple remedy for this trouble is to use kerosene on the surface. The oil floats away a large part of the gumming substance and leaves the emery cloth sharp and clean to do the best work. New Orleans. Optical Illusions [364] The accompanying sketch shows two optical illusions. This oil readily floats away all particles of the feather edge that are liable to become loosened and forced into the stone. being better than heavier oil. 1 with a pin about 1 in. and the arcs of the circle. Wis. Kerosene is the best to use on oil stones. 2. Fig. above the lens opening. A slight pressure of the finger on the point A. the first having a perfect circle on the outside edge The Two Illusions appears to be flattened at the points A. Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364] Anyone who has polished a flat iron or steel surface with emery cloth knows how soon the cloth gums and fills up. 3. Fig. A rubber band placed around the lower end of the cardboard and camera holds the former at any position it is placed. for the reason that a little oil remains on the metal. A surface polished where oil or kerosene is used does not rust so easily as one polished dry. In the second figure the circle appears to have an oval form with the distance from C to C greater than from D to D. Brown.

in the lantern slide plate. Claudy I say for fifty cents. Take a piece of brass.surface of the stone well oiled at all times to make the cutting free. insert the eye end in a piece of wood and very carefully and gently twirl it in the center of the brass where it is the thinnest. This will produce the recess shown in the first section in Fig. steady light there is nothing better than a lamp. either with carriage makers' black or black ink. Commercially. but really this is an outside estimate. --Contributed by Donald A. With 1/4-in. 4. If there is no camphor at hand add a few drops of vinegar occasionally. is what produces the image on the sensitive plate. 3-1/4 by 4 in. and see the location of these strips. or less in diameter. in a manner which I shall presently describe. Now take a No. or. on the sides. thick and 1-1/2 in. you can really make this camera for nothing. about 1/16-in. by which is meant a few odds and ends of screws. After cleaning well and fitting it. which will fasten it to the front of the camera. two small strips of wood. We now come to the construction of the most essential part of the camera--the pin hole and the shutter. 10 needle. This will greatly improve the light and make the flame clearer and brighter. 1/8 in. until it goes through. Bore a hole in each corner. but be careful that the point of the drill does not come through. Their purpose is to hold the plate. H. How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364] For a good. by means of a saw and a plate. 1/8 by 1/4 in. until the ends are 4 in. place a small lump of camphor in the oil vessel. to take a small screw. 4. plates come 3-1/2 by 3-1/2 in. drill bore nearly through the plate in the center. A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. square. square. This construction is illustrated in Fig. Leave the lid hinged as it is when it comes. If it is desired to use the 3-1/2 by 3-1/2 in. brass and nails. Middletown. It is better to use one of the long boxes which contain a hundred cigars and which have square ends. Now bore in the center of one end a small hole. and for this a cigar box answers every purpose. plates. square. This pin hole. as it is called. but like most everything it must have attention. Y. Examine Fig. which may be any size desired up to 4 in. from the other end of the box. N. If you possess a few tools and the rudiments of a shop. which are lettered EE. 1/4 in. which take the place of the lens and shutter used in more expensive outfits. The camera box is the first consideration. Clean all the paper from the outside and inside Construction of Camera Box of the box--which may be readily done with a piece of glass for a scraper and a damp cloth--and paint the interior of the box a dead black. 1. Finally insert on the inside of the box. This box should be cut down. which is advised. The shutter consists of a little swinging piece of brass completely covering the recess .. and fasten them with glue. Hampson. the box should measure that size in its internal dimensions.

. 5. 4. See that the little shutter covers the hole. Close the lid and secure it with a couple of rubber bands. 3. and in Fig. through the wire frame and see that the top of the little pole appears in the center of the frame.and pin hole. If now you look along the top of this little pole. which represents the outer limits of your vision when confined within the little frame. and between them and the back of the box. B the brass plate and C the shutter. and mount it upright (see Fig. either construction will be effective. Lastly. Make a little frame of wire. everything that you see beyond will be Pin Hole and Shutter Construction taken on the plate. and provided with a little knob at its lower end. Explanation of Action o£ Pin Hole When you want to use this camera. erect a little pole of wire half the height of the plate. it is necessary to provide a finder for this camera in order to know what picture you are taking. 3 as hung from a screw in the wood of the front board. in the center. 5) on top of the camera as close to the end where the pin hole is as you can. At the other end. as will be made plain by looking at the dotted lines in Fig. In the latter I have depicted it as swung from a pivot in the brass. See Fig. the size of the plate you are using. in which F is the front of the camera. take it into an absolutely dark room Constructing a Finder for Camera and insert a plate (which you can buy at any supply store for photographers) in the end where the slides of wood are. This is also illustrated in the second cross section in Fig.

and then letting it drop back into place. and rest it securely on some solid surface. This camera is not a theoretical possibility. I have made and used one successfully. When the alarm is Revolution Recorder . from which may be printed positives. any screen which interrupts these selected rays of light will show upon it a picture of the object. keeping it up the required time. forming an inverted image of the object. These rays pass through the pin hole. Millions of rays are given off by every point in every object which is lighted by either direct or reflected light. an infinite multitude of them. 2. Remove the plate in the dark room and pack it carefully in a pasteboard box and several wrappings of paper to protect it absolutely from the light. This exposure is made by lifting the little brass shutter until the hole is uncovered. from light reflected from these points. It is now ready to be carried to some one who knows how to do developing and printing. To make the dial. represented here by RRRR. Certain of these rays strike the pin hole in the front of the camera. The exposure will be. when it becomes a negative. but an actual fact. Put the alarm hand at a little before twelve and wind the alarm. rays from a lighted candle. AA the plate and the letters RR. about six to eight seconds. upon it will be imprinted a photographic image which can be made visible by the application of certain chemicals. D the pinhole. which is protected from all other light by being in a dark box. Fasten the spring on the outside in any convenient way and pass the wire through the slit to an eccentric or other oscillating body. It is important that the camera be held rigid during the exposure. Here F represents the front of the camera. paste a piece of paper over the old dial. reach the plate AA. To explain the action of the pin hole I would direct attention to Fig. Using this for a unit divide up the whole dial. radiate in all directions.Now take the camera to where you wish to take a photograph. The hour hand has an inner circle of its own. Similar rays radiate from every point of the object. and that it does not move and is not jarred--otherwise the picture will be blurred. and fasten a spring to one end of the pawl and a small wire to the other end. and as light travels only in straight lines. Make a slit in the case of the clock opposite the pawl. To all practical purposes only one of these rays from each point in an object can pass through a minute opening like a pin hole. long. Use for an Old Clock [367] Remove the hair spring of the clock. only inverted. These rays of course. If that screen happens to be a photographically sensitive plate. in this case a candle in a candlestick. as a demonstration of pin-hole photography. pull the wire back and forth one hundred times. in bright sunlight and supposing that your camera is 10 in. and make a mark where the minute hand stops. This being so.

This kink is sent us by a reader who says that the process will make the battery nearly as good as new if it is not too far gone beforehand. S. For the contact points use brass or any sheet metal Simple Burglar Alarm which will be satisfactory. Renewing Dry Batteries [367] Dry batteries. Ind. Also fasten to this screw a copper wire leading to the binding-post. which can be obtained almost anywhere. Fasten this so that one end of it will swing freely. in a vertical position as shown. How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368] Take a piece of any wood about 6 by 8 in. This string may be fastened across a door or window and any movement of it . but not loosely between the ends of the other piece marked C-C. -Contributed by Richard H. in length and make a lever of it in the shape shown in the diagram. or 7. while the minute hand recorded one-twelfth of this number. in length and bend the ends up about 1/2 in.400 revolutions or jerks on the wire were made. can be renewed by simply boring a small hole through the composition on top of each carbon and pouring some strong salt water or sal ammoniac solution into the holes. Fasten the end of this to the screw marked X. The clock I used was put on an amateur windmill and when the hour hand went around once 86. Indianapolis. for the base. Take another piece of metal about 4-1/2 in. Take a piece about 2-1/2 or 3 in. slip a rubber band over the upper part of the bristles. Under this strip of metal fasten a copper wire which can be connected to a binding-post on the board if desired.unwound the hour hand starts on a new trip. In the lower end of the lever make a small hole to fasten a string through. Ranger. Fasten this to the top of the board using screws or nails.200. Saving a Brush [367] If a round brush spreads too much. Near the end fasten a spiral spring. if not too far gone. This may be finished in any way desired.

A grip for each stick was made as long as the hand is wide and a hole bored through the center the size of a No. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. which will cause leakage. A cork rolled on the floor (Fig. of the end (Fig. No matter how sharp a knife may be.will pull it to the contact point on the right. Brooklyn. Two or three grooves are cut cross-wise in sizes desired. How to Fit Corks [368] Occasionally odd-sized bottles are received in stores which require corks cut to fit them. The one shown in Fig. Right Handed Engine [368] Standing at the cylinder end and looking toward the flywheel of an engine. I set about to make the crutches from two broom handles. Home-Made Crutch [369] While a fractured bone was healing in the limb of my boy he needed a pair of crutches and not being able to secure the right length. Szerlip. I split the handles to within 1 ft. These grips were placed between the two halves of each stick at the right distance for the length of the boy's arm and a wire run through both split . 3) is a quick and effective way. which will make the cork smaller. and then stuck them in a barrel of water for three days to make the wood pliable for bending. If the string is burned it will also act as a fire alarm. The illustration shows three very effective methods of reducing the size of corks. 1) with a rip saw. it will leave some sharp edges after cutting the cork. --Contributed by L. wood fastened together at one end with a common hinge. 10 gauge wire. the wheel will be at the right if the engine is right-hand. N. 2) is simple and almost as good as pressing in the grooves. Rolling the cork between two flat Three Methods for Reducing Size of Corks surfaces (Fig. If the string is cut or broken the spring will pull the lever to the contact point on the left and thus complete the circuit. The cork is put into the groove and both pieces are pressed together. A slower and equally as good way is to soak the cork in hot water for a short time. Y.

Fig. The illustration shows a better method. Grehore. square-hooked screws should be used. Home-Made Necktie Holder [369] The gas bracket is considered a good place to hang neckties.-Contributed by C. long and bend it around the two pieces B. and nailed to the upper ends of each half of the broom handle. -Contributed by Geo. to hold the trousers firmly.A Broom Handle Crutch pieces and the handle then riveted as shown in Fig. so they may be screwed beneath and close up to the projecting top. 1 and make a close bend at the point A. but not too close to cause it to break. New York City. long. The piece will then appear as shown in Fig. Cut a piece from the waste material 1/2 in. Cut the metal as shown in Fig. W. wide and 12 in. a curtain rod attached to one end of a bureau. Another piece was cut as shown at A. Drill a hole through the top end of B and attach a wire formed into a hook for use in hanging on a nail. Tenn. Neiman. Bend the edges C in for 1/8 in. How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369] Secure from your tinsmith a piece of sheet metal 7 in. 3. so it will slide freely on their length. 2. Nashville. 2. The bottom end of the trousers is inserted between the jaws C and the small ferrule pushed . 2. P. Fig. Two long-shanked. When removed they will leave no Hanger for Ties disfiguring holes. wide and 2-1/4 in. even if it does crowd them together.

boxes. are among the articles of modern times that come under the head of things possible to construct of iron in the back room or attic shop. but the day of the scroll saw and the cigar-box wood bracket and picture frame has given way to the more advanced and more profitable work of metal construction. Metal brackets. Michigan. First. supporting arms for signs. stands for lamps. The accompanying sketches present some of the articles possible to manufacture. etc. gates. --Contributed by A. shelves. Saginaw. or a portion of the cellar where there . stands.. Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370] Many an industrious lad has made money manufacturing the common forms of wood brackets. it is essential that a light room be available. etc. Levinson.. parts of artistic fences for gardens.Cut from Sheet Metal down to clamp them on the cloth.

A hook or eye is needed to sustain the ring in the sign. there should be two caps fitted over it and set-screwed to the wooden base. Metal strips about 1/2 in. in diameter and several feet in length. Since the introduction of the laws requiring that signs of certain size and projection be removed from public thoroughfares in cities. having been cast off from 2-in. in diameter is about the right size. so that the caps can be set screwed to the wood. If a rounded bend is desired. 3. 4. or a common hand drill can be used. In order to retain the bar securely in position in the groove. the most profitable to handle. forming a seat. Then the bending is effected as at F. Although the worker may produce various forms of strip-metal work. This may be wrought out as in Fig. This piece of iron can be purchased at any junk store. of hard wood. and general trimmings is illustrated at Fig. will find that he will get many orders for lamp-supporting contrivances. there has been quite a call for short sign brackets. the metal is heated previous to bending. where various pieces are always strewn about. H. Sometimes the bracket is improved in design by adding a few curves to the end pieces of the brace. frames or the like. After a little practice. 7. shaft boxes. Thus we get a tool which can be used on the bench for the purpose of effecting series of bends in strips of metal. The use of a bar of iron or steel is as shown. supports. one-half its depth into the wood as shown. after which the brace is adjusted by means of rivets. A small metal turning or drilling lathe can be purchased for a few dollars and operated by hand for the boring. A convenient form for shaping strip metal into pieces required for brackets. The strip metal is secured at the hardware store or the iron works. A rivet hole boring tool will be needed. and is made by bending the strip at the proper angle on form A. A piece about 20 in. It is hardly necessary to go into details . or a workshop may be built in the yard. about the bar E. the bracket is. The bar can be bought at an iron dealers for about 40 cents. The sign supporting bracket shown is merely a suggestion. fences. Often the strips can be secured at low cost from junk dealers. say about 2 ft. cold. 8. it is necessary to shape a complete loop or circle at the end of the piece. wide and 1/8 in. After these brackets are made they are coated with asphaltum or Japan. Figure 1 shows how to make the square bend. and this is all required for cold bending. Other designs may be wrought out in endless variety. including bell hammer. 2. long and 4 in. square. a vise and a few other tools. A boy can take orders for these signs in almost any city or large town with a little canvassing. The plain bracket is shown in Fig. The young man who undertakes to construct any sort of bracket.is light. From the junk pile of junk shop one may get a like bar for a few cents. Or if caps are not available. so termed. allowing side portions or lips for boring. such as shown at Fig. First there ought to be a base block. thick are preferable. arches. This is shown in Fig. of the order exhibited in Fig. as a rule. or the base of a section of railroad iron. so that it will rest firmly on a base of wood or stone. If you go into a forge for hot bending. other devices will be needed. the same process is applied on the circular piece of iron or the horn of an anvil. These sign-supporting brackets do not extend more than 3 ft. The bar is usually about 2 in. by repeated blows with the hammer. 6. by sinking the bar. With a round point or gouging chisel work out the groove to the size of the bar. Buy a moderate sized anvil. it is possible to describe almost any kind of a circle with the tools. at C. 5. getting the shoulder even. G. or the brackets may be painted or stained any desired shade. In some of the work required. out from the building. the caps can be constructed from sheet metal by bending to the form of the bar. gates. though an anvil would do. These caps may be found in junk dealers' heaps. Occasionally where sharp bends or abrupt corners are needed. making the effect as shown in Fig. The bend in the metal begins at D and is made according to the requirements. The letter A indicates a square section of iron. The bend is worked on the corner as at B.

Copper rivets are soft and easily handled. In some cases the rivet is headed up in the bore and again washers are used and the heading effected on the washer. as every part is bent as described in connection with the bending forms. Good prices are obtained for the guards for open fireplaces made in many varieties in these days. and the portions are simply riveted at the different junctures. 9. in Fig.for making these stands. The best way is to bore straight through both pieces and insert the rivet. a cross sectional view. The posts are made . Both iron and copper rivets are used as at I. The return of the open fireplace in modern houses has created a demand for these guards and in Fig. but are costly as compared with iron rivets. 10 we show a design for one of them.

The iron is held in position by means of the straps of metal C. The modern lad wants more than this. The ends at top are looped as shown. This piece of iron is represented at B. thick and large enough to make a good support for the iron shaft. vise. which are bent over the shaft tightly and grip the board base with set or lag screws as shown. Rings are shaped on forms and are then riveted to the base cross-piece as illustrated. metal would do in many cases where the parts are worked out small in size. Figure 11 is a sketch of a form of fire grate bar or front that is constructed with a series of circles of strip metal. The piece of strip iron is . a cold chisel. a 9-lb. with few tools and devices. The making of metal fire grate fronts has proven to be a very interesting and profitable occupation for boys in recent times. The 1/8-in. Therefore we present some of the patterns of fire grates which boys have made and can make again from scrap iron. and find a ready market for the same as soon as they are made. toy houses and various little knickknacks for amusement.sufficiently stiff by uniting two sides with rivets. and a round piece of shaft iron. about 3 in. thick. 12. diameter and 2 to 3 ft. C. The best way is to go to the hardware store or iron dealer's and buy a quantity of 1/4-in. The process of bending the rings in this way is as shown. In fact 1/16-in. The wooden base should be about 2 in. a file or two. Then after getting the supply of strip metal in stock.. while the ends or butts at the base are opened out to make the feet.. metal is very strong. and 3/4-in. He desires to turn some of his product into cash. about 1/8 to 3/16 in. iron. a cheap anvil. Not long ago it was sufficient for the ingenious youth to turn out juvenile windmills. procure the usual type of metal worker's hammer. 1/2-in. long. Fig. Crosses are made to describe to central design and the plan is worked out quite readily with the different shapes.

and can be bent readily against the anvil and the circular form. Figure 11 is a design of grate front used for various purposes in connection with grate fires.grasped at D. This metal will become red hot very soon. After the form is finished. These points are filed down to the necessary taper after the union is effected. 16 is another design . Thus the series of rings are united and then the side pieces are similarly riveted. Fig. Some are silvered. The finishing work involves smoothing rough places with a file and painting. Let the metal cool off on the ground after heating. thus giving us the finished ring with the lips closed on the mandrel as at J. A metal drill and brace can be purchased very cheaply for this work. The cold chisel is indicated at I and the position where the hand grasps the strip is at H. the point is caused to chip through the metal and release the ring. In order to get a steady base the wooden part may be bolted to a bench. The final operation in shaping the ring is by driving the protruding cut. A coke fire can be made in a hole in the ground. For the heavier forms of metal a drill is necessary. Figure 15 is another design of grate in which the process of shaping the rings is like that in the first design. 13 is shown the method of clipping off the completed ring. Then procure a tin blowpipe and blow the flame against the metal at the point to be bent. The shaft or mandrel is marked G. With thin metal the holes can be punched with an iron punch and hammer on an anvil where there is a hole to receive the point of the punch after the punch penetrates the metal. Fig. The different designs are finished as desired by customers. lip down. and by delivering several blows with the hammer upon the same. After drilling the holes. to the common level of the opposite point. There are some half circles in this pattern and these are framed by shaping the same about the mandrel with the hammer. The series of rings are united by a rivet between each at the joining point. The next operation involves the process of uniting the rings in the plan to shape the design. The points at the top are then worked out and joined on. 14. The cold chisel is held upright. Then with the hammer the iron is gradually worked cold about the mandrel as at E until the perfect form is acquired. In order to get the shoulders close and the circle complete it is necessary to heat the metal. In Fig. Some become so proficient that they can develop a design as they proceed. the strip at the terminus of the ring is cut off. Some of the best designs of grates are bronzed. The design work is often worked out ahead and followed. These rings can be turned out in this way very speedily. the parts are erected and the rivets inserted and headed up as each addition is made. Asphaltum makes a good black finish.

Fig. In fact an almost endless variety of designs can be wrought out after the start is once made. high. A good way to figure the price on the grate is to add up the costs of the parts and charge about 12 cents per hour for the work. 17 shows a chipping off device useful in connection with this work. forming a one-sided oval shape. The block is placed in a vise and the strip for bending is inserted as at T. square and boring through with an inch bit. 18. The wooden form is marked P and is about 8 in. Then the hole is shaped hour-glass like. The strip of metal is grasped at W and can be bent to various forms by exerting pressure. Fig. How to Make a Water Wheel [374] Considerable power can be developed with an overshot water wheel erected as in Fig. The middle adjustment is wire screen work which may be bought at a hardware store and set into the position shown. 1. There is a pin R set into the base board of the oval form and the strip of metal for bending is grasped at S and the other end is inserted back of the pin R. By applying pressure. the strip of metal is bent to the form. made by selecting a piece of hard wood block. The view is a sectional one. constructed by uniting the shaped metal pieces. The chipper is placed in the jaws of the vise as at K. about 6 in. 20 is another type of fireplace front. Figure 19 shows the hour-glass wood bending form. The quick. so as . The strip of metal in process of cutting is marked M. The hammer head is caused to strike the metal just over the cutting edge of the chipper. hard blow causes the cutting edge to penetrate far enough to sever the piece.which can be wrought out. and secured there. wide and 7 in. This wheel is made with blocks of wood cut out in sections as indicated by the lines. Metal chippers can be bought at any tool store. Bending cold with a wooden form is done as in Fig.

by 2-1/2 in. only that the paddles are of wood and extend outward as shown. N. This rope runs to a wooden frame in the manner illustrated. as shown at A. To erect the frame. Seats. How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374] An imitation street car line may sound like a big undertaking. and one in town can have a line between the house and the barn. Often all the boards and blocks required can be had for helping a carpenter clear away the rubbish around a new building. They can be set on over the bearing end and secured with a set screw. or shave down the ends to receive the hub bearings of the wheels. G G. can be found at a junk shop at very low prices. If there are sprocket gears and cranks on either side. Wheels and parts of old bicycles. G G. but. P. place uprights. fret-saws. the journal can be fastened to the end of the wood piece. A boy who lives on a farm can find many fine places to run such a line. Another form of water wheel is shown in Fig. about 3 in. For the car for the street car line try to find a set of wheels having axles. fastening the ends to the base-boards and making the roof line as at B. or the original key can be employed. The wheel can be Overshot and Undershot Wheels about 24 in. four boys may propel the car at one time. and by means of a jackknife turn. Bore the wheel center out and put on the grooved wood wheel. and a rope for driving. does not take much time and the expense is not great. but it is the best amusement to run a . Considerable speed can be made on smooth roads. T. and the like. The wheel is supported in a bearing on the piece S. fans. A belt. Key the cranks for turning to the upper sprocket's shaft and all is ready. in diameter to produce results and about 10 in. Fasten the wheel hubs securely over the ends of the wood with pins or little bolts. wide. C C C C. It is best in cases like this to use the original parts. then put in the cross-pieces. if they are some distance apart. screwed or bolted. Fasten these sprockets on the outside of the wheels as shown in Fig. E E. This type of wheel can be made on lines similar to the other. The water is carried in a sluice affair. 2. in position as shown. where the water dippers are struck by the volume and from 2 to 4 hp. 1. will be produced with this size of wheel if there is sufficient flow of water. any chain sprocket of a bicycle may be used. communicates the power to the wheel V and from here the power is carried to any desired point. O. Each of the wheels should be provided with a sprocket. with the original bearings. but if you cannot find such. in fact. R.to form the circle properly. are simply boxes. which can be used in so many ways. it is one of the easiest things a boy can construct. This is driven by an underflow of current. wheels in good repair are not expensive. Make the floor of the car of pieces of boards placed on the axles and nailed. make shafts of hard wood. The drive of the car is effected by using the driving sprockets. to the fall. Get some tin cans and attach them around the wheel as shown. This power can be used for running two or three sewing machines. The parts are thereby secured to the car and the chain placed on. D D. fitted to the crosspieces. or if the wheel bearing is of such a nature that it revolves on its own journal.

or any tool handle. and the crank. The pedals may be removed and a chisel handle. when dry. 3. The sprocket connection with the chain is shown in Fig. To prevent brittleness add a little linseed oil. wide. and. and fitted with a leather covered pad as at H. so as to afford means for turning the Section of the Track crank by hand power. . This consists of the sprocket gear on the propelling shaft. substituted. The track plan is illustrated in Fig. Great fun can be had with the road. to the edges of which nail strips about 3/4 in. JJ. The ties. Clean Before Painting [375] Apply a coat of raw starch water to a dirty wall before painting.car line on wooden tracks with a brake consisting of a piece of wooden shaft. passing through a bore in the car floor. may be brushed or wiped off. wide and about the Construction of Car same height. can be about 6 in. it can be made remunerative. Varnish for Electric Terminals [375] A good varnish for electric terminals is made of sealing wax dissolved in gasoline. I I. furthermore. 2. Wire nails are the best to use in putting the tracks together. A spiral spring holds up the brake until pressure is applied by foot power. can be almost any box boards. Get some boards and place them end for end on other pieces set as ties. when the brake contacts with the wooden track and checks the car. The main boards or tracks. as boys and girls can be given rides for a penny each. this.

Then all he had to do was to measure along the ground to where his eye had been when lying down and that gave him the height of the tree.''' The above paragraph appeared in one of the daily papers which come to our office. one who could have got the approximate height of the tree without waiting for the sun to shine at a particular angle or to shine at all for that matter. He could measure the base line along the ground and knew it must equal the vertical height. stick for perpendicular. and the "line of sight" the hypotenuse or long line of the triangle.' "'But the length of the shadow changes. "'Why.' " 'You didn't climb that tall tree?' his mother asked anxiously. and he could do this without reference to the sun. I drove a stick into the ground. --Railway and . and when its shadow was just as long as the stick I knew that the shadow of the tree would be just as long as the tree. and that's 33 ft. It was an ingenious application of the well known properties of a right-angled triangle. If he found the top of stick and tree did not agree he tried a new position and kept at it until he could just see the tree top over the end of the upright stick. he planted his stick in the ground.' "'How?' " 'Foot rule and yardstick. When he got into the position which enabled him to just see the tree top over the top of the stick he again had a right-angled triangle with tree as perpendicular. but we knew quite as clever a boy.Measuring the Height of a Tree [376] Method of Applying the Triangle Measure "Near the end of the season our boy announced the height of our tall maple tree to be 33 ft. and judging the same distance along the ground from the tree trunk. both of the same length. I found the length of the shadow and measured that. and the line of sight the hypotenuse. The item was headed." Now we do not know who this advertised boy was. Then he went out and took a look at the tree and made a rough estimate of the tree's height in his mind. The way boy No. how do you know?' was the general question. 'The point about this method is that the boy and stick made a right-angled triangle with boy for base. Then he lay down on his back with his feet against the standing stick and looked at the top of the tree over the stick. but twice a day the shadows are just as long as the things themselves. 2 went about the same problem was this: He got a stick and planted it in the ground and then cut it off just at the level of his eyes. " 'N o'm. " 'Measured it. his eye's distance away from the trunk. the base. I've been trying it all summer. "A Clever Boy.' " 'Yes'm.

the solution will become colored. allowing a small portion to project and rub on the facing. which is particularly interesting on account of the variation of results with apparently the same conditions. Connect one piece to the positive wire and the other to the negative. and if the process is continued a colored pigment will be precipitated. Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377] The accompanying engraving shows what is possible to do with a penknife. from the closing edge. green or brown. either at the top or bottom in the edge of the door. and inserting an ordinary cork. Using Sandpaper [376] Sandpaper may be kept from slipping under the hand by chalking the back. the strength of the solution. about 1/4 in. Lay a Match on the Picture A small chain composed of several links was cut from the wood